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ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO DAVID BLACK MA (HONS) ARCHITECTURE ESALA 2009-2013

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

s0938816


YEAR 1 2009-2010

YEAR 2 2010-2011

YEAR 3 2011-2012

ARCH08001 ARCH08003 ARCH07001 ARCH08002 ARCH08004 ARCH08005

Architectural Design Architectural History Art and Design Technology and Environment Architectural Design Architectural History

- Elements - Introduction to World Architecture - Around, Through, Beyond the Frame - Principles - Assembly - Revivalism to Modernism

ARCH08007 ARCHI08006 ARCH08008 ARCH08006 ARCH08009

Architectural Design Architectural History Technology and Environment Architectural Design Architectural History

- [In] Place - Order and the City - Applications - [Any] Place - Culture and the City

ARCH10001 ARCH10002 ARDE10002 ARCH10004

Architectural Design Architectural Theory Technology and Environment Architecture Placement

- Explorations -3 - Working Learning

Architectural Placement 2012 Leslie R Hutt Chartered Architects, Inverness- 18/11/12- 30/11/12

YEAR 4 2012-2013

ARJA10003 ARJA10001 ARCH10003 ARJA10002

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

Architectural Design Architectural Placement Architectural Design Architecture

- Technical Review - Reflection - Tectonics - Dissertation

David Black, s0938816


YEAR 1

2009-2010

SEMESTER 2

SEMESTER 1 Architectural Design: Elements

1

Technology and Environment: Principles

Ground - Wall - Frame - Canopy

19

Thermal Environment

Ground and Shelter - Group Renga

Renga- Location Renga Digital Skin

Architectural History: Introduction to World Architecture

13

Architectural Design: Assembly

Drawing Architectural History Art and Design

21

Material World

15

Strangely Familiar - Precedent

Around, Through, Beyond the Frame Beyond the Frame Technology and Environment: Principles Material Systems Form and Performance

Strangely Familiar - House with a twist

17

Architectural History: Revivalism to Modernism Presentation: Sir Norman Foster Essay: 5 Points of Architecture

32


4

GROUND, WALL, FRAME, CANOPY Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC1 GC5

Group work with Callum Bolger, Ana Albaracin

The first four weeks of the semester work as a block of short exploratory tasks aiming to address fundamental architectural principles of light and dark, mass and void, space and enclosure, path and threshold, texture and surface, through the investigation of the material and spatial qualities of basic architectural elements of ground, wall, frame and canopy. GROUND

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

WALL

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D AD

Year 1 2009/2010


5

GROUND, WALL, FRAME, CANOPY Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Callum Bolger, Ana Albaracin

The first four weeks of the semester work as a block of short exploratory tasks aiming to address fundamental architectural principles of light and dark, mass and void, space and enclosure, path and threshold, texture and surface, through the investigation of the material and spatial qualities of basic architectural elements of ground, wall, frame and canopy. FRAME

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

CANOPY

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


6

GROUND AND SHELTER

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Architectural Design Elements

Group work with Callum Bolger, Ana Albaracin

Aims of the project were to create a constructed landscape which is capable of sheltering 12 inhabitants during a period of reflective time spent writing renga. This invitation through path and place is created through a disposition of ground, wall, frame and canopy.

The platform design incoporates the concepts from earlier frame and canopy designs to create a shelter which flows out of the landscape into a controlled peaceful space

LO1 LO2

LO3

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture; Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

Areas of light and dark control the use of the space as the fragmented canopy filters light through the framework.

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


7

RENGA - LOCATION

Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Abigail Wu, Alexandra Sonechkina, Heather Munro, Sophia Deckel and Lewis Kelly

To gain a deeper understanding of the area around the Dean Gallery site, in groups we worked on a context project. This focused upon how the site was used by the public and the constrasts between the neighbouring sites. With a boundary line dividing the public and more private from the galleries to the cemetery. The other being the divide between the natural habitat of the water of Leith secluded away from the bustling urban townscape. These images convey these key ideas with links to main views from the site into the city centre.

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


8

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Design for the renga platform focused on bridging a gap between the strong emotive themes between life/ death, from public gallery to cemetery. The design allows the roof to be inhabited as seen in precent image below, forming a more exposed area of reflection open to public with views of the city. On the other hand it also provides a more peaceful, personal space for contemplation concealed within.

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


9

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


10

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


11

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


12

Digital Skin Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC1 GC5

Group work with Alexandra Sonechkina, Heather Munro, Jens Walter, Lewis Maclachlan and Zena Moore

“ Following a series of template videa processes students will work in groups of six to develop a response to the architectural context of Inspace through the theme of digital skin .� In this project our group created a film based around the theme of creating a new skin, thought of as a digital interpretation of the body with the film playing through the silhouette to convey the way we reflect our context. By recording everyday situations but manipulating the images to change both time and place .

AD TE AH AR AP AT D AD

Year 1 2009/2010


13

DRAWING ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY Introduction to World Architecture

GC2 GC3 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Exercise 1+ 2: Plan + Section Pantheon, Rome, 125 A.D The Pantheon, is considered one of the most influential buildings in western architecture. Constructed during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, it was built to be used for a temple for the ancient Roman Gods, since then it has changed function, being used as a catholic church since the 7th century, meaning that it has been well preserved , retaining the extravagent marble interior decor. The construction consists of a large portico on the facade providing a large threshold to the large circular space beneath the oculus.

LO1

Demonstrate knowledge of the history and theories of architecture before c. 1800;

LO2

Demonstrate appreciation of the significance of architectural precedent in the context of design;

LO3

Develop verbal and visual communication skills on key aspects of the module.

AH AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


14

DRAWING ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY Introduction to World Architecture

LO1

Demonstrate knowledge of the history and theories of architecture before c. 1800;

LO2

Demonstrate appreciation of the significance of architectural precedent in the context of design;

LO3

GC2 GC3 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Develop verbal and visual communication skills on key aspects of the module.

AH AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


15

Around Through Beyond the Frame Art and Design

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC2 GC3

Group work with Callum Bolger, Ana Albaracin and Sarah Brown

Through the study of the painting, ‘Gelmeroda III’ by Lyonel Feininger (1913), In groups we re - interpreted the painting in a physical model in whcih each plane found in the original artwork was hung from the ceiling coated in various materials, to recreate the differing planes of light which were then reflected from the model. Linking this into the work of architect Sir Basil Spence through the common theme of light relevant in both fields.

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Year 1 2009/2010


16

Beyond the Frame Art and Design

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC2 GC3

To further this project individually I manipulated the painting, producing a series of new versions of the painting with subtle differences to observe the impact these changes had on how the painting was viewed. Mainly by changing the long straight planes most effect in changing the church spire diagonally , the painting doesn’t have the same impact in hinting at the churches strong link to the heavens with its elongated geometries.

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Year 1 2009/2010


17

MATERIAL SYSTEMS Technology and Environment

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC5 GC8 GC9

Group work with Olle Blomquist

BRIEF: This gateway asks what are the fundamental components from which architecture is made. Starting from what we can mine and harvest, the creating of building components is explored and how these can be assembled together to start to make parts of buildings.

Stage 1 - Creation of a component For the workshop linking with the ‘creation of a component’, we produced a storyboard of the process of making various materials.

UNABLE TO RETRIEVE ORIGINALLY PRODUCED WORK. Stage 2 - Creation of an element The following workshop involved drawing the wall- opening/ floor-roof like elements to learn how each component is slotted together.

Stage 3 - Element assembly The final workshop revolved around element assembly. Deepening understanding of the sequence od which elements are combined to make structure

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

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Year 1 2009/2010


18

FORM AND PERFORMANCE Technology and Environment

Essay Question: Make a comparison between skeleton framework and loadbearing wall type structures. Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two systems. Include in your essay descriptions of actual buildings in which the roles of these systems are particularly well illustrated. In this essay I aimed to show how in architecture, there have been two main types of structure utilised to support buildings of various shapes and sizes. Through showing the advantages/ disadvantages of each form of structure and illustrating these issues in a real life examples. By emphasising the idea of modern v traditional methodologies in strucutural design I aspired to show this duel between material as relating to the contrast in the social context. Resulting in a balance to which based on the function required of the building, decides which structure is most appropriate.

LO1

“ ... The more traditional method of support for all types of structures is the load bearing wall. This was one of the earliest inventions created in the craft of architecture. A load bearing wall is a solid wall which resists or spreads the downwards force that acts upon one section of the structure to another. This allows the designer to avoid having all the stress on one joint which makes the structure more effective. Mainly the load is transferred from the top of the structure to the more solid foundations. The form of the load bearing wall is a series of posts and beams organised into many horizontal elements which are then supported on stronger vertical walls. (See Figure 1) The joints between each post and beam are most commonly in the style of a hinge. This means that the structure is non-continuous and therefore not as efficient as a structure that is continuous. However this is as the advantage of having this style is that it is much easier to be constructed and this has the effect of making the whole project cost less. Obviously this also has the downside that the structure is not stable on its own, but this has been solved by adding another set of walls. These are the bracing walls, which have no role in supporting the load of the structure but they provide stability making the whole structure rigid and efficient. There are many advantages that the load bearing wall structure

“Understanding of the key concepts in the physical behaviour of structural systems and their application in architecture”

Villa Capra, Section and Plan

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

provides. These are mainly focused around the low cost that the material allows the project to amount to. This is because the majority of the material is brick and plaster. These are cheaper materials and in most areas they are readily available in vast quantities. Overall construction is made simpler, there are no complicated machines as basic tools can be used with the same results. The wall also allows the architect to convey a solid and strong image through a masonry wall. It does not have the same weak appearance

of thinner materials. It also allows the effect of the design being more imposing on those around it. This is shown in Palladio’s, Villa Capra. This was a project designed for a retired clergyman who was returning to his home town. This is the reason for the site to be more suburban than Palladio’s usual villas, as he made it planning it to be a home rather than farm based. This meant that Palladio referred to this building more as a ‘palazzo’, palace, rather than a villa. Palladio was a stone mason, before his architecture enriched the renaissance period. ..” Home insurance building, Chicago

“.. In conclusion, each type of structure has it’s advantages for different uses, with load bearing walls being suited to smaller buildings not requiring large expansive spaces internally. Where as, in my opinion the post beam structure is more suited to modern day development, with the advantage of allowing freedom of planning and greater manipulation of space available to the architect. I believe it is more suitable to modern life as in rapidly expanding cities it allows space to be used to it’s utmost potential in dense urban society.” References: Villa Savoye, Ground Floor Plan [Internet], Available from: <http://architypes.net/files/image/ cache/villa-savoye-ground-floor-plan.jpg> [Accessed 03/04 2010]. Baden-Powell, C. (2008) Structures, Steelwork. In: Hetreed, J. & Ross, A. eds. Architect’s Pocket Book. Third ed. Burlington, Architectural Press, pp. 119. Fazio, M., Moffett, M. & Wodehouse, L. (2008) A World History of Architecture. In: May, S. ed. A World History of Architecture. Second ed. London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, pp. 482-480-4. Weidmann, G. (1994) Structural Materials. In: Lewis, P. & Reid, N. eds. Materials in Action series ed. Oxford, Open University.

Year 1 2009/2010


19

THERMAL ENVIRONMENT Technology and Environment

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC5 GC8 GC9

BRIEF: You will be asked to design a simple home on a real site in Edinburgh. You will then research the properties of the materials systems and element assemblies you have selected and specified and also calculate some areas and sizes of key building elements. Finally you will be asked to reflect on your design strategy and demonstrate quantitatively how to improve the thermal performance of your building. The form of the building allows a simple construction to minimise the cost of materials. The size of the building (8m x 5m) allows the area to meet the maximum limit to the interior wall of 40m2. The building is orientated with the four points of the compass hidden behind the trees from the main road to provide some form of privacy in the house. Glazing was an important factor to the heating of the building and I chosen to make the majority on the southern faรงade to allow maximum use of the sunlight throughout the day. There is other glazing on the opposite north side which lacks the glare and heat of other light but is to allow views in the main living area over the city and surrounding landscape. The interior of the building is planned very openly with the main living room and kitchen/dining space being arranged in the same room to make the building seem larger and also keep the building away from being lots of separate compartments which would be harder to heat. LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

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Year 1 2009/2010


20

THERMAL ENVIRONMENT Technology and Environment

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC5 GC8 GC9

In calculating the thermal response of my design I found that there were many factors that adjusted the yearly cost and the overall efficiency of the buildings effect with emissions. I found that the cost of heating increased if you have vents and any types of fire which have to have a flue system. In terms of the heating system even though the efficiency may be the highest out of the given methods, it was important to find a balance between efficiency, cost and emissions. In my design I found that orientating the majority of the glazing assists in the heating and therefore reducing the cost of heating. To improve my design and reduce the carbon emission by 10% I developed the idea by changing how the building is constructed. So instead of the use of a large amount of material and cost of a masonry wall construction, I changed this to a post and beam structure so that it would minimise the material used and meaning less carbon emission used to create the materials. To help with heating I reduced the height of the building so that it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t as large a volume to heat from 2.5m to 2.2m. Also I doubled the glazing on the south side to allow the most passive solar gain.

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

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Year 1 2009/2010


21

MATERIAL WORLD Architectural Design Assembly

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

BRIEFS: CONCRETEYou are to design a boathouse for a small rowing club on an inland river. The club owns 8 kayaks (length 3300mm width 780mm) and 2 double rowing shells (length 7200mm, width 560mm). These will be stored in the main space.

STEELYou are to design a flower kiosk at an urban junction. The flowers must be clearly visible, from both outside and inside. Consider how the manager can observe and monitor the front shop while in the back shop. Consider how a canopy could extend and link inside to outside space

CONCRETE

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

STEEL

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


22

MATERIAL WORLD Architectural Design Assembly

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

BRIEFS: TIMBER You are to design a small timber teahouse set in an extraordinarily beautiful location. The site is surrounded by trees, beside a loch, and with distant views to mountains beyond. STONEYou are to design a small stone shelter assuming a remote location. The building must be predominately built of stone. Consider how to accommodate a larger void and a number of smaller elements by using plan and section.

TIMBER

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

STONE

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


23

GROUND AND SHELTER

Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

BRIEFS: BRICKYou are to design a single storey building to be used as a sports changing room in parkland. The spaces should make as much use of daylight as possible, while maintaining the privacy of the people who are changing.

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


24

Strangely Familiar - Precedent Study Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with James Walker

ROBIE HOUSE; Frank Lloyd Wright

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


25

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


26

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Brief: “You are to design a house for a small family with one person who works from home. The house should be sufficiently flexible to accomodate the growing family, but is relatively modest in size. “ Private Accomodation: Living Room Kitchen/Dining Utility room Family room 2 double bedrooms 1 bathroom with separate shower Accessible toilet storage The Twist: The public programme assigned to my project was to include a dentist surgery as a public programme my design performed, this involved the inclusion of a reception space and surgery design revolving round the main object of the dentist’s chair. Location: Trinity Site, Edinburgh

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


27

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


28

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 1 2009/2010


29

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D TE

Year 1 2009/2010


30

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

LO1

Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific constructional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2

Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D TE

Year 1 2009/2010


31

RENGA - ANCHORING, INHABITING Architectural Design Elements

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

LO1 Awareness of principles of assembly, materiality, specific con-

structional and environmental logics and how they inform the design of architecture;

LO2 Capacity to manipulate architectural form in the

consideration of interior and exterior space and simple programmes;

LO3 Skills in the representation of simple architectural designs, including design process, in the portfolio format.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D AH

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32

TUTORIAL GROUP PRESENTATION Revivalism to Modernism

30 St Mary Axe, ‘The Gherkin’ , Sir Norman Foster. This presentation covered a brief biography of Foster and his influences continuing to show the influential work he has produced throughout his career. Zoning in on the design of 30 St Mary axe, Swiss Re building, London, providing a history of the site and some of the key features of its innovative design.

LO1

Demonstrate knowledge of the history and theories of architecture before c. 1800;

LO2

Demonstrate appreciation of the significance of architectural precedent in the context of design;

LO3

Develop verbal and visual communication skills on key aspects of the module.

