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Violence in Bel Air, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Household survey Rubem CĂŠsar Fernandes Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento

Based on the census of Bel Air and surroundings Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2007 Performed by Quisqueya University and Viva Rio

Apoio

CIDA Canada

1


Team Principal Investigarors Jean Philippe Beleau – Boston University Marcelo Nascimento – ISER/Overview Rubem César Fernandes – Viva Rio Sabine Manigat – Université Quisqueya Sérgio Magalhães – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Statistics Team Luis Eduardo Guedes, Keila Lola, Alexis Teixeira, Renata Pedro, Iris Cardoso, Miriam Costa, Mariana Beckman

Field Supervisors Denis Dubuche // Hérold St Joy // Jean Leonard // Raymond Jn Baptiste

Interviewers Alain Jean // Annacréon Fritz // Andalasse // Ariold Brutus // Auguste Fadoul // César Roosevelt // Charles Peterson // Daniel Kerline // Destin Laurentus // Domerçant Jn Michelet // Duvert Anderson // Felix Rémy // Fené Jn Nelson // Georges Jasmé // Guerrier Mie Farah // Guillaume // Janvier Berthony // Jérôme Stanley // Jimitry Pierre // Jocelyn // Lafortune Joseph // Louisena Louis Charles // Nickson Boumba // Paul Rodelin // Pierre Wanncith // Remogène Mie // Elyse Revange Jonas // Silencieux Kendy // St Victor Josemar // Victor Guerline // Wilfrid Etienne // Zéphyr Elvire

Data Entry Elisabeth Cayemitte // Frantzy Jacques // Henry Dominique // Michèle Vlady Boisrond // Rachelle Pavilus // Ricardo Raymond 2


Census Area 2007

Viva Rio Project Area

Solino (part), Corridor Bastia, Fort National, Bel Air, Delmas 2, La Saline, Fortouron, Pont Rouge 3


Research Statistics Census Numbers (simple survey questionnaire)

# of households

9.234

# of families

10.074

# of individuals

32.447

Sample Numbers (complete survey questionnaire)

# of households

700

# of families

764

# of individuals

764 interviewees 3.4% margin of error

2.315

Estimated Numbers in the Project Area

# of households

19.322

# of families

23.859

# of individuals

90.471

4


Population Profile

Gender

Respondents: 15 years old and older 44

Male

What is your highest academic degree (year of study)?

56

Female -

10

20

30

40

50

60

Undergrad

Do you study? No

4

Seco ndary scho o ling (1st and 2nd year)

36

37 M iddle scho o l (5th thro ugh 8th grade)

Yes

25

64 Primary (1st thro ugh 4th grade)

-

10

20

30

40

50

60

70 Did no t do to scho o l

Do you work? No

23 12 0

33

Yes

10

20

30

40

67

Have you always lived in Bel Air? -

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

No, at another department

What is your religion? Other

2

Voodoo

No, at another commune

2

Protestant Catholic

72 20

21

Yes

23

-

4

40

60

80

75 -

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

5 80


Population Profile Average family income (per capita)

Number of rooms per family

(1 US = 37 Gourde) 3 or more rooms

20,5

2

Over 3500.00 Gourde

13,4

From 1751,00 to 3500,00 Gourde

27,9

25,1

From 701,00 to 1750,00 Gourde

1

24,1

51,7 From 351,00 to 700,00 Gourde

0

20

40

60

16,7

Up to 1750,00

20,6 0

Daily water intake per person per day

30 or more From 15 to 29.99

40

Employment

Other

24,6

20

6

Domestic w orker (unpaid)

25

Self- employed – sales

33,3

31

Self- employed – service provider

Up to 14.99

22

Employed by private enterprise

42,1

11

Public servant

0

20

40

60

6 -

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

6


Expressions of Collective Violence

Consequences of internal conflicts among “Bases”, or clashes with state forces (MINUSTAH, HNP)

7


Responses Responsestotocollective collectiveconflicts conflicts Did you move out of Bel Air during the period of conflict? No

