Page 1



RnOBg w-wToDRAS/


Vol.1 : Compiling Characters Chapter 1 Drawing the Face Chapter 2 How to Draw Bodies Chapter 3 Drawing Characters lsBN4-7661 -1 473-6

Vol.2: Compiling Techniques Chapter 1 Background Management Basics Chapter 2 Tone Techniques Chapter 3 Expressing Light and Shadows lsBN4-7 661 -1 47 4-4


Vol.3: Compiling Application and Practice Chapter 1 How to Draw lnteriors and Exteriors Chapter 2 How to Draw Machines Chapter 3 How to Create a Short Story MANGA l5BN4-7661-147 5-2

Vol.4: Dressing Your Characters in Casual Wear 1 Underwear and T-shirts Chapter 2 Sweatshirts and Skirts Chapter 3 Jackets and Jeans lsBN4-7661-1477-9


Special: Colored Original Drawing (Copic Sketch Pen) Chapter 1 Copic Sketch Pen Chapter 2 Copic Airbrushing System Chapter 3 Try Using Different Painting Materials with Markers lsBN4-7 661


47 9-5

Vol.5: Developing Shoujo Manga Techniques Chapter 1 How to Draw Characters Chapter 2 How to Draw Backgrounds Chapter 3 How to Create Stories Chapter 4 How to Create Manga Manuscripts -1 476-0


Vol.6: Martial Arts & Combat Sports Chapter 1 Judo Chapter 2 Karate Chapter 3 Kendo Chapter 4 Boxing Chapter 5 Street Battles lsBN4-7661-1478-7

D stribured by


2 Sa',ga<u:-:.3^1:ca <-. :<_.: -l- -'le-,=:=' =-:re:3--:-32?2-3-:- :ar:3' 3-32J2-::- I =--= ::E:--:




Vol.2 Penning Characters

HORE HOWT0 DRAW MANGAVoI.2: Penning Characters


Go Office

Copynght @ 2002 Go 0ffice Copyright @ 2002 Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd. Thrs book was first designed and published by Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd. in Japan in 2002.

This English edition was publisned by Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd. in Japan in 2004.

Artwork and


Kazuaki Morita, Yumiko Deguchi, Hiroko Shioda, Ushio, Takehiko Matsumoto, Hikaru Hagi Gekko, Akira Gokita, Kozue Onishi, Haruto, Hitoshi Sato, BeE,

Assistant: Support: CwerArtwork:

Kento Shimazaki, Rio Yagizawa


Takumi Takahashi, Kozue 0nishi


Julie Asakura


Main T'itle Logo

Composition and Heference





Kazuaki Morita Hideyuki Amemura

Hikaru Hayashi, Rio Yagizawa (Go 0ffice) Yasuo lmai

EElish Edition Shinichi lshioka EnglM Translation Management: Lingua friinca, lnc. (an3y-skmt@asahi-net.orjp) Phnnirâ&#x201A;Ź Motofumi Nakanishi (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.) Foreiln Language Edition Proiect Coordinator: Kumiko Sakamoto (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.)


A{ rqhb reserved. No part

of this publication may be reproduced 0r used in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage ffd rebieval systems - without written permission 0f the publisher

Ds!firhc Japflr h.dilhalions Trading Co., Ltd. ' -2-


Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, I 01 -0064

E-rna*: iJF{:-:



;rs ffro,.rE:

I I t




March 2004

Vot. 2

Penning Gharacters

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Table of Contents Ghapter 1 Pen Fundamentals


Ghapter 2

Faces......... Pointers in Drawing Cute Female Characters.. Creating Adult Faces The Basics of the Human Figure Male vs. Female

..........52 ......................54 ........,.,......,,...56 .......................60

lnking the Figure: Using the Different Lines Appropriately......... ...................62

Volume:Shading .,..,.............64 Distinguishing Female Body Types ......................70 Distinguishing Male and Female Figures........ ......74 Features to Modify When Drawing Different Male Builds.. ...,.....76 Drawing Hands and Feet..... .,...,.....78 Hands......... ..............78 Fee1............ ..............81 Waking Up ............. ........................84 The 3 Key Elements in a Gharacter Waking...... .......................84 Sample:A Jolting Wake-up .............88 Creating a Sense of

Chapter 3 Drawing Any Expression


Mouth Movements: Depicting Basic Vowel Theatrical Eyes


Combining Features to Express

Symbolic Representation of Using the Mouth to Show







Chibi (Super-deformed) Characters and Vowel

........92 ....100

...............,....104 ..................110



Chapter 4 Creating Key lmages and Character Entrance Vehicles and Figures: Driving



........116 ........,.....1 18

Suggesting Movement Using a Single Panel: Glancing Back..,........ .......120 Penning Techniques That Create Depth




.....................122 ........,.............'125


The Basic Mangadrawing Process:


Rough sketch: Set the composition at this point.

From Beginning ro End

@ Complete the under drawing.





@ Erase as needed.


lnk the drawing.


Iv @ tne finisning touches: Add special effect Iines and screen tone.

Pen Fundamentals l





tt::l .,;







iiMi;,,:. ::. ari,:r.,.t .31ir:l


\; {








The Key lngredient to Manga and

lllustrations is lnking. Finish using ink only (Realism manga style)

The clear, distinct black strokes of a pen

breathe life into penciled drawings.

A sense of speed is generated using diagonal strokes.

A gradation effect is created using kakeam i (crosshatching).

The above was created using only various forms 0f hatching and solid


il'fi']mr: :a- :E




ciarym T'ffifnr[ s .se:


Hatching suggests



Uniform, parallel, ruled lines create a shading, almost silhouette-like effect.

blacks. This use of ink allowed me to create a soft overall look, while projecting an intense atmosphere.

l :


:r:,'i this version anticipating that I would


use only various

I drew this version anticipating that I would use screen tone for the

of hatching and solid blacks for the final image. I rendered 1-r s.,bjects using powerful, heavy, modulated lines for silhouette

final image. With the exception of the final panel, where perspective is

Jagged sound effect lettering allows for the creation of an , mood.

Since the Iinal image will have a lighter feel, I used more simplified style of sound effect lettering.



stressed, the overall page is rendered primarily using fine, even lines.

2d drawing


Realism- manga version: Here, I used hatching in the

pupils and irises as well. diagonal strokes used in the cheeks were carefully

Screen tone version: .':r.--; '6ns ygpsion: I filled in the pupils -,:i'r;



i+: -r-


d black and then attached tone. The diagonal strokes

:Te ,cheeks are less concentrated :-.:-<e in the realism-mangauersion.

I used fine, uniform lines, giving the

composition a clean, light look.

lnking Tools and Materials Pens

: 1'

t The nib is held The nib inserts into the penholder.

securely up to this point.

Pen nib

Change nibs:


o when the nib becomes worn o when the tips stad to spread.

Penholders (Available in wood and plastic)

Penholder mouth Nibs become worn as they are


used. 0nce your old nib tips become permanently spread, and you are no longer able to draw a

Many artists feel that wooden penholders are less tiring on the hand.


crisp line, replace the old with a new nib. When inking characters, switch nibs about every 2 to 4 sheets in the case of B4-sized paper (25.7 X 36.2 cm or approx. 10" x 14 1/4')., drafting ink, and lndia ink are those primarily used. lf the ink becomes gummy, add water.

The advantage of

drafting ink is that it dries quickly.

While lndia ink does take longer to dry than drafting ink, it gives a "blacker" finish.

lndia lnk

Black or drafting ink


" ,,i,- rt :: ::,: .tuch ink to ihe nib, if-- . r, := : :- i3 nk jar's rim Itrr,,,"s.: r:'- ::Jlx end up with drops lr 1-I :- .':'-' :?itillg,.


o 84 is the standard size for publication submissions.


Top quality paper


Manga drawing paper with predrawn

(1 1 0 kg to 1 35 kg per 1000 sheets or 121 lbs to 148.5 lbs per ream) or Kent paper is used.

margin lines, which are available on the market, may also be used.