AH AD TE AH AR AP AT D

GC2 GC3 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

“... Sir Norman Foster, later in 1990 to be Lord Foster of Thames Bank, was born June 1st, 1935 in Manchester, England. Coming from a working class family, it was unusual and unlikely that Sir Norman Foster would become the world renowned architect he is today. As he progressed through his high school life he began to show his interest in architecture including work of the period by Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe and Le Corbusier. However with all the skills he developed at school, after he left the age of 16 he did not enrol himself in college until he was 21 years old. In this time he worked at the Manchester City Treasurers office and then joined the RAF. This did not halt his progress to a successful career though as after his discharge in 1956 he attended Manchester University. During his time here he won many different scholarships, the most notable attending the Yale University in the United States. The start of his promising career began with the formation of the ‘ Team 4 ‘ practice(1963-67). This was formed straight after graduation from university with fellow student Richard Rogers. The group of four also included Foster’s future wife Wendy Cheesman (Foster) and Sue Cheesman (Rogers). Their first work was a design for Reliance Controls Factory, Swindon, Wilts( 1965-7), this included an exposed steel frame and light industrial cladding. When the group went their separate ways in 1967 Foster and his wife formed the ‘ Foster Associates ‘ practice. They began to establish a good reputation with the Willis Faber Offices, Ipswich, Suffolk, (1975), and the Sainsbury Centre for the visual arts, University of East Anglia, Norwich (1974-7). These designs helped the practice become more known for the use of a ‘high tech’ and modern design style. The company changed it’s name to ‘ Foster + Partners ‘ to more accurately reflect the partners work as equals rather than mere employees. To this day the practice continues successfully with over 25 offices spread worldwide, responsible for work ranging from urban master-planning, public infrastructure to private housing and product design. Over the four de-

cades since the founding of the practice projects that have became wellknown and aided the international reputation are diverse as the Reichstag in Berlin, Chep Lap Kok International Airport and the Swiss Re Building, 30 St Mary Axe, London. This was the building that was chosen to show more detail about. The site of 30 St Mary was formerly the site of a tower block that was the Baltic Exchange building. Baltic Exchange are a London- based exchange for trading ocean freight. The original building was designed by Smith and Wimble and completed by George Trollope & Sons in 1903. However on the 10th April 1992, the main façade was severely damaged and partially demolished by Irish Republican bomb attack. Three people were killed by a bomb stored in a lorry. The bomb caused £800 million worth of damage and architectural conservationists wanted to reconstruct what remained and restore the original façade. Unfortunately the Baltic Exchange could not afford the repair and the structural masonry of the building had been left unstable so the building had to be dismantled.”

Foster and Partners [Internet], Available from: <www.fosterandpartners.com> [Accessed 03/15 2010]. Fazio, M., Moffett, M. & Wodehouse, L. (2008) A World History of Architecture. In: May, S. ed. A World History of Architecture. Second ed. London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, pp. 482-480-4. Foster, N. & Abel, C. (2007) Norman Foster: Works. works. Munich, London, Prestel. Irving, M. (2008) 1001 buildings you must see before you die- Swiss Re building. In: Gaudet, J. ed. 1001 Buildings you must see before you die. Second ed. China, Tristan De Lancey, pp. 407. James Stevens Curl (2006) A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Second ed. Suffolk, Oxford University Press. Lambot, I. (1991) Norman Foster, Team 4 and Foster Associates: buildings and projects : 1964-73. 1st ed. Watermark.

Year 1 2009/2010


33

FIVE POINTS ESSAY Revivalism to Modernism

Essay Question: What were the ‘Five Points’ listed by Le Corbusier in the 1920s, and how were they expressed in two of his buildings from the 1920s? Summary Le Corbusier’s most prominent of many contributions to modern architecture, was his theory of ‘ Five points of architecture’. On this basis there was five key elements which he believed should be involved no matter what tupe of design and by utilising these steps in planning, this essay shows how Corbusier developed a clear modern architecture, where each element of a design program flowed into the next creating a modern architectural aesthetic which proved to be revolutionary in his period.

LO1 LO2

LO3

Demonstrate knowledge of the history and theories of architecture before c. 1800; Demonstrate appreciation of the significance of architectural precedent in the context of design;

Develop verbal and visual communication skills on key aspects of the module.

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“...The architect ‘Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris’, ( 1887-1965), also more commonly known as Le Corbusier ( right ), is an extremely influential part of the modernist movement. Through his many admirable buildings over his career especially in the 1920’s with his design of a variety of villas and pavilions, he became one of the most successful of the 20th century. Corbusier was born in the Swiss watch making town of La Chaux-de-Fonds, unlike in modern times his experience was gained through working in architects practices rather than studying. He immersed himself in architecture through his experience at the practice of Peter Behrens, alongside other talented architects of the future like Mies van der Rohe. Behrens was inspired through the Art and Crafts movement, this influence became part of Le Corbusier’s work along with information gained from various trips to classical buildings in Italy. Two of Corbusier’s most famous buildings are the Villa Savoye ( Poissy) and l’Esprit Nouveau Pavilion, ( Paris). These projects are also key examples of Corbusier’s idea of the Five Points of modern architecture. As the foremost pioneer of the revolution of the transition to modern architecture Le Corbusier endeavoured to unearth a new style of architecture that is the most suitable for the 21st century. As with most of the influential architects of this period, Le Corbusier had the belief that the upcoming century provided the perfect opportunity for a time of change. He was driven to create a modern architectural aesthetic that was based upon science and reason. This was based upon the thought of a building functioning like a machine; “The house is a machine for living in.” (Vers une architecture, Le Corbusier, 1923). This idea of the machine shown how Le Corbusier was imagining the ideal building where everything that is included in a design works mechanically without much manual labour. This development in architecture utilized technology and the advancing force of the industry of the new age. These points of new architecture were: (1) free standing support pillars that elevate the mass

GC2 GC3 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

off the ground, (2) the free plan, achieved through the separation of the load bearing columns from the walls subdividing the space, (4) the long horizontal sliding window and (5) the roof garden, restoring, supposedly, the area of ground covered by the house. The Villa Savoye is an example of this steps gradually being realized in Corbusier’s designs. Le Corbusier’s most accomplished domestic project the Villa Savoye, ( 1929-31, below) is prominently based around his ‘five points of architecture’. It is most likely to be the most successful at accomplishing the goal of creating a machine that can be lived in. The use of piloti incorporates the five points into this design where these structural columns allow the plan to be free flowing so that anyone can circulate with ease around the interior ...” References Le Corbusier (2001) [Internet], The Open University. Available from: <http://www. open2.net/modernity/4_1.htm> [Accessed 02/23 2010]. Architectural Styles - The Search for an American style [Internet], Available from: <http://www.emich.edu/public/geo/335book/335ch5.html> [Accessed 2/22 2010]. Craven, J. (2006) Le Corbusier, Leader of the International Style [Internet], New York Times Company, About.com. Available from: <http://architecture.about.com/od/greatarchitects/p/lecorbusier.htm> [Accessed 2/22 2010]. Fazio, M., Moffett, M. & Wodehouse, L. (2008) In: May, S. ed. A World History of Architecture. Second ed. London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, pp. 482-480-4. Moos, S.v. (1982) Le Corbusier - Elements of a Synthesis. First translated version ed. Cambridge, Massachussets, and London, England, Massachussets Institute of Technology Press.

Year 1 2009/2010


YEAR 2

2010-2011

SEMESTER 1 Architectural Design: [In] Place

SEMESTER 2 35

Technology and Environment: Applications

From Object to Abstraction

Building Fabric- Case Study

Body and Chair

Timber Jetty- Duddingston Loch

Site and Room Chair Museum

60

Architectural History: Order and the City

56

Architectural Design: [Any] Place

Presentation: Sussex University Campus

70

Reading into Place

Essay: Paris Monarchy and Urban design

Dance Centre- Site Survey / Parti Dance Centre

Technology and Environment: Applications Group Case Study- Dance Base Case Study- Slateford Green Microclimate Pavillion

58

Dance Centre- Studio Digital Skills Workshop- GPS tracking

Architectural History: Culture and the City Presentation: Grand Bazaar Essay: Catholic Pilgrimage

100


35

FROM OBJECT TO ABSTRACTION Architectural Design: [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

BRIEF: In pairs, different stages were taken with an everyday object to explore the finer detail of this object, over 4 weeks, we taken part in workshops on cut, draw, cast, explode. Each of these provided a new interpretation the original object as well as enabling the development of skills that would be useful in design.

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


36

BODY AND CHAIR Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

Our body survey, looked at Michelangeloâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s statue of David. This was seen to have the ideal proportions which would be aspired to in the human body. In this project we worked with the related geometries where one body part equals the scale of another, i.e the hand is the same size as the head. Using this principal we matched up all the parts of the body and rearranged them to reinterpret the standard image of the human body.

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


37

BODY AND CHAIR Architectural Design: [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

Following on from the body survey, we were briefed to design a chair, Using the proportions of the body we scaled each segment of the design to suit a different relaxed position, from leaning, lying down to sitting and perching .

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


38

BODY AND CHAIR Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

The main design is thought to be case into a larger wall with these seating areas inhabiting the depth of the wall. The seating position at each stage, has a clear intention of use by its appearance, where the user is intended to sit is clad with a timber cladding with a fabricated cushioning for comfortable use.

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


39

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


40

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Studio 1a

Factors contributing to the development of Edinburgh - 340 million year ago: Volcanic Eruptions formed the basis for Arthur’s seat, castle rock and Calton hill. - 11,000 years ago: Landscape was carved by glaciers, creating the landscape we see today, which has a huge impact on the topography of site. - 550AD: First settlers thought to have inhabitated the area where the castle is situated, a tribe known as the Votadini, chose the site for it’s defensive qualities. - 617AD: City fortified by the Northumberland King Edwin. “DUN-EDIN” meaning strength of ED WIN. City wall built, restrictions in expanding causing future overcrowding. - 1105: City known as Edwinsburgh - 1622: Lady Stair’s House built, oldest building on site, but not original - 1707: England and Scotland unified - 1745: Beginning of the Jacobite rising - 1750: Beginning of the Enlightenment - 1772: Bridge built to start new town -Mid to late 18th century: construction of new town, names of streets chosen for their reference and support to the monarchy, opposed to the jacobites. - 1850: Beginning of the industrial revolution - 1887: Geddes proposes renovation of the old town, due to terrible poverty

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


41

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Studio 1a

“BEFORE YOU BOAST OF YOUR CITY, BEFORE YOU EVEN VENTURE TO CALL IT YOURS, OUGHT YOU NOT SCRUPULOUSLY TO WEIGH THE EXACT SHARE YOU HAVE HAD IN ADDING TO IT OR ADORNING IT, TO CALCULATE SERIOUSLY THE INFLUENCE UPON ITS ASPECT WHICH THE WORK OF YOUR OWN HANDS HAS EXERCISED?” John Ruskin

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


42

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Studio 1a

Lady Stair’s Close was name after a young Lady Elizabeth who lived in, what is now, the Writer’s Museum. Her first husband Lord Primrose, was a violent drunkard who beat her and attempted to kill her. After this he left and tried to arry in Italy, but Lady Elizabeth’s brother stopped him. She was then tricked into marrying the Earl of Stair, who sneaked into her house overnight and she was forced to marry to save her reputation. This man was also violent towards her. Perhaps the Edinburgh Feminist society had this in mind when they planted a memorial tree in the courtyard opposite the house? The house is, as mentioned, now the writer’s museum. It celebrates the works of Robert Burns (who lived in the courtyard in 1786), Sir Walter Scott and Robert Louis Stevenson. The Lawnmarket area once sold: milk, butter, vegetables, cheese and meat. There was also a linen and woolen material market on Wednesdays. It would have been a hive of activity in what ( as shown on the lower right) was a very crampt area, where different classes of people were forced to minglt

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


43

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


44

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


45

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair

The use of the Lady Stairâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s close site is important in finding the key area to site the chair museum in order that it will draw the highest attention from the pubic. This diagram shows the common routes through the site used by commuters, residents alike.

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


46

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


47

SITE AND ROOM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

Lady Stairs Close provides a multitude of options for our future designs of both a room and eventual chair museum. Uniquely, it also contains the Writerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s museum within the courtyard; this could be either influential or contrasting to our eventual work. In relevance to our chair designs, the site allows a variety of directions to be taken that are connected to our original chairs and they can therefore be integrated effectively and impactually as long as all aspects of the site are taken into account. The main difficulty of the site is the sloping across the courtyard which would be the most attractive site for a museum; this has hopefully been analysed effecticvely through the method of building a model and therefore assessing the potential issues it may raise.

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


48

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


49

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


50

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


51

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


52

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


53

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


54

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


55

CHAIR MUSEUM

Architectural Design [IN] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specifi ed site and that contain an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design.

LO3

GC1 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


56

TUTORIAL GROUP PRESENTATION Order and the City

SummaryThis presentation was based on Sussex University campus, this explored the benefits found when based on a campus university opposed to a university which was mixed in with a busy city culture. By showing how separate parts of the campus were planned out, it was illustrated thats students could learn in an environment in which they were more comfortable and relaxed.

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“... There were many architects chosen to come up with preliminary designs the Sussex University campus, but Spence’s plan was chosen to go ahead into construction. There was an advantage to this site had over others considered as there had been a push towards having a new university that could support this area. Spence would have been chosen because of his previous experience in building to suit the needs of a student environment and because of his overall status as one of the most successful modernist architects of that period; “ I feel that one of the most important things is that a university should give the student a feeling of confidence.” -Sir Basil Spence, speaking to BBC’s Town and Around programme, 1963 This was Spence’s belief that all new students that are either living at home or moved away in the new environment with as many new people need to be in a place that they feel safe and more comfortable. The design of a campus university is very different to one which is integrated into the urban atmosphere. In his interview Spence recognised that students would be more isolated than in the more common style of university, and made attempts to stop that feeling in the campus. Spence provided a lyrical account of the 200 acre site which consisted of a downland valley situated between Brighton and Lewes with a line of mature trees running up the valley bottom. “Rising from this Emerald saucer are soft rolling hills decorated with casual clumps of trees between which is afforded delicious glimpses of the

LO1

Knowledge and understanding of connections between architecture and the social, economic and political circumstances within which it is located.

LO2

The ability to evaluate urban phenomena in social contexts

LO3

Research, analyse and present in written and report form themes appropriate to the model content.

AH AD TE AH AR AP AT D

surrounding downland country.” This landscape determined both the layout of the university campus and the architectural style of each building, for instance Spence chose to keep all building heights lower than average in order to allow the trees to dominate the skyline. He mainly used a soft red brick over the campus which he had sourced locally to help the trees form a barrier round the campus and allow the campus to function around

a centralised pedestrian campus. There were many other buildings of some significance built around the campus such as the Arts building and the library. The intention of siting these faculties was to close the vista that is provided to Falmer house. The clever architecture through the cantilevering lecture theatres are supposed to give the impression of the heavy concrete springing from the groups of two pylons spaced equally along the perimeter of the building. The key building in the campus was also the first completed, Falmer house was described as a gatehouse to what lay beyond in the pedestrian area of the university. The original idea of an academic quadrangle assumed a more urban and defensive character with a colonnade around the courtyard in a pastoral setting with vaults of different spans and heights. This is similar to the modernist work of Le Corbusier with his Maison Jaoul, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris (1951-4), through the arch forms. There is also a clear link in both with a close relationship between the environment and architecture . This as the first of many buildings helped establish a central axis to the site and was used as an organising principal of the campus core. While the university was under construction Falmer house became a solid base for students and teachers alike...” References: -Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland [Internet], Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Available from: <http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/284775/details/brighton+and+hove+university+of+sussex+general/> [Accessed 11 2010]. -Campbell, L. (2008) “Drawing a New Map of Learning”: Spence and the University of Sussex. In: Long, P. & Thomas, J. eds. Basil Spence Architect. Edinburgh, National Galleries of Scotland, pp. 97-98-104. -Edwards, B. (1995) Chapter 4- The 1960’s and after- An Atchitecture of Authority. In: Addison, R. ed. Basil Spence 1907-1976. Edinburgh, The Rutland Press, pp. 88-89; 99.