57

Yes

Why did you move back? Other

15,3

For political reasons

43

2,2

To study -

10

20

30

40

50

60

Did you suffer abuse after you moved back? 89

No

Yes

7,3

Police guaranteed safety

14,3

To live w ith family

17,2

To w ork, look for w ork, livelihood

20,4

The MINUSTAH ensured safety

12

23,2 0

-

20

40

60

80

10

20

30

100

• Almost half of the population (43%) reports to have moved out of Bel Air during the period of collective violence that began in 2004. This number shows the devastating impact of recent political violence upon residents. Displacement affected the children most especially, as will be seen in the next slide. • The reasons given for returning to their homes in Bel Air are understandable: first of all, the perception that the MINUSTAH established a safe environment (23.2 %), which should be added to the 14.3% who believe security was reestablished by Haiti Police actions. This was followed by the sense that things were back to normal with respect to work and study, as well as for reuniting with family. The category «other», in this case, stands for similar evaluations, eg. «the area had quietened down». 8


Child Displacement December 2007 Counting

Feb/April 2007 Counting 70 ans o u plus

15

Male

65 à 69 ans

Female

60 à 64 ans

Female

13

55 à 59 ans

12

50 à 54 ans

11

45 à 49 ans

10

40 à 44 ans

9

35 à 39 ans

8

30 à 34 ans

7

25 à 29 ans

6

20 à 24 ans

5

15 à 19 ans

4

10 à 14 ans

3

5 à 9 ans

2

0 à 4 ans -10,0%

Male

14

1 -7,5%

-5,0%

-2,5%

0,0%

2,5%

5,0%

7,5%

10,0%

-10,0%

-7,5%

-5,0%

-2,5%

0,0%

2,5%

5,0%

7,5%

10,0%

We estimate that about 13500 children and adolescents (ages 0 to 19) left the area during the period of collective violence, returning later after the area was estabilized. This displacement was registered by two field surveys, one in early 2007 and another at the end of 2007. They reveal an impressive demographic spread, as shown in the diagrams above. The return to the field, to perform a second counting, was specifically designed to verify this populational displacement. 9


Violence over time: 2003 to 2005 Type

2003 2004 2005 2006

Were you attacked by criminals or robbers, taking your money or belongings through the use or the threat of violence?

43,3

45,7

44,1

14,3

Were you threatened?

53,4

54,7

54,1

18,2

Were you held against your will?

2,6

12,1

9,7

3,0

Did you suffer any assault with a mêlée weapon?

21,7

17,4

14,8

4,0

Did you suffer any assault with a firearm?

31,6

26,0

19,4

8,3

The drop in incidents during 2006 is impressive. It must be linked to the area estabilization in 2005 and 2006. Here we find a possible connection between collective violence and interpersonal criminality. In fact, the lack of security in public spaces creates conditions for individual assaults to take place. The curve for imprisonment is very interesting: It increases in 2004 and 2005 and drops in 2006 to levels registered in 2003. This is consistent with the dynamics during that period. There is, however, a yearly decrease in the number of assaults with mêlée weapons or firearms. Can we assume this drop results from pressure exerted by authorities against overt violence? It is also important to note a contrast between the decreasing number of violent acts on the one hand, and the unchanging number of robberies and interpersonal threats between 2003 and 2005. 10


Threats targeting opinions

During the previous year were you threatened in any manner that forced you to change your address, opinion, or be silent about something you know? C3) Gender

Age group

Female

Male

N

%

N

Age 15 to 19 %

N

%

Age 20 to 29 N

%

Total

Age 30 to 39

40 or older

N

N

%

N

%

%

Yes

26

9%

27

11%

9

9%

19

10%

9

9%

14

11%

52

10%

No

263

91%

224

89%

87

91%

176

91%

94

91%

114

89%

471

90%

289

100%

251

100%

96

100%

196

100%

103

100%

128

100%

523

100 %

Total

How many times did it happen? Gender Female

Male

1

19

12

2

3

6

3

2

4

4

-

2

5

1

3

12

1

1

26

27

Total Incidência

15,8%

25,3%

By whom? Agent

N

%

Police

1

2,6

MINUSTAH Police and MINUSTAH

2

3,9

2

3,1

Other

47

90,4

Total

52

100,0

Despite stabilization, threats directed at people because of their opinions affect 10% of our sample, with an expressive incidence of 25% among men. Curiously, men and women, as well as the various age brackets, are equally affected. This pattern contrasts the majority of offenses, where there is an equal distribution according to gender and age. What is at play with respect to threats due to opinion in Bel Air? Apparently there are no individuals threatened by the State. Only 10% of the victims of threats due to opinion acuse the MINUSTAH or the Police. 90% of the victims refer to “other” sources, excluding agents of the state. These would be, therefore, non-governmental forces, such as the semiorganized groups that compete for the control of the local society and its external relations. One should not be surprised if this included references to mystical forces that can charge personal relationships with negativity. It is a topic to be investigated in further research.

11


Part 2

Expressions of Interpersonal Violence

Indicators of Criminal Behaviour

12


Theft, gender and age During the previous year, were you a victim of theft, that is, were any of your belongings stolen either without the use of violence or without you noticing it?

30 25 20 15 10

25,5

30 25 20 15 10 5

21

17,4

5

25,8

24,9

21

20,2 9,2

-

Female

Male

Total

Age 15 to Age 20 to Age 30 to 19 29 39

40 or older

Total

One out of every 5 people reports to be a theft victim – which is a very high number. In Rio de Janeiro, for example, this number is 10%. Men are more liable to theft than women. This is not surprising. They move around more public spaces, where theft is more frequent. In Rio this is just the same. It is surprising, though, that adolescents (ages 15 to 19) are less subject to it. 13


Robbery, gender and age During the previous year, were you a victim of robbery or armed robbery, that is, were any of your belongings taken with the use of violence or threat? 17,8

20 15

20 14,3

16,6

17,5

18,6 14,3

15

11,3

10

10

5

5

0

-

Female

Male

Total

Age 15 to Age 20 to Age 30 to 19 29 39

40 or older

Total

If on one hand theft rates are too high, robbery, a violent act, is within a lower incidence rate, as compared with other Latin American centers. According to the data, 14% of the population of Bel Air was robbed during the previous year, while incidence is reported as 18% in Bogotá, 12% in Guatemala, 14% in Mexico City, 19% in Lima. If we were to compare Bel Air with poor and violent neighbourhoods of these cities, we would find, possibly, even higher numbers. This is an interesting result, which goes against the beliefs of the Haiti elite and foreign countries with respect to Bel Air. As in the case of theft, men seem to be more liable to robbery than women. It is remarkable to notice the absence of adolescents among respondents. Above age 20, we have stable rates of vicitmization in the various age brackets, but adolescence seems to be a protecting factor in face of theft and robbery in Bel Air. This is not the case of Rio, where the practice of 14 violence becomes “younger” every day.


Physical Assault, gender and age Over the previous year, were you physically assaulted? IncidĂŞncia

20

15

15 10

10,3 6,2

20

5

15

0 Female

Male

Total

11,1

13,3

Total

15,7%

Feminina

8,9%

Masculina

23,7%

15 10,3

10 5

2,1

0 Age 15 to 19

Age 20 to 29

Age 30 to 40 or older 39

Total

10% of the 543 respondents said they had been physically assaulted in the previous year. The result is lower than was reported by victimization surveys in BogotĂĄ (11%), Guatemala (11%) and Mexico City (14%) Social control is known to be efficient for offences such as Robbery. Close community relations deter 'utilitarian' violence. But physical assault is different. It can be escalated by the degree of intimacy and tension. However, despite expectations, Bel Air residents reported a fairly moderate incidence of assault. Males are more exposed to assault. We expected a higher incidence among females, the preferred victims of domestic violence. We also expected higher incidence of assault among teenagers (age 15 to 19), who also in turn, stand out positively with respect to other age brackets. 15


Physical Assault, by means employed Were you physically assaulted in the previous year? With what weapon ? Piece of broken glass, iron bar, blunt instrument, or similar object 9 13% Firearm 4 6%

Other means 41 61%

mĂŞlĂŠe weapon 13 20%

These are small numbers adding up to a total of 66 individuals. Even if we take into account a wide margin of error, we still have the interesting data that firearms are the type of weapon least frequently used in robberies in Bel Air.

16


Homicide Was any close relation of yours murdered in the previous year?

20 15 10

6,9

6,0

6,5

Female

Male

Total

5 -

6.5% of the population over age 15 in Bel Air reports a mudered family relation in the previous year. Rio de Janeiro has comparable numbers, approximately 5.4%. In the poor neighborhoods of Rio however, more closely comparable to Bel Air, the percentage is higher, reaching 8%. We did not find a significant difference in gender with respect to this topic.

17


Death Threats In the previous year, were you or any close family member threatened with death? 20 15

20,0

20

19,7

16,2

16,0

15,7

16,0

40 or older

Total

15

12,8

10

10

5

8,6

5

0 Female

Male

Total

Age 15 to Age 20 to Age 30 to 19 29 39

How often? Total 1 2 3 4 ou + Total

0

N 55 11 4 6 76

% 72,2 14,5 5,4 7,9 100,0

IncidĂŞncia Total Feminina Masculina

25,0% 18,4% 32,4%

Death threats are frequent, with an incidence of 32% among men. There is definitively a higher incidence among men (20%), but it is also significant among women (13%). Death threats are also reported among teenagers. This raises an issue for qualitative analysis: the number of death threats do not correspond to actual homicides. We could say that more threats are made than actual murders....


Kidnapping Were you or any close relation kidnapped in the previous year? 20 15 10 5

4,0 2,0

3,0

0 Female

Male

Total

The numbers are small, they do not allow for generalizations. It must be noted however, that there are kidnapping victims in Bel Air, a poor neighborhod. Furthermore, there is no noticeable disparity in income or level of education. These are low-profit kidnappings, carried out among equals. 19


Sexual Assault in the previous year Have you been sexually assaulted over the previous year? C3) Gender

Age Bracket

Female N Yes No Total

Male %

N

15 to 19 %

N

6

2%

4

1%

402

99%

325

99%

132

408

100%

329

100%

132

%

20 to 29 N

Total 30 to 39

%

N

40 or older

%

N

N

%

%

4

2%

2

2%

4

2%

10

1%

100%

239

98%

142

98%

186

98%

700

99%

100%

243

100%

145

100 %

190

100%

710

100%

According to the data 2% of females report having been sexually assaulted over the previous year. The number is comparable to findings of other surveys, such as for example, Rio de Janeiro, 0.36%, USA 0.8%, Costa Rica 4.3%, Colombia 5%. O topic is a sensitive one, and there is a trend for it to be under-reported. There is also the possibility that responses are subtly manipulated, especially when sexual assault takes place among close relations. A change in the approach can bring out different answers. It must be noted however, that Bel Air responses do not vary greatly from findings in other cities or nations in the region.

20


Fear and the freedom to come and go Do you habitually take any of the precautions below to protect yourself from violence in Bèlè? C3) Gender Female

Age Bracket Male

15 to 19

20 to 29

Total

30 to 39

40 or older

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

N

%

63

16%

18

11%

8

7%

28

16%

16

15%

22

15%

74

14%

28

7%

11

7%

9

8%

16

9%

7

7%

6

4%

38

7%

7

4%

3

3%

1

1%

12

2%

I will not go out by myself (walk in the streets) without being wary. Yes, I walk in the street with my girl friends. Yes, I walk in the street with my father, brother, or husband. Yes, I avoid going out at night

9

2%

3

2%

302

75%

131

81%

97

85%

126

71%

80

75%

121

80%

423

77%

Total

403

100%

162

100%

114

100%

176

100%

106

100%

151

100%

547

100%

Public space is unsafe. Or at least, it is seen as unsafe. It is not unexpected that females (16%) report they are careful when walking the streets, but it is surprising that a significant number of men (11%) say the same thing. Teenagers in turn feel freer from fear in the street. Only 7% report special precautions, as compared with 14% of the general population. At night however, the situation changes – 77% of the Bel Air population avoid going out at night and 85% of teenagers do the same. These are impressive numbers, and yet they are in keeping with the great cities – in Rio de Janeiro 62% of the population feel unsafe to walk in the streets at night in their own neighborhoods; in Bogota, 53% feel similarly unsafe; in Guatemala they are 64% in Lima, 51%. 21


Firearms Do you leave your house armed with any type of firearm (pistol, revolver, rifle, or other )? C3) Gender Female N

Age Bracket Male

%

15 to 19

N

%

Yes

N

1

1%

20 to 29

%

N

Total

30 to 39

%

N

40 or older

%

N

N

%

%

1

0.5%

1

0.3%

2

0.2%

No

416

100%

304

100%

131

100%

236

100%

142

99.5%

186

99.7%

695

99.8%

Total

416

100%

306

100%

131

100%

236

100%

143

100.0%

186

100%

697

100%

Is there any type of firearm in your house (pistol, revolver, rifle or other) ? C3) Gender

Age Bracket

Female N

Male %

15 to 19

N

%

Yes

N

1

0.2%

20 to 29 %

N

Total

30 to 39 %

N

40 or older %

N

N

%

% 1

0.3%

2

0.2%

No

417

100%

304

99.8%

134

100%

238

100%

137

100%

187

99.7%

696

99.8%

Total

417

100%

305

100%

134

100%

238

100%

137

100%

187

100.0%

696

100%

If it were possible, would you have a firearm for self-protection? C3) Gender Female N Yes No Total

Age Bracket Male

%

N

15 to 19 %

N

20 to 29 %

N

Total

30 to 39

%

N

40 or older %

N

N

%

%

30

7%

27

9%

4

3%

24

10%

10

7%

18

9.5 %

56

8%

392

93%

282

91%

127

97%

216

90%

133

93%

173

90.5 %

649

2292%

100


Firearms

The previous slide shows that few people state they have a firearm at home or with them as they go about the city. We can conjecture there is under-reporting, as an expression of prudence in face of MINUSTAH (DDR) led disarmament programs, and MINUSTAH suppression of civilian use of firearms in Bel Air. The third question however, addresses a hypothetical situation, asking for opinions. Only 8% answered “yes” to the question “If it were possible, would you have a firearm for self-protection?” Also significantly, an even smaller percentage of respondents, 3%, expressed the desire to own a gun among adolescents. We could compare this to a similar question posed in a survey conducted in Latin America by EcoSocial. The question: Do you believe it is justifiable to have a firearm in your house for selfdefense? Was answered “yes” by 18% of the population in Rio de Janeiro, 27% in Bogotá, 41% in Guatemala, 47% in Mexico City and 39% in Lima. The two questions are not identical of course, but we may state that the Bel Air population is certainly less inclined to using firearms than is habitually thought. We are left with an important question for future surveys: What do firearms mean for civilian culture in Haiti? Are they a symbol of power? In that respect are they more appreciated by the bourgeoisie than the generality of the poor population? Are they more valued by criminals who boast power outside the state than by the population as a whole?

23


Part 3

Control and Suppression By the Police and the MINUSTAH

24


In the previous year, my experience with the MINUSTAH or the HNP was that I was asked to show id (No. 89 HNP, 97 MINUSTAH) 20%

I was body searched (No. 97 HNP, 118 MINUSTAH ) 25%

17% 15%

14%

15%

13%

11% 11%

24%

21%

20%

17% 14%

15%

10%

10%

10% 7%

5%

5% 0% Female

Male

0%

Total

MINUSTAH soldier

Female

Haiti national police

Male

Total

MINUSTAH soldier

I was threatened by them (18 HNP, 44 MINUSTAH)

3,5%

15%

I was arrested (12 HNP, 14 MINUSTAH ) 3%

3,0% 10%

Haiti national police

3%

2,5%

2%

10% 2,0% 6%

1,5% 1%

4%

5%

3%

3%

2%

1%

1,0%

1%

0,5% 0,0%

0% Female MINUSTAH soldier

Male

Total Haiti national police

Female MINUSTAH soldier

Male

Total Haiti national police

25


In the previous year, my experience with the MINUSTAH or HNP was that .... (No. 198 valid responses out of 764) I was disrespected (No. 23 PNH, 41 MINUSTAH) 10%

9%

9% 8% 7% 6%

6%

6%

5% 4% 3% 2%

3% 2% 1%

1% 0%

Female

Male

Total

MINUSTAH soldier

Haiti national police

I suffered any form of aggression or ill-treatment (No. 13 PNH, 32 MINUSTAH)

9%

8%

8% 7%

6%

6%

5%

5% 4%

4% 3% 2%

2% 1%

1% 0% Female MINUSTAH soldier

Male

Total Haiti national police

26


In the previous year, extortion by police officers

In the previous months, did any police officer or other agent of public authority demand that you give them money? C3) Gender Female N Yes No Total

Age Group Male

%

N

Age 15 to19 %

N

2

1%

18

7%

287

99%

234

93%

96

288

100%

252

100%

96

%

Age 20 to 29 N

%

Total

Age 30 to 39 N

%

40 or older N

N

%

%

11

5%

6

6%

3

2%

20

4%

100%

187

95%

96

94%

125

98%

504

96%

100%

198

100%

102

100 %

127

100 %

523

100%

4% of the population state that they experienced extortion by police officers, most of the victims being adult males (above age 20)

27


Control and Suppression

Police stops – 14% of the sample was stopped: asked to show id or for body searches in the previous year. The response indicates a strong presence of security forces, of the latter the one most present is the MINUSTAH. Both men and women are asked to show id, with no significant differences, the same is true for the various age brackets. Arrests – Approximately 2% were arrested. Describing this 2%, a good many were arrested by both the police force and the military forces, most of them males, and some incidence among females. One should note that adolescents (age 15 to 19) do not show up in the samples indicating arrests, whether by the police or military forces. However threats by authorities are more frequent. 10% of the male population reported they had been threatened by military forces, versus only 4% reporting threats from the Haiti police. Here too males report higher incidence, although there are females who feel threatened (3% by the MINUSTAH and 1% by the HNP) and a smaller percentage of adolescents. Violations – There are no reports of torture or sexual abuse committed by police officers or members of the military forces in Bel Air. But episodes of suppression leave their marks in the minds of locals especially with respect to MINUSTAH forces. 6% of those sampled consider themselves “disrespected” by foreign military forces, versus only 3% by Haitian police. Approximately 5% considered themselves “ill-treated” by the military servicemen, versus only 4% reporting ill-treatment by the police. One third of those who reported being ill-treated were victimized by both the police and military forces. In fact, during the period of the survey Police and Military forces were working in combined suppressive actions. 28


Profile of those who reported being disrespected or ill-treated

Haiti national police N Gender Male Female Age Bracket Age 15 to 19 Age 20 to 29 Age 30 to 39 40 or older Schooling No information Have never attended school st th Primary (1 – 4 grade) th th Middle (5 – 8 grade) st nd Secondary school (1 and 2 year) Undergraduate Income Bracket Over 1750.00 Gourde Up to 1750.00 Gourde No information N=

MINUSTAH soldier %

N

6 19

24,0 76,0

10 31

3 11 5 6

11,5 44,9 18,2 25,4

3 19 7 12

1 2 4 5 9 4

3,9 9,5 15,5 17,9 36,7 16,6

3 4 11 6 16 2

1 9 15 25

5,4 33,9 60,6

17 10 14 41

% These are small numbers, that partially overlap, since one third of 23,7 respondents who report 76,3 abuse accuse both the police and the military 7,1 forces. 47,5 16,8 They are mostly men, 28,5 over the age of 20, with income and schooling 6,1 slightly above average for 10,8 the area. 25,8 14,7 38,0 4,6 40,5 24,8 34,8 29


Those who report abuse in the area of violence Other acts of violence suffered during the previous year, by those who made complaints with respect to the Police or the MINUSTAH

Offense

Police

MINUSTAH

N

%

N

%

None

16

64.3%

14

32.0%

1

1

3.9%

4

8.3%

2

4

16.0%

4

8.4%

3

2

8.8%

5

10.8%

4+

2

7.1%

18

40.5%

Total

25

100.0%

44

100.0%

It is important to note that these are small numbers and do not allow for generalizations. We note however, that with respect to the MINUSTAH, 68% of those who made complaints suffered an act of violence in the previous year, and that 51% suffered 3 or more violent acts. These are “frequent victims”– that is, people who are close to the area of violence. With respect to the HNP on the other hand, most of those who complained did not report other incidents. 30


Those who complained of mistreatment also reported other acts of violence…

x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x -

x -

x x x x x

x

2 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 8

2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

Persons

Number

Sexual assault

Injured by firearm

physical assault

threat

extortion

Armed Robbery

Violent Robbery

Theft

Persons

Number

Sexual assault

Injured with a piece of broken glass, blunt instrument or similar weapon

Injured by firearm

Injured by knife or other mêlée weapon

physical assault

threat

extortion

Armed Robbery x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Injured with a piece of broken glass, blunt instrument or similar weapon

x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Complainants X HNP, by other incidents Injured by knife or other mêlée weapon

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Violent Robbery

Theft

Complainants X MINUSTAH, by other incidents

x x

x

-

-

-

x -

-

-

-

-

2 2

1 2

x

-

x

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

x x x

x x

x x x

-

x x x x

x x x x

-

-

x x -

x -

3 3 4 4 5

1 1 1 1 1

Almost all respondents who registered complaints also reported incidents of “Physical Assault” inflicted by other persons. Such respondents are also frequently threatened. These are indications that they belong to areas of violence.

31


Frequent Victimization How many times were we victimized? Offenses

N

%

% victims

None

564

73.9

1

92

12.0

46.0

2

41

5.4

20.6

3

28

3.6

13.9

5

21

2.8

10.6

4

12

1.6

6.2

6

5

0.6

2.3

8

1

0.1

0.5

764

100.0

100.0

Total

-

Violent incidents concentrate on 26% of the population. If we remove the 12% that report only a single incident of violence from this group, we are left with a 14% described as frequent victims, who report two or more incidents. Violence reduction policy would do well to target this specific group. 32


Citizen Reaction If you were mistreated did you contact the Police/MINUSTAH? Type

Contacted Police Minustah

Theft

9,8%

5,0%

Robbery

13,3%

6,7%

extortion

7,8%

7,8%

threat

2,5%

3,0%

physical assault

5,6%

0,0%

Injured by knife or other mĂŞlĂŠe weapon

8,4%

0,0%

Injured by firearm

0,0%

0,0%

Injured with a piece of broken glass, blunt instrument or similar weapon

26,7%

28,8%

Sexual assault

0,0%

0,0%

Robbery Other

0,0%

0,0%

Close relative received death threat

25,6%

0,0%

Kidnapping of close relative

34,5%

20,8%

Murder of close relative

0,0%

0,0%

The population resorts to contacting the police more often than the military servicemen of the MINSUTAH. This is certainly due to a difference in culture and identity. Although the military forces are more efficient as far as suppressing collective violence, it is the police who are sought for individual reparations. No respondent mentions contacting authorities because of incidents of 33 sexual assault.


Important Points • Approximately half the population (43%) states having moved out of Bel Air during the period of collective violence that began in 2004. Approximately 13.500 children and adolescents (age 0 to 19) left the area during the period of collective violence. • There was an impressive reduction in violent incidents between 2004/2005 and 2006: approximately 60%. Robbery occurs comparatively less frequently than in other Latin American centres. • Adolescence seems to be a protective factor with respect to robbery in Bel Air. • The incidence of firearms in acts of physical assault is less frequent as reported for the previous year in Bel Air. • 6.5% of the Bel Air population over age 15 reports having lost a close family member to homicide over the previous year. This percentage is comparable to Rio de Janeiro, where it is of the order of 5.4%. However, in the poorer neighbourhoods of Rio, more directly comparable to Bel Air, the incidence is higher, close to 8%. • On sexual assault: responses given to the survey indicate a scenario similar to other cities or nations in the Americas. • The Bel Air population is certainly less inclined to use firearms than we imagined, less than in Bogotá, Lima, Rio de Janeiro or Mexico. •14% of the population was stopped by the police or the MINUSTAH to show id or for body searches in the previous year. • 6% of respondents see themselves as having been treated with lack of respect on the part of foreign military servicemen, versus 3% who say the same of Haiti police officers. Approximately 5% consider themselves “ill-treated” by military forces, versus 4% who complained of the police. • With respect to the MINUSTAH, 68% of those who complained suffered at least one incident of violence in the previous year, and 51% at least 3 incidents or more. This group is described as made up of “frequent victims” – in other words, it describes people who are close to the area of violence. • Violent incidents concentrate on 26% of the population. If we remove the 12% that report only a single incident of violence from this group, we are left with a 14% described as frequent victims, who report two or more incidents. Violence reduction policy would do well to target this specific group. • The population does not contact the authorities, in general, as a response to having been affected by violence in daily life. Even with respect to kidnappings, security agents are rarely contacted.

34


Sources • Slide 13 – Fonte:Alba Zaluar – Ano:2006 • Slide 17 - Alba Zaluar Ano:2006 (na mesma pesquisa 5,8% perderam amigos; 4,7% perderam vizinhos) • Slide 20 – RJ - Fonte: Pesquisa de Vitimização Ilanud /FIA/GSI – 2002; USA - Average annual victimization rate (per 1,000 persons age 12 or older or per 1,000 households). Ano:2004 -2005; Costa Rica - Tasas de victimización (%) por delitos violentos Fuente: UNICRI (1998:36,55). Ano: 1996 según la Encuesta Internacional de Victimización; Colômbia - Tasas de victimización (%) por delitos violentos Fuente: UNICRI (1998: 36, 55). Ano:1996 según la Encuesta Internacional de Victimización. • Slide 21 - Fonte: Ecosocial Vitimização – 2007 • Slide 28 - Fonte: Ecosocial Vitimização – 2007

35


Vitimização