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PHAN TH Ị MINH CHÂU (Chủ biên) LÊ THANH HÀ (Biên soạn, tuyển chọn và giới thiệu)

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Các chuyên ñể ngữ âm, ngữ pháp, từ vựng, kỹ năng nói, ñọc, viết nâng cao và các bài tập luyện theo cấu trúc ñể thi Học sinh giòi Tiếng Anh THCS và ñề thi vào trường chuyên. Hướng dẫn làm các dạng bài thi Học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh THCS Hướng dẫn chi tiết ñáp án

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Tuyển tập các ñề thi Học sinh giỏi Tỉnh môn Tiếng Anh THCS và ñề thi vào trường chuyên.

N H À XUẤT B Ả N ðẠ I HỌC Q ư ố c GIA HÀ NỘI

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Các bài thi Học sinh giõi Tiếng Anh và các bài thi vào Trường chuyên, lớp chọn luôn luôn là các bài thi ñầy khó.khăn, thử thách nhưng cũng ñầy hấp dẫn ñối với các em có niềm ñam mê học Tiếng Anh và muốn học Tiếng Anh giòi ñể có thể sử dụng Tiêng Anh tôt trong công việc tương ỉai cùa mình: Một số em có thể chưa ñạt ñược kết quả cao trong các kỳ thi Học sinh giỏi có lẽ vi các em chưa ñược cung cấp các kiến thức nâng cao của chương trình học một cách ñằy ñủ, cũng có thể các em chưa có kỳ năng lảm bài thi và cũng chứa quen các dạng bài thi. Chính vì thế, cuốn sách “Cẩm nang ôn luyện học sinh giỗi Tiếng Anh Trung học cơ sở” là cuốn sách ñược biên sọan với mục ñích giúp các em học sinh có thể tự mình ñào sâu kiến thức trên nền tảng kiến thức sách giáo khoa, tự mở rộng kiến thức ngôn ngữ, tự ôn luyện các dạng bài thi phô biên của các kỳ thi học sinh giỏi ñê có thê tham gia và ñạt kết quả cao trong các kỳ thi Học sinh giòi và các kỳ thi vào trường chuyên Anh, lớp chọn. Cuốn sách cũng sẽ giúp các em phổ thông cơ sờ tự trang bị cho mình một vốn kiến ngôn ngữ nâng cao, ñể sau này có thể tham gia các kỳ thi vào Cao ñẳng, ðại học hay tham gia các kỳ thi Tiếng Anh mang tầm quốc tế. Cụốn sách bao gồm 6 chuyên ñề chính ñược phân chia ñúng cấutrúccủa các bài thi học sinh giỏi mà các Trường, các Thành pho, các Sơ GD (các Tỉnh) hay sử ñụng

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Chuyên ñề 1: PHONETICS (Ngữ âm): Phần này giúp các em phân biệt các cặp âm hay nhẩm ỉẫn và cách ghi nhớ một số luật lệ ñánh trọng âm. V Chuyên ñề 2: VOCABULARY (Từ vựng): Phần này giúp các em hiểu ñược một số nét ñặc ñiểm ñặc trựng cùa cấu tạo từ trong Tiếng Anh, một số trưòng từ vựng ngữ nghĩa (các sắc thái nghĩa khác nhau của từ ñược dùng trong các vãn cảnh khác nhau), một số ngừ, thành ngừ cố ñịnh,. . . *:♦ Chuyên ñề 3: COMMUNICATIVE FUCTIONS (Chức nărtg giao tiếp): Phần này là phần kiểm tra khả năng giao tiếp qua các tình huống theo dạng viết. Phần này giúp các em có các kiến thức về văn hoá giao tiếp và có thể trả lời các câu hỏi íheo tình huống giaọ tiếp. ♦> Chuyên ñề 4: GRAMMAR (x\:s£r pháp): Phần này cung cấp các kiến thức ngữ pháp cơ bản và nâng cao theo tưng, chuyên mục CỉiỰvỄn ñề 5: COMPREHENSIVE READING (ðọc hiểu): Phẩn này giúp các em có thể nâng cao các kỹ năng ỉàm các dạng bài ñọc hiểu. ♦> -Chuyên ñề 6: W RITING (Viết): Phần này giúp các em hiểu và rèn luyện các cách thức viết thư, viết các bài luận theo chủ ñề. Ngoài ra, cuốn sách còn có Phần Giới thiệu một số ñề thi học sinh giỏitrong nhừng năm gần ñây 'và Phần ñáp ản các bài tập ôn luyệnvà các ñề thi. Với kinh nghiệm giảng dạy cùa mình, các tác giả cố gắng biên soạn, tuyên chọn và giới thiệu cuốn sách với hy vọng cuốn sách sẽ là tải liệu tham khảo có giá trị cho các em học sinh các bậc phụ huynh và các thây cô giáo. Cuôn sách sẽ không tránh

