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H2ONEST Process Manual

Deborah Bazsuly, Reyna Grown, Melissa Marzan


Table of Contents Background

4

Competitor Analysis

6

Campaign Identity

8

Editorial Spreads

12

Promotional Materials

20

Works Cited

30


Background Campaign Context

Water Usage Breakdown

Throughout the past decade, California home and small business owners have been bombarded with various water conservation campaigns. As California’s population has continued to grow, urban water use has remained fairly steady over the last 20 years, and percapita water usage has decreased significantly. Despite these concerted efforts, the severe water shortage persists.

The 80% figure is one that is debated somewhat in the media, but the truth of the matter is 50% of California is held by state dams, reservoirs, and wildlife habitats. The remaining 50% is then split between municipal and agricultural usage. So while agriculture uses 40% of total California water, it uses 80% of useable water.

Water conservation efforts were increased in April 2015, when Governor Jerry Brown ordered a statewide 20 percent cut for the state’s water supply agencies. While homeowners and small businesses can expect a limit to their water supply, industrial agricultural farms will not fall under the new restrictions. Unsurprisingly, this has caused some negative reactions from California citizens, since only 20 percent of useable water in California is consumed in urban areas, while agriculture uses most of the remaining 80 percent.

4

This information was gathered by the non-profit, non-partisan Public Policy Institute of California, who used water use data from the California Department of Water Resources.


Rising Agriculture Profits

Campaign Goals

According to the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, California’s state gross farm income was nearly $50 billion in 2013. This number is quickly and steadily growing so it is understandable that farmers cling to the archaic water rights system currently in place. But California residents have always dealt with the brunt of water restriction efforts, and it’s time that the agriculture industry began to do their part.

It is with this background information in mind that we created the goals for the campaign:

- Educate California residents and reveal the truth behind the California water crisis

- Through this education, we hope to encourage legislative participation by the general public - This involvement will then accomplish the greater goal of reducing California water usage

5


Competitor Analysis

6


In order to best create our campaign, we first looked at past water conservation campaigns.There are many water campaigns throughout the United States, however, many of these efforts only focus only on home use.

Water - Use It Wisely

Go Dirty for the Drought

Save Our Water

The Water - Use it Wisely campaign from the City of Mesa Arizona focused on what could be done to save water on an individual level around the home and office. Homeowners were the target audience due to the large amount of water usage associated with homes, including lawn care, landscaping, and pools. Young children were also targeted with tips specifically for them as well as online games and lesson plans for teachers to introduce the topic of water conservation. Imagery with simple, everyday objects made big, bold, and colorful identifiers of the campaign and could be found on traditional media like television, radio, and print.

The Go Dirty for the Drought campaign is an online pledge on the LA Waterkeeper website. For this campaign, people living in Los Angeles county could sign a pledge to promise not to wash their vehicle for 60 days in order to conserve water. Once a person has signed up and taken the pledge, the person will receive a static-cling sticker that they can place in the window of their vehicle. They also have a Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram in which pledgers have the option to take a picture of or with the sticker on their unwashed car with the hashtag #DirtyCarPledge and post it to their preferred social media page. They also suggest tagging friends and challenging them to take the pledge, too.

The Save Our Water campaign is a statewide water conservation program, created in 2009 by the California Department of Water Resources and the California Association of Water Agencies. The program’s goal is to make water conservation a daily habit among Californians, much like recycling and energy conservation are today. The Save Our Water program has partnered with over 200 municipalities and businesses statewide, creating a huge network of supporters, and reaches millions of Californians each year through partnerships with local water agencies and other community-based organizations, social marketing efforts, paid and earned media and event sponsorships.

Their website, wateruseitwisely.com, served as a center of the campaign, with printable watersaving tips, a series of games for children, and many other community resources. The campaign was very successful. After four years, they achieved an 80% market awareness while 33% of the surveyed community members said that they had implemented tactics learned from the campaign in order to conserve water. Due to its success the United Nations featured the campaign in its Creative Gallery on Sustainable Communication.

With a population of almost to four million people, if only a tiny portion, like 10,000 people, waited two months to wash their cars, Los Angeles could save about 2.8 million gallons of water. Although very simple, this campaign is effective in the way that it spreads through social media. Dirty cars already get a lot of attention, but it is usually negative. With the Go Dirty for the Drought campaign makes dirty cars a positive thing, and through that people become aware of the drought issue.

The campaign’s website, saveourwater.com, offers ideas and inspiration for Californians to permanently reduce water use, as well as a vast amount of easy to understand informational materials in bright colors, many of which are free to download and print. Web visitors are encouraged to print and post various informative posters as a way to educate others around them.

7


Campaign Identity Message

Target Audience

From our previous research we then brainstormed the main message of our campaign. We considered what we wanted to communicate and what we wanted our campaign to be remembered for.

The California drought affects everyone living and using water in California, so the target audience of the H2Onest campaign is very wide. The audience’s age ranges from 15 to 65 years old, as the focus of this campaign will be towards those of voting age, as they will have the most power to change the situation. However we recognize that young people tend to be more involved in campaigns, and so hope to include them as well.

Initial messages included: Drip. Drop. Drought. Water you wasting? The Doubt Behind the Drought The Truth Behind California Agriculture’s Thirst for Water We felt the last one was the strongest because of its compassionate, but very direct approach.

8

The H2Onest campaign will address community leaders throughout California in order to maximize the spread of the campaign’s message. This will include statewide outreach to local government representatives, lobbyists, and other water conservation efforts and campaigns.


Logo Design

H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST

We knew from the start that we wanted to use a condensed sans serif typeface for our logo treatment. Univers has a professional yet friendly feel to it, making it the perfect font for our campaign. We also knew we wanted to use a primarily blue color scheme, to make it immediately evident that our topic is water conservation. We also wanted to incorporate some kind of graphic element to create visual interest and to add to our campaign’s branding repetoire. The obvious choice was a water droplet, which we tried incorporating in many ways before settling on the treatment we found to be most effective.