Year 2 2010/2011


57

PARIS MONARCHY AND URBAN DESIGN- ESSAY Order and the City

Essay Question: Assess the role of the monarchy in the urban design of Paris in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Summary This essay shown how the French model of architecture in the period had been under significant improvement due to the role of the monarchy. Due to their various aspirations through different reigns to create a united city which was one whole aesthetically pleasing location opposed to a city with a diverse array of building styles which were run down. This was conveyed by illustrating the cities progression from a medieval city into a city to be proud of at the time with King Henry IV and King Louis XIV’s inclusion of inclusion of natural spaces and focus on better urban planning so as to include large civic spaces opposed to a high density depressed location.

LO1

Knowledge and understanding of connections between architecture and the social, economic and political circumstances within which it is located.

LO2

The ability to evaluate urban phenomena in social contexts

LO3

Research, analyse and present in written and report form themes appropriate to the model content.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D AH

“... newly found enthusiasm to improve the city was continued with the program began to give Paris a more ceremonial character distinguished from other cities, to make it suitable as capital and the seat of its monarchy. Many competitions arose for architects to draw up plans for monumental buildings to line the mile long stretch on approach to this transforming city. The new urban planning moved away from the original set grid plan of building in Rome, to a focus on making a better place to live in, this was achieved by widening the narrow streets to allow more light and a set height of building, suitable for the new transportation around the modern city. Prior to the work of Louis XIV and his royal architect, Henri IV had given Paris the pattern of urban design that was to suit the city for the next three centuries. This was aided by the introduction of the king’s three piazza project, which was announced in 1605 as development projects which were to become commercial centres for Paris that would attract private capital into the redeveloped city. Following Henri’s statement to the Bureau de la Ville, where he established a need to link beauty and utility through architecture in a way that had became characteristic of him, the plans for a large piazza in the Marais district in Paris was announced. This was the Place Royale now known as the Place des Vosges (Figure 1). Although the limitation of not being able to become a centre of commerce which had originally been planned due to the Place des Vosges not being in the centre of Paris, the emphasis was changed to create a grand and overall more residential piazza. The royal architects also made this more individual as this was a paved square with an inward focus, it created a contrast with the subsequent Baroque spaces that were linked by axial boulevards. There were some similarities brought between all three projects and this had a similar façade to the Place Dauphine. However, it has its own individual characteristics in the form of very tall, pitched roofs, which were divided into hipped lengths of four bays, there was large pavilions which stood in the middle of each side of the square (Figure 2). Led by the monarchy the royal architect was influenced by the work of the ancient

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5

classical architecture of Alberti for the arcaded piazzas at Florence, from this was sourced the ideal proportions used to present a uniform façade. Later there was an equestrian statue of Louis XIII erected in the centre of the square after his reign from 14th May 1610- 14th May 1643. The Place Dauphin (Figure 3), launched in 1607, was another part of the plan for three piazzas, although this was more intended for commerce as it had the largest commercial potential of the three development projects. Breaking away from the traditional Roman grid plan, this piazza is built in a triangular plan on the Île de la Cité (Figure 4). Connected to the busy Pont-Neuf, the space inside the piazza was able to be privately used by residents, and the commercial use was restricted to the outside of the piazza. It came under criticism for its irregular shape and sales on the site were gradual, but not ...” References Berger, R.W. (1994) Paris. In: A Royal Passion:Louis XIV as Patron of Architecture. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 73-74-83. Fazio, M., Moffett, M. & Wodehouse, L. (2008) A World History of Architecture. In: May, S. ed. A World History of Architecture. Second ed. London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd. James Stevens Curl (2006) A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Second ed. Suffolk, Oxford University Press. Sutcliffe, A. (1993) Henri IV and his plans for a new Paris; The three Piazzas; From Italian renaissance to French classicism. In: Paris: An Architectural History. Yale University, Yale University Press, pp. 19-20-32.

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58

GROUP CASE STUDY- DANCE BASE

Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Anthony Awanis,Carl Baker and David Blair

[ UNABLE TO OBTAIN GROUP WORK ON DANCE BASE CASE STUDY]

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


59

CASE STUDY- SLATEFORD GREEN

Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


60

BUILDING FABRIC - CASE STUDY

Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


61

MACROCLIMATE PAVILLION Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Anthony Awanis,Carl Baker and David Blair

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


62

MACROCLIMATE PAVILLION

Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Anthony Awanis,Carl Baker and David Blair

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


63

MACROCLIMATE PAVILLION

Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Anthony Awanis,Carl Baker and David Blair

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


64

MACROCLIMATE PAVILLION Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Anthony Awanis,Carl Baker and David Blair

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


65

MACROCLIMATE PAVILLION Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Anthony Awanis,Carl Baker and David Blair

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


66

TIMBER JETTY- DUDDINGSTON LOCH Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Frazer Haviz, Grant Richardson, Lewis Maclachlan, Andrew Fernandes, George Sinclair

Brief You are asked to design a lightweight timber jetty of about 60 m through the lake to enhance bird-watching and the experience of the visitors with improved views towards the city, Arthur Seat and the features of the village. The design for a timber jetty has been located on the Eastern edge Duddungston Loch. Duddingston Loch in Edinburgh is the centrepiece and of a very well preserved natural landscape and bird sanctuary that combines with the historic fabric of the adjacent village. Our design is shaped in a way that it reaches round an existing stone wall to a previously unreachable section of waterside closer to the nature reserve. Directed towards the key focal points in the surrounding context of Arthurs seat, Duddingston village and various landmarks visible from the main city area. Design precedents (1) Attenborough Nature Reserve, Nottingham (2) remains of jetty, Derwentwater, Lake District (3) John Hope Gateway, Edinburgh (4) Marina Port Vell, Barcelona (5) Strathnairn woodland shelter

1

2

3

4 LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

5

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67

TIMBER JETTY- DUDDINGSTON LOCH Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Frazer Haviz, Grant Richardson, Lewis Maclachlan, Andrew Fernandes, George Sinclair

The form of the structure is determined through the aspiration to have a all round view of the loch. The main octagonal section forms the two storey view platform centered round a trunk like central support. Each plane at an angle is directed at one of the focal points provided by the surrounding landscape, be it arthurs seat or other landmarks in Edinburgh. The design aims to open up more of the habitat which has previously been cut off from public access. linking round a large wall and providing a wider platform which is easier for visitors to circulate at their own leisure without the feeling of having to keep moving to stay out of others paths.

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


68

TIMBER JETTY- DUDDINGSTON LOCH Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Frazer Haviz, Grant Richardson, Lewis Maclachlan, Andrew Fernandes, George Sinclair

Design Loads for the jetty: Primary Beams Loading Type: Domestic use, long term action Live load (imposed) 5.0 kN/m2 Self weight 0.5 kN/m2 Total q 5.5 kN/m2 High point load 4.5 kN/m2 Utilising an exposed hardwood structure for rigidity over long term use with a final Larch cladding for walking decks to achieve a more aesthetically pleasing finish. For the jetty structure we chosen the hardwood oak for its strong structural qualities. Therefore the stress class taken is D40. [ORIGINAL CALCULATIONS UNAVAILABLE (process used shown) 1.Mechanical Properties Bending (fmk) 40 N/mm2 Compression parallel (c,0,k) 26 N/mm2 Compression perp. (fc,90,k) 8.8 N/mm2 Shear (fv,k) 3.8 N/mm2 Mean Elasticity Modulus (E) 11000 N/mm2 In order to achieve the approximate floor joist size check the bending stress for spans designed. 2. Load on beam w=qs , used to calculate Mmax 3. Max bending moment: Mmax=

w . L2 8 +

P.L 4

Using these calculations the dimensions of the beams could be calculated: 4. Determine the dimensions of the beam: Obtain approximate primary joist size by checking firstly the bending stress. The uniformly distributes loading on the joist w Design bending stress = bending moment (M)/ section modulus (Z). In order to calculate the section Mmax is used together with the design permitted bending strength (fm,d). 5. Therefore the strength modification factor kmod is taken from table 3.7 provided dependant on timber choice Although the timber section has not been considered, a depth is assumed > 150mm, therefore size factor kh = 1.0 Full torsional constraint of the beam is provided, therefore the instability factor kcrit= 1.0; The load sharing factor kls is assumed to the floor joists span less than 6m (taken from table 3.1) The moisture and creep modification factor kdef =2.0 (table 3.11) The material is solid timber, treated for preservation, therefore the partial factor YM for the material properties is 1.3 (table 3.6) fm.d =

kmod . kh . kis . kcrit . fmk YM

6. Check section size in bending bending stress fm.d > om,d = M = Zxx(min) > Zxx

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly

Zxx > 1154 x 103 mm possible cross sections:

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship

250 x 150 200 x 200 250 x 100

and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Mmax fm.d

1000.0 x 103 mm 1333.3 x 103 mm 1041.7 x 103 mm

Year 2 2010/2011


69

TIMBER JETTY- DUDDINGSTON LOCH Technology and Environment

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Frazer Haviz, Grant Richardson, Lewis Maclachlan, Andrew Fernandes, George Sinclair

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


70

READING INTO PLACE Architectural Design [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with David Blair, Anthony Awanis

The presentation was focused on the Villa Savoye, by Le Corbusier. With the view of portraying the sense of movement around the building, the presentation went through the process involved at each stage of a visitors guide through the building. Overall the key points that are important to this circulation round the building are that the pure planes and volumes that follow from the rational design avoid separating spaces and restricting flow. Furtherore the open space planned around the interior allow floods of light to enter, making each of the spaces more intimate.

Originally the Villa Savoye was built for Pierre and Emily Savoye as a suburban retreat for the weekend in Poissy. It is sited on a field surrounded by trees, the building has no real relationship to the physical context of the site, linking it more to the mechanistic nature of the house rather than site orientated design. The house was designed as a machine for living in and was inspired by new technology. This was one of many white villas that he designed in the period, but is the most prominent example of his thesis of â&#x20AC;&#x153;five points of architectureâ&#x20AC;?. The driveway and entrance goes round a curved wall leading into the garage, this curve is determined by the new technology of the car, as its curvature reflects the turning circle of a car. The vestibule is typical of the rational design of the building as a whole, which is aimed at highlighting the architectural elements which express movement. e.g. the staircase and the ramp. The clear idea that Corbusier values exploring the design by foot to allow the viewer to experience the series of spaces more intimately. With the ramp which circulates the building as it is seen to link all floors together rather than a staircase which separates. A spine of the house. The garden and solarium help the light to bleed through into the heart of the building as it was designed with the idea of combining architecture and nature withing the confines of the building.

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


71

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


72

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


73

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


74

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


75

SITE SURVEY- PARTI

Architectural Design [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


76

SITE SURVEY- PARTIArchitectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


77

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


78

SITE SURVEY- PARTIArchitectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


79

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


80

SITE SURVEY- PARTI Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


81

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with studio 1a

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


82

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


83

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


84

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


85

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


86

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


87

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


88

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


89

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


90

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


91

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


92

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


93

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


94

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


95

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


96

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


97

DANCE CENTRE

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


98

GPS TRACKING

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Calum Campbell, David Millar, Katie McGann, Lewis MacLachlan, Sonia Brims

Tourist 1) Train Station 2) Tourist information 3) Scottâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Monument 4) Galleries 5) Lothian Road 6) Castle Terrace 7) Castle 8) Royal Mile 9) Train Station Professional 1) Train Station 2) Scotsman Newspaper Office 3) Parliament 4) Bar Lunch 5) Scotsman Newspaper Office 6) Coffee Stop 7) Train Station

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


99

GPS TRACKING

Architectural Design: [ANY] Place

GC1 GC4 GC5 GC7 GC8 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Calum Campbell, David Millar, Katie McGann, Lewis MacLachlan, Sonia Brims

Eca Student/ Esala Student 1) Middle Meadow Walk 2) Lecture Theatre 3) Library 4) Lunch 5) Studio 6) Material Shop 7) Work Shop 8) Middle Meadow walk

LO1

Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specifi ed non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research.

LO2

Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specifi ed urban conditions.

LO3

Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 2 2010/2011


100

TUTORIAL GROUP PRESENTATION Culture and the City

Summary

LO1 LO2 LO3

Knowledge and understanding of connections between architecture and the social, economic and political circumstances within which it is located. The ability to evaluate urban phenomena in social contexts Research, analyse and present in written and report form themes appropriate to the model content.

AH AD TE AH AR AP AT D

GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

“... As an initial thought that defines exactly what a bazaar is the term ‘bazaar’, meaning a permanent area of public merchandising, either in a marketplace or like in the case of the grand bazaar many streets of shops which are sheltered and this area allows a wide variety of goods and services are exchanged and sold. ‘Bazaar’ derives from the Persian word Bāzār, meaning “the place of prices”. This kind of marketplace originates from the ancient Islamic civilisations, therefore the bazaar is the predecessor of the modern day shopping mall or supermarket, where many types of shopping zones for a variety of goods are collected in one zone of the city. This has had a positive influence on the economic development and centralization in modern cities around the world. The Bazaar first appeared in the Middle East around the fourth century. At the time, the area was often at the focus of many important trade routes. This helped smaller civilisations establish major cities and ports, allowing the development of their city as more important place in the world of trading. As well as the increase in awareness of the city the use as a trade use allows the constant flow of exotic goods, along with many travellers from all over the world. This new method of selling produce gave a rise in the system of haggling and trade within the cities themselves, this was mainly because of the fact that there was no set price per item which would be expected in the modern day mall or supermarket, instead customers have to be prepared to bargain with the retailer in order to get the item they want at a price they see reasonable. Later bazaars have developed in such a way that they are now not only areas for trading goods but often for social, religious and financial centres of cities. Mosques and coffee shops were often incorporated and actively fostered into the established bazaars. Famous examples of Bazaars around the world include the Old Bazaar in Cairo (1382) Figure 2; the Bazaar of Tabriz, Iran (1346) Figure 3 and the Grand Bazaar of Tehran, Iran (1660) Figure 4. However these

few examples are only a few of the many bazaars which are scattered throughout Islamic countries ranging from Azerbaijan and India to Syria and Kazakhstan. The Kapali Carsi or covered Bazaar is one of Istanbul’s most intriguing sights. This labyrinth of vaulted roofed winding streets and domed buildings that evolved over a period of 250 years. In the 15th century Sultan Mehmed II (1451-1481), built the two stone bedestens which were to become the key areas of the whole bazaar and a key source of income for the Ayasofya mosque which is integrated into the marketplace. These were constructed in the heart of the Bazaar which is built in the Ottoman style and these were used for the storage and sale of the luxury goods of a higher value. The siting of the Grand Bazaar is located between the Nuruosmaniye and Bayezid mosques which are north of Divanyolu, the main road traversing the historic peninsula heading towards Edirne (Adrinople). It is located to utilise the local market neighbourhood that occupies the southern hillside of the Golden Horn, where commercial ships come into to deliver and distribute goods through the city. ...” References: The covered Bazaar- A miniature town (2011) [Internet], Turkish Culture Foundation. Available from: <http://www.turkishculture.org/pages.php?ParentID=6&ID=98> 2011]. Let’s go Istanbul- Covered Bazaar : (Kapalı Çarşı) (2003) [Internet], Available from: <http:// www.letsgoistanbul.com/covered.htm> 2011]. Archnet Grand Bazaar [Internet], Available from: <http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site. jsp?site_id=7441> .

Year 2 2010/2011


101

ROME, A PRIMARY GOAL OF CATHOLIC PILGRIAGE- ESSAY Culture and the City

Essay Question: Choose a Renaissance or Baroque pope and discuss his contribution to Rome as the primary goal of Catholic pilgrimage.? Summary

LO1

Knowledge and understanding of connections between architecture and the social, economic and political circumstances within which it is located.