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Lời giới thiệu

Ị khỏi một số sai sót và những ñiểm cân bô sung. Rât mong nhận ñược nhiêu ý kiên 1 ñóng sop cùa các ñồng nghiệp và các em học sinh. Ị

Các tác già 3

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C h u y ẽ n ñè 1: PH O N ETICS (N GƯ AM)

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Ị A. LÝ THUYÉT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO I * DẠNG BÀI KIẾM TRA KIÉN THỨC NGỦ ÂM (PHONETICS) fThôn2 thirờng. tronc các bài thi tiếriíỉ Anh dành cho học sinh phổ thông cơ sở và phổ ; thông trung học, phần thi ngữ âm chí chiếm 5-10 câu. Tuy nhiên ñây lại là phẩn thách ; thức nhất ñối với học sinh vì tiếng Anh, như người ta vẫn nói, “viết một ñằng, ñọc một Ị nèo’'. Khác với nhiều niiòn tmìr khác, nííirời học chì cân hiẻu rõ cách kết họp c;k MiiUNÔn Ị âm, phụ âm lủ có thè phát âm ñúiiiĩ, tronu tiêníì Anh kien thức nuCr àm dll cỏ thê ñtrực [ củng cố thông qua việc nắm vữnỉỉ một số kiến thức cơ bản và thực hành thường xưyèn. ị Trong khuôn kho quyên sách này, chúng tôi chỉ ñề cập .ñến 2 dạng bài tập phổ ị biên nhât trong các kỳ thi chọn học sinh ỉỉiòi và co sănsi chì ra một so qui tắc rt<zữ âm ị nhằm giúp các em dễ dàng hơn trong việc xác ñịnh câu trà lời clìO loại bài tập này. Ị. Các bài tập trong sách cũng ñược sắp xếp theo các vấn ñề !ý thuvết ñưự'c ñểcập ñê ị thuận tiện cho các em thực hành những qui tắc ñã nêu. ị Tuy nhiên cùng cần phải lưu ý rằng, các qui tắc này không thê bao quát tất cà các Ị phạm trù trong phát âm tiếng Anil bỏi vì trong tiếng Anh có rất nhiều ngoại lệ. Do ñó. í- dể làm tốt phần này, ngoài việc nam vững các qui tắc dưới ñây, học sinh cũrtỉĩ cẩn phải j chú trọng tích lũy kiên thức trong quá trình học bằng cácli tập phát âm các từ theo Ị ñúng phiên âm cùa một cuôn từ ñiên tiêng Anh. [ DẠNG 1: Choose the word whose underlined p art ispronounced differently from the others. Identify your answer bv circling the corresponding letter A, B, c or D. (Chọn từ có phần gạch chân ñược phát âm với các từ còn lại). Cách làm : I Chí) ý xác ñịnh một sô cách phát âm sau I I/ Pronunciation of -ed I Khi phát âm các từ có tận cùng là -ed ta phải dựa vào âm cuối cùa từ trước khi thêm -ed [ * / id/: sau các âm ỉ V /d/: needed invited Eg. visited */ sau các âm / 0/ /k/ p/ /f/ / s/ / í / /tí / laughed washed Eg. looked * í ả!\ sau các phụ âm còn lại và các nguyên âm studied rained Egcleaned Ị Note: some special adjectives, some adverbs ending in 'ed' and 'eel' is pronounced / Ị id / (Một vài tính từ, trạng íừ tận cùng bằng ‘ed\ nhutĩg 'ed' ñược phát ỏm ỉà /ừ ư.) Ị Adị: naked, crooked, ragged, wretched, rugged, beloved, wicked, sacred Ị Adv: deservẻdỉv, supposedly, markedly, allegedly I 2/ Pronunciation of -s or -es (present simple/ plural nouns/possessive) Ị * /s/: sau các âm / 0/ /k/ p/ /f/ ỉ Eg. looks steps laughs I * /iz/: sau các àm /tí /. / í /. / 5 /. / d^/, / 7J. isỉ • Eg. watches judges washes I * /.z/: sau các phụ âm còn lại và các nguyên âm Eg. lives cleans needs