H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST

H2ONEST H2ONEST H2 NEST h2 nest H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST

H2ONEST

9


Visual Identity The H2Onest logo was designed to be used on all promotional materials as a quickly identifiable marker of the campaign. The large, sans-serif font face allows for strong legibility, even from a distance. Univers 49 Light Ultra Condensed is used for the logo treatment, while Univers 55 Roman will be used for body copy and content throughout the promotional materials and business system. Other weights of the Univers font family may be used situationally. The inclusion of water’s molecular formula, H2O, immediately informs the viewer that the campaign revolves around the idea of honesty in water. This is also affirmed by the bright blue and cyan colors, used to not only attract the viewer’s eye but to also reflect the color of water. In addition to using shades of blue, we emphasized the idea of water conservation by including a low water-level visual element as well as the water droplet. The water-level and water drop are visual elements which can used as meaningful campaign identifiers in our other campaign designs. The campaign’s slogan (“The truth about California Agriculture’s thirst for water”) may also be included with the logo on promotional materials. This tag line promotes the themes of honesty and fairness that the H2Onest campaign advocates.

10

H2ONEST Univers 49 Light Ultra Condensed ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789

#2875bb

#34b5e8

Univers 55 Roman ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789


Acceptable Logo Uses

Unacceptable Logo Uses

H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST

H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST H2ONEST T S E N H2O 11


Editorial Spreads

Each group member created a four page editorial for use in a specific publication. Because of the nature of our campaign, we chose magazines which were suited to our target audience. These included the locally published Sonoma Magazine, as well as national publications Time Magazine and Farming Matters. We felt our campaign’s message would fit in well with the educated readers of these magazines. We researched our chosen publication and took note of how it organized and presented articles. We looked at how it used typography and graphic images, how things like page numbers and image credits were displayed. Using those findings as guidelines we created our own editorials which remained consistent with each publication’s image.

12


13


TIME Magazine

14


CALIFORNIA DROUGHT

in the convoluted web surrounding California’s water. Paramount Farms, owned by Lynda and Stewart Resnick, is another key player. With Fiji bottled water in its diverse portfolio, it’s no surprise to hear that Paramount Farms’ multi-billion dollar fortune has a “controlling interest” in the Kern Water Bank Authority, the supplier of the underground water used to irrigate Paramount’s nut tree farms (Felde). While the Resnick’s may not hire lobbyists to argue their interests, they are generous campaign donors themselves. Almost $457,000 has been given to candidates, political action, and party committees since 2011 by Paramount Farms, with nearly $321,000 just from the Resnicks themselves (Felde). According to John Lawrence, a former Capitol Hill staffer currently teaching at the University of California’s DC Center, confidential meetings are held at places such as the Bureau of Reclamation or even the Environmental Protection Agency (Felde). Rather than being openly debated in Congressional hearings, Lawrence says that there’s “greater wiggle room” on how water policies are put into place when lobbying is done at the agency level (Felde). Indeed, as Bay Area Democratic Representative George Miller says, “You can make water run uphill if you have enough money.” While agricultural lobbying efforts may have played a role in Governor Jerry Brown’s executive order earlier this April, it’s no shock to the general public that policy and politics influence each other. The leniency in water restrictions for the agriculture industry may be one such case, but farms have also been unaffected by the drought. Water is delivered to farms is different than the water going to urban areas. While cities usually receive ground and surface water sent through pipes from local water agencies, farms depend on a complicated seniority system to allocate their rights to surface water (Vara). In short, those who arrived earliest are considered senior rights holders, and their access to water is fairly secure. Junior rights holders essentially are given whatever is left over. This arrangement means that during a drought such as this one, junior rights holders can have their access to surface water diminished or even completely cut off. This does not apply to senior rights holders however, who are still able to enjoy their water privileges. As a result, about five percent of statewide agricultural farmland has gone fallow (Vara). To counteract this policy, farmers are given two additional ways to get water. They can buy water rights from each other, allowing individual farms’ supply to change while maintaining the same quantity used overall, or

3

they can simply pump as much groundwater as they like (Vara). It should come as no surprise that groundwater levels have been seriously depleted as a result. In September of 2014, Governor Brown tried to address these concerns when he signed a bill which restricted groundwater usage. However, the bill doesn’t require sustainability in groundwater basins until the year 2040 (“Governor Brown Signs Historic Groundwater Legislation”). Planning milestones have been put in place to go into effect before 2040, but many agree that this absurdly slow timeline needs to be sped up considerably in order to have any positive effect on the current drought.

‘ You can make water run uphill if you have enough money.’

A California almond orchard. California produces 100% of the U.S. domestic supply of almonds. Growers require over a gallon of water to produce each almond.

DEMOCRATIC REP. GEORGE MILLER California’s agriculture cannot downsize much, as it is vital to America’s food supply; however, there are many ways to modify current practices to create a more sustainable agricultural system. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, the Japanese developed a method of indoor farming to make up for the loss of their food supply. By farming indoors, they are able to eliminate 99% of the water needed to farm, as none of it is lost to soil absorption or evaporation (Kohlstedt). This method also grows food faster and reduces food waste by 80%. Although it is extremely energy intensive, if accompanied by a comprehensive solar system, this method could be a promising solution. There are those who recoil at the idea of overhauling our current system in favor of one more modern. Though less effective in the long term, there are many short term inefficiencies that can be addressed right away. According to an analysis released by the Natural Resources Defense Council, if farmers shift to more efficient irrigation methods like drip or micro irrigation, they could reduce agricultural water usage by 22 percent. This amount is equivalent to the full amount of surface water that the Central Valley farmers lacked due to the drought last year (Hertsgaard). Many farmers have not yet switched over to these more efficient methods simply because there is no incentive. California’s water prices are relatively low, meaning that