Use paper oI a size that will allow a margin


around the entire drawing. Note: since the /ranga process involves penciling

an under drawing, inking, attaching tone, and other work, most artists use large, durable paper.




The 3 Most Common Nibs: The Kabura-pen, the G-pen, and the Maru-pen

For those

with a light touch:

The G-pen nib is flexible,

making it somewhat ditficult to control. However, it is capable of producing fine as well as thick strokes, allowing you to

For those

with a heavy hand:

modulate your lines.


-\r Kabura-pen


s nib draws primarily =-er lines and allows

':n modulated lines.

. .

For artists who have a light touch when using mechanical or regular pencils For those who do great clean up work with the eraser, not leaving a single extra mark

. ::r

tlrose artists who often

:,tak their mechanical or '-:;ular pencil points


For the technicians

::r'those who tend to '=-a're

lines even aftef


it up with the


Maru-pen This nib allows you to create thicker lines than with the G-pen and finer lines than with the kabura-pen,


-.aru-pen comes with its own

r*:,ei penholder. Holders of some -n ,ficturers cannot be used with -,as of others, so be careful to :rr;:;.; brand names when




For those who regularly

distinguish between values when drawing with a mechanical or regular pencil (i.e. those skilled in controlling the pressure applied to the pen)

It is ditficult to draw long lines with this nib. However, this is a suitable nib for those who build up contour lines using multiple short strokes.

@Notethatthepenishelddifferentlyfromwhenwriting' Figure drawn with the pen held at an angle close to the paper



Figgre drawR holding tne pen


the, sarne

w[en. wt'iting

Not good

Here, the pen

is too vertical.

ln this figure, the nib caughl onto the paper, resulting in

clumsy-looking strokes.



-riier drawing

Normally, arhsb start wittr the face contours and work from $ere.

...t E*L--.---d**'d*:::1'


paper to an angle that allows you to ink more easily.

'lTe iarne holds true when $mri'ng hair standing on end. I


oi a 0

The paper is flipped to ink the hair.

Return the paper to its original position when inking the shoulders. Constanfly rotate the paper to the most comfortable position when inking. An artist rarely inks an entire drawing without moving the paper.



The Basics: Even and Tapered Lines


Tapered Line

Using both lines with sharply tapered ends and

blunt, uniform ends allows for a composition'with balance.

Figure Drawn Entirely with Tapered Lines

While this


drawing does have vigor, it has a diffuse,

disorderly look.

Figure Drawn Entirely with Even Lines

( q ft) risure nas ( ))L"acrisper,tidier ),q\) look but is ..K,9 somewhat



lHiltry fu 1







Taoered and Even Lines: Drawing Nudes


rapered rines are key t0 givins the ftesh volume.



( I\tt'

k \/ \,



l,\ A sense of volume is lacking in figures drawn only in even strokes.

0hnawing Tapered Lines


)o"awing in a single stroke

2. Building up a line using multiple strokes

'{ 'l (1 @

hactica! application: Adjusting even tines

1 Adjust the lines so that the ends taper.




l.lsing Heany and Fine Lines (Balancing Heavy and Light Areas) Make contour and silhouette lines heavier than those in the interior.

Balance your

line usage even in small compositions.

>.))I 5r*.1(fi v

These lines are finer

fian the contour line.




\ :r;




ifr lr;5f





Assorted Uses of Heavy and Fine Lines

Here, a G-pen was used, allowing for full exploitation of line modulation. The G-pen allows you to

draw graceful, sinuous lines.

#r -ru s he


.lmriron way of

rmrguishing lines. 4m1: reavy lines were *imr r fie silhouette :rntour lines,




iner lines were


r fie




This is a delicate figure rendered entirely using fine lines.

%ffi9; >=-/


Use even finer lines for parts visible from underneath seethrough fabrics, etc.


Modulating Lines: Building up Lines to Produce a Satistying Gomposition


3,.: ding up those areas requiring heavier lines afterfirst doing an even inking lnking is not something that has to be done in one fell swoop. 0nce you have done a simple first inking of the entire composition, go over it again, creating a balance between heavy and fine lines and gradually building up contours and silhouette lines using many short strokes.

)D t( \---

First inking

Build up contour and silhouette lines in the face and figure as well as crease lines and lines distinguishing body parts.

Finished drawing

2, Building up tines right from the start

This technique involves using the pen in much the same manner as you would the pencil. lt is effective when the final is to be a reduction of the original (reducing drawings causes the individual strokes


come closer together, making the execution appear smoother).

-rcer drawing


Completed drawing (reduced size): The

drawing appears to Pen hatching

diagram (Enlarged)

have been rendered using single, Iong strokes.

) \ \.=-

\ \ 19


Mastering Hatching, Etc.

Hatching basically consists of short, tapered lines drawn freehand' Longer versions become diagonal lines. Hatching adds spice to the inking job and is a finishing technique used in artwork. These strokes are a standard

technique aftists use to suggest "blond hair."

I The addition of these diagonal lines suggest a blush to

the cheek and help give the figure volume.

Completed inking of conlour, silhouette, and other major lines

Drawing Tapered Lines Diagonal lines drawn

with a downward stroke (Neck shadows, etc.)

\ Z\.---_/




,,,S*S} :

rection perpendicular to that of Ie nib, Avoid pressing down on :'re pen. Use light, rapid strokes.

P'ractical Application of Hatching and Diagonal Lines --esâ&#x201A;Ź are used for shading. The key

: :l 'ccus on evoking

volume in the and io draw strokes in the ,1.-a,. l;'Ie figure's "curves."


Diagonal lines drawn with an

upward stroke [Suggesting volume in the chest (flesh), etc.l 1l

Making characters Distinctive / ^r t,F .-;42:









* q





5 Basic Faces 5 Gommon Faces Used for Glose-ups

1. Face Turned to the Right (3/4 View)

-:,: 3, I

'i e;r.i dr'rd front view are primarily used when the his or her appearance on the scene 0r

::-;a3:-y -akes

il.e. :'e a"!si l',,ants

to show the character's face.

2. Front View

\__ I -\ d




x& I



; 3,

Side View -:en

4. Moderate High Angl

used for characters when

:;raking alone or engaged

5. Moderate Low Angle

Primarily used in dialogue scenes


::: nVefsati0n

This view is effective when intending to give movement or variety to the composition, or give a character's depiction impact.

The main differences between this view and the standard 3/4 view and the points that you, the adist, must show the most care are the extent to which the crown is shown and the nose's angle.

Standard 3/4 view


Even when not intending to


keep the bridge of the nose in

. 314 View Approximately the

the final drawing, including the

Slightly larger than the right eye

bridge in the under drawing will help you balance the eyes.

same distance








I i t


*-i,-->i \ir : There should be a gap

lnk only the tip of the nose.

between the face's

silhouette line and the corner of the eye.

The line of the neck should

The throat's silhouette

be drawn so that it would

line should be further inward than the chin.

connect to the bottom of the

ear if extended.

2 Standard Styles for Rendering the Nose

Too close together


v 6)

Take care not to space the eyes too far apart or

:co close together


Nose rendered using only

Nose rendered with the bridge

shadows underneath

and the nasion (where the

bridge meets the eyes)

bitioning the Figure with a 3/4 View


There are standard positions for the torso (i.e. from the neck down)


-.:nmon poses showing the throat's silhouette line '-1f:er inward than the chin

_":,rmon poses showing the throat's ; .ouette line directly under the chin


:te head is drawn so this line

I ;r':-y under the chin, the figure I :?.. shown from a moderately ",ly

used with each of the 5 head views. Since how the torso and neck connect depends on in which direction the torso is faced, I have compiled a few common samples for you.



Here, the figure is shown from a somewhat high angle, displaying volume from the shoulders to the



The neck may appear overly thick (masculine) when this

line is drawn further out than the chin.