LO2

The ability to evaluate urban phenomena in social contexts

LO3

Research, analyse and present in written and report form themes appropriate to the model content.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D AH

“... Nicholas V [1] was pope in the time when the renaissance was central to the style of buildings that were being built in Rome. He began a rebuilding of Rome as a centre point in this style, with a key aim at the buildings of religious importance and the services much needed to the wider city. The landmarks such as St Peter’s basilica to the services such as the Aqua Virgo [2] viaduct, all were reconstructed during his reign as pope in the 15th century. The earlier beginnings from previous papacies had seen a turn towards Rome as a focus point for religion. This had come from the state of decay Rome was in after originally being one of the imperial capitals, alongside Constantinople during reign of the empire. The reign of this particular papacy simply transforms the original plans from predecessors into goals which he personally felt more about to further the influence of the Catholic church worldwide, and a safe haven for all followers of the faith to visit. The initial idea of Rome as a major epicentre for the whole of the modern day Catholic faith, came from imperial times in which Rome was considered the capital of the empire. Due to the emperor in power at the time rarely living in the city Constantinople became the new fixed capital in 330AD. However out of all thriving cities in the area Rome claimed the overall principle place in a scale of religious importance, this is clearly depicted in Pope Leo the Great’s statement; “the care of the universal church should converge towards Peter’s one seat, and nothing anywhere should be separated from its head.”; clearly explaining the the expansion of the papal authority in Rome should be most important, and the “ full range of apostolic powers” given by Jesus to the apostle Peter should be utilised to full extent. Clearly his view is that due to the history involved Rome should be the capital, of at least the religion if not the empire. The style in which Nicholas V adopted was renaissance, the European renaissance began in Tuscany, with a focus on major cities like Florence and Siena. It had an impact on cities where there was remains of the ancient Greek culture then later a vastly significant effect of Rome itself. Rome had been ornamented with the typical emphasis

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5

on symmetry and proportion of the renaissance displayed in buildings like Sant’ Agostino, Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483 and St Peter’s Basilica, which many architects contributed their variety of skills to create, quoted as “ the greatest creation of the Renaissance”. It was Nicholas V, originally Tomaso Parentucelli at birth, was responsible for the refashioned Rome in the style of renaissance and beyond, born in Sarzana, Liguria, 1397. He studied at Bologna, where he gained a degree in theology in 1422 and the bishop Niccolo Albergati was impressed by his abilities and gave him the chance to tour through Germany, France and England. This gave him the opportunity to follow his passion for literature and collect a variety of books which would inspire him in his project to renovate Rome as the centre of Catholic pilgrimage. ...” References Banister, F. (2001) History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. Elsevier Science & Technology. Benevolo, L. (2002) The Architecture of the Renaissance. London, Routledge. Burke, P. (1999) The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy. Princeton University Press. Burroughs, C. (1982) Below the Angel: An Urbanistic Project in the Rome of Pope Nicholas V. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 45, pp. 94--124. Fazio, M., Moffett, M. & Wodehouse, L. (2008) A World History of Architecture. In: May, S. ed. A World History of Architecture. Second ed. London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

Year 2 2010/2011


YEAR 3

2011-2012

SEMESTER 1 Architectural Design: Explorations

SEMESTER 2 103

Architectural Placement Working Learning

Drawing Energy - Kerrera Mechanics

160

Reflective Essay: Sustainable Masterplanning

Active Landscape

Short Essay questions

Passive Building

Design Report: Fingask Architectural Theory

144

Architectural Design: Technical Review

Theory Diary

172

Stillpoint: In the Cracks of Modern Age

Theory Essay Technology and Environment: 3

153

Developments in Steel Architectural Placement: Reflection Essay

PLACEMENT PERIOD

176


103

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Macroclimate study of Island region

Kerrera; Cearrara ; is an island located in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, near the town of Oban and it’s only connection to the mainland is a passenger ferry. Kerrera represents one of the many Scottish islands whose autonomy has been under threat first due to industrilisation, and more recently due to deindustrialisation and globalisation. The island is a site of conflicting dynamics: it it proximate yet isolated; it is battered by weather due to its exposure to coastal nature, yet tempered and protected by neighbouring islands; it has a low population and economic activity yet rich in natural resources.

The tide works by the sea being influenced by a pull from the sun and moon. Although the moon has more of an influence due to proximity, the Earth’s rotation also has an influence on the height of waves at certain times daily. The pull of the moon creates higher tides at the closest point on earth to the moon and when the two influences are combined the pull creates higher “spring tides”, and therefore lower tides on the opposite side of the Earth. Ocean tides occur twice a day, with the main reason that the sea does not stay the same all the way round due to the elliptical orbit of the moon.

The Beaufort scale is a scale created to help estimate wind speeds based on observations on land and sea. The first records of this technique being used to measure wind speeds is from medieval arabs on their voyages but it is likely that mariners of ancient times chosen a similar approach. The scale was formalised by Francis Beaufort( 1774-1857) in 1829. Beaufort was a naval officer who after becoming wounded in Turkey in 1812 became the naval hydrographer. His scale was first used in 1831 by the Beagle, whose commander Robert Fitzroy went on to become the first director of the MET Office. The scale has been adjusted several times over the century to account for changes in shipping and the addititon of land based observations. The scale in it’s current form dates from the 1960’s.

Facts about Kerrera Longitude Latitude 1 knot Prevailing Wind Direction Mean Max. Temp for Summer Mean Min Temp for Winter Mean Temp Annually Rainfall for Summer Rainfall for Winter Rainfall Annually Sunshine (hrs) - Summer Sunshine (hrs) - Winter Sunshine (hrs) - Annually Days of Air Frost Annually Days of Ground Frost Annually Days of Sleet/Snow Falling Annually Days of Snow Lying Annually Mean relative humidity Annual mean windspeed Annual mean cloud cover

Data -5.5 degrees 33.2mins West 56.4 degrees, 24.3 mins North 1.15 mph /1.9 kmph South 16-17 degrees 1.5-2.5 degrees 8-8.5 degrees 350-400 mm 500-700 mm 1700-2200 mm 460-480 110-130 1250-1600 0-30 70-90 30-40 5-15 82.70% 4.6 m/s 5.9 oktas

study of how wind would move over landscape

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

Beaufort Scale Explained AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


104

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

These are the three main classifications of clouds but they can be divided more into types that are in between. such as cirrocumulus, altocumulus, cumulonimbus and many others to account for the different appearances and altitudes of cloud. Howard used this to identify the importance of clouds in meteorology and was influential in sciences and arts; “Clouds are subject to certain distinct modifications, produced by the general causes which affect all the variations of the atmosphere; they are commonly as good as visible indicators of the operation of these causes, as is the countenance of the state of a person’s mind or body.”

Cumulus

Cumulus; a type of cloud with noticeable vertical development and clearly defined edges, they normally form when warm air rises and reaches a level of cool air, where the moisture in the air condenses, they often appear in times of fair weather. Stratus

LO1

LO2 LO3

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Stratus; characterized by horizontal layering with a uniform base, the term stratus is used to describe flat, hazy, featureless clouds of low altitude; commonly formed on a cloudy day but may also produce light drizzle and snow. Cirrus; Generally refers to atmosperic clouds, characterized by thin, wispy strands, often bunched into tufts. Cirrus is latin for ‘curl’ and commonly resemble hair. They form when water vapour undergoes deposition at altitudes above 5000m in temperate regions. They indicate that weather conditions may soon deteriorate.

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others. Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

Cloud cover has an impact on the amount of insolation through sunlight reaches the Earth’s surface. Luke Howard was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science. His lasting contribution to science is a nomenclature system for clouds which he proposed in an 1802 presentation to the Askesian society. Howard’s taxonomy was a method devised so that the many varieties of clouds could be distinguished from each other. These help identify the weather conditions that could be ahead. In his “Essay on the modifications of clouds” published in 1803, he named the three principal categories, these were:

Cirrus

Sun Path Diagram

Year 3 2011/2012


105

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


106

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Prawn fishing is a traditional practice that has great importance to the Scottish economy. Creel fishing in particular is a highly repetitive process. Ships trace lines across the ocean, hauling up used cages, unpacking, baiting and shooting back to sea. The creation of drawing machines at two different scales allowed us to explore the process across â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;landscapesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; within studio.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


107

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Fine Scale ( 1:1000) : Starting from harbour, the prawn vessel sails 1-10 nautical miles out to sea. Creels from the previous days are collected and replaced. Drawings catalogue the area of seabed affected by the fishing process, examining the patterns set up by multiple fishing cycles. Attraction circles build up on plan, forming locations arranges alon radial and circumference lines. Drawing apparatus: Suspended comb with nails 10mm between creels 32.5mm depth Variety in ink reserve - represents success rate of creel Subtle shifts in location- represents creel movement due to sea conditions.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Detailed Scale (1:50) The creel line has been cast to sea. For each part of the line attraction bulbs develop. Fields overlap to represent areas of frenzied migration. These combine to show total area of seabed fished. Concentric rings show the transition of a prawn from a free migratory state to a bound energy state within the creel. This is further studied in radial ink representations. Drawing apparatus: Lines with weights attached 200mm between creels 600mm depth 1/4 of a line represented Pendulums pulled to circumference or swung through the centre point.

Year 3 2011/2012


108

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Detailed Scale; 1:300 (Radial Lines)

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


109

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Decapod crustaceans 540 Species (7 Families) Nephrop Norvegicus (Langoustine)

Length Mass Life-span

330mm 450g 5-10 years

17 Muscles ( plus 16 for tail fin) provide the meat Prawns burrow into soft mud on the sea bed during the day, and emerge at night to feed. Feeding frenzy after turbulent sea Fishing is limited to regions of mud: Firth of Forth Moray Firth North and South Minches Clyde Estuary Catch worth ÂŁ110 million per annum Represents 40% of Scottish fishing Langoustine sells for ÂŁ20/kg LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


110

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Detailed Scale, 1:300 (Concentric Lines)

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


111 GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Length Width Height

560mm (22”) 430mm (17”) 330mm (13”)

Weight

5.25kg

20- 50 creels per line 200 metre line length 10 metre gap between adjacent creels Made from 8mm coated steel wire 28mm escape hatch for juvenile prawns Baited with rotting white fish Creels on sea bed for up to 2-3 days

Overlapping Spheres of Influence

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


112

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Fine Scale 1:5000

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


113 GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Creel fishing: 800-1000 Prawns per catch 450-500 kg approximate weight 12 Baskets worth By-catch of up to 20kg of other species for every 1kg of prawns caught. 2-3 men per boat Sail 1-5 nautical miles from harbour (1.8 - 9.2 km) Depth of 32.5 - 100 metres Routine: Set sail Find marker buoy Pull up and empty creels Re-bait creels and fire out Sail onwards

LO1

LO2 LO3

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis. Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others. Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Edindoune Length Beam Depth

11.3m (37’) 3.2m (10’ 7”) 1.5m (5’)

Amity II: Langoustine trawler BBC series “Trawler Men” 21 metre vessel 500kw caterpillar engine 6 day trips to Peterhead

Year 3 2011/2012


114

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Fine Scale 1:2000

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


115

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Prawns separated into blue crates with 25 x 25 mm holes Kept alive for packing Arrive in processing plant Decanted and graded Packed into 1-3 kg bags Continental buyers demand best grades Leave processing plant Transportation by HGV chiller 24/26 Euro Pallets per HGV

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


116

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Fine Scale 1:10000

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


117

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Youngs Prawns (Per 100g) Calories 59 kcal Sodium 640 mg Protein 14 g Total Fat 1 g

PROCESS

To cook Langoustine:

Boil pan of water, Drop in for 2 minutes Plunge in cold water Leave 3-4 minutes Bake 200 C / 400 F / Gas 6, Drizzle with oil and lemon juice, Cover with aluminium foil Bake for 10 - 15 minutes Grill: Split in two halves, Baste with oil, butter or marinade, Place under grill for 2 minutes Turn halfway through Pull off the tails. Squeeze the edges of the shell together until they crack. Pull apart and release the meat.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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118

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Prawn fishing will be enacted near the Western Isle of Kerrera. Located on the south side of the island, our site includes two small coves and a rocky promontory. Ships should creel fish in muddy ground one to two nautical miles from the shore, then navigate successfully back to land. An architectural intervention will likely aid the docking of a boat and allow the catch to be stored, before processing and eventual retail. Site surveys examine tide, waves and turbulence, while cultivation drawings from the first stage are mapped onto the real landscape.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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Year 3 2011/2012


119

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Cultivation Drawings Sited, Fine Scale 1:30000 Results from drawing machines are sited on existing geological conditions Panoramic views of site views to fishing grounds, gylen castle and around rocky outcrop.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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Year 3 2011/2012


120

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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121

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Ships have cast the creels one nautical mile from the shore. The fine scale axonometric locates fishing in areas of soft mud. Boats trace overlapping paths to and from the fishing grounds. Further drawings zoom to show more information about the fishing and possible docking of boats. Fine Scale (1:5000 Axonometric) Underlying Topography Geology Cultivation Ship Movement Detailed Scale at Sea (1:1000) Cultivation Ship Movement Detailed Scale at Coast (1:1000) Site Outline Turbulence Locations Wave Motion Panorama and Video Locations Ship Docking Repetitive surveying process: The hour begins with a ten second video of weather conditions Distance between water level and high tide surveyed Three turbulence machines loaded and placed in the water for five minutes A buoy is cast into the bay and recorded until it comes ashore

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122

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Rope marks the high-tide point for a period of 24 hours. Knotted lengths of rope are taken down to the waterline and measured. Plotting creates a map that records the amount of land exposed at different times of the day. Tide levels recorded at: Thursday 6pm, Friday 9am, 10am, 11am Wooden crates at half-creel size provide a visual record of turbulence in coastal waters around the site. Three drawing machines were simultaneously placed at the edge of the sea and left for five minutes. By placing machines hourly in the same position relative to shore, it was possible to work out the most turbulent area of the bay (at site A). Drawing machine 280 x 215 x 115 (Half creel size)

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


123 GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

A buoy is cast hourly from three different positions along the shoreline and recorded until it runs aground. The video footage makes it possible to work out the wavelength, time period (T) and amplitude experienced by each buoy.

Buoy 1: T = 9.3s Buoy 2: T = 9.8s Buoy 3: T = 8.1s Buoy 4: T = 10.0s Buoy 5: T = 9.1s Buoy 6: T = 9.3s Buoy 7: T = 11.6s Buoy 8: T = 10.1s Average amplitude (A) = 160 mm LO1

LO2 LO3

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis. Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others. Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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Buoy movements and wave crests Scale 1:2000

Using the video footage from site visit, the buoy was tracked in order to tell which way tide moved in and out from the shore; this let us accomodate these factors when designing around the rocky outcrop.

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124 GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

DRAWING ENERGY Architectural Design: Explorations Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

8th October, 11am 11am

Overcast yet dry, 9.40C, Strong Wind (18)

12pm

7 Oktas, Broken clouds

Beaufort Scale, (7)

1pm

Overcast, 11.30C, Moderate wind (14)

8 Oktas, Overcast sky

Beaufort Scale, (7)

Clearing sky, 10.10C, gentle breezes (5) AD AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Beaufort scale (7)

Occasional sun, 12.20C, easing wind(13)

7 Oktas, Broken cloud

Beaufort Scale (4)

4pm

6 Oktas: Broken Cloud

Beaufort scale: (3)

5pm

Overcast, 11.00C, Slight wind (10) 7pm

8 Oktas, Overcast

2pm

3pm

Sunny spells, 12.00C, moderate wind(15)

Overcast, 10.9 0C ,moderate wind (15)

0 Sunny, 11.6 C, Slight wind (12)

2 Oktas, Few clouds

Beaufort scale: (4)

6pm

7 Oktas: Broken cloud

Beaufort scale: (5)

Clearing Sky, 10.60C, Breezy (6)

6 Oktas: Broken cloud

Beaufort scale: (4)

8pm

2 Oktas: Few clouds

Beaufort scale: (3)

Clear Sky, 9.10C, Gentle breezes (3)

2 Oktas: Few clouds

Beaufort Scale: (5)

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125

ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Active Landscape Landscapes are active, registering differing temporal and spatial scales of operation. Weather inscribes itself on landscape; it causes movement, shifts, interruptions; it stains, causes turbulence, destabilises. Actively intervening on a landscape can amplify or dampen these conditions. Passive Building Buildings act as thresholds or mediators between interior and exterior environmental conditions. Passive building refers to passive heating and cooling strategies that leverage naturally occurring energy in the form of radiation and wind to heat and cool. Passive building is therefore also an active registrar, amplifying or buffering naturally occurring energy.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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126

ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Initial concept masterplan visualisation

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127

ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Map of Kerrera showing the main areas likely to be fished in, due to the location of mud patches on the seabed, which research has shown is the most common area for prawns.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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Year 3 2011/2012


128 GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Water and wind and stone; A sustainable fishing community

Project Statement

“The water hollowed the stone, the wind dispersed the water, the stone stopped the wind. Water and wind and stone”

Our ambition is to create a sustainable prawn fishing community, based on the Isle of Kerrera. The collective seeks to give the fishing process direction and identity within the West Coast seafood trade. Kerrera will reprise its role as a stepping-stone to the mainland, acting as a processing hub for creel fishing. Interventions on site will examine the notion of wave turbulence, both as a welcome phenomenon and something to buffer against. The project’s architecture should incorporate passive modes of qualitative measure, and active drawing apparatus to record changing sea conditions over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Weather considerations must feature throughout our design, in order to answer the question “when is it best to fish?” Efforts will be made to incorporate passive environmental strategies that mitigate conditions on an exposed coastal site. The project seeks to create an overriding infrastructure that can accommodate all parts of the co-operative’s programme. This will take the form of an intelligent wave break, which can adapt to the sea situation and carry out multiple functions. Site Strategy Site 4, Kerrera is a coastal site home to two shores split by a rocky outcrop extending out to sea. There is a transition from a wide grassy area towards the North, down to cobbles, larger rocks and stone outcrops towards the sea to the south of the site. The predominant wind direction is south westerly, with typical weather conditions being dominated by rain and wind, interspersed with the occasional dry spell. Steep cliffs to the East channel the wind from the north-east with low grassy overhangs to the west that flank the shore itself. A rocky outcrop divides a larger, more turbulent bay on east from a smaller bay on west. A small burn runs from beyond the grassy area to the North down to the shoreline. Coastal turbulence recorded in the larger bay indicates that the most turbulent areas are present at the rocky cliffs, lessening toward the west of the bay. The rocky outcrop acts as natural wave break for the shoreline, with seabed conditions ranging from sand at the shore to shale and mud further out to sea. The project strategy examines temporal conditions and considers how such conditions impose themselves and affect any programmatic infrastructure located on site. How does the site program proposition meet the dialects of site infrastructure and weather? Where required the proposal can account for apparatus to begin to manipulate, influence or passively register conditions.