PHOTOGRAPH VIA PIXABAY.COM, CREDIT SERGE DERUDDER

NATION

water costs take little away from farmers’ profits. There is some legislation in place to encourage lowering water use, but none forceful enough to create real change in the industry. California’s government is facing pressure from both sides of the issue. A spokesperson for Governor Jerry Brown said in an email that “reducing this [drought] to politics… simplifies very complicated / multi-layered issues and ignores all of the action / impacts that preceded.” But it is clear that additional legislation and enforcement will be required if California is to maintain its access to water. Desalination has become a promising solution to the current water crisis, although there are many environmental factors to consider. There are several desalination plants already in existence, with a new plant’s construction underway in San Diego. Desalination plants input ocean water, and through a series of filtering processes, make it safe to drink. These plants are highly energy inefficient, but using a combination of wind and solar power, they can be made sustainable. There are also concerns for the well-being of the sea creatures who make their homes in coastal habitats, an issue that has yet to be fully addressed. Plants output much more than just water - there are huge amounts of saline and other impurities that that once extracted from the water, need a place to go. They can’t just be deposited back in the ocean, as that level of salination would make the coasts inhabitable to many of its aquatic residents. It’s obvious that California’s water usage has come a long way in the past few years of conservation efforts, but it is also clear that something is not working. It’s simply TIME

April 27, 2015

unfair to place such an emphasis on urban water usage when it accounts for such a small percentage compared to agriculture. Residents have proven that they are more than willing to conserve water, and now it’s the agriculture industry’s turn. We need those involved in spending millions of dollars on lobbying efforts to find a way to make California farming more efficient, sustainable, and most importantly, more water conscious. To learn more about the many ways that you can save water, get involved in the movement, and raise awareness about the truths surrounding the California drought, visit our website at H2Onest.com.

Felde, Kitty, and Viveca Novak. “The Politics of Drought: California Water Interests Prime the Pump in Washington.” Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 10 Apr. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. “Governor Brown Signs Historic Groundwater Legislation.” Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. State of California, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Guo, Jeff. “Agriculture Is 80 Percent of Water Use in California. Why Aren’t Farmers Being Forced to Cut Back?” Washington Post. The Washington Post, Apr. 3. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Hertsgaard, Mark. “Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis.” San Jose Inside. Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis, 09 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Kohlstedt, Kurt. “World’s Largest Indoor Farm Is 100 Times More Productive.” WebUrbanist.com. WebUrbanist, 11 Jan. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Mount, Jeffrey, Emma Freeman, and Jay Lund. “Water Use in California (PPIC Publication).” Water Use in California (PPIC Publication). Public Policy Institute of California, July 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Nagourney, Adam. “California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal With Drought.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Vara, Vauhini. “Who’s to Blame for California’s Drought? - The New Yorker.” NewYorker.com. Conde Nast, 08 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. “Westlands Water District.” Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.

4

15


Farming Matters

NEGOTIATING THE WATERS > AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY WATER USAGE

Let’s be

H Onest 2

The truth about California Agriculture’s thirst for water

E

very Californian knows that water is scarce. The state has been in drought conditions many times before but the current drought is far more extreme than anything experienced before. For the last few years, government funded water conservation efforts have done their best to convince California residents to drastically reduce their water usage. And for the most part, they’ve listened. Despite California’s population growth, urban water usage has been fairly steady the last 20 years, while per-capita water usage has decreased significantly, from 232 gallons a day in 1990 to 178 gallons a day in 2010 (Mount). Although it is impressive, this reduction isn’t enough, and in April, Governor Jerry Brown ordered a statewide 25 percent cut for the state’s 400 water supply agencies, the same ones which serve 90 percent of California residents (Nagourney). The government’s rhetoric is painting this as an opportunity for all California citizens to join a team effort, and together secure the state against the drought. However, the owners of large farms, long protected by legislature against drought conditions, will not fall under the 25 percent restriction. Unsurprisingly this has caused some negative reactions from California citizens, since only 20 percent of useable water in California is consumed in urban areas, while agriculture uses about 80 percent (Mount). So why does restrictive legislature focus on home and small business owners? Because water usage in urban areas has little benefit to California as a whole. Well manicured lawns don’t contribute to the California economy, whereas the California agriculture industry raked in $50 billion in 2013 (Guo). California makes more money on agriculture than any other state in the nation, so it is understandable that large farms would want to hold onto the archaic water system that we have now. Regardless, California residents have been taking the brunt of water restriction efforts for the past four years, and it’s time the agriculture industry did their part. California sources its water from both surface water, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, and groundwater, water which must be pumped from underground aquifers. According

to the Public Policy Institute of California, about half of all of this water goes towards environmental functions such as preserving wetlands and various water habitats (Mount). That may seem like a lot, but in addition to the intrinsic value of these natural resources, there is another financial explanation, as more than half of this protected 50 percent of water is located along California’s coast, and is inaccessible due to isolation from agricultural and urban areas (Mount). The other 50 percent of useable water in California is divided up with about 1/5 going towards municipal use, and the other 4/5 for agriculture (Mount). This is where the claim often cited among the media originates; that 80 percent of all of California’s water is used by agriculture. Rather, it is 80 percent of the useable water (i.e. not going to environmental purposes) which is being used by California’s agriculture industry, with 20% going to urban use. It still is a considerable amount, however, considering the lax restrictions and general lack of pressure for California’s agriculture industries to conserve water. This brings us to the heart of the California water crisis: Who controls the water? According to the non-partisan Center for Responsive Politics, the Westlands Water District, the nation’s largest agricultural district and located in the Central Valley, spent $730,000 on lobbying expenditures in 2014 (“Westlands Water District”). This is nearly seven times the amount spent on the same efforts in 2010. In addition, the $730,000 spent is only what was reported on required disclosure forms. An internal document obtained by Southern California Public Radio revealed that the Westlands also paid almost $100,000 in 2013 to former California Democratic Rep. Tony Coelho, for “Washington representation” (Felde). This was, of course, omitted from Westlands’ lobbying reports. It’s easy to see just how dedicated the Westlands Water District is to maintaining the status quo. In addition to the four legal firms hired to support their interests, the Westlands also paid another firm nearly $1 million to create an “awareness and outreach” campaign (Felde). However, the Westlands Water District is just one thread

“ You can make water run uphill if you have enough money. ”

George Miller (Bay Area Democratic Representative)