2. Front View

Faces with the eyes drawn too far apart 0r t00 close together are often intended to be stylized.

Faces appear most

attractive with the eyes spaced apart about the same length as the mouth.

There are faces

stylized so that the eyebrows span the space between the corner of the eyes and the face's There should be space

left between the eyes and the face's outer

Getting the Best from the Front View



=mct Views Etfective in Manga


-"r :,-:?'contour is not perfectly - --al, but shows the face .,,,

-,*: :: fie






right. Alternatively,

The nose should also be drawn facing either

show the face turning

right or left with the head.

l,ssorted Noses for Front Views









Nose with shadows

Nose with shadows


under one side



i :::-

112lhe head's width

1/3 the head's width

2/3 the head's width

Appropriate for female characters

Appropriate for stylized,

Appropriate for realistic characters and characters with naturally thick necks (i.e. male characters)

manga-esque characters


hitioning the Figure with a Front H.egulu Angle

Low Angle

lle :u::

character is looking down, face is seen straight on.


View Head

A frontal view of the face allows the character t0 connect strongly with the reader. lt is often used with the full figure.


Shoulders raised

M ^\*t//^

--i: *roulders' and clavicles'



uell as the chest's shape take on :'*:rEnt appearances in high angles :,r' uren the figure is lying on its

r: -ach.

Close-up of the upper body


Fractioal Application Sample

Sketch to check shading balance

Penned drawing





Beference figure


Note the distance between the eye and ear.



good --+-i


Li i

ri ti



Too far apart

Common Pitfalls When Drawing Side Views and Counter Strategies

Not good

m The chin is too jutted.



The chin should have a

gentle curve.


The head is too stunted,

hffiitioning the Figure with a Side View Head



Figures drawn at a low or high angle are rarely paired with side view heads.


4. Moderate High Angle Regular side view


high angle

The jaw beneath When drawing a head at a moderately high angle, lower the level of the eye and shift the face's axis further away

from the centerline in order to distinguish this angle from a regular side view. Furthermore, the top half of the head (the haifl should occupy a larger portion of the whole.

Nose drawn with a bridge

Nose drawn without a bridge




\i :.


the mouth becomes narr0w.


trc ileck and the Torso

{* \\ ./' Pose where the neck is at an angle Pose where the neck is straight


\l *




i I .t-*#F' I

:e,:c-s arar,tn at moderately - il- i.i! e.S ile great for



lE ''ei\31'


back faces

5. Moderate Low Angle

Regular angle

Moderate high angle

The axis is positioned about

The top half of the

the same as in a face drawn at a moderaiely high

smaller portion of the whole.


head occupies a


The guideline for

/f ----S.


Establish the

the eyes becomes

chin's depth,

an upward

curving line.

The neck can easily be drawn too thick, so take extra care.


'*: , Upwafd ' -,: ites are used ::r- ne upper



,: :,:^. pafallel,

. ::

res for

:. :+ -:s used to

ir"l- :ing the ear's :::- ng.

Nose drawn with a bridge Nose drawn without a bridge

Connecting the Neck and the Torso

Neck contour line

The entire figure drawn from a low angle

01 Retaining the head in an "upward looking" position, but tilting the neck affects the length of the neck's silhouette line.


I , !t


\ (,-

Comparison of Neck Contour Lines

I Note that while the figure's

pose is the same for all of these figures, the neck's


l '--\\ ,/

contour lines change


to which direction the head faces (i.e. how the neck and figure connects changes). Moderate High



Front View

Side View

Ghanges in Eye Shape for Each of the 5

Front View

GG \l_ /

$@ @,G. Large, Round Eyes


Side View

3/4 View




l\\ I

l: tr(

Moderate Low Angle


,'/lt ,t1B -\

Moderate High Angle


Back of the Head

Depictions of characters from behind are essential in manga.lf you are able to draw characters' heads from behind, the possibilities for dialogue scenes will expand dramatically.

Skeletal drawing of the back of the head

Sample Close-ups lf you can draw this area successfully, you can Given the variety in panel

shapes and margin sizes,

the possibilities compositions are endless

create a dialogue scene.

Target area to include in a panel, trimmed as needed

ilon :.-atures in Drawing the Back of the Head:The Ear and Hair Flow



When the bangs have plenty of volume:

Ear ls Visible

Show the bangs clearly


flutfing outward. Ensure that you do not give the back of the head too much hair.


u"/^y'/ ilqilll


Front View (Ref. Fig.) ffp

litr/ r







::a: and chin are



p-ss hair in the



1-r: SidebUrns, and

tr* 'ar s short. r:rru


"ead so that the


:r ].]e back iS





Ear ls Not Visible

-'ltflt- ?,rr tef. Fig.) illllilnfl"



-air has little volume:


3re not visible, and


lre hair is long, since

rx :e

volume, it should

iliiiti-r lr-sâ&#x201A;ŹlY


to the head.


should have a round iiii:r;: -.f'"1 fie top of the head



r ,d-^.

Front View (Ref. Fig.)

With voluminous hair: o Use the hair's silhouette lines and

flow to suggest clearly that it is in fact the back of the head.

The Eyes are the Face's Key Feature. intaining Variety in the Characters' Eyes

These 3 beauties all have completely

different eyes. Desigthe eyes so that the particular character can be recognized even in a close-up of just the eyes.


Figure showing variety in the hairstyle, face shapes, and clothes

The eyes constitute a major

Not good

stylistic point. Give each character a distinctive eye shape.

+ Close-ups




finffimg Process


aa::rl"xing: Process

for Rendering Eyes Using Primarily Hatching Under drawing


::.: ,vith the upper eyelid. Draw :.-r: rir-veS while rotating the


- the direction easiestto



", ,


outlines of the

.-: :; light r' : r -r- S Take care to

, : . -*ing the iris r..--: -:ll becoming :-a

2. Draw the upper eyelid. Build up strokes, keeping them at a comfortable. not overly long

3. Draw the lower eyelid. Since you are using hatching to render the eye. make sure that the fine


contour of the lower eyelid does not evolve into a single (solid) line. Use fine, connecting strokes.

Since these are light

5. tur the hatching inside the iris, use curved lines, maintaining an awareness of the iris's curved

reflections, use as fine a solid line as possible.



7. To finish the eyelashes, the key is t0

draw shorter lines clustered around a long, central line. Take care to use beautiful. tapered lines. .

,.' -atching to finish off the


cupil. Build up light and rotating the paper in : '=.ltron easiest to draw.





When needed,


for white highlights. 8. Finished!




Take care to Prevent

the contour from Draw the contour so that both ends


Draw the contour of the uPPer be eyelid. (the Paper often must to easiest rotated to the direction

come to distinct points

becoming overlY thick. (lf the drawing

2. Draw the contour of the lower eYelid.

is small, then


may simPlY use a solid line.)

draw,) Use ultra fine lines

for light reflection outlines.

drawing the iris outline is to use pupil, a uniform, heavy 3. Draw the iris, and light reflections.

The inside oI the dotted lines

the actual PuPil

inside ol 4. Draw the eyelashes and the are to areas which indicates the iris. X black' solid with filled be

Ensure that eac eyelash ends ir a clear Point.

are connected. 5. Spotting Blacks and Hatching


6. Finishedl

White highlights

lf the eyelashes are rendereo solely in solid black and end with a rough, crude feel, add Iine, individual lines seParate: from the main lashes.



The following pages discuss 5 common eye types: standard eyes, upward tilted eyes, Oownward-iitted eyes, large, round eyes, and almond_shaped eyes.

Upward Titted Eyes

Downward Tilted Eyes

The corner of the eye is lowered.

:tandard Eyes

6 \=44

-mward Tilted Eyes



[-arge- Round Eyes

Standard eyes

Downward tilted eyes

tf you find your large, round eyes resemble standard or downward tilted eyes, use your

ingenuity and adjust as follows: . 0mit drawing the lower eyelid, . Make the irises extra dark, or adjust how you render the eye's interior, etc.