A seafood restaurant will cook, smoke and serve langoustine to gastronomic tourists and local businesses. Interpreting the kitchen as a range, examine reaction rates and porosity between different culinary states. Narrate the prawn cultivation story by exploring the strands between production stages. Dining is the culmination of a process that began at sea, and was translated through preparation and presentation in the kitchen. The dining experience should reflect the high quality of produce served in this truly unique location. Kitchen: 60m2 Guest accommodation: 40m2 Smokery: 25m2 Dining: 15m2 Weather Register “Whatever controls the action of the weather is referred to as the ‘weathering’- one word meaning both the process and the object through which this process is controlled and allowed to make itself manifest.” 1 Resolve a detailed design for an implement or object that registers weather conditions such as wind, sea turbulence, or precipitation data. At a short time scale, this should be thought of as a means of gauging the weather conditions that could be used by the fishing community to decipher whether it is a good day to fish. The registration of weather may take place over a much longer timescale. Will this function as a stand-alone object, or will it be incorporated into all of the buildings. Consider a continuation of the presentational language explored earlier in the project, with the use of a ‘drawing apparatus.’ Keep in mind the distance at which the implement can be read from, whether it synchronises with the program on the land or if it is read from boats out to sea. Dwellings “It grew along with us and we grew within it” 1 Five fishing families will form a cooperative community on the site. Resolve a detailed design for a ‘passive’ house that will provide necessary enclosure for occupation of this landscape. There should be a commonality of architectural language throughout the program in order to maintain a coherent design strategy. Explore how the architecture will register the local microclimatic conditions. To what extent does this proposal interact with and engage the active landscape we have designed? Enclosed space: 120m2

Central Office

Infrastructure

“Architecture, then, was conceived not as the building alone but in terms of its relationships to its surroundings, whether natural or man-made.” 1

“The creation of a total environment, which does not imply the surrendering of a building to its place but instead the enhancement of place.” 1

Information will be interpreted from boats at sea, and may be used to forecast future fishing cycles. Weather data from other parts of the site should be represented here. Consider ways the office could re-communicate qualitative and quantitative information gathered so it is available to all members of the collective. The hub should maintain homoeostasis, acting as a regulator, informing catch rate and fish preparation. From here the brand will be established, stressing the links to the local community. Office space: 25m2

An intelligent wave break will mediate processes in the intertidal zone. Explore the notion of porosity and its influence on water turbulence. How do boats locate our site? Consider methods of marking the entrance to the bay and its key adjacencies. Where would the markers need to be sited in order to be seen from our speculative fishing grounds? Create a docking strategy for boats that provides a scaled response to the active landscape. Live prawns require turbulent sea storage until shipment to restaurants.

Seafood Kitchen “Cuisine is a function of the genius loci, the spirit of the place… the gout de terroir… is only the most immediate manifestation of this gastronomic specificity” 2

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Docking: 12m long Crane 5m2 Seawater storage: 6m2

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ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations

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Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Boat routes; shows the paths of boats affected by wind conditions, with locations of local seafood (O), or normal resteraunt(X) marked on map and concentric circle arrangement to show how far boat can travel at half hour periods.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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130

ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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131

ACTIVE LANDSCAPE Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

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132

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

PRECEDENTMousa Broch; located on the uninhabited island of Mousa nearby Shetlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mainland. A broch is an Iron age dry stone round tower unique to Scotland which first appeared around 500bc. The twin- walled structure can be about 8m high and 20 metres in diameter mainly found in Northern Scotland. The twin walls were about 2 metres thick containing an internal spiral staircase. These were built with the specific requirement of managing harsh coastal exposure and are commonly thought to have been built as defensive structures. This type of dwelling reflects similar ideas of the design project which incorporates a stronger defensive wall which is inhabited. Research into the specifications for a dry docking facility for the project were vital in order to allow the boathouse design to be suitable for maintenance of boats as well as building.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

The Shetland Museum and Archives by BDP architects, reflects some of the ideas intended to be conveyed through the project in Kerrera. BDPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design fluidly integrates the concept of learning and a workplace with the boatshed where work was done for the historic dock which went through restoration with this project. The public are able to explore for themselves and learn by experience rather than just viewing pictures, which is the aim of the boathouse design for kerrera, where the visiting element is integrated into the main function of the boathouse as a place of work to support the larger fishing community.

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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133

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Initial stages of design were aimed at producing a form that was built to fit into the features of the existing site and other designs in the masterplanning strategy. As shown in the ground plan; shown top left; is shown with the underlying geological features of the slate and quartz running across the site with the mass of the building sited in a naturally formed cuts forged into the cliff and landscape by the water eroding the weaker material. In order to register weather I began thinking of how the different weather conditions could be registered not just visibly but also through sound as well. This was through existing sculptures like the singing ringing tree, which is a series of galvanised steel pipes placed in order to get a different tone depending on which pipes the wind is flowing more dominantly through. The technorama facade was a method created by the artist Ned Kahn, it consists of a series of metal sheets suspended in the facade which are allowed to flutter in the breeze. This then registers the wind because the metal catches light as it moves and therefore creates a rippling effect that is visible on the exterior of the building.

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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134 GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations Group work with Hayden White, Thomas Ferm, Robert Hebblethwaite

Housing

Resteraunt

Control office

Boathouse

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135

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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136

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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137

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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138

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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139

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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140

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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141

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

LO1

Knowlegde of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform the architectural design, and the ability to adhere to a coherent design methodology that builds on analysis.

LO2

Knowledge of how architectural theory and cultural influences inform design, and the ability to evaluate and critically assess these concerns in the work of others.

LO3

GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, veerbal and written production.

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142

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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143

PASSIVE BUILDING Architectural Design: Explorations

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GC1 GC2 GC5 GC7 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

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144 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Origin LectureSeeking to understand something, we often ask the question, where did it come from? An approach to understanding architecture can usefully follow this tried method. More specifically, architectural thinking has dwelt recurrently upon the question of evolution, for building clearly represents a crucial moment in that process. The notion of civilisation itself can be couched in terms of the nature and function of architecture. How we stand with regard to the elements of nature, how we came into social relations and why we build have seemed to be related questions. Thinkers have speculated on evolution from Homer to Darwin and have pondered the question of architecture in terms of these speculations from Vitruvius to Le Corbusier. (Jim Lawson, Lecture summary)

The lecture begins by introducing where did an approach to architecture originate. More specifically, architectural thinking has dwelt recurrently upon the question of evolution, for building this clearly represents a crucial moment in that process. The notion of civilisation itself cannot be couched in terms of the nature, how we came into social relations and why we build have seemed to be related questions. In the beginning when there was no form of proper civilisation living conditions have been idealised in that, everything is provided for them and they have no worries;(Fig.1) “ he lacks nothing, he desires nothing.” Until a change when the world passed under the rule of Jove, springtime which had prevailed for longer periods in the past, became instituted cycle of four seasons each year. Then for the first time man experienced the air becoming parched and arid, icicles forming under chilling blasts of wind. This was the beginning of seeking a dwelling, and this lead to the development of an architecture. Their initial homes were made in caves and thick shrubberies;

Fig.1 Apollo and the muses, Claude (1600-82)

“... nothing: but presently the sun’s heat begins to scorch him, and he is forced to look for shelter...runs to hide in it’s thicket; and he is content again...”

LO1

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

LO2

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

LO3

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

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This shows how mankind were forced to develop a form of protection from the elements in which they could seek comfort. These early dwellings were unfit for inhabitation and this led to man wishing to make up for nature’s neglect by working; “leave the cave determined to compensate by his industry for the omissions and neglect of nature.” The concept of fire being a comforting factor in their lives came from a forest fire depicted in Piero di Cosimo, ‘The Forest Fire’; the harsh weather cause a fire to begin in their savage surroundings not until the fire had subsided when they drew nearer in interest they discovered the sense of security and warmth given to their community by this element.

References Johnson, M. (1987). The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. McEwen, Indra. 2003. Vitruvius: Writing the Body of Architecture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Gibbon, E. (1980). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, introd. C. Dawson, Everyman Library, Chap IX, pp.212-14. Pope, A. (1954). “The garden of Alcinous from the seventh Book of Homer’s Odysses” in The Poems of Alexander Pope, ed. N. Ault and J. Butt, London/New Haven, Methuen/Yale University Press, Vol.VI, pp.103-104.

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145 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Unconscious LectureIn posing the notion that “architecture proposes an effect on the human mind not merely a service to the human frame” this lecture explores mind through the theories of Freud,,Jung, Lacan and Deleuze and Guattari. The lecture looks at the differing views on the conscious and unconscious discussing Freud’s ego, id and super-ego, Jung’s theories of the collective unconscious, Lacan’s trinity between the Ideal,, Real and Symbol, and Deleuze and Guattari’s Schizoid.whilst looking at examples of art and architecture which make cognisant or indirect philosophical connections to these psychological concepts. (Dorian Wiszniewski, Lecture summary)

In posing the notion “architecture proposes an effect on the human mind not merely a service to the human frame” the lecture explored the mind through the theories of Freud, Jung and other theorists. The lecture looked at the differing views on the conscious and unconscious discussing Freud’s theory of ego, id and super-ego. Through looking at examples of art and architecture which make cognisant or indirect philosophical connections to these psychological concepts. The idea of the unconscious, meaning UN- not + CON- together + SCI- knowing, gives the suggestion that there is the conscious where we know what we are thinking about and when, but there is also a more repressed side where we are unaware of or don’t want to remember.

Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into these three parts where the Id(the it) is the impulsive, child like proportion of the mind that works around the ‘pleasure principal’ and only picks out the parts of information that it desires, and disregards everything else. The super-ego is the moral component which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be a viable solution for a given situation. The more rational ego attempts to exact a balance between these with the impractical hedonism of the id and the equally impractical moralism of the super-ego.

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis. Some of his earlier work was in developing theories about the unconscious mind, including unnoticed perceptions, feelings that we are not aware of at the time of occurrence. Freud argued for the importance of the unconscious mind in understanding the conscious thought and behaviour. His later work left the unconscious behind and re focused on the “Id, ego and superego”;(Fig.2)

LO1 LO2 LO3

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

References

-Id, pleasure principal

-Adorno, Theodor W. (1979). Functionalism Today, Oppositions, Summer: 17, MIT Press. -Carl, Peter (1991). ‘Architecture and Time: a Prologomena’, No. 22, Autumn, p. 48-65, AA Files, The Architectural Association, London.

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

-Super Ego/ Ego Ideal

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

-Carl, Peter (1992). ‘Ornament and Time: a Prologomena (2)’, No. 23, Summer, p. 49-64, AA Files, The Architectural Association, London. -Freud, Sigmund (1942). The Ego And The Id, The Hogarth Press, London.

Fig.2 majority of the unconscious is concealed

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-Ego

-Aragon, Louis, (1994). Paris Peasant, Simon Watson Taylor, Exact Change, Boston.

Year 3 2011/2012


146 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Theories of Language Lecture This lecture introduces the theory of language from 19th century correspondence theory to Saussure and structuralism, considering concepts of difference, synchronicity, langue and parole, syntax and semantics, sign and symbol, signifier and signified. We consider the work of Jakobson and Jameson on language, Levi Strauss on the application of structuralism to anthropology, Piaget on psychology, Barthes on cultural studies, and Eisenman on architecture. (Richard Coyne, Lecture summary)

This lecture was aimed at introducing the theory of language from 20th century correspondence theory to Saussure and structuralism, considering the concepts of difference and synchronicity. Language is important through representation of models, and sculptural qualities, through this there is shown to be different schools of thinking about language. The analytic where it involves logic and verification, the pragmatic which is more involved with speech act theory and the performative. Then there is the phenomenological/hermeneutical; which dictates that the language is the house of being. Finally it is split into the structuralism and post-structuralism. Language in itself can be seen as a rule system, based on the concepts of formalism, the notion fits the idea of how classical architecture was based around number, order. This gives those who have understanding of architecture the ability to read the standard order of elements expected on a classical façade(Fig,3) and if the architect has missed out a single element or edited it to fit their intentions, it looks ungrammatical in the same way as a sentence without proper structure. Syntax can be used as a set of rules that become a way of spatially ordering a building. So as a builder needs to follow strict procedure and designs laid out in order to build a house, a sentence is what this structure is based upon.

LO1

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

LO2

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

LO3

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

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Jacques Derrida, was a French philosopher who developed the idea of a critical theory known as deconstruction; the way of criticising not only literary and philosophical texts but political institutions. This was achieved by playing with the set out syntax for the construction of a sentence a playing around with order. His writing was often unspeakable with grammar and sentence construction that militates against a possibility of it being read out loud. Essays begin as if midway in the conversation and fade out with many more ideas awaiting resolution.

Fig.3 Contrast with classical grammar in building opposed to neighbouring buildings

References -Hawkes, T. (1977). Structuralism and Semiotics, Methuen, London. -Broadbent, Geoffrey (1980). “The Deep Structures of Architecture,” Signs, Symbols, and Architecture, Geoffrey Broadbent (ed.), Wiley, Chichester, pp.119168. -Coyne, R.D. 1999. Technoromanticism: Digital Narrative, Holism, and the Romance of the Real, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.120-134. -de Saussure, F. (1916). Cours de Linguistique Générale, Payot, Paris. Also published as Course in General Linguistics, Roy Harris trans., Duckworth, London, 1983

Year 3 2011/2012


147 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Domination Lecture The Cartesian picture of subject in a world of objects is set against the views of the Critical Theorists of knowing and active subjects as social and embodied beings. The lecture will look at the origins of critical theory in the Frankfurt School and Marx’s “man as totality of social relations.” The process of practical reason over the theoretical will also be explored with regard to the creative criticism of Manfredo Tafuri. (Dorian Wiszniewski, Lecture summary)

The Cartesian picture of the subject in a world of objects is set against the views of the critical theories of knowing and active subjects as social and embodied beings. This lecture looked at the origins of this critical theory in the Frankfurt school and Marx’s; “man as totality of social relations.” The process of practical reason over the theoretical will also be explored with regard to the creative criticism of Manfredo Tafuri. The idea of the Cartesian picture is a view that imagines the mind as an entirely separate entity from the corporeal body, the sensation and the perception of reality are thought to be the source of untruth and illusions form more dominant social relations. Concepts of domination are sourced from the fact that the society of ordinary people in the form of workers are constantly under the influence and entangled in the needs and demands of those more in control. Set by the ideas of the critical theory which is a set of systems and structures which have the aspects of theory embedded within, as philosophy and social analysis are integrated into the bigger idea.