10 Farming Matters May 2015

16

May 2015 Farming Matters 11


in the convoluted web surrounding California’s water. Paramount Farms, owned by Lynda and Stewart Resnick, is another key player. With Fiji bottled water in its diverse portfolio, it’s no surprise to hear that Paramount Farms’ multi-billion dollar fortune has a “controlling interest” in the Kern Water Bank Authority, the supplier of the underground water used to irrigate Paramount’s nut tree farms (Felde). While the Resnick’s may not hire lobbyists to argue their interests, they are generous campaign donors themselves. Almost $457,000 has been given to candidates, political action, and party committees since 2011 by Paramount Farms, with nearly $321,000 just from the Resnicks themselves (Felde). According to John Lawrence, a former Capitol Hill staffer currently teaching at the University of California’s DC Center, confidential meetings are held at places such as the Bureau of Reclamation or even the Environmental Protection Agency (Felde). Rather than being openly debated in Congressional hearings, Lawrence says that there’s “greater wiggle room” on how water policies are put into place when lobbying is done at the agency level (Felde). Indeed, as Bay Area Democratic Rep. George Miller says, “You can make water run uphill if you have enough money.” While agricultural lobbying efforts may have played a role in Governor Jerry Brown’s executive order earlier this April, it’s no shock to the general public that policy and politics influence each other. The leniency in water

restrictions for the agriculture industry may be one such case, but farms have also been unaffected by the drought. Water is delivered to farms is different than the water going to urban areas. While cities usually receive ground and surface water sent through pipes from local water agencies, farms depend on a complicated seniority system to allocate their rights to surface water (Vara). In short, those who arrived earliest are considered senior rights holders, and their access to water is fairly secure. Junior rights holders essentially are given whatever is left over. This arrangement means that during a drought such as this one, junior rights holders can have their access to surface water diminished or even completely cut off. This does not apply to senior rights holders however, who are still able to enjoy their water privileges. As a result, about five percent of statewide agricultural farmland has gone fallow (Vara). To counteract this policy, farmers are given two additional ways to get water. They can buy water rights from each other, allowing individual farms’ supply to change while maintaining the same quantity used overall, or they can simply pump as much groundwater as they like (Vara). It should come as no surprise that groundwater levels have been seriously depleted as a result. In September of 2014, Governor Brown tried to address these concerns when he signed a bill which restricted groundwater usage. However, the bill doesn’t require sustainability in groundwater basins until the year 2040 (“Governor Brown Signs Historic Groundwater Legislation”). Planning milestones have been put in place to go into effect

“ Residents have proven that they are more than willing to conserve water, and now it’s the agriculture industry’s turn.”

12 Farming Matters May 2015

before 2040, but many agree that this absurdly slow timeline needs to be sped up considerably in order to have any positive effect on the current drought. California’s agriculture cannot downsize much, as it is vital to America’s food supply; however, there are many ways to modify current practices to create a more sustainable agricultural system. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, the Japanese developed a method of indoor farming to make up for the loss of their food supply. By farming indoors, they are able to eliminate 99% of the water needed to farm, as none of it is lost to soil absorption or evaporation (Kohlstedt). This method also grows food faster and reduces food waste by 80%. Although it is extremely energy intensive, if accompanied by a comprehensive solar system, this method could be a promising solution. There are those who recoil at the idea of overhauling our current system in favor of one more modern. Though less effective in the long term, there are many short term inefficiencies that can be addressed right away. According to an analysis released by the Natural Resources Defense Council, if farmers shift to more efficient irrigation methods like drip or micro irrigation, they could reduce agricultural water usage by 22 percent. This amount is equivalent to the full amount of surface water that the Central Valley farmers lacked due to the drought last year (Hertsgaard). Many farmers have not yet switched over to these more efficient methods simply because there is no incentive. California’s water prices are relatively low, meaning that water costs take little away from farmers’ profits. There is some legislation in place to encourage lowering water use, but none forceful enough to create real change in the industry. California’s government is facing pressure from both sides of the issue. A spokesperson for Governor Jerry Brown said in an email that “reducing this [drought] to politics… simplifies very complicated / multi-layered issues and ignores all of the action / impacts that preceded.” But it is clear that additional legislation and enforcement will be required if California is to maintain its access to water. Desalination has become a promising solution to the current water crisis, although there are many environmental factors to consider. There are several desalination plants already in existence, with a new plant’s construction underway in San Diego. Desalination plants input ocean water, and through a series of filtering processes, make it safe to drink. These plants are highly energy inefficient, but using a combination of wind and solar power, they can be made sustainable. There are also concerns for the well-being of the sea creatures who make their homes in coastal habitats, an issue that has

yet to be fully addressed. Plants output much more than just water - there are huge amounts of saline and other impurities that that once extracted from the water, need a place to go. They can’t just be deposited back in the ocean, as that level of salination would make the coasts inhabitable to many of its aquatic residents. It’s obvious that California’s water usage has come a long way in the past few years of conservation efforts, but it is also clear that something is not working. It’s simply unfair to place such an emphasis on urban water usage when it accounts for such a small percentage compared to agriculture. Residents have proven that they are more than willing to conserve water, and now it’s the agriculture industry’s turn. We need those involved in spending millions of dollars on lobbying efforts to find a way to make California farming more efficient, sustainable, and most importantly, more water conscious.

To learn more about the ways you can save water, get involved, and raise awareness about the truths surrounding the California Drought, visit our website: H2Onest.com.

SOURCES Felde, Kitty, and Viveca Novak. "The Politics of Drought: California Water Interests Prime the Pump in Washington." Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 10 Apr. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. "Governor Brown Signs Historic Groundwater Legislation." Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. State of California, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Guo, Jeff. "Agriculture Is 80 Percent of Water Use in California. Why Aren’t Farmers Being Forced to Cut Back?" Washington Post. The Washington Post, Apr. 3. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Hertsgaard, Mark. "Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis." San Jose Inside. Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis, 09 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Kohlstedt, Kurt. "World's Largest Indoor Farm Is 100 Times More Productive." WebUrbanist.com. WebUrbanist, 11 Jan. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Mount, Jeffrey, Emma Freeman, and Jay Lund. "Water Use in California (PPIC Publication)." Water Use in California (PPIC Publication). Public Policy Institute of California, July 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Nagourney, Adam. "California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal With Drought." The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Vara, Vauhini. "Who's to Blame for California's Drought? - The New Yorker." NewYorker.com. Conde Nast, 08 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. "Westlands Water District." Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 20