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NH ƠN

3/ Pronunciation of * TH ñược phát âm là / 0 / hoặc / ỗ / three, thank, breath, tenth, / 0/: / Ỗ/: this, that, these, those, father, mother. * CH ñược phát âm là / tí !\ I k/; / í / /tj/: phần lớn các từ có chứa nhỏm ‘ch’ ñược phát âm là / tj / như trong teacher, researcher, chair, achieve, watch, catch, teach, chat etc. /k/; một sổ từ như ache, backache, earache, headache, toothache,anchor, archeology, architect, bronchitis, chaos, character, chemical, chemistry, choir, chord, choreography, chorus, Christ, Christian, Christmas, chronic, chronological, echo, mechanic, monarchy, orchestra, orchidpsychiatrist, psychiatry, psychologist, psychology, schedule, scheme, scholar, school, stomach, technician, technique, technology /]/: phần lớn các từ này là từ vaỵ mượn từ tiếng Pháp như trong brochure, cachet, champagne, chauffer, chef, machine, mustache, parachute * c ñược phát âm là /k/; /s / ỉkỉ car, cai, cake, cook /s/ cell, circle, circus * T ñược phát âm là /t/; /tj /, / í /, / 5 / /í/: teacher, ten, take, computer /ỉỊ f(T before U) picture, actual, statue /ỉịn/ question / J /:notion, information, calculation, potential, essential 4/ Một số phụ âm ‘câm ” (silent letters) H = fhl hoặc silent: 5/ Một số cặp âm hay nhầm ỉẫn: long vowels and short vowels: Eg: /i/ & /í:/ (hit # heat); /a:/ & /A/ (far # cup); /e/ & / /se/ (man # men); /u/ & /u:/ (puil # pool),.. . . DẠNG 2. Choose the word with different stress pattern by circling the corresponding ! letter A, B, c or D. (chọn từ có phân nhâu âm khác với ỉừ còn lại) Cách ìàm. Theo một số chuyên gia ngôn ngữ và giáo viên Tìểng Anh, cần chú ý xác ñịnli một số quy luật cơ bảnnhấn trọng âm như sau: ® Luật lệ thông thường cho từ có 2 âm tiết là trọng âm ñược ñánh ờ âm tiết ñầu, nhưng nếu âm tiết ñầu là một tiền tố hay âm nhẹ (weak form), trọng âm ñược ñảnh ờ âm tiết hai. Ví dụ: 'market; 'commerce; *baker; ’candy; 'carrot: 'journey: ca'nal; ci'gar; pol'ice; poss'ess; rom’ance; guit'ar » Neu từ 2 âm tiết vừa là danh từ, ñộng từ, thì trọng âm ñược nhấn ờ âm ñầu tiên nếu nó lả danh từ, âm thứ 2 nếu nó là ñộng từ. Ví dụ ’increase (n) 'import (n) 'decrease (n) 'perfect (n) 'survey (n) in'crease (v) im’port (v) decr'ease (v) Per'fect (v) surVey (v) ! • Luật lệ thông thường cho từ có 2 âm tiết ià trọng âm ñược ñánh âm tiết thứ hai nếu âm tiết ñầu là một trong những tiền to sau: a, aby abs, ad, ac, af, aỉy