LO1

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

LO2

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

LO3

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

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Three figures were explained during the lecture, Adam Smith; through capitalism believed that a division of labour into ever more efficient machines of production and consumption, so having an influential role in what his workers were doing. The second was Rene Descartes, more associated with rationalism nothing is accepted as true that couldn’t be recognized by reasoning which was clearly and distinctly broken down into simple ideas. The final was Auguste Comte, following the ideas of positivism, the only authentic knowledge he accepted was truly scientific knowledge and this knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories sourced in science. This shows the Cartesian picture clearly as in all cases workers have no freedom on allowing their thoughts to influence their work, it is strictly set out by the ideas of those in more authoritative positions.

References -Held, David. (1980). Introduction to Critical Theory, Horkheimer to Habermas, University of California Press, Berkeley and L. A., pp.379-481. -Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, M. (1979). Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. J. Cumming, Verso, London (First published in German in 1944). -Adorno, Theodor W. (1979). Functionalism Today, Oppositions, Summer: 17, MIT Press. -Benjamin, Walter (1992). The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, Illuminations, Hannah Arendt, Harry Zohn, London, Fontana Press. -Cauhoon, Lawrence (1996). Chapter 7, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, ‘Bourgeois and Proletarians’, From Modernism to Post Modernism an Anthology, Blackwell, Oxford. -Tafuri, Manfredo (1976). Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development, MIT Press, Cambridge Mass, USA.

Year 3 2011/2012


148 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Body Lecture In this lecture we will survey theories on the relationship between the body and architecture, starting with mythic concepts of space that implicate the body through ritual, movement, participation in the cycles and seasons, and geometry. We also examine Neo-Platonic concepts of ecstasis, and look at anthropomorphism - the belief that the measure of man reflected divine measure - depicted most famously in Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing of Vitruvian man, a body inscribed simultaneously within a circle and a square. We consider empiricist approaches to the body and measurement, including Le Corbusier’s Modulor. We then look at the phenomenology of the body and the embodied nature of human experience. We introduce the provocative thought of Foucault about technologies and institutions as ways of constructing and controlling the body, and inducing a docile public, and conclude by considering the cyborg, the Surreal, hybrid entity that some think we are all becoming. (Richard Coyne, Lecture summary)

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The lecture began by explaining how there is a relationship between the body and emotion. This shown how the art of architecture can be manipulated to provoke the sense. As it developed the lecture explained interesting theories on how the emotions react differently with every individual and how technology has had an impact on how we react to our emotions. The term emotion describes a physical moving or sense of agitation; the reactions experienced in certain situations can be varied, from horror to pleasure impacted on a viewers perception. In architecture in particular the way emotions of visitors are captured is through the sublime and uncanny notions. This develops the idea that if through architecture we can take advantage of small details which will provoke peoples senses, we can overall control their actions through emotions. This is shown through parts of the extract from John Ruskin’s description of the façade of St Mark’s in ‘Stones of Venice’; (Fig. 4) “... A multitude of pillars and white domes, clustered into a long low pyramid of light; ... And around the walls of the porches there are set pillars of variegated stones, ... and above these, another range of glittering pinnacles, mixed with white arches edged with scarlet flowers, a confusion of delight, ... as if in ecstasy, the crests of the arches break into a marble foam, and toss themselves far into the blue sky in flashes and wreathes of sculptural spray, as if the breakers on the Lido shore had been frost-bound before they fell, and the sea-nymph had inlaid them with coral and amethyst.”

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

This shows that Ruskin is excited by what he can see in front of him in the form of St Marks cathedral; as he vividly describes architecture he is pleased by as if it is a living thing.

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses. Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing. Fig.5 Technology dictates our movement.

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Nearer the end of the lecture the topic moved on to the idea of how technology was integrated with the body and influenced human behaviour. This was

Fig.4 Stone façade St Mark’s Cathedral.

expressed by showing how people began to fit themselves round the requirements of technology from things such as a plug in an airport(Fig.5), down to simple gestures of how people sit on a chair. Showing how people begin to have a loathing of their body they used technology to their aid, developing the idea of a disorientated body, man could be seen as theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism as people design with and for the body to launch themselves into a virtual world as a representation of their ideal selves rather than the real life image References -Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan, Penguin, London, pp.135-169. -Haraway, Donna J. 1991. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: FAb. -Johnson, M. (1987). The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. -Le Corbusier (1968). The Modulor (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press). -McEwen, Indra. 2003. Vitruvius: Writing the Body of Architecture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Year 3 2011/2012


149 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Apparatus Lecture This lecture considers how relations of power and knowledge are embedded within architectural projects, practices and institutions. It draws upon the philosophy of Michel Foucault to describe building as part of an ‘Apparatus’; a network of related elements – forms of knowledge, laws, institutions, physical objects, police measures, philosophical concepts – that conduct our conduct toward specified ends. The lecture will attempt to situate a number of specific buildings within the legal, institutional, and conceptual context that they support, and are supported by. It will conclude by reflecting on the functional disposition of Modern architecture as neither a technical nor aesthetic concern, but as a means of subjectification. (Liam Ross, Lecture summary)

LO1

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

LO2

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

LO3

The lecture on apparatus had the intention to show how relations of power and knowledge are embedded within architectural projects. Ideas conveyed in the presentation drew upon the philosophy set out by Michel Foucault to describe the building as part of an apparatus. Foucault’s philosophy; “To what degree are we naturally ourselves,and to what degree are we a product of history...” This gives the idea of how it controls how we act as individuals as we are following regulations set in the past; or how we govern ourselves. This creates a split in ourselves with part an authoritative and the other more naturally. Which led to the question of how can normality be defined? If we use the apparatus, which is in the form of regulations to better ourselves; with the definition of a hetegeneous set that includes virtually anything linguistic and non-linguistic; meanwhile under the same heading, discourse, buildings, police measure etc. but most importantly from that extensive list is the idea of institution. Places like the hospital and prison are originally a place to contain the sick as mentioned by Voltaire; “Since you have established yourself as a people, have you not yet discovered the secret of forcing all the sick people to make the poor work? Are you ignorant of the first principle of the police?”

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing. Fig.6 Power through panopticism in prison.

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Linking to the base where apparatus always has a fixed strategic function and is always located in relation to power, if you are as low rated as the sick, you can be exploited as the expectation is to follow the regulations in order to improve themselves. This shows how the apparatus has a relation to power with

Fig.7 Sick / Sloth.

the addition of more power comes with knowledge. These institutions are in place to regulate the sick, of which the lowest can be associated with one of the seven deadly sins; the sloth, where the individual is unable to fulfil the potential and utilize their talents, but more modernly has been associated with laziness and indifference as the sin at the heart of the matter.

References - Agamben, Giorgio (2009). “What is an Apparatus?” in What is an Apparatus and Other Essays, Stanford University Press. - Foucault, Michel (1995). “Panopticism” in Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Vintage, New York, pp.195-228 - Agamben, Giorgio (2007). “In Praise of Profanation” in Profanations, Zone Books, New York. - Foucault, Michel (1964). “The Great Confinement” in Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, Pantheon, New York

Year 3 2011/2012


150 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Interpretation Lecture Hermeneutics is the study of interpretation. In this lecture we explore the hermeneutical theory of Gadamer and others, that sets interpretation against method as the way we develop understanding. We are clearly engaged in interpretation when we read a book or watch a film, but interpretation applies equally to criticising architecture and even designing. We examine the concept of the ubiquity of interpretation, the relationship between interpretation, application and understanding, the concepts of horizon, effective historical consciousness, and judgment. We also examine the notion of the architectural institution as interpretive community. (Richard Coyne, Lecture summary)

The lecture on the topic of Interpretation was mainly based around the subject of Hermeneutics, this is the study of perception. By exploring the hermeneutical theory of Gadamer and other influential figures through history I was shown how their ideas set interpretation against method as the way we develop an understanding of our surroundings. We are engaged in interpretation when we read a book or watch a film, but interpretation applies equally to criticising architecture in the way in which it examines the concept of the ubiquity of interpretation.

This opposes the Cartesian interpretive framework, which followed the Descartes method in that it was a freedom from prejudice and analysed things into parts, opposed to Gadamerian methods which involved prejudice and anticipation.

Beginning by referring back to Greek mythology by looking at Hermes; a great messenger of the Gods; they are described as being; “ a wily boy, flattering and cunning, a robber and a cattle thief, a bringer of dreams, awake all night, waiting by the gates of the city.” This relates back to the name ‘Hermes’, which seems to have something to do with speech, he is an interpreter, a messenger and also a thief and deceiver in words, a wheeler dealer who is portrayed to stand at the gates of the city waiting to trick people by twisting their interpretation. Interpretation can be related to many situations, whether it is how the brief of a design is perceived by the designer to how other interpret the drawings developed from the original understanding.

LO1

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

LO2

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

LO3

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

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Key figures in the philosophical past of hermeneutics are the likes of Martin Heidegger, ( 1889-1976) and Hans-Georg Gadamer, ( 19002001); both worked on the concept of philosophical hermeneutics but Gadamer was the one to take his study into the most depth. He set the goal to uncover the nature of human understanding, arguing that ‘truth’ and ‘method’ were at odds with one another. Furthermore Gadamer went on to develop the idea of a vicious circle in hermeneutics, this questioned how can you understand the parts of an idea without initially knowing the whole? Meaning the it is hard to make sense of the whole without an appreciation of the parts. So whatever the part or whole that is trying to be interpreted is stalled by lack of knowledge of the other.

References -Snodgrass, A. and R. Coyne, “Architectural hermeneutics”, Interpretation in Architecture: Design as a Way of Thinking, London: Routledge, 2006, 29-55. -Snodgrass, Adrian, and Richard Coyne. 2005. Interpretation in Architecture: Design as a Way of Thinking. London: Routledge, 2006. -Bernstein, R.J. (1983). Beyond Objectivism and Relativism, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Year 3 2011/2012


151 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC2 GC3 GC7 GC10 GC11

THEORY DIARY Architectural Theory

Metaphor Lecture Metaphor has been a major issue in language dating back to Aristotle’s studies in rhetoric, but Nietzsche invigorated metaphor by exposing all intellectual pursuits as under its influence. We explore the workings of metaphor according to this post Nietzschian view, considering the debate about the literal versus the figurative, live and dead metaphors, and the differences between model, simile, analogy, and metonymy. We look at the implications of Ricoeur’s imaginal theory of metaphor which presents metaphor as a play between metaphorical truth and literal falsity, and explore the work of Lakoff and Johnson which traces all metaphors back to bodily experience. We will see that metaphor theory has a great deal to say about the design studio and design criticism - design as “metaphor play.” (Richard Coyne, Lecture summary)

LO1

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design.

LO2

Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses.

LO3

Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

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The lecture based on the metaphor, gave an understanding of how the metaphor has been a major issue in language being sourced from Aristotle’s studies in the rhetoric. However Nietzsche invigorated the metaphor by exposing all the intellectual pursuits as under its influence; the lecture focused around the Nietzschian view, which considered the debate about the literal versus the figurative. Firstly, the meaning of metaphor as as figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common. This is explained through the extracts taken from Johan Huizinga’s work on ‘ Homo Luden’s ; “ A small child declared he has just seen a carrot “as big as God”” “ the desire to make an idea as enormous and stupefying as possible is … a typical play-function and is common both in child life and in certain mental diseases.” This can be shown in modern day architecture such as the world islands in Dubai, which from above can be interpreted as a smaller scale interpretation of the globe; this is massive and it reflects the real world that is much bigger in reality. Also examples such as the imperial war museum, Manchester and Sydney opera house, where either shells are scaled up and fragments are rearranged into a new form. Relating back to Aristotle’s work, in that the metaphor is; “ giving the thing a name that belongs to something else.”; this was aimed at developing the idea of how there is a metaphorical truth but that is literally false, as it can’t be true what wild things are compared to each other. The idea of transgression of how the metaphor breaks a boundary of what is normally proper and makes it fit into a new understanding ie. With Corbusier’s work in the house as a machine, the house is dragged from the category of being a building, to being compared by the common attributes to the machine.

References - Johnson, M. (1987). The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. -Coyne, R.D. Snodgrass, A.B. and Martin, D. (1994). Metaphors in the design studio, JAE (Journal of Architectural Education), Vol.48, No.2, pp.113-125. - Coyne, R.D. 1995. Designing Information Technology in the Postmodern Age: From Method to Metaphor, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.249-270. - Derrida, Jacques (1982). White mythology: metaphor in the text of philosophy, in Margins of Philosophy, trans. Alan Bass, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, pp.207-271.

Year 3 2011/2012


152

A GEOMETRY OF SUSTAINED PERFECTION AND ALL SEEING Architectural Theory

Essay Question: Compare and contrast two different ways in which the body features in theories of architecture? Summary Through the comparison of the theories on bodily geometry and how architecture can have power over the actions of people, I have shown how a number of early theorists work have influenced the design of architecture still evident in the modern age. For instance the use of a less harsh discipline system in place of the the brutal punishment have been a starting place for the building of the modern society in which we live, where self-control has been taught through an authoritative figure observing our every move whether it is from teachers to police. Also the use of geometry has been a method used not only in the exterior appearance, but is achieved through the aim for beauty through precise geometries could be extended into the symmetrical, or at least proportional layouts of many examples of modern architecture.

LO1 LO2 LO3

Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design. Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses. Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

“... This is exemplified in works of the Renaissance architect Leon Battista Alberti in particular, the influence is shown through how Alberti’s treatise on architecture ‘ De Re Aedificatoria’ was based on the writing of Vitruvius in De Architectura. This influence is reflected in his design of the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini (1453-60)(Fig.1), where Alberti as many others of the time have done use the proportions of the human body in order to improve the appearance and function of the architecture. From his artistic background he aimed for ultimate beauty, where it is constructed in a way that it is impossible to take anything away from or add to it, without impairing the beauty of the whole. The use of the bodily proportions extended into movements in the 20th century with Le Corbusier, his idea of the ‘Modulor’, (Fig.2) which was developed with the many other attempts to discover mathematical knowledge through proportions of the human body and translate that to benefit the appearance and function of architecture. Based on the height of an English man with his arm raised the system utilises the body alongside Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio. Described by Le Corbusier as a; “range of harmonious measurements to suit the human scale, universally applicable to architecture and mechanical things”. Le Corbusier seen this as a way of bringing together a scale of visual measures which could unite the virtually incompatible systems used at the time, the anglo saxon foot and the French metric, although he was intrigued by ancient civilisations making use of a measuring system linked to the human body he didn’t appreciate the metre as a measure. Corbusier’s work therefore revolved strongly around the dimensions of the human body; “We may, therefore, say that this rule pins down the human body at the essential points of its occupation of space, and that it represents the simplest and most fundamental mathematical progression of a value, namely the unit, the double unit, and the two golden means, added or subtracted.”; Fig.1Tempietto Malestiano, Rimini.

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( Le Corbusier. 1954. The Modulor. p.50)

Fig.2 Modular man.

Fig.3 Unite d’Habitation, Merseille

This concept is illustrated through his work on Unite d’Habitation (1946-52) Marseille,(Fig.3) being highlighted in his first book ‘The Modulor’; he explains how the modulor is the founding detail of the plan, section and elevation. As well as being related to the brise-soleil( a method adopted as a sun baffle), the roof and even the supporting columns of the apartments. This system became a basis for his pioneering role into modern architecture as he continued the use of the body proportion in the Church of Sainte Marie de La Tourette as well as the Carpenter center for the Visual Arts. References - Modulor Man. Available: http://sinearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/modulor_man.jpg. - Tempio Malatestiano. Available:http://www.storiadellarte.com/en/biografie/alberti/ immagini/malatestiano.jpg. - Modulor Man. Available:http://sinearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/modulor_man.jpg. - KOSLOWSKI, P., 1997-last update, Unite d’Habitation, Marseille, France, 1945. Available:http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr2012]. - BLOOMER, K.C. and MOORE, C.W., 1997. Body, Memory and Architecture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. - LE CORBUSIER, 1996. Le Modulor and Modulor 2.English edn. Birkhauser Architecture.