May 2015 Farming Matters 13

17


Sonoma Magazine

H2ONEST

The other 50 percent of useable water in California is divided up with about 1/5 going towards municipal use, and the other 4/5 for agriculture1. This is where the claim often cited among the media originates; that 80 percent of all of California’s water is used by agriculture. Rather, it is 80 percent of the useable water (i.e. not going to environmental purposes) which is being used by California’s agriculture industry, with 20% going to urban use. It still is a considerable amount, however, considering the lax restrictions and general lack of pressure for California’s agriculture industries to conserve water. This brings us to the heart of the California water crisis: Who controls the water? According to the non-partisan Center for Responsive Politics, the Westlands Water District, the nation’s largest agricultural district and located in the Central Valley, spent $730,000 on lobbying expenditures in 2014 4. This is nearly seven times the amount spent on the same efforts in 2010. In addition, the $730,000 spent is only what was reported on required disclosure forms. An internal document obtained by Southern California Public Radio revealed that the Westlands also paid almost $100,000 in 2013 to former California Democratic Rep. Tony Coelho, for “Washington representation”5. This was, of course, omitted from Westlands’ lobbying reports.

What the agriculture industry is doing to California’s water supply By Deborah Bazsuly, Reyna Grown & Melissa Marzan

E

very Californian knows that water is scarce. The state has been in drought conditions many times before but the current drought is far more extreme than anything experienced before. For the last few years, government funded water conservation efforts have done their best to convince California residents to drastically reduce their water usage. And for the most part, they’ve listened. Despite California’s population growth, urban water usage has been fairly steady the last 20 years, while per-capita water usage has decreased significantly, from 232 gallons a day in 1990 to 178 gallons a day in 20101. Although it is impressive, this reduction isn’t enough, and in April, Governor Jerry Brown ordered a statewide 25 percent cut for the state’s 400 water supply agencies, the same ones which serve 90 percent of California residents2 . The government’s rhetoric is painting this as an opportunity for all California citizens to join a team effort, and together secure the state against the drought. However, the owners of large farms, long protected by legislature against drought conditions, will not fall under the 25 percent restriction. Unsurprisingly this has caused some negative reactions from California citizens, since only 20 percent of useable water in California is consumed in urban areas, while agriculture uses about 80 percent1. So why does restrictive legislature focus on home and small business owners? Because water usage in urban areas has little benefit to California as a whole. Well manicured lawns don’t contribute to the California economy, whereas the California agriculture industry raked in $50 billion in 20133. California makes more money on agriculture than any other state in the nation, so it is understandable that large farms would want to hold onto the archaic water system that we have now. Regardless, California residents have been taking the brunt of water restriction efforts for the past four years, and it’s time the agriculture industry did their part. California sources its water from both surface water, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, and groundwater, water which must be pumped from underground aquifers. According to the Public Policy Institute of California, about half of all of this water goes towards environmental functions such as preserving wetlands and various water habitats1. That may seem like a lot, but in addition to the intrinsic value of these natural resources, there is another financial explanation, as more than half of this protected 50 percent of water is located along California’s coast, and is inaccessible due to isolation from agricultural and urban areas1.

112 sonomamag.com

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MAY/JUNE 2015

It’s easy to see just how dedicated the Westlands Water District is to maintaining the status quo. In addition to the four legal firms hired to support their interests, the Westlands also paid another firm nearly $1 million to create an “awareness and outreach” campaign5. However, the Westlands Water District is just one thread in the convoluted web surrounding California’s water. Paramount Farms, owned by Lynda and Stewart Resnick, is another key player. With Fiji bottled water in its diverse portfolio, it’s no surprise to hear that Paramount Farms’ multi-billion dollar fortune has a “controlling interest” in the Kern Water Bank Authority, the supplier of the underground water used to irrigate Paramount’s nut tree farms5. While the Resnick’s may not hire lobbyists to argue their interests, they are generous campaign donors themselves. Almost $457,000 has been given to candidates, political action, and party committees since 2011 by Paramount Farms, with nearly $321,000 just from the Resnicks themselves5. According to John Lawrence, a former Capitol Hill staffer currently teaching at the University of California’s DC Center, confidential meetings are held at places such as the Bureau of Reclamation or even the Environmental Protection Agency5. Rather than being openly debated in Congressional hearings, Lawrence says that there’s “greater wiggle room” on how water policies are

“You can make water run uphill if you have enough money.” George Miller California Democratic Rep.

photo by Dorte Tang

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put into place when lobbying is done at the agency level5. Indeed, as Bay Area Democratic Rep. George Miller says, “You can make water run uphill if you have enough money While agricultural lobbying efforts may have played a role in Governor Jerry Brown’s executive order earlier this April, it’s no shock to the general public that policy and politics influence each other. The leniency in water restrictions for the agriculture industry may be one such case, but farms have also been unaffected by the drought. Water is delivered to farms is THIRSTY CROPS such as different than the water going to rice, almonds, and grapes are urban areas. While cities usually a major source of profit for receive ground and surface water many California farms. sent through pipes from local water agencies, farms depend on a complicated seniority system to allocate their rights to surface water6. In short, those who arrived earliest are considered senior rights holders, and their access to water is fairly secure. Junior rights holders essentially are given whatever is left over. This arrangement means that during a drought such as this one, junior rights holders can have their access to surface water diminished or even completely cut off. This does not apply to senior rights holders however, who are still able to enjoy their water privileges. As a result, about five percent of statewide agricultural farmland has gone fallow6. To counteract this policy, farmers are given two additional ways to get water. They can buy water rights from each other, allowing individual farms’ supply to change while maintaining the same quantity used overall, or they can simply pump as much groundwater as they like 6 . It should come as no surprise that groundwater levels have been seriously depleted as a result. In September of 2014, Governor Brown tried to address these concerns when he signed a bill which restricted groundwater usage. However, the bill doesn’t require sustainability in groundwater basins until the year 20407. Planning milestones have been put in place to go into effect before 2040, but many agree that this absurdly slow timeline needs to be sped up considerably in order to have any positive effect on the current drought. California’s agriculture cannot downsize much, as it is vital to America’s food supply; however, there are many ways to modify current practices to create a more sustainable agricultural system. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, the Japanese developed a method of indoor farming to make up for the loss of their food supply. By farming indoors, they are able to eliminate 99% of the water needed to farm, as none of it is lost to soil absorption or evaporation8. This method also grows food faster and reduces food waste by 80%. Although it is extremely energy intensive, if accompanied by a comprehensive solar system, this method could be a promising solution. There are those who recoil at the idea of overhauling our current system in favor of one more modern. Though less effective in the long term, there are many short term inefficiencies that can be addressed right away. According to