More large, round eyes

Almond-shaped Eyes




;1,1,-;'i i!Jr

Standafd eyeS

almond-shaped eyes

,;,,rard titted or standard eyes,

=Ei:-:,8 r]tr"-t)'and

-si ,rr,i"

+*: ]tE!:



adjust by narrowing More almond-shaPed eYes

Distinguishing Ages t*aking Children Look Ghildlike

-roer Child with a Mature Face

Somewhat Mature Child


This face basically has the same shape

Here, the face's contour is ditferent and the facial feafures' proportions have been

contour as that oI the mature face, but the features have been altered.




Child's face

adjusted. o The cheeks were made fuller.

The eyelashes were omitted.

o The eyes were enlarged.



o The eyes were spaced farther apart.

The bridge of the nose was reduced.


The eyes' position was lowered. The portion taken up by the upper part of

the head was enlarged.

Not good The presence of eyelashes To draw a child's face,

and small eyes tend to

concentrate all of the facial features toward the lower half of the face.

Mature face

detract from a childlike appearance.

Moderately childlike face

Childlike face


ItffiErencs between Adult and Child

Faces Child's Face

Adult's Face

Smallish eyes

Long The nose should

The nose should

be kept small

be made longish.


Thickish neck

Position the eYes higher and make

fiem smaller than you would ior a child's face. (lf you are using

adult's face your





tren position the eyes lower for



This figure shows




2 laces

overlapping. Drav, the child's feature:


child character.)

------from the nose downward ,iutting out somewhat to ---------gain a "childlike


Long span


thick and relatively straight up and down.

Draw the neck tilted and on the narrowside.

The The upper parl of

the head occuPies

upper part of

a lesser portion.



occupE a greait



-'---"' contours to 3'''e fie cheeks angular 50



adult" look.

Give the cheeks roundish contours

create a "childlike'





adult's createl childlike look

Mm$ishing Youthful and Elderly Faces Give older male

characters large,

distinct nose bridges. The neck should be short and thick.

sarrfiars in Aging Gharacters Not good


Reduce the size of the eyes and irises.

r r

0mit the eyelashes. Give the hair less volume.

@,,, ae '


:-r-,1 character's





i.r9S afe lafge -,:Se and mOth




the mouth's sides still does not age the character.

sratrs Wrinkles alone do not make an old person. Not good

C. ..D I

(-) I ,r


man'S face

iandard (slightly :' , ,-: : ied) eyeS, thiCk



,. -i

afld hair, and nose and

Giving the eyes a

downward tilt facilitate suggestion of mature or elderly character.




Male vs. Female Faces Male and female characters share virtually the same eye, nose, mouth, and ear positioning.

Female Character

Give the hair a fine and supple appearance.

Avoid making the eyebrows thick.

lnclude the eyelashes. Androgynous face Use curved lines for lhe cheeks.

Accentuate the


The neck is thin.

Male Character

Be conscious of using thick lines

for the hair.

Draw thick, clearly delineated eyebrows.

Keep the lips simple: just add

a shadow.

,se angulu lines for


?De s Gontour



reak is fiick.

1-/ t-/

&rving a Gharacter That Feminine Touch

o Enlarge the eyes. o Darken the eyelashes.


Move the neck contour

Designing a Character That Looks Feminine


Accentuate the eyelashes and lips.


Use more detail in

the hair.

inward, and draw the neck long and thin.

ilfltaking a Guy Look Like More a Guy Designing a Character That Looks Masculine


Reduce the size of the irises.


o Make the neck thicker.


Use a heavy line for the face's contour and thicken the eyebrows. Accentuate the bridge

of the nose.

Angular, bony facial

facial contour can also be applied to a male character's face.

contours are not usually used with female faces.


Pointers in Drawing Cute Female Characters Not good 1, Enlarge the eyes.


Here, the eyes are small and the bridge of the nose is preser

Smallish eyes

2. Omit the bridge of the nose.

Downward tilted eyes

lM@m Upward tilted eyes

0trte Accessories and Hairstyles


1 't,'l\i,,

,r\' \I

The headband should be drawn coming behind the ear.




z----=\-_ L 'r\ilNtrr,),r

Short, high piggy taits

,,' , :- Glasses

(Boxy, prominent frames shown)

Bound frames (No ,*rames around lensesl



Greating Adult Faces Mature Character

Yourfiful Character

Reduce the sizes of the eyes and irises.

S. W


The eyes are


-rb Lengthen the

made large.


distance from the lower lid to the nose.

Use fewer lines in small drawings.


a? nJ

Pay attention to tlt:

size of the eyes.

Give the neck more

gifth that you would for a young character.

Rendering the Closing of the Eye and Depicting Eyelashes Sidelong



!i 3 :J!,,:a a;rgle. closed i f,!'Nr^r[?i] lUn{8. 5E

eYes follow

At a low angle, the eYes take on an uPward curve.

Use the same downward curve for

the eyelashes of the uPPer eYelid that you would for a closed eYe.

C;tose-ups of the Lips





\@ 59

The Basics of the Human Figure Making Etfective Use of Even and Tapered Lines


Use a tapered line for the point where the shoulder

Uentuating ffe muscular


:e =,

nardness of the male




roomy, undulations form owing to protrusions and recesses in the body, such as the shoulder blade, waist,

joins the neck, since it also marks the swell of the muscle.

urill allow you to suggest

:cd'y. so use even lines

While the suit jacket is


s'roulder blade and

The bony shape of the elbow

" 3 b0ne

is discernible. Use both even


and elbows.

and tapered lines when

drawing a male character in order to achieve a rugged, craggy appearance.

\ i)

-lraw a downward, tapered re cutting ever so slightly

"'*ard. This subtle touch ,,,"1,


accentuate the figure's

:.rscular look, generating

a sense of manliness. ln

:cntrast. use smooth, Jicroken lines for a female







waist{o-hip contour


i N

Bunching formed by the loose trouser fabric.




Use a tapered line where the swell of the breast begins, since the

breast does constitute a natural mound of flesh.

:ir're fiese are inward-


wrinkles, use




ii'r{: ?/en strokes used


to suggest the llc :reated by the bent r;. Slnce the folded '*sfi- ts concentrated in




These diagonal strokes are not used with

we see a tapered

direction, the

sfoke is the main

Even strokes are used

here to delineate the staft of the toes on the top of the foot, while tapered strokes are

nudes. They appear here to suggest the roundness of the

blouse's shoulder. Use even lines.

used for the underside.

iE Use rounded, diagonal lines to suggest the bulge of the kneecap underneath jeans or snugly fitting pants.

re r

This shading. used tor underside of a leg dad


tighty fitting jea,rs. s same as that usec or a nude figure"


Making the line heavier in strategic locations

will generate a sense of volume and presence.

Pointers in Thickening (Darkening) Lines

lnside of the neckband and

Juncture where the Jnderarm and other ,res overlap

gap between the collar and neck

This figure was drawn using a

Shadow forming as air moves under the cloth

uniform line thickness. While this is acceptable when designing a character or when producing anime genga (drawings of key action scenes), in the case of manga,il makes for an unimpressive product.


Line Modulation

When emphasizing form, use an even line.

Use a modulated line when

intending to accentuate softness or a sense ol volume.

,-z--\ J


: tird:

:r:t:-i-: -S f'! ir*j i"rlf -,:t-- - El:l


Here. portions of lines have been

modulated by building them up .rslrc a dic or technical pen.


nig! and low angtes, use heavier lines

in *0r

oDlects ctose to the picture plane.

Lighrsource y#l;Hiff'il::,ffiT1ili;ii$il:'ffi:li:'




heavY lines

for tre side oPPosite $e light source.