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153

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Michael Dargo

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

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Year 3 2011/2012


154

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Michael Dargo

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


155

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Michael Dargo

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


156

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Michael Dargo

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


157

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Michael Dargo

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

TE AD TE AH AR AP AT D

Year 3 2011/2012


158

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Group work with Michael Dargo

Brief Through examination and analysis of these four case studies, various recent steel developments can be identiô&#x20AC;&#x192;śed in each building. The ô&#x20AC;&#x192;¸exibility and advantages of modern techniques are utilized in several to create a long span structure that allows a freedom and space in the public space below. Each contains a complex structural system that is either (or both) selected to meet performance expectations in the unique loadings and forces predicted or to create curvilinear geometries. In the design of these projects the dominance and advantages of computer software can be witnessed, both in developing 3D models, efficient construction schedules and the manufacture of individual steel members. Among other innovations in

LO1 Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs

LO3 Communicating an understanding of the relationship between material, structural and environmental performance in architectural design.

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159

DEVELOPMENTS IN STEEL

Technology and Environment 3

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Group work with Michael Dargo

References A steel framed jewellery box. October 2011. New Steel Construction, 19(9), pp. 18-19,20. Certificate of Merit- The Riverside Museum, Glasgow. 2010. New Steel Construction, 18(7),. Transport Peaks at Glasgow museum. 2009. New Steel Construction, 17(2),. Available: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/glasgow-riverside-museum-of-transport/. Available: http://www.steelconstruction.org/resources/design-awards/2010/certiicate-of-merit/the-riverside -museum-glasgow.html. GLASGOW CITY COUNCIL, Riverside Museum presspack. HAPPOLD, B., Engineering the Riverside Museum. HASSETT, P.M., 2002. Steel Erection for the Walt Disney Concert Hall. Modern Steel Construction, . HAYMAKER, J. and FISCHER, M., 2001. Challenges and Benefits of 4D Modelling on the Walt Disney Concert Hall Project. JODIDIO, P., 2008. Architecture Now!:v.3. 25th Anniversary edn. Taschen GmbH. LEONARD, G., 2003. Symphony in Steel: Walt Disney Concert Hall Goes Up. Angel City Press. MARY ROSE TRUST, , The Mary Rose Museum. Available: http://maryrose.org/ [01/05, 2012]. MCKECHNIE, S., 2006. Terminal 5, London Heathrow: The main terminal building. The Arup Journal, 2, pp. 36-43. NAEIM, F., MARTIN, J., GONG, V., NORTON, G., SCHINDLER, B. and RAHMAN, A., 1999. Structural Analysis and Design of the Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles. THE BRITISH CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK ASSOCIATION LTD, 2003. Steel Buildings. first edn. TREBILCOCK, P. and LAWSON, M., 2006. Architectural Design in Steel. Spon Press, Taylor & Francis Group. All images are available from references given, other that are not included are from www.flikr.com

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160

SUSTAINABLE MASTERPLANNING FOR QUALITY OF LIFE Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Summary In the modern society, a high level of industrial progression has brought about the massive growth of large urban areas, these consist of many densely constructed high rise areas which have been proven to have an ill effect on the health and behaviour of inhabitants. However these effects can be tamed through well planned developments which are aimed at incorporating natural features and vegetation in the dense industrial environment. Through case studies of successful developments in the eastern continents, I will show how architects can plan out an area to make most use of space for building on and therefore maximise capital gain without severely damaging the quality of life for residents. Aiming to prove that the inclusion of nature might not solve all of the health issues, mental or physical, with high rise living but is definitely an aid to a better quality of life.

“... Since post wartime there has been a mass growth in popularity of the high rise, however due to the increasing density of construction in the major cities they came under scrutiny for the reason being they were proven that compared to other types of dwellings people were less satisfied than in other varieties. (N.C. Moore, 1975). Through research there have been 6 reasons which the thought of a high rise has evoked in the past, these fears range from the idea that people may fall from the a high window to entrapment in an emergency. All of these issues cause pressure on the residents which obviously not good for their health and overall quality of life. The major issue which arisen from studies which is mainly associated with life in a dense urban area over rural countryside is the fear of strangers sharing the semi-public areas of your dwelling. People see their home as a place of safety and living in a highly populated high-rise building leads to higher fear of crime and the absence of a proper community. These have adverse affects on the mental health of the resident and introducing green spaces into a urban development can help ease the pressure on the tenant as this exposure relaxes their mind from day to day stresses. The modern day architects are utilising the skills developed in the areas of landscape architecture and urban planning to incorporate nature into the continuous blocks of building; “nature may moderate the relation between high-rise living and behaviour problems.” (Robert Gifford, Architectural Science Review vol.50)

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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This shows how the introduction of vegetation into the city could have a positive effect on the residents everyday lives. The creation of a genus loci gives the society a spirit of place where there is a distinct atmosphere in which people can be satisfied with their life. Through the social and health benefits which are associated come from social empowerment in a community, where they can feel a part of and in turn giving them a sense of belonging and hope.

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“...found that the Kompong naturally focused people onto communal outdoor space not available in the HDB(Housing Development Board) high rise blocks.” (Edward Ng, Designing High-density cities, p286)

The creation of a communal green belt in the harsh urban context has been proven to maintain the character of a place where industrialisation could engulf the whole area. This exposure and access to nature from an urban physical environment has been proven to improve the individual’s health and well-being by providing restoration from stress and mental fatigue. ...” References Foster + Partners (2012) [Internet], Available from: <www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1515/Default.aspx> 2012]. Azwar, D.H. & Ghani, I. (2009) Importance of green space: Towards a quality living environment in urban areas. Archnet ( International Journal of Architectural Research), vol. 3, no. 1. Cooper, P.R. & Boyko, D.C. The Effect of the physical environment on mental wellbeing. Mental Capital and Wellbeing: Making the most of ourselves in the 21st century, pp. 18. Gifford, R. (2007) The consequences of Living in a High Rise buildings, Architectural Science Review, vol. 50, no. 1. Lie, J. & Cheong, V. (2012) Marina Bay Sands. Arup Journal, vol. 1, no. special issue.

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SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Essay Question: Professionalism – How is the title ‘Architect’ protected in the UK? Formulate an argument for or against the title protection.

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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“ ... In a way Architecture can be seen as a one of the unique professions. Alongside the likes of doctors and lawyers which are the only other professional roles which receive title protection by law. More specifically to architecture the title ‘Architect’ is also secured through the Architect’s Registration Council. The ARB have the authority that allows them to revoke the name of an architect who has been found guilty of any serious offence in way of professional incompetence or unacceptable conduct. There can be the initiation of criminal proceedings as a result of the guilty party being found to have misused the title architect. The list of registered professionals held by the the ARB can be seen as prestigious in that a regular fee must be paid to remain on the list, however ailure in payment will result in removal from the list. As an authoritative body in the field of architecture, the ARB continually stimulates the idea of continual learning through all registered architect’s being required to undertake continuing professional development. This involves occasions organised which could include lectures or readings as a one off event, varying to the evaluations of buildings. Many architect’s typically go on to become RIBA qualified, without their name on this board of architect’s they cannot have their title protected.

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with respect to standards. Meanwhile taking an interest to the needs and requirements of the client and ensure the end product is everything they expect it to be. Any work should not be carried out without the necessary insurance as well as having their own personal and professional finances managed with due consideration. These few standards exemplified are out of the many stated by the ARB ‘standards’ which should be promoted by the architect. The principles of the other authoritative body do conform as these principles are an example of how the architect should function. ...”

In order to initially become an architect, an individual must first undergo full time education and training. This must be at a level which satisfy the professional training requirements of both the RIBA and the ARB with a course taken at a school of architecture. Both the ARB and RIBA produce a policy in which stated the expected code of conduct that must be adhered to. This leaves the architects at risk of complaint from client if their conduct is not to the level expected. Resulting in the risk of the architect’s name being removed from the list held by the registration board and depriving the persons to work under the title architect. In specific the ARB codes of conduct state that architect’s should be able to work with high competence in the field and integrity. Managing to avoid unnecessary actions or situations which is inconsistent with their professional duty of engagement. The architect should only undertake work which they are confident that they can complete as they have the necessary resources. An architect should only promote their services in a truthful and responsible manner, carrying out the construction faithfully

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162

SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Essay Question: Regulatory Context: Workplace Health, Safety & Welfare – What is a workplace risk assessment and when is it required? Prepare a brief workplace risk assessment covering the most ignificant risks for an architectural practice.

“... A workplace risk assessment is an important step in protecting workers and the business alike. A simple but careful examination of the work environment, allows for identifying the potential hazards which could cause harm to members of the workforce, or any other person that makes use of the building/area of work. This assessment is then acted upon by placing into practice actions that all staff are aware in order to prevent risks of harm, caused by spillages or other tripping hazards being carelessly left behind. Allowing control at a reasonably practicable level.

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date in the changing circumstances of employees, site conditions etc. These are some typical hazards both for the office environment and on-site risks with methods of protection from each; ...”

The assessment is part of a legal requirement for a business to take justifiable steps to protecting it’s associates and the public. More specifically to architecture, the assessment must not only include office hazards, from simple tripping risks, or open drawers but also extends to model making equipment disregarded carelessly. This can develop to general site risks which can be danger from construction equipment or falling objects etc. These factors must be generalised in order to take into account the wide variety of sites that can be visited and on the occasion that a new hazard occurs, the assessment can be reviewed.

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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The risks can revolve around different circumstances of the people using the office or surrounding area, for example you can identify risks by how they affect different groups of people in the workplace. For instance in the architectural office there will be people specifically working with model making who will encounter different risks on top of the common office hazards. Other workers however may have particular requirements, for reasons of new and younger workers, new or expectant mothers and people with disabilities who can be at particular risk in the workplace. Other than that there are cleaners, visitors who are not always in the building as well as the surrounding members of the public who could be affected by the office activities. Overall the most important factor in protecting your business and work environment from potential hazards is that everyone that could possibly be affected by practice activities are aware of the risks at all times, everyone must be aware of all safety procedures carried out by the office for in office and on-site work respectively and the assessment must be kept up to

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SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Essay Question: Regulatory Context: Construction, Design and Management – What are the Clients and Designer’s duties under the Constriction( Design and Management) Regulations 2007?

“...The Construction, Design and Management (CDM) regulations 2007 are in place to ensure that everyone with an involvement with the site work has health and safety responsibilities in which they must ensure that the working conditions are healthy and safe before work begins. While the planning and organisation is key between client and designer to avoid others being put at risk during the work being carried out. The CDM 2007 places this legal duty with everyone to ensure the right people are working correctly doing the job asked by the client safely without any unnecessary risk to anyone. Both client and designer have their own individual roles in order to achieve a safe working environment.

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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The client, or more specifically a more non-domestic client, is the person having the construction work carried out for them, they have the need to check the competence and the resources available to each of the appointees. They must have ensured that no work starts unless there is a construction phase plan in place where there are suitable arrangements for welfare facilities. It is also the clients responsibility to allow an adequate amount of time to allow all contractors involved the opportunity to plan, design and thoroughly correct any issues that arise during the design phase as well as not having to rush any actual work. Communication for both sides of the design is vital, but for the client it is important that in order to allow the construction team to design and create something that fulfils the clients needs to convey how they will use the building, any existing hazards from previous structures and problems such as asbestos.

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phase of development. As well as trying to resolve these risks any problems that remain must be well communicated with anyone involved with the site construction and the client to ensure everyone at risk is aware of faults. This valuable communication allows the project to run efficiently to a planned schedule. Designers must talk about the maintainability of the finished structure with the client early during the design stage. If this and similar factors in how the building is used or built can incur unexpected costs or injuries due to issues, that were not properly considered when the design changes could have easily been made. The overall aims that the regulations were set out to achieve are to allow architects and contractors to provide a key role in creating a safe and sustainable design. If these regulations are not adhered the risk is that an unnoticed fault can cause dangerous accident while work is being carried out, as well as the finished structure could be unsafe to use or maintain. Overall this would not provide the client good value for their money. Serious breaches of the health and safety legislation set out by the stated regulations, can also result in prosecution as well as damage to the reputation of the company and individuals involved....”

This stage of communication ensures the team are aware of all factors affecting the design and can budget for and plan around problems they can expect. On the other hand the designers appointed to control the work and design the construction also have important roles to carry out. In the overall goal to improve both their own company and the overall industry’s health and safety record, all project designers must comply with the regulations and make the effort to eliminate the hazards and risks during the design

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164

SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Essay Question: Procurement; How does the design responsibility differ in ‘Traditional’ and ‘Design and Build’ procurement?

“... Firstly in the ‘Design and Build’ approach to construction procurement is more separated in that after all the designing is done, responsibilities are handed over to the contractor instead of the architect being in charge of overseeing. Initially the client approaches the architect with their preliminary ideas for design. From this the architect extracts the vital concepts and creates a variety of designs which revolve around these key themes. Once the idea is finalised with the client being satisfied, the architect can then propose costs of construction. The architect is most likely to take the design as far as the stage of detailed proposal and design guidance in construction before handover of liabilities. However by this stage the design leader / architect must have presented the design clearly to not only the contractor once appointed but more importantly the client who will in the end use the building. It is the responsibility of the architect to ensure the client agrees with the design proposal and that it meets their needs. Following the appointment of a contractor through a bidding stage, the design team must give a clear vision of the project which is easily understandable but can also be flexible to change in time.

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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fore the whole construction is under supervision of the architect, and as such the architect has the design responsibility of instructing the contractor of any mistakes which arise during construction, any of these which are because of unsatisfactory initial instruction are the responsibility of the architect. A common way of overseeing construction is for the architect to employ a separate individual who is always under instruction from the architect. With this way of procurement the architect is responsible for the technical drawings before any work in commenced by the contractors. This method can also cause many problems as organisation between the workers is important where Gantt charts are typically used to inform each contractor when they are scheduled to start. Many people have stated their opinion that there are inevitable problems inherent of this method as confusion can easily be caused with the amount of interlocking contracts involved with each individual. These are necessary for the client to ensure that all persons involved in their construction have a clear understanding of their role and responsibilities in the work. ..”

From then it is the responsibility of the contractor with the successful bid to state a maximum cost and program to the client. Even though by this point it is the contractors responsibility the architect may still be involved as it is common that the client can employ the architect or similar construction professional on their side as an agent to over see the project. Their role is to ensure all work is being done to the best of the contractors ability without trying to save costs by partly completing important stages of construction. Their only involvement is to protect their employees investment. All responsibilities lie with the contractor as it is their requirement to thoroughly check the drawings before agreeing to the contract and estimating the maximum costs of the build. In contrast the method of traditional procurement, which can also be called integrated design, there is a design team assembled. This may include a wide variety of contractors including engineers, designers and contractors for utilities like heating and electricity. All of these mainly come as sub-contractors following instruction from the architect. There-

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SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Essay Question: Legal Organisation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Compare the benefits of organising an architectural business as a partnership and as a company?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;... The internal structure of an architectural office can be vital in the chance of success as a working practice. The two methods in which they are organised is by having a partnership or as company with shareholders. These both have many benefits depending on the needs of the company varying by size, skills and ambition of each practice. Firstly a limited liability company is a business in one way of thinking. The way this works is that shares in the company can be bought and therefore the business is owned by the shareholders. These individuals are only accountable for the investment that they make. This means that if the business is declared bankrupt, it results in the shareholders losing their personal stake and the money the shares cost initially. This layout gives the advantage that if the shares are released, the result would be that the business would grow through investment. As an employee in this system there is the opportunity to be promoted to a director role in the business without having to be given a part of the company. Giving the positive aspect that directors can leave without any complex handover of shares and other legal restrictions, meaning minimal disruption in the company as possible. This structure also brings the advantage that owners of the company are legally protected but are not entirely responsible for the debts of the business.

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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architectural practices were carried out in the form of partnerships. As a joint effort this enables work to be distributed through another person who shares the same enthusiasm in creating success for the business, with a maximum profit goal. This layout gives the advantage that the liability for company problems, financial or otherwise are shared. Instead of an individual each partner is equally accountable for any debt of the business. Compared to the company layout the partnership setup does not have to meet the same regulations as the partnership is not required annually give books to Company House, although they are still required to have them checked and audited. However there is a median on the occasion that neither the company or partnership structure encapsulates the needs of the business. This came into place over a decade ago and enables the practices to operate and be organised flexibly as well as maintaining the tax status of partnerships. ..â&#x20AC;?