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be required if California is to maintain its access to water. Desalination has become a promising solution to the current water crisis, although there are many environmental factors to consider. There are several desalination plants already in existence, with a new plant’s construction underway in San Diego. Desalination plants input ocean water, and through a series of filtering processes, make it safe to drink. These plants are highly energy inefficient, but using a combination of wind and solar power, they can be made sustainable. There are also concerns for the well-being of the sea creatures who make their homes in coastal habitats, an issue that has yet to be fully addressed. Plants output much more than just water - there are huge amounts of saline and other impurities that that once extracted from the water, need a place to go. They can’t just be deposited back in the ocean, as that level of salination would make the coasts inhabitable to many of its aquatic residents. It’s obvious that California’s water usage has come a long way in the past few years of conservation efforts, but it is also clear that something is not working. It’s simply unfair to place such an emphasis on urban water usage when it accounts for such a small percentage compared to agriculture. Residents have proven that they are more than willing to conserve water, and now it’s the agriculture industry’s turn. We need those involved in spending millions of dollars on lobbying efforts to find a way to make California farming more efficient, sustainable, and most importantly, more water conscious. To learn more about the ways you can save water, get involved, and raise awareness about the truths surrounding the California Drought, visit our website at H2Onest.com. S

1. Mount, Jeffrey, Emma Freeman, and Jay Lund. “Water Use in California (PPIC Publication).” Water Use in California (PPIC Publication). Public Policy Institute of California, July 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. 2. Nagourney, Adam. “California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal With Drought.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. 3. Guo, Jeff. “Agriculture Is 80 Percent of Water Use in California. Why Aren’t Farmers Being Forced to Cut Back?” Washington Post. The Washington Post, Apr. 3. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. 4. “Westlands Water District.” Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 20 5. Felde, Kitty, and Viveca Novak. “The Politics of Drought: California Water Interests Prime the Pump in Washington.” Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 10 Apr. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. 6. Vara, Vauhini. “Who’s to Blame for California’s Drought? - The New Yorker.” NewYorker.com. Conde Nast, 08 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. 7. “Governor Brown Signs Historic Groundwater Legislation.” Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. State of California, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. 8. Kohlstedt, Kurt. “World’s Largest Indoor Farm Is 100 Times More Productive.” WebUrbanist.com. WebUrbanist, 11 Jan. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. 9. Hertsgaard, Mark. “Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis.” San Jose Inside. Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis, 09 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

an analysis released by the Natural Resources Defense Council, if farmers shift to more efficient irrigation methods like drip or micro irrigation, they could reduce agricultural water usage by 22 percent. This amount is equivalent to the full amount of surface water that the Central Valley farmers lacked due to the drought last year9. Many farmers have not yet switched over to these more efficient methods simply because there is no incentive. California’s water prices are relatively low, meaning that water costs take little away from farmers’ profits. There is some legislation in place to encourage lowering water use, but none forceful enough to create real change in the industry. California’s government is facing pressure from both sides of the issue. A spokesperson for Governor Jerry Brown said in an email that “reducing this [drought] to politics… simplifies very complicated / multi-layered issues and ignores all of the action / impacts that preceded.” But it is clear that additional legislation and enforcement will photo by Brigitte Werner, Unsplash, Mehihe

THE MAJORITY of useable water goes towards agricultural purposes while only 20% goes towards urban use.

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19


Promotional Materials Print Billboards will be placed in various locations surrounding the Central Valley, the biggest agricultural area in California. In order to maximize effect, the billboards will be placed for a 6 month period. Posters and brochures will be placed around college campuses, in public spaces and in environmental conservation organization buildings. Stickers, shirts, and tote bags will also be handed out to college students.

Web

Specifications

Cost

Billboards

6 months

14' x 18'

$5,400

Posters

1000

13" x 19" Polar Matte

$1,527.79

Brochures

1500

8.5" x 11" 100lb Glossy

$400

Stickers

3000

2.75" x 4.25" 60lb Matte

$2,48.30

In order to maximize awareness of the H2Onest campaign, an online presence is required. H2Onest.com will serve as the central informational hub of the campaign, with facts about California’s water usage as well as information on the legislative actions residents can take.

Website

1

1 year

$110

Mugs

750

4.75" x 3.75" x 3.25"

$375

Social media websites such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram will also be used to spread the campaign message and get California residents involved.

T-Shirts

1000

XS - XXL

$3,300

Tote Bags

1000

14" x 14" x 3"

$1,800

Other Promotional Materials Various promotional materials such as t-shirts, reusable water bottles and grocery bags will be handed out at events and giveaways on school campuses and at environmental conservation organizations.

20

Amount

Total

$13,161.09


Billboards The otherwise simple billboard grabs attention with the logo treatment extending above the boundary of the advertising space. The darker blue outline keeps the logo color from bleeding into the blue of the sky, while the brighter blue used for the tagline invites viewers to read the message. Since billboards are viewed very quickly, we kept the text minimal, using simply our tagline and website information. By piquing interest but leaving off all but the bare bones, we encourage viewers to take the initiative to learn more by visiting our website.

21


Front

“You can make water run uphill if you have enough money.” California Rep Jimmy Jones

It’s simply unfair to place such an emphasis on urban water usage when it accounts for such a small percentage compared to agriculture. Residents have proven that they are more than willing to conserve water, and now it’s the agriculture industry’s turn.

California agriculture uses 80% of useable water. Why has big agriculture been left out of major conservation efforts?

Brochure

Every Californian knows that water is scarce. The state has been in drought conditions many times before, but the current drought is far more extreme than any previously experienced. For the last few years, California residents, have drastically reduced their water usage; per-capita water usage has decreased

We need those involved in spending millions of dollars on lobbying efforts to find a way to make California farming more efficient, sustainable, and most importantly, more water conscious.