Light Source



lnked drawing

Hatched drawing

Under drawing


.s Screen tone finish (Screen t0ne ,,,,,as crc developed as an alternative f0r l.a:Eh.r-a"c'



hactirxlApplication: Achieving a Sense of Volume Using Hatching, Etc. Blouse & Tight Miniskirt

Use clean lines


blouse creases.


\ --/-.


Tight T & Jeans


Since this tufileneck has a snug fit, use

short, diagonal lines for shading. Use widely spaced lines for sweaters. Unlike with the sweater, use clean, fine,


diagonal lines for the T-shirt.

-te ra,gonal lines iUlrtu

:i,'3geSt the

ru::rg s texture. "y :'reaters, use llfllE: lr-es lr,ng-F-afi the rlnts; :r-d on the .ilf--E

Depending on the angle,

it may be better to omit shading under the chest to make this snugly fitting shirt looks properly like a T-shirt.


faffig -E



the Back

srslMer blade and waist are the main pa!"E

atrertins crease formation in

nnffirnq. Add creases and diagonal strokes -fu slrading focused primarily on the right or eQ $uullder blade, depending on the


Sweater Use broad shadows. Emphasize


drectb{r that fie figure faces.

Single-stroke crease


indicating the shape of the shoulder blade

Raising both shoulders causes the right and left

shoulder blades to shift closer to the spine. Wearing a snug{itting

blouse in the same pose, an inverted Y

Sunken areas

K lmagine 2 rhombuses when

drawing the shoulder blades.

68 Lines


to Reinforce Body Types

Emphasizing Curves

o Drawing Slim Figures

\rlare extensive

tse of diagonal nes and solid

:racks to u-derscore the


of the


Use as unmodulated lines as possible for

the figure's contours.

ir;ure's hills

rr1 valleys. --ese diagonal lines :rading) on and

r:emeath the r-est emphasize the "qne I


of the breasts

iâ&#x201A;Źavy lines

u r:centuate

nr :f:est, !lrr:


- lPS.

Use a genty

sloping curve from the hip to the thigh.






Drawing the Back


nguishing Female Body Types Athletic Build

Slender Build

Average Build

Draw the neck on the

shorl side to evoke the proper look.

When drawing the

arms and legs, visualize a long,

Muscular shoulders

smooth column. The limbs are

clearly indented at the

joints. ....

\ F eshy

thighs Slim thighs:

Bulging muscles

Visualize a uniform

appear in the thighs and calves.

column for the legs as a whole when drawing.

Draw long, slender fingers.

Draw cherubically chubby fingers gently tapering from knuckle

i[-< ru'r],i':.:: l? s-r:Lir:E": :i-a? l:3' Ie :j15 :r:r:i -,:E

lnverted triangle



to fingertip,

Draw large joints tc generate an angula look.

The shoulders and hips have approximately the same width.

Give this figure wider

shoulders than hips.

Key Feature in the Side View: The posterior

Take care with thickness of the arms and wrists and the shape of the calves.

Average Build Structural Diagram

Slender Build Structural Diagram

The waist does not taper, and

The shoulder and back of the posterior can be connected by an almost perfectly straight line.

the posterior protrudes.

Athletic Build Structural Diagram

Since the shoulders and chest are muscularly developed, the posterior ends

further inward.

L'rnon ll/


l! I ir ( )

i,a tl t'

l,i: ll tl

\ ,i Sweilofagenfly


Stender i


ll l,







(, ('*"*






(ey Feature in the Rear View: "Tm Shoulder Blade

The athletic build

is muscularly The back has greater

The back on a slender

developed. The

amounts of fatty tissue in an average build. The shoulder blade juts out stighfly.

build is on the thin side, and the shoulder blade is clearly

shoulder blade is visible to the point where its skeletal



shape is clearly






p, / breast size, the 1 Al more the tiP of the willextend -l )&\r\ breasts beyond the tip of --\ tnenose. /t \ ,/\ // \\ ./ \



, \


<--F \(



When Wearing a T-Shifi

Draw few creases in the clothing for small breasts and deep creases for large breasts. Use hatching, etc. to distinguish the different sizes.

For average-sized breasts, the chest is moderately accentuated


\ -\r




.//// owi











l\* \, \



:pr small breasts, the chest is rendered in typical fashion

4 \\\


:!'n large breasts, the chest is accentuated to the extreme




i N*






nguishing Male and Female Figures j,'raden the

As men and woman have different skin and skeletal structures, care should be

sloulders of male rharacters. The hips

taken with the figures' siihouettes.

should be narrower

fian the shoulders.

The hips of a

female character should be as wide or wider than the shoulders,

The neck is long and slender.

While brawny male characters The torso of a male figure is

do have beefy -nighs, the thigh

thicker than that of a female

should never have more girth than


The arm is slender and graceful.

waist. The waist is trim and may be drawn with the same girth as that of the

Accentuating the calf muscles :reates a robust

fattest paft ol the thigh.


Depiction of musculature and skeletal structure is often omitted from a female figure's arms, stomach, knees, and legs.

Adding lines to the knees to suggest the kneecap evokes a rugged appearance,

)ravring the arms thick and

:rpnasizing musculature will set a snarp contrast with those of a figure.



- =:rent Iines should also be used to draw -:.' ard female figures. Use finer lines, :*rr.'., ng less pressure to the pen when


\t\ Not good




irg female figures.

Here we have a poorly drawn sample, where not only the lines, but also the shoulder blade and the posterior are handled in the

manner of a male figure.

h )


Here we have a well-drawn sample, where the lines are flowing and the pans of the back (i.e. the shoulder blades, spine, and posterior) have been handled differenfly from

that of a male figure.


Use angular

Use a crescent

shadow to suggest

shadow for giving

thickness in the hard muscles of a le figure

volume to a female

figure's curved surfaces.



Drawing Different Male Adjusting the Neck's Thickness and Length


The neck's girth

@ The shoulders' breadth

@ The torso's thickness


This figure features a long and slender neck, creating the look

of a style-conscious tyPe male

@ The arms' and legs' girth


Despite that the shoulders of this figure are the same, the thicker and shofter neck suggests a rugged, muscular character.

Adjusting the Neck and Shoulder Width

FM /rv\ Fr7

Here we see a broad shoulderec

Average build

Here, we see narrow shoulders and a slender neck, suited toward adolescent boys and young men

build. Top the shoulders with a short neck.

with slender builds.

This expanse suggests the thickness of the torso from the shoulder.

Adjusling the Torso's Thickness: Suggesting a Muscular Build

Muscular build

Broaden the


Average build



Accentuate the

muscles in the shoulders and



beef up the arms,

The curved line extending

from the underarm to the waist is a key Point.

The key points in distinguishing

Distinguishing Average Builds from Muscular Builds

an average build from a brawny

build lie in the neck, the chest, and the arms.

Drawing the arm on a brawny

build at about 1,5 times that of an average-build character will establish a clear distinction.

This contour suggests a

well-developed chest. Flank muscles The addition of this line Avoid drawing abundant muscle contours on the

indicating the bottom of $e ribcage gives the abdomen a taut appearance,

abdomen of an averagebuild character: keep it simple.

\erage -,*


reck and

:e lTn are rerir at *E



Muscular Build

.F, .:Ls:ng

The chest on a

muscular build appears puffed out.


i'r,f;r;eSS Of the


and girth of

:rE :{-,."ts and neck

iszf, shes a :r=r-xrce in build, *r,,ry ri








This figure shows

the muscles of the abdomen accentuated.


ff chitd


,a \ chird

\ /\

m Man

N chitd

Lines Used on the Back of the Hand

A man's hand has a rugged, knobby appearance. Depicting the skeletal and muscular structure will elicit a 3-dimensional feel.

Draw the lines on the back of the hand extending from almost the knuckles' centers. Emphasize the knuckles.


ihornan's Hand

Draw long, tapered nails. These lines are drawn the same as

those on a man's hand-from almost knuckles' centers. However, the protrusion of the joint is downplayed. These curved strokes are kept short

The knuckles are minimized.