All companies must follow regulations and are required to complete audits through publishing their books, these must follow a set standard and are annually submitted to Company House, who are a department of the government responsible for inspection of books of all limited companies. An advantage of being a company is that unlike partnerships, companies are recognised worldwide thus improving their chances to develop oversees. Unlike the company layout of a business, the concept of a partnership led organisation gives a number of different opportunities which suit another type of office. Partnerships are normally best suited to architecture and engineering organisations. Statistics shown in 1989 that nearly 40% of

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166

SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

Essay Question: Why were the RIBA fee scales abolished? Formulate an argument for or against fee scales.

“... In recent years the RIBA fee scales were abolished in accordance with the European restriction on setting a level of minimum fee charged. This provided the opportunity for greater competition in the profession of architecture. The need for competition came from a industry which was mundane in a way that many architectural offices would apply to design and build a project for the same high fees. The concept of competition allowed offices to take into consideration how they can give the client the best result for the best price, improving the overall efficiency of the practice. No longer was the profession to be considered an exciting and liberating vocation, but to be taken seriously in the modern day. The client had to become the focus and fulfilling their needs for the best price became vital for a practice to work. This competition in the industry opened up the opportunity for vast development from methods of design and construction, to material capabilities.

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LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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This progression shows the positive outcomes of the abolishment of the previously mandatory fee scale. In the capitalist society the sense of competition can be seen to “improve the breed” and now instead of previously competing on past achievements alone, the way in which the practice approaches design can be taken into consideration. For example some will cut all prices wherever necessary in order to achieve the lowest possible fees charged, but that may not fulfil the expectations of the client. This the lack of set fees allows a more business orientated approach to competition, with companies striving to improve their methods in order to give the best offer to the client to please them, while sensibly covering all costs that the project would incur on the practice.

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and other trades from within the construction industry. Giving a greater competition to encourage an non-stop progression in the capabilities of a company. Ensuring the most efficient configuration is employed to give the best chance of competing the the bustling industry. The change in demand from the clients of the modern industry made the need for a change in the recognised methods of working; “Rather than suffer the iron rule of the marketplace, they found instead a way of neutralising its effects. . .” Architects that were to survive the fierce competition were able to collaborate with the rest of the industry to provide the best service for their client based purely on the work and the efficiency of the service provided in that project rather than the merit achieved in previous work. Overall due to the abolishment of fee scales, the architectural profession as a whole was able to develop gradually from being a combination of master- builders and housing developers from the nineteenth century where direct commissioning was common, to being part of a tightly knit body of design professionals...”

While the suggested rather than enforced fee scales that exist can form a valuable fall back opportunity for novice architects and clients alike, the bottom line of the competition was that reduced fees were the only way forward in achieving a share in the work available. The fee scale abolishment gave the opportunity for a larger involvement from outside of an architectural background and overall approach to design. This brought larger firms with an abundant source of resources

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SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS Architectural Placement: Working Learning

References

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ARB, 2010-last update, The Architect’s Code [Homepage of ARB], [Online].Available:http://www.arb.org.uk/news_and_information/information_ for_architects/arch itects_code_2010/code.php2012]. BILLINGTON ET AL, 2007.The Building Regulations: Explained and Illustrated.13th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. CHAPPELL, D. and WILLIS, C., 2005.The Architect in Practice.9th edn. Blackwell. CLAMP, H., 2007.Which Contract?RIBA. HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2011-last update, Five steps to Risk Assessment. Available:http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf2012]. HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2007-last update, Construction, Design and Management. Available:http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm.htm2012]. LATHAM, M., 1994.Constructing the team.pdf edn. United Kingdom: The Stationery office. MEMBERS OF THE MONOPOLIES AND MERGERS COMMISION, 1977. Architects’ Services.London: The Monopolies and Mergers Commision. NICHOLSON, P., 2003. Architect’s guide to fee bidding. Spon. RIBA, 2000. The Architect’s Job Book. 7th edn. London: Lane, Mark; RIBA publications

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DESIGN REPORT - FINGASK Architectural Placement: Working Learning

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Brief: Prepare a design report of a project in which you have practical experience of. Through discussion with colleagues or independant research, identify what material considerations informed the design, and show how these are resolved by the design

Client : Architect:

Fingask Properties Ltd Leslie R Hutt Chartered Architects

Site Description: A steading complex situated in the village of Kirkhill, based on the site of a working farm on the southern side of the Beauly Firth. The site is in a scenic rural area with views across the water towards the Black Isle and within easy commuting distance from Beauly and the nearby city of Inverness. Client Brief: The client wishes to develop the dilapidated farm building, by proposing to create a number of residential units via partial demolition and rebuild of the existing steadings. The proposed design aims to recreate the exisitng court yard, retaining the original steading footprint in the layout. Original planning permission has been granted in 2006 for the redevelopment, the proposal has been adapted since then to meet the issues that have risen from local residents and site assessment. LO1 LO2

LO3

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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169

DESIGN REPORT - FINGASK Architectural Placement: Working Learning

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LO3

GC4 GC6 GC10 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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170

DESIGN REPORT - FINGASK Architectural Placement: Working Learning

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LO3

GC4 GC6 GC10 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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DESIGN REPORT - FINGASK Architectural Placement: Working Learning

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An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

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172

STILLPOINT CLINIC - IN THE CRACKS OF THE MODERN AGE Architectural Design: Technical Review

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Stillpoint: Dojo and clinic is a modern development concealed behind the medieval faรงades of the city of Bath. Adapting around many planning authority issues to gain the best solution to suit the context of the site. This report gives a detailed account of how the development rekindles the ashes of a historically inhabited site for modern use. Giving specifications of the materials chosen by Pier Taylor in his fragmented scheme. The careful attention to the local details in Georgian Bath allow Taylor to create an inspired combination of mixed-use spaces. By demonstrating the common issues encountered in modern day construction through planning constraints and the extensive cutting off materials/ costs to achieve ever tightening budget and environmental goals.

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Critically appraise and demonstrate understanding of the integration of Structure, Construction, Services, Lighting and Acoustics, Building Regulations, Health and safety, budget, and inclusive design within a realised work of conteporary architecture. Demonstrate research skills in the context of architectural practice. The ability to use visual and written communication methods and appropriate media to clearly and effectively communicate a critical review of precedent design ideas and proposals.

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STILLPOINT CLINIC - IN THE CRACKS OF THE MODERN AGE Architectural Design: Technical Review

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Critically appraise and demonstrate understanding of the integration of Structure, Construction, Services, Lighting and Acoustics, Building Regulations, Health and safety, budget, and inclusive design within a realised work of conteporary architecture. Demonstrate research skills in the context of architectural practice. The ability to use visual and written communication methods and appropriate media to clearly and effectively communicate a critical review of precedent design ideas and proposals.

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STILLPOINT CLINIC - IN THE CRACKS OF THE MODERN AGE Architectural Design: Technical Review

LO1

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GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Critically appraise and demonstrate understanding of the integration of Structure, Construction, Services, Lighting and Acoustics, Building Regulations, Health and safety, budget, and inclusive design within a realised work of conteporary architecture. Demonstrate research skills in the context of architectural practice. The ability to use visual and written communication methods and appropriate media to clearly and effectively communicate a critical review of precedent design ideas and proposals.

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Year 3 2011/2012


175

STILLPOINT CLINIC - IN THE CRACKS OF THE MODERN AGE Architectural Design: Technical Review

LO1

LO2 LO3

GC5 GC8 GC9 GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

Critically appraise and demonstrate understanding of the integration of Structure, Construction, Services, Lighting and Acoustics, Building Regulations, Health and safety, budget, and inclusive design within a realised work of conteporary architecture. Demonstrate research skills in the context of architectural practice. The ability to use visual and written communication methods and appropriate media to clearly and effectively communicate a critical review of precedent design ideas and proposals.

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Year 3 2011/2012


176

URBAN REGENERATION ESSAY Architectural Placement: Reflection

Essay question/title: Urban Regeneration, rebuilding a ‘greener’ future or concealing economic convenience? Summary: “Urban regeneration”, “green”; all terms which are playing an increasingly important role in the modern construction industry. Urban regeneration injects a new lease of life into a decaying society, with plans implemented to transform the physical appearance to reflect the modern social needs. Green construction which is a modern trend of those conscious of the environment depicts a well thought through procedure of building, which when every aspect is taken into consideration can produce low emission buildings, but at the risk of being costly if techniques not used properly. This report will focus on the development of urban regeneration from the industrial age and how it progressed with the influence of the government, proving that ‘green’ can be promoted to be an unrealistic ideal in many cases. To prove these issues a range of case studies will be examined to show that when carefully planned out to suit the site context a urban masterplan, can prove to perform highly environmentally.

LO1

The ability to propose a subject of study with clear objectives demostrated though the submission of a summary.

LO2

The ability to thoroughly analyse, reflect and demonstrate familiarity with the chosen topic ensuring references to key text in the field.

LO3

The ability to present written work (including drawings and illustrations) that is objective, lucis, clearly expressed and shows a coherent structure and style.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D AP

“... The move to improvement proved itself a key element of the Urban renewal policy. Since the introduction of the 1949 Housing Act grants which provided home owners up to 50% of the total cost of renovations were in place to stimulate the growth of whole house regeneration. However the policy makers faced a public which lacked confidence in the regime as due to widespread slum clearance they were left insecure as to if their homes of that of their neighbours would be there in long term future. The main purpose of 1971 grant changes were to stimulate the building industry (Fig.4 ) and counteract the misuse of those using money given for improvements to second homes. This shown that the current state measures were taken with economic importance emphasised opposed to the public’s need for housing as key. Under the newly inaugurated labour administration, critical changes were made to grant policies . These led to overall drop in construction statistics, however enabled the key objective of improvement to lowest condition building regeneration as a focal point, transforming the most deprived areas. The concept of urban design is a vital process for the overall successful outcome for Urban Renewal. It plays a key role in the building and rebuilding of regenerated cities. Historically the applied use of urban design has followed a conscious and comprehensive approach. For example, in the classical city, bastide towns, Georgian London and Haussmann’s Paris (Fig.6). However in the majority of processes its use is of an unconscious nature. Similar to the outdated government clearance schemes, sudden accelerations in the rate of urbanisation alongside the intrusion of non-local materials/ methods brought in with the rise in immigration. These foreign methods were applied without the crucial local awareness and sympathy required. Here society can suffer due to the poor decisions that could be made in the process of urban development. The rejuvenated area must consist of all the common aspects expected of the modern city infrastructure. Setting a confidence in its inhabitants

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC2 GC3 GC6

that they are safe in knowing their surroundings and proud of what they own. According to urban planner Kevin Lynch in his writing of “The image of the city”(1959), the perception of the city as a physical entity can be conditioned and interpreted by the existence of five vital elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks ...”

References BURNETT, J., 1978. A Social History of Housing 1815-1970. London: Metheun, pp. 235-236. COUCH, C., 1990. Urban Renewal: Theory and Practice. London: Macmillan education. HOBSBAWN, E.J., 1968. Industry and Empire. Harmonsworth: Penguin, pp. 34. LYNCH, K., 1959. The image of the city. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 47. MACDONALD, R., 1989. The European Healthy Cities proect. Urban Design Quarterly, (30), pp. 4-5. MACDONALD, R., 1989. Liverpool North Docklands: The potential for Urban Design and Industrial Regeneration. Urban Design Quarterly, (29), pp. 23.

Year 3 2011/2012


YEAR 4

2012-2013

SEMESTER 1

SEMESTER 2 Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Make / Create- Fabrication #1 Stories and Fables - Fabrication #2 Civic Building - Fabrication #3 [pre] Fabricated - Fabrication #4

Architectural Dissertation Interlinked Reality

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MAKE / CREATE Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Year 4 2012/2013


179

MAKE / CREATE Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Year 4 2012/2013


180

STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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189

STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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192

STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Group work with Unit 2 studio

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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199

STORIES AND FABLES Architectural Design: Tectonics

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200

CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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CIVIC BUILDING Architectural Design: Tectonics

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212

[pre] FABRICATED Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Year 4 2012/2013


213

[pre] FABRICATED Architectural Design: Tectonics

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Year 4 2012/2013


214

[pre] FABRICATED Architectural Design: Tectonics

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215

INTERLINKED REALITY

Interlinked Reality - Nature and the Built Environment Abstract: “...The focus of this research is to illustrate the benefits of nature’s inclusion in the process of urban planning and the wider city context as a whole. The benefits of nature which are becoming more imaginable with the developing modern society could form a key role in providing a healthy, sustainable urban environment fulfilling the human need to provide comfort in a way which will provide mental aid in the form of recuperation. By alleviating the stress on the mind of the member of society, an improved state of well-being can be achieved through a therapeutic exposure to nature. By inhabiting a more comfortable environment (within, or with close viewsto a natural environment) proven benefits can be seen in physical and mental health. The research methods adopted in this study aim to show the unexploited benefits of the incorporation of nature into the urban setting. By conveying the benefits through a vast amount of theory proven by professionals in many fields from psychology, biophilia to urban planning and green space. ..” LO1 LO2

LO3

Detailed knowledge of the chosen subject demonstrating sufficient understanding of relevant cultural, historical and philosophical themes. Ability to construct and synthesise an intellectual argument expressed against stated objectives and presenting original conclusions. Ability to product a substantial piece of academic writing, coherent, attractive, illustrated, well-written, using correct referencing conventions and the acknowledgement of sources.

AD TE AH AR AP AT D D

GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 GC2 GC3 GC9

Architectural Dissertation

“..The development of Ecological urbanism as a subject has become more widely recognised recently, as the need grows for an integrated social/environmental network in the development of cities and urban regions. To develop a sustainable growth in the modern city, we can’t purely consider the features of the landscape or needs of the city. It must consider these issues alongside plant/animal ecologies and social structure in order to interpret how the landscape functions in the city. The focus shifts from purely designing densely populated hubs to creating a sustainable city. This is achievable by considering natural as well as human systems to create conditions which deliver high quality of life, and aspiring to achieve a true balance; socially, economically and environmentally. By embracing these factors under the terminology of ‘landscape urbanism’ these two diametrically opposed terms stand side by side. It is more apparent in modern society that the architectural profession is rooted in society and culture more than in technology and science. When delivering a sustainable urban area, the creation of areas that people value and to which they can interact emotionally. If the human influence was removed from a site, even the best efforts at creating sustainable environments would struggle to prevail. We must build constituencies of users devoted to the places we build, and recognize that the public landscape is one of the most fragile components of our cities, but perhaps the most critical as without it, natural and social systems cannot function; “... If we are to deliver a sustainable built environment, we must create places that people will value and to which they can connect emotionally...”

(HARTIG, T., 1991. Restorative Effects of Natural Environmental Experience. Environment and Behaviour, , pp. 23-26.)

The Urban landscape that we humans share with ecological systems and plant and animal habitat forms our identity as individuals and becomes the image of the city. It can be degraded and ugly, or glorious in its diversity and beauty.

It can determine the health of the earth itself, establish the liveability of a city, support a city’s economy, and help to create health and happiness for its citizens. This is what “ecological urbanism” can be. Terry Hartig and colleagues in ‘Restorative Effects of Natural Environmental Experience’ undertaken a number of studies which suggest that the views of nature expierienced while walking can reduce mental fatigue. All of this in a natural setting compared to less improvement in an urban setting without. ...”

References HARTIG, T., MANG, M. and EVANS, G.W., 1991. Restorative Effects of Natural Environmental Experience. Environment and Behaviour, , pp. 23-3-26. M. MOSTAFAVI and G. DOHERTY,2010 .Ecological Urbanism. Zurich, Switzerland: Lars Muller Publishers. BOWLER, D.E., KNIGHT, T.M. and PULLIN, A.S., 2009. The value of contact with nature for health promotion. Bangor University: Centre for Evidence based conservation. CABE, 2010. Community Green. WILSON, E.O.,1984, Biophilia: The Human Bond with Other Species. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Year 4 2012/2013


Academic Portfolio 2013- ESALA