H2ONEST HONEST

NO POSTAGE NECESSARY IF MAILED IN THE UNITED STATES

BUSINESS REPLY MAIL

FIRST CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO 1234 DAVIS CA POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADRESSEE

Tell California legislature how important our water is

Most of the restrictive legislature focuses on home and small business owners, because water

James Stack RUSS GALLERY LTD 476 BROADWAY STE 100 SACRAMENTO CA 95814

Fill out the information and mail this prepaid postcard to your local representative.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit usage in urban amet, consectetur areas has little adipiscing elit. Nullam benefit to California dolor risus, molestie non as a whole, whereas auctor eu, aliquet in the California agriculture ipsum. Duis quis velit ex. industry raked in $50 billion in Integer nec gravida neque, 20133. California makes more money vel feugiat mauris. from agriculture than any other state Vestibulum dapibus in the nation, so it is understandable non purus lobortis that large farms are opposed magna to lobortis. In in magna change. Regardless, California ligula. Suspendisse residents have been taking the brunt convallis turpis dui, cursus of water restriction efforts for the pretium odio venenatis past four years, and it’s time the agriculture industry did their part. sed. Vivamus posuere mi

Our brochure design allows the reader to learn more about our campaign. We chose it’s unique size and folding elements because of how complicated the issue surrounding our campaign is. We needed a lot of space to explain to the reader who we are and what we’re trying to do. The folding components also allow for a touch of interactivity for the reader, making opening up the brochure a fun experience. At the end of our brochure is a tear-away mailer with a prepaid message asking for equality in water conservation efforts. This is a simple, quick way to get readers to take action for our campaign. All the reader has to do is tear it off, sign it, and put it in the mail.

from 232 gallons a day in 1990 to 178 gallons a day in 20101. Although this is impressive, this reduction isn’t enough. In April 2015, Governor Jerry Brown ordered a statewide 25% cut for the state’s 400 water supply agencies, which serve 90% of California residents2.

Government rhetoric paints this as an opportunity for all California citizens to join a team effort, and together secure the state against the drought. However, the owners of large farms, long protected by legislature against drought conditions, will not fall under the 25% restriction. Unsurprisingly this has caused some negative reactions from California citizens, since only 20% of useable water in California is consumed in urban areas, while agriculture uses about 80%1.

H2ONEST H2ONEST HONEST HONEST

Despite population growth, urban

finibus sem faucibus, a water usage luctus felis faucibus. It’s obvious that California’s water usage Aliquam erat volutpat. Sed has come a long way in the past few has remained years of conservation efforts, but it ac is porttitor ipsum. Pellentesque also clear that something is not working. steadyfermentum the last velit non felis pretium

20 years.

Back

The brochures will be sent out to local environmental leaders in California, as well as left out on college campuses and in similarly minded organizational buildings. let’s be H2ONEST Dear

Please, vote for water conservation equality in California. Sincerely,

Sources Mount, Jeffrey, Emma Freeman, and Jay Lund. “Water Use in California (PPIC Publication).” Water Use in California (PPIC Publication). Public Policy Institute of California, July 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.

1

Nagourney, Adam. “California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal With Drought.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.

2

Guo, Jeff. “Agriculture Is 80% of Water Use in California. Why Aren’t Farmers Being Forced to Cut Back?” Washington Post. The Washington Post, Apr. 3. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.

3

, a concerned California resident

to learn more visit H2ONEST.com

22

let’s be

,

HONEST

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectet adipiscing elit. Nullam dolor risus, molestie non auctor eu, aliquet in ipsum. Duis quis velit ex. Integer nec gravida neque, vel feugiat mauris. Vestibulum dapibus magna non purus lobortis lobortis.

H2ONEST The truth behind agriculture’s thirst for water


Bus Shelter Advertisement The bus shelter ad acts as a teaser for the campaign message, causing viewers to want to learn more about “the truth behind the thirst.” The “water level” falls, revealing the message and then the campaign website. Because of the cost of the electronic animated effects, we will place only a few of these at busy bus stops surrounding the Central Valley, where the majority of California agriculture is grown.

23


let’s be

Posters and Magazine Advertisements Although our campaign revolves around a very complicated issue, we wanted the magazine ads and posters to explain our campaign without having a lot of text on the page. We used the logo as part of a catchy tag line, which conveys the idea of water and honesty, then we use a quick fact about California water usage to reveal our core message - that California agriculture needs to do their part in water conservation. The eye is then drawn to the lower right of the page where the campaigns website is. The posters would be placed around college campuses and environmental organizations around California, while the magazine ads would be placed into local publications.

H2ONEST 80% of California water goes towards agriculture So why has big agriculture been left out of major conservation efforts?

learn more at H2ONEST.com 24


let’s be

H2ONEST 80% of California water goes towards agriculture So why has big agriculture been left out of major conservation efforts?

learn more at H2ONEST.com 25


Public Service Announcement Our public service announcement is a short teaser for our campaign, designed to make the viewer curious about the campaign and to get them to go to our website. The water level element, which is repeated throughout our designs, is animated here, illustrating how California’s water sources are being depleted. The water droplet also acts to highlight the campaign’s website. This PSA will be aired on local television stations around California.

26


Promotional Items

H2ONEST 2ONEST ONEST H2ONEST HONEST H ONEST ONESTH2HONEST 2ONESTH2ONEST H ONEST ONEST H ONEST H 2 ONEST H ONEST 2 H H ONEST H ONEST H2ONEST ONEST 2 H ONEST ONESTH2HONEST 2ONESTH2ONEST HONEST ONEST HONEST H H2ONEST 2 ONEST ONEST let’s be

In order to spread awareness of our campaign on a more grassroots level, we will distribute various promotional items to be worn and used by California residents, including shirts, mugs, stickers, and reusable canvas tote bags. All items will have our logo as well as our tagline and website printed on them. Through the usage of these items, many more people will be exposed to our message and learn about our campaign than would through traditional advertising. These materials will be distributed on college campuses, as college students are always excited about free items and so will actually make use of the materials given. They also make up a large segment of our target demographic, and are typically a group that can be easily involved in environmental and social awareness issues.