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an,ar,as,at; be; COỊ col;cơm ; con; cor; de; dis; e, ef, ex, em , eft, im , in; ob,

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Neu từ có 2 hoặc 3 âm tiết, trong ñó âm ñẩu tiên ]à các tiền tố vởi Iiíiuvên ảm dài như: /e:/; /o:/; /i:/; /ei/; /au/; /ou/ và theo sau ảm này là nhìmg phụ ảm, trọng âm ñưọ'c ñánh ở âm tiết (ờ tiền tố ñó), Ví dạ: 'absence 'adverb ’colleague ’essay 'concrete • Từ có 3 âm tiết thường có trọng âm nhấn ỏ' âm ñầu, nếu từ ñó có các tiền tố như: a, ab, abs, ad, ac, af, aỉ, an, ar, as, at; be; coỊ coI;com; con; cor; de; dis; e, ef, ex, em, en, ỉm, ỉn; ữb, op; pre,pro, re, sub, sup, sur, trail, ««,. . .. thi trọng,âm nhân ở âm tiêtthứ hai Uoăc thứ ba. Vi ả ụ: •

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Ví dụ: ab'oard al'ive abstract addr'ess achi'eve ad'opt acc'ord affirm all’y appr'oach • Neu ñộng từ có 2 âm tiết, trong ñó âm ñầu ià một trong các tiền tố: for, fore; out, thì ừọng âm ñược nhân vào âm thứ 2, nhưng nếu ñộng từ ñ.ó chuyển thành danh từ hay tính từ thì chúng ta nhấn trong âm ở: for, fore; out. Vi dụ: for'give (V) 'forgivable (adj) 'forgiveness (N) fore'see (V) 'fogettable (adj)

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od; pre, pro, re, sub, sup, sur, trail, unf. . .

’usually 'capital ’difficult 'favourite 'government Dec'ember Nov'ember tob’acco arr'angement underst'and • Từ có 4 âm tiết trở lẽn, trọng âm thường ñược nhấn ờ âm thứ 3, tính từ sau trờ về trước. Ví dụ : 1. -e'conomy eco'nomica! manu'factur':: ne’cessary cons'iderable I Ngoại lệ cho những trường*hợp có âm tiết bị giảm ñi, khôn 2 ñưọc phát âm. thì I trọng âm của các từ có nhiêu âm tiêt này ñược nhân ở âm ñâu tiên. I Ví dụ I 'business 'int/e/rest 'inưe/resíing 'secreưa/ry 'mis/e/rable * Neu từ tận cùng bằng: ic; icaỉ; ically; ỉon; ỉa; ial; ualỉ al; ian; iar; Itlar; ỉettce; ience; ỉency; iaftce; turn; ious; eous; tỉơus,. . . thì trọng âm ñuọc nhân ờ âm ngay trước các ñuôi này.

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Ví dụ : Econo'mic atmos’pheric description comm’erciai intel'lectual * Từ tận cùng bằng ous, ate, tilde, ỉty, ety, icaỉ, logy, graphy. metry, nomy, . .. ỉ , trọng âm thường ñược nhân ờ âm thứ 3, tính từ sau trò vê trước. Ví dụ : 1' f va'riety cap'tivity ad'vanturous .Con’siderate as’trology i • Từ tận cùng bang ade, ee; ese; eer; 00 ', oon; ette; esque, trọng âm thường ñưọc t nhấn ờ âm cuối. Vi dụ:trích đoạn bởi GV. Nguyễn Thanh Tú Giới thiệu WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON


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" rr tu inl ttọng am nhân ờ âm ñẩu: ’aìr-raỉd 'bookcase; coal-mine; ’crossword; 'tea-pot; ‘footprint I

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Từ ghép ñược kẹt hợp bởi một tính từ và ñanh từ, thì trọng âm nhấn ờ âm haj loud speaker; bad'tempered; second'class; j B. BÀI TAP ÔN LUYỆN !