/ -'t

and delicate.


frngers are

n'awn at 2/3 the f ckness of a



ltand Gâ&#x201A;Źsfures and Poses

Tendons lying underneath the

skin cause lines to form on top of the foot.

Lines Appearing on the Top of the Foot Tendons are included when intending to give a foot that masculine, rugged look.


,//\ ! '=-\ \"\ \ \.

The tendons extend

from the joints' centers. Tendons become prominent when applying pressure to the foot or raising a toe.

The foot will appear busy and cluttered if too many tendons

are drawn. Reduce the number you draw according to the angle.


tendons are usually visible even when the foot is in a

'' ued state. However, the tendons may be omitted when :':wing the foot in a relaxed state in order to render more .-:ctively (i.e. distinguish from) those times when the toes ,.-: raised or pressure is applied to the foot.


Draw the foot first and then the shoe on toP.

Note that the toe of highheeled shoes is different from that of an actual foot.

When drawing flat-heeled or athletic shoes, start with the outline, drawing it as i{ enveloping the foot.

Up Waking (Sdne

Showing Gharacters Moving

Oeslgn and Portrayal)

The 3 key Elemants in a Character Walking

Scenes of a character waking

are among the most common in manga. The character asleep.

The eyes open.


The character rises. The first page of a mangawill often include an establishing panel showing the sun rising as its initial panel, indicating that the scene takes place

at dawn or in the morning. Notes . Shifting angles and movements are also included in these key elements.


'[" The Character Asleep. iltLil: s:,Ii cf expression does she




't*-â&#x201A;Źr o 1:rdr f:85 Shâ&#x201A;Ź appear when asleep? " {thE{: :i-i: rri-ie.n is she sleeping?


2. The Eyes 0pen. Does she wake up immediatelY?


0r, is she groggy and grumpy? ln which direction does she sleep?

. . Under what circumstances does she awaken? What is her PersonalitY? These points tie into the next element,

where the character rises.

Facial expressions and body language help illustrate the character's personality.

3. The Character Rises.


ls she reluctant to get out of bed? o ls she cheerful and alert? Does she hop out o{ bed? o Contrast the character's appearance


waking with her appearance sleeping. These allow you to portray the character's personality.

ln most cases, mangaaftists have no leeway in allocating scenes of a character waking to a significant number of pages. Such scenes function as an introductory scene {or the protagonist 0r an incident within the story portraying the personality or private liJe of the protagonist. Scenes like these do not usually extend beyond one page.

Compositional Samples ffi a Character Waking

A Leisurely Wake-up Here we have a peaceful, everyday scene. The first two panels may be condensed into one by omitting the first panel, which

portrays "sunlight"

or "the sky" and combining it with the second panel to

show sunlight falling on the character.

2qe with the Sleeping Figure Emphasized emphasizing the sleeping figure, the scene is -s-aily drawn up to the characler opening her eyes, ur.r e the panel of her rising is omitted. Lltii'en

lim Latel Scenes like this are primarily used to portray

the character waking in a flurry. This is a popular form of portrayal, usually based on the concept that the character overslept.

Slowly Unfolding Scene Scenes like this may take up 2 or more pages. The first scene shows the character asleep and then her eyes opening. The second page

shows her rising. This approach is used with full-length mangaor where "the morning" or "waking" constitutes a major plot development for the story.


hes SEq*ng

You are not required to show the entire figure when drawing a character sreeping. rn fact,

it may be more effective not to. prease note, however, that when cropping a tiguie, draw -'the portions not visibre, beyond the pane|s borders as weil to ,n.rr. ine-rigrr;ir' drawn correcfly.

line may mark the grounc or floor line, or even the edge of the bed.





-'ese are the basic actions in rising.


Sample: A Jolting Wake-up


Facial Expressions

Drawing Any Expression I

m ag ina b I

e H;xlli'I-'r',l33,i',:'

to Portrav

Portraying lacial expressions by

manipulating solely the eyebrows:

OOOO When the eyebrows are left the same, and the other facial features are manipulated:

Not good



\1 s:i,' E

&,. S,itl

*;i,t' ialr;


thing the Eyebrows to Portray Emotion: Joy/Pleasure Anger, SorroMPity, Surprise

"Joy, anger, pity, and pleasure" are generally regarded in Japan as the 4 basic emotions. However, there is not much difference between "joy" and "pleasure" when rendered visually. Consequenfly, I tacked on the much-used-in-manga emotion of "surprise."










Mouth Movements: Depicting Basic Uowel Sounds TIe following are the most common shapes taken by the mouth when expressing a character's emotional state. They are essential to porlraying a character full of life. Side View

i c----,

t D



u U Q Q ?\


Rendering the Mouth's lnterior Upper lip

A.natomy of the


,\ \

Top row of


teeth Upper

\=-. =----4.' \d-^a


(Maxillae) Throat


This figure shows the outline


of the lips.

Bottom row

Portions of the teeth and the mouth's interior are

of teeth

Lower lip

covered by flesh.

,ffEtnd\ *)

r1-) \,4tJt

\H \rffr"Y

Sssorted Manga-esque Expressi0ns


lf the skin were removed to reveal the


entire mouth, it would look something like Here, the



th is.

been rendered solely as an outline. The


teeth and tongue have been omitted.

/iren sh0wing the -outh just barely


(-l //


:cen, draw only the - -rline of the lips.


( Top teeth only


\ Tongue only

Top teeth and tongue



s/\ w( \/

Corners of upper lip turned up


re mouth opens by the ,: r,,er jaw dropping. The -:per jaw does not move,


Speed lines are frequently used when drawing a character yelling.



Bottom teeth slightly revealed

Realistic mouth:Top ro and

bottom teeth and tongue





\ Screen tone finish (Gradation


Screen tone finish (Dot tone)


Clme-ups of the Mouth

There are occasions when drawing some of the inside of the mouth is effective in character close-ups.

fuce with mouth slightly open

The mouth's interior is typically

dark. However, blackening the mouth's interior or drawing each tooth faithfully could easily cause your drawing to have an unsettling leel-unless you are working in a realism

Revealing the Teeth: Exaggeration through Realistic Portrayal Here we see a relatively nonstylized, realistic portrayal. The teeth are {

rendered as a solid row rather than

\ I



o To shout, the mouth opens widely,

exposing the bottom teeth and tongue. Use simple lines to render them.

Here we see another shouting mouth. A large expanse of the lower jaw is visible. When the mouth is wide open, the inside flesh of the The canines

cheek swells.

The key is to leave a small space between the contour for the molars and that for the front row of teeth. This will also give the molars their

-ere, a center line has been added to the ":'ngue, heightening the realism. Since the -:uth is wide open, the canines are

distinctive thickness.

,'sible. The canines are often exaggerated

tr'en drawing vampires and demons.

J Mouth with molars given thickness

Here the mouth is open t0 the extent possible in a

fullthrottle yell. The upper jaw, which is in

fact stable, appears as it it could move, causing wrinkles t0 form at the sides of the nose, on the cheeks, and under the eyes. Furrows develop on the brow

Here we see a mouth open in full shout with the front teeth, the canines, and the molars faithfully rendered. The tongue has been abstracted and diagonal strokes used for the throat's dark interior, resulting in a powerful image.

Theatrical Eyes --\ YL-\


' The upper and lower eyelids move both up and down.

ng the



Normally, when the eye


is closed, the eyelashes

shut, the eyelashes take on an

form a downward curve.

upward curve, and creases form around the eye.

is squeezed

of the Eyes for Emotion Portrayal

Wide open eyes



Manga-style iacial expression

to Droopy eyes

Dramatic Porkayals:Mouth and Eye Combinations






Normally closed eye



Eye squeezed shut

Adjusting the shape or position of the ma'uJr

CErious Expressions wath

the Eyes Glosed

allows for a variety of facial expressiors. sve. when paired with the same eyes and eyebro,i,,E



l1es SQueszed shut


Maintaining the face in the same direction and at the same angle but changing the hair and the background

Uses of Showing the Eyes

makes this face adaptable to any number of scenes.

3/4 View

I tf It



6 Sleeping Scene: Adjust the flow of the hair and draw a mattress edge and pillow creases.




ihii \,.






0riginal drawing

Shower Scene: Draw water or perspiration droplets. Show the hair clinging to the face to suggest wet hair.






ll //

* s\'




//( I / /\)\

Eating Scene: Add chopsticks and a morsel of food.


Side VieW

Drawing a side view on a diagonal or horizontally suggests that the character is lying down or reclining. Here is the original drawing.


rotated it to a diagonal or till the head appeared lying down, setting up scenes of the character "nodding in acknowledgement, "

"sleeping," "eating," and "reading. "

Sleeping: I flipped the original drawing on its side and drew part of a comforter.

Here is the character

nodding in acknowledgement (greeting). I used the same angle (with respect to the panel)

for the eating and reading panels.

Reading: I simply added a book and a hand.

Nodding in acknowledgement

Eating: I drew a hand and fork, and

)ractical Application: Showering

this figure, I adlusted eyes and the moutr to suggest a smiling expression and drew the hair as if flowing in a breeze

Combining Features to Express Sample Emotions and Subtle Expressions Emotions Created by Combining Features Closing One Eye

4 IY_ Eyebrows: Angry

Eyebrows: Angry

Mouth: Smiling

Eyes: Hall closed

-rStruggling for patien

Mouth: Angry

--+Looking displeased,

GE) \Y


This expression could change dramatically by slightly altering the angle or adjusting the size of the mouth



Adjusting the Size of the Eyes Showing One Eye Slightly Glosed

Concerned -f j EVebrows: r;cutn:wry smile = -Casting a meaningful \_-/ glance, signali


Eyebrows: Asymmetrical

Eyebrows: Angry

Mouth: 0pen

Eyes: Both half closed

--+0bjectin g, com plai nin

Mouth: Smiling

--+Smiling scornfully, jeering

Using Eye Movement to Express Emotions

Changing the appearance of


mouth can also

dramatically atfect the mood.

Eye Portrayal Unique

to Manga Using Ditferent Shapes for the Eyes and lrises


These are rarely used with realistic characters



o 6;) v-/


with small images, these illustrate a flabbergasted, Used

dumbfounded, disgusted

Blank Eyes


0ften used in close-ups, these are used to show

dumbfounderment, shock, or a glazed, vacant look.



Since the lower eyelid is being seen through the tear (liquid), render

it using a finer line.


As tears are a liquid, using

an elliptical shape creates the look of tears brimming over. Use a broken line for the tear's contours.




When drawing

streaming tears, imagine water falling along a surface. Use a gentle arc following the cheek's curved surface.

eg Stylized Tears: Assorted Grying Faces


Sample Crying Faces


,,//{i )

\ b

Strrrholic Representation



of Emotion

Undemeath and above the eye

Fine lines are used as a rule.



a smile, the vertical line shading suggests a lc covering something plaguing that character. lerrcal lines belie the smile.

Ar_r s{fl



Note that use 0f thick lines will look like some sort of decorative patterning on

the character's face.

. .

Express tension, unease, and the depth of emotion Can be used in dramatic as well as humorous situations


Comical rendition

Serious rendition

A single, large sweat bead

Combination of sweat

used for a comical rendition

bead and vertical lines



. Used to express realization or surprise t-=7 . Can also be used with a smile or to express


joy or cheerfulness

While there are n0 set rules regarding the number of dashes or where they are placed, about 3 to 4 lines works fine.



Drawing dashes on both sides suggests joyful cheer.

\ -=





1:s rnay cause their intended -: Secomg vague.






These are often used to show a character suddenly turning red or suggest embarrassment

* & i:






About 2 to 3 lines are appropriate. When drawing a close-up of a character drawn in a realistic style, use numerous, clean, fine lines.

,7 A {t' U //.

Take care in that making blush lines too small can cause them simply to look like smudge marks.






'$D I

When angered, our blood

flows faster, and when truly incensed, the blood vessels at the temple become engorged and rise. The "cross mark" is a symbolic representation of this phenomenon.

Felt-tip pens work well with this mark.

m -rccrnered cross mark

4-cornered cross mark


c' Iffi"ffi#:;il: ffi:i?ll iilx'#,ilfilx;,

Mw )








)N /,,.4/F

0ther Popular Symbolic Representations

Horns, fangs, and

lightening bolts

Draw a smaller version when creating a close-up of a character rendered realistically.

Using the Mouth to Show Emotion Long e





: -

@6ffix The size and shape of a speech balloon change along with the intensity of Standard face

emotion. The stronger the emotion, the larger and more exaggerated the mouth, and the larger the speech balloon and copy inside.

Long oo

Short e

Long o



a) Yeeshl?

5) Smiling Faces Ah ha ha ha ha ha

Giggle, giggle

"Tee hee hee" etc. may also be used.


t3 ,'ft l./

oh, ha ha ha

\./-/ When writing



omit the puff (sigh).

Tee hee hee or hee hee hee are other opilons.


Chibi (Super-deformed) Gharacters and Vowel Sounds




? |(q1

Manga Miscellaneous

Creating Key Images and Gharacter Entrance Scenes

The key is to draw the

character so that her back (back of the neck) and left foot follow the same line as they rest against the wall.



When drawing key images and character entrance scenes, do not just simply make your subject large, but rather draw a pose, showing the character leaning against an object. The image will carry even more impact if you keep vague against exactly what the character is leaning.


Character resting her

:lbows on a table

Character leaning against

the panel frame

\ ,)

Character leaning against a pillar


\ Character leaning out beyond the Panel frame

Vehicles and Figures: Driving Scenes

When illustrating a character driving, you are often portraying scenes where the character would actually be hidden by the car's roof or hood (i.e. when the figure would not appear in a photograph). Check out angles and shots used in movies and W dramas for pointers.

The steering wheel is actually larger fian you probably imagine.

This is a gpical car-driving shot. Key points are the partially visible steering wheel and seatbelt, and the window frame on the opposite side of the car.

Perspective reference drawing

Here, the steering wheel is contrasted with the hands. Pay attention to the steering wheel's diameter and thickness and take care that the wheel does not become too thin. a


Special effect lines are drawn in this direction. Use straight or curved lines to match the scene or purpose of the drawing

This composition tirequently appears in

acceleration" scenes. Draw



+om a relatively low ar,Ele: omit car windows a",0 other interior

'?erres. filling in the


space instead


:r'eed iines and fie like.

This is the portion typically used in a


Perspective reference drawing of the passenger


Normally in a car, there would be enough space (sense

of distance) between the 2 characters to fit another figure.


0verhead perspective drawings of fie cars and passengers

Suggesting Movement Using a Single Panel: Glancing Back Taking Notice and Glancing Back

(- -) \:-/


Here, rather than showing physical movement, only the gaze is shifting.

As the face and body are facing different directions, movement is given to the

Repetition of similar cuts would result

in bland manga; however, since compositions like this do seem to carry significance, artists tend to lure themselves into thinking they are

composition. This

combination is used both

for "taking notice" and

showing movement. This is a common fap for beginning artists.


Dashesarea standard means of indicating "taking

"looking back."

The Most Common lngredient of "Taking Notice" and "Looking Back": Showing the Back and Face





I l, ,l it. \ '\-.,, l



The Gaze and Flow of the Hair Evoke a Sense of Movement

Even if the full figure will not be included in the panel, drawing the entire upper body or full figure will give your bust and close-up compositions a sense of energetic movement.

When you are able to give torsion to your figure's waist, then you will finally be capable of creating a striking, "key" image.


Penning Techniques Th

at G reate Depth

Using a finer line for the horizon than for fie figure will generate a sense of deph.

Using a finer line for the horizon than for the figure will generate a sense of depth.



Reducing the concentration of diagonal strokes used for shading in the gossamer lace will give a sense of volume to the "closer" lace.

Space (Wind)


z \


Drawing clothing, angelic robes or other sort of shawl or scarf, or long hair sweeping in a wide arc around a central figure allows you to suggest space (wind). Special effect lines representing wind appear in 2 locations at the top and bottom of the composition.

Tipse wind lines, not visible in actuality, are used to create a sense of the ,,air,s density" or speed. The lines can be rendered in various forms, be it straight or curved. Here, sweeping arcs are used to suggest air swirling. Having the wind lanes become finer as they wrap around toward the back of the figure allows the lines themselves to give the composition a sense of depth.


tlater Dmpleb

The key point here is the contrast between the sizes of the water droplets and splash. ln the foreground, a large wave and a large ,,proximity.,, splash of water appear in the foreground

to suggest

The tiny circle centered at the woman's face is in fact a water droplet. The contrast between the small water droplets and the large splash create a sense of space and depth.


/ ^o

The contrast between black, white, and greys form the water's surface. Hatching was used for the greys. lcy poirlt is tre shapes used for the mosaic water pattern for:med by reflected-tignt. Since this is still a ltcutd s:rrace. geomekic patterns drawn using curved lines were used to suggeit the waves' undulations. A


Making Gorrections ffiite

Brushes for use with white paint

Paint Diluted with Water:Water-based White paint

ffi Misnon comes equipped with a

White poster paint


Misnon W-20 For use with

permanent ink

brush attached to the cap. This brush is NOT suited to detailed




Note: Too much water

can cause the paint

to become too dilute.

Place some paint

in a small dish.

a\L -V

Use fine brushes like a

mensofude (thin brush used to render facial features) or a h a kke

i (ultr a-fine

m e n sof u d e ).

Arlcl water

Mix well.

Clean up lines sticking beyond boundaries, etc.


As water-based white paints age, they begin to dry out and become difficult to apply.


The Misnon brand uses a special liquid that easily damages the brush. "Once you have finished using the paint, wash the brush well.

Clean-up target

Cleaned-up image

quick brush strokes. Do not rub the paper.

Using White for Special

to Eyes

o Mistakes made with water-based technical pens and felt-tip pens are

difficult to correct.


an oil-based product to conect waterbased materials.

Create tiny dots by tapping with a brush.

.0il-based products consist of correction pens, white ink pens, and liquid paper.


Artist's Profile

Hikaru Hayashi '1961 Bom in Tokyo.

1986 1987 '1989

1992 1997 1




Graduated with a degree in the Social Sciences and Humanities from Tokyo Metropolitan University with a major in Philosophy. Received a hortative award and honorable mention for his work on Shueisha lnc.'s Business Jump and served as assistant to Hajime Furukawa. Worked on Shueisha's Shukan Young Jump while apprenticing under Noriyoshi lnoue. Published his debut work based on a true story, " Aja Kongu Monogatari ' ["The Story of Aja Kong"] in Bear's Club. fuunded lhe manga design and production studio, Go office. Produced illustrations for the works Butsuzo ni ai ni iko lon the appreciation of Buddhist sculpturel by Hiromichi Fukushima (published by Tokyo Bijutsu lnc.) Authored How to Draw Manga: Female Characters, How to Draw Manga: Male Characters, How to Draw Manga: Couples, and How to Draw Manga: lllustrating Baftles. Authored How to Draw Manga: Bishoujo around the World, How to Draw Manga: Bishoujo/Pretty Girls, How to Draw Manga: 0ccult and Honor, and How to Draw Manga: More about Pretty Glas; promoted, produced, and wrote lhe manga copy for Koki lshii's Kokuhatsu manga riken reffo (book on the wasteful spending of Japanese politicians), published by Nesco Co., Ltd.; and produced the corporate identity mascot characterforTaiyo Group driving school. Authored How to Draw Manga: Animals ; produced and initiated the release ol Bishoujo Fighting, a dojinshi (lanzine or small press comic) for pro wrestling fans under the name 0f Meto (a fanzine specializing in woman's wrestling and cat fight videos, published biannually when matches occur; fifth issue on sale as of 2002).


Coauthored How to Draw Manga: Martial Arts and Combat Sports, How to Draw Manga: Giant Robots, and How to


Manga: Costume Encyclopedia, Everyday Fashion. Coauthored More How to Draw Manga Vol. 1 and How to Draw Manga: Costume Encyclopedia, lntimate Apparel, published by Graphic-sha. Mr. Hayashi continues the planning and production of origlnal Go ffice fanzines.


Rio Yagizawa with an A blood type. She first started doodling in pencil in nursery school and made her first attempt at drawing mangain pen during the fifth grade. ln junior high, she began to produce doujinshitype mangaworks with friends from upper grades and in her class. Ms. Yagizawa was born in Tokyo on January 8. She is a Capricorn

ln 1981 she debuted as an illustrator with Minori Shobo's monthly publication, Gekkan 0W. She acted as an illustrator, an aniparo (animation parody) and manga artist, an anime writer, etc., contributing illusfations to Minori Shobo's Aniparo Comics, Akita Publishing's My Anime,fokuma Shoten's Animage, elc. ln 1 986 she debuted as a full-fledged manga aftislin Kobunsha's Comic Val. Since then, she has contributed series and single publication works to Kobusha's Pretty,as well as cover and page illustrations for paperback editions targeted toward young readers published by Seishinsha, Kadokawa Shoten, Shogakkan, and other publishers. She has aufiored g mangavolumes and illustrated more than 25 paperback books. ln 1998 she began to participate on the production side with Graphic-sha and Go 0tfice, starting Couples and continues such efforts today.

witr How to Draw


Go Otfice Profile Go 0ffice was founded in May 1997 and has been specialzing in the production of tutorial resources using manga and

illustrations, which include publications on How to Draw Manga series.


ct 9



$n?ffuToDRA)/ r81.1

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us $19.99 Vol.7: AMAZING EFFECTS Chapter 1 The Basics in Composition Chapter 2 The Basics in Character Portrayal Chapter 3 The Basics in Voice Portrayal Chapter 4 The Basics in Panel Design Chapter 5 The Basics of Manga Portrayal lsBN4-7661 - 1 480-9

Vol.8: SUPER BASICS Chapter 1 Materials and Simple Means of Usage Chapter 2 Creating Manga Chapter 3 Drawing People and Animals Chapter 4 Manga Techniques Chapter 5 Depicting Greenery and 3-Dimensional Objects Chapter 6 Creating Well-composed Manga lsBN4 7661-1481-7


More How to Draw Manga Vol. 1 : The Basics of Character Drawing Chapter 1 Drawing in Pencil Chapter 2 Drawing Faces Chapter 3 Drawing the Figure Chapter 4 Manga Miscellaneous tsBN4-7661 -1 482-5

More How to Draw Manga Vol. 2: Penning Characters Chapter'l Pen Fundamentals Chapter 2 Making Characters Distinctive Chapter 3 Facial Expressions Chapter 4 Manga Miscellaneous tsBN4-7661







More How to Draw Manga Vol.3: Enhancing a CharacterAfs Sense of Presence Chapter 1 TheTrick to

a Character's Sense of Presence Lies in the Tone Work Chapter 2 What ls Meant by Character Shading and Color Portrayal Chapter 3 Portraylng Movement io :nhance a Character's Presence Chapter 4 More Manga tsBN4-7661-1484 1

More How to Draw Manga Vol. 4: Mastering Bishoujo Characters Chapter 1 Twelve Characte'ry,o:s Chapter 2 Making the Figure Niove tsBN4-766 1 -1 485-X

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Profile for Dayla Assuky

More how to draw manga vol 2 penning characters  

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