let’s be

the truth behind California agricultures thirst

learn more at h2onest.com

let’s be

learn more at h2onest.com

let’s be

let’s be

let’s be

the truth behind California agricultures thirst

HH H2ONEST HONEST

learn more at h2onest.com

let’s be

the truth behind California agricultures thirst

learn more at h2onest.com

H

learn more at h2onest.com

learn more at h2onest.com

2 the truth behind California agricultures thirst

HONEST

learn more at h2onest.com

learn more at h2onest.com

the truth behind the thirst learn more at h2onest.com

H2ONEST HHONEST ONEST HHONEST 2

the truth behind California agricultures thirst

let’s be

the truth behind the thirst

H2ONEST H

the truth behind the thirst

the truth behind California agricultures thirst

learn more at h2onest.com

the truth behind the thirst learn more at h2onest.com

learn more at h2onest.com

27


Business System All written communication from our campaign will be sent using our mailing system. The stationery has been designed to be consistent with our brand imagery, utilizing the low water-level and drop elements found in our logo. This, along with the blue on the back of the letterhead, acts as a visual identifier on all campaign mailings. The business card repeats the drop element in a unique and playful way with the cut out, making it immediately recognizable and memorable.

2120 Roosevelt Street San Francisco, CA 94107

James Stack 2120 Roosevelt Street San Francisco, CA 94107 (415) 385 - 4182 truth@h2honest.com www.h2onest.com

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Charlotte Gray 411 Colonial Avenue Campbell, CA 95008


(415) 385 - 4182 truth@h2honest.com www.h2onest.com 2120 Roosevelt Street San Francisco, CA 94107

Dear Ms. Charlotte Gray,

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, dicta timeam denique vix ei, sed ad ferri bonorum dolorum. Ad sed tota dissentiet, ei sed justo meliore neglegentur. An tollit tantas mel. Mel atqui eleifend eu, duis inimicus complectitur te nec. Saperet honestatis in duo, apeirian consectetuer ne sed. Agam essent eloquentiam mei id, unum veri ubique eu duo. Partem graeco te nec. Ex qui erat audire, omnis copiosae lobortis at mel. Ea pri vulputate consetetur reprehendunt, modus aeterno cu usu. Pro an oratio consequat, est debet fabellas rationibus an, an eligendi deserunt pri. Nam justo accusam delicata eu. Et nonumy verear apeirian est, an nam aliquid civibus signiferumque. Per putant conceptam posidonium an. Sit te alii appellantur mediocritatem. Nominati electram no cum, est habemus mentitum ex, veri imperdiet iracundia ei quo. Et tota iisque est, ne nibh postea vim. Ei his simul qualisque, nam intellegebat consequuntur no. Et nam scaevola tacimates, constituto contentiones intellegebat ex ius. Etiam primis causae et vix, no nam alienum fastidii invenire. Adhuc posse apeirian eu sea, vim odio facer ex, utamur persius qui at. Molestie philosophia in qui, ut per sale ipsum laboramus. No ius quis justo. Ei per noster volumus forensibus, ne nam nonumy tempor animal, ei nec audiam eleifend consequat. Impetus luptatum disputationi ei nec. His ex inani eligendi. Ut paulo nemore per. Quaeque constituto et nam, cu duo omnis quaeque. Minim alienum intellegam ea has, qui novum errem perpetua eu. Ferri verear ad usu, mea aliquam facilisis deterruisset eu, nobis graecis te pro. Ex sea minim elitr gubergren, usu nibh posidonium ea. Vim fugit ridens erroribus ea, vix ne ullum erant melius, qui electram referrentur ei. Ne accusata definiebas pro, has nibh graeci in, molestiae persequeris ei his. Argumentum conclusionemque in vel, at pri quod probo. Ex mel falli neglegentur. An qui cibo erant. Nam epicurei rationibus ex, sumo temporibus ei sea. Vim summo audire vocibus ei, impedit moderatius adversarium te sea. Ut usu rebum repudiare, sint quas vix ad. Bonorum oporteat id his.

Respectfully,

James Stack

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Works Cited “60lb. Polar Matte Professional Photo Matte Inkjet Paper.” Redrivercatalog.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 May 2015. “Brochure and Flyer Marketing on a Budget - Resources.” PsPrint.com. N.p., 01 Sept. 2012. Web. 06 May 2015. “Campaign History - Water Use It Wisely.” Water Use It Wisely. Park&Co, n.d. Web. 06 May 2015. EHow Careers & Work Editor. “How to Rent Your Own Billboard.” EHow. Demand Media, 31 Dec. 2004. Web. 06 May 2015. Felde, Kitty, and Viveca Novak. “The Politics of Drought: California Water Interests Prime the Pump in Washington.” Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 10 Apr. 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. “Governor Brown Signs Historic Groundwater Legislation.” Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. State of California, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Guo, Jeff. “Agriculture Is 80 Percent of Water Use in California. Why Aren’t Farmers Being Forced to Cut Back?” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 03 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Hertsgaard, Mark. “Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis.” San Jose Inside. Cheap Water for Agriculture Worsens California Water Crisis, 09 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. “How Much Does It Cost To Build A Website In 2014?” Executionists Blog. N.p., 04 Dec. 2014. Web. 06 May 2015. Kohlstedt, Kurt. “World’s Largest Indoor Farm Is 100 Times More Productive.” WebUrbanist.com. WebUrbanist, 11 Jan. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. “LA Waterkeeper.” Lawaterkeeper.org. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. Mount, Jeffrey, Emma Freeman, and Jay Lund. “Water Use in California (PPIC Publication).” Water Use in California (PPIC Publication). Public Policy Institute of California, July 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Nagourney, Adam. “California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal With Drought.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. Neely, Amber. “How to Choose Paper for Printing Posters.” Bright Hub. N.p., 21 Apr. 2012. Web. 06 May 2015. “Printed Stickers: Create Your Own Stickers Online.” NextDayFlyers. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 May 2015. Vara, Vauhini. “Who’s to Blame for California’s Drought? - The New Yorker.” NewYorker.com. Conde Nast, 08 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. “Westlands Water District.” Opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 20 “Save Our Water.” Saveourwater.com. California Department of Water Resources. 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.

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