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Dang b à n : Choose the word whose underlined p art is pronounced different!) from the others. Identify your answer by circling the corresponding letter Ẳ B, c or D * . !

Exercise I: (-ed /-ñ ending)

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c. enjoyed f<ẰỊ

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C- tasted /icẰ Ị ‘C j comprised (Cy picked c . contained c. watched c. ruled c ' controlled c . persuaded c . decorated damaued !C./separated c . pulled c terrified c . extended c . covered c,.arrived (c ro o k e d c . showed Ạ t/ c.supposedly / t ñ /

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1. A. answeredM / (^crow ded/ i d / 2. A. depended m f B. added M l A. prayed (B^mpressed A. designed B. ironed A opened B. closed Qyskied B. helped A. offered 8. A. exchanged 9. (^installed B. prevented 10- A. suggested B. congratulated 11. A. launched B. collapsed 12. A. occurred B. destroyed .13. A. proved fB-Vusted 14.(A? markedly B. unidentified 15. A. nominated B. celebrated 16.(A?)missed ( B. reduced Ỉ7. A. frightened B. organized 18. A. nuparieu imparted »o. ty B, molded e . molded 19. A. pleased / ñ / (gì instructed /X c // 20. A. re la x e d /1 / B. reached f t )

Exercise 2: -s/-es ending

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24. A. decks

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26. A. bottles

27. 28. 20. 30. 3 1. 32.

A. describes' A. composes A. houses A. walks A. cats A. tells

B. classes B. phones B. stays B. boats B. remarks B. novels B. encourages B. decorates B. places B. begins B.tapes B. talks

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0: potatoes

c. courses c . bays c . bears c . postcards

c . occasions c. judees c. expects c. horses c. helps c . lives c . stays

Di^booked Dywashed I ð. reduced : D. polluted wicked 1). worked D. warned D. claimed D. behaved (D ^replaced D. conserved (Ồ, relaxed D. mended D. killed / d / D. crossed D. watches D. places D. says D. stops D. .gallops D. poets D. washes D. drops D faces D. cuts D. cooks D. ste,als

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c. controls c . relaxes c . seems

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1

D. vegatables D. responds D. sleeps D. escapes D. behaviors D. waterfalls D. valleys D. loses

c . newspapers

B. magazines B. works B. slices B. laughs B. devices B. applications B. fifths B. reduces

c. appears c . victims c . grapes c . goes

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Ịs. A. biscuits 4. A. learns 5. A. rises r6. A. transmits i'7. A. volunteers 18. A. habits 19. A. cats ■0. A. fetches

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Exercise 3: P ro n u n c ia tio n o f “ th ”

c. breath c. theater

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c . arithmetic c . feather

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c. rhythm

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c . achieve c . watch c . chimney

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B. chair B. toothache B. character B. bachelor B. Christ B. Michael B. stomach B. chemical B. teacher B. backache

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c. clothing

Exercise 4: P ro n u n c ia tio n o f ‘c h 1

51. A. champagne 52. A. chaos 53. A. children 54. A. check 55. A. technique 56. A. monarchy 57. A. machine [58. A. butcher 59. A. much 360. A. cheap

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c . maths c . birthday

c . C hristm as

c . headache c . chef c . architecture c . which c.co ac h c . psychology

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{Exercise 5: P ro n u n c ia tio n o f ‘c \ ‘g ’

61. A. cruel 62. A. century 163. A. city ' 64. A. cite 65. A. magically 66. A. official 67. A. generous 68. A. gain 69. A. manager 70. A. begin

B. cross B. commercial B. racial B. cruel B. comment B. ocean B. glassware B geology B. magically B. eligible

c. c. c. c.

delicious cease precious commercial

c. academic c . convenient

c. gailery c . get

c . register

c. group

D. with D. father D.thin D. strengthen D. with D. breathe D. thirsty D. therefore D. bother D. together

TP

c. myth A c. these

B.tenth B. sunbathe B. thick B. without B. healthy B.leather B. Thursday B. author B. thought B-rather

ịl. A. both XI, A. tooth Ỉ3. A. this 14. A. within Ị5.. A. wealth 16. A. mother il. A. together 48. A. think Ị9.. A. though 50. A. method

D. pitcher D. archeology D.researcher D. catch D. lunch D. school D.chorus D. chocolate D. echo D. orchestra D. because D. ceiling D. sufficient D. cooperation D. cigarette D. precious D. sugar D. goose D. magnificent D. growing 9

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D. subtle D. doubt D. category D. Hinduis^n D. hole ... D. honour D. knowledge ð. blanket D. honestly D. whisper D. solemn D. paragraph D. separate 0 . course D. listen D. material D. two D. wonderful D. wrist D. build D. design D. sofa D. society D. slim D. assemble D. enough D. bright D. picture D. pastime D. banana *

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Exercise 6: (silent letters) c. benefit B. hamburger 71. A. baggy c . viable B. debt 72. A. comb B. microorganism c . grade 73. A. resign c . hedge B. honest 74. A. hobby c . exhausted B. brotherhood 75. A. household c . handle B. ghost 76. A. rhythm c . kangaroo B. knit 77. A. knee c . keen B. talk 78. A. knife c . careless B. compulsory 79. A. calm c . who B. white 80. A. what c . column B. occasion 81. A. autumn c . psychology B.receipt 82. A. pneumonia c . present B. raspberry 83. A. experience c . scenery B. campus 84. A. island c . effective B. hasten 85. A. fasten c . ballet B. chestnut 86. A. Christmas c . awareness ... B. sword S7. A. answer c . towards B. warn 88. A. wrinkle c . whole B. wrap 89. A. well-qualified c . biscuit B. ultimately 90. A. guitar Exercise 7: Pronunciation of 4S% ‘g h \ ‘t \ ‘n ’ c . taste B. mouse 91. A. display c . salt B.sugar 92. A. see c . sale B. exist 93. A. basic c . cousin B.aspect 94. A. seldom c . campus B. dense 95. A. possession c . tough B. though 96. A. laugh c.cou g h B. through 97. A. plough c . culture ' B. stop 98. A. future c. priority B. character 99. A. natural c . anchor B. jungle 100. A. thank Exercise 8. Vowel sounds c . creamy ð. crease B. creative 101. A. creature c. broad D. coat B.road 102. A. boat c. put D. push B. sugar 103. A. butter c. break D. steak B. bread 104. A. great c . eight D. vein B. height 105. A. weight c.so o n D. good B. food 106. A. too c. round D. out B.about 107. A. would B. sew knew D. new 108. A. few c. rather D. sacrifice B. father 109. A. hard c. massage D. carriage B. voyage 110. A. dosage

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c.

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ỊDạng bài 2. Choose the w ord w ith different stress p attern by circling the corresponding letter A, B, G o r JD. Exercise 9. W ord stress u 11. A. adorable B. ability c . impossible D. entertainment 1112. A. engineer B. corporate c . difficult D. different 1113. A. popular B. position c . horrible D. positive ;U 4. A. selfish B. coưect c . purpose D. surface ; 1Ì5. A. nominate B. susceptible c . resistant D. recovery Ll 16- A. eliminate • B. domesticate c . unlimited D. sabotage 117. A. sustantial B. technological c . exponential D. infiltration 118. A. immunity B. pursuit c . perfection D. confident . 119. A. accompany B. unfinished c . contagion D. separate Ũ 20. A. continent B. essential c. industry D. comfortable :Exercise 10. W ord stress ỊĨ.21. A.recycle B. completely c . introduce ð. alternative ; 122. A. religious B. miserable c . perform D. include 1123. A* significant B. quantity c . committee D. believable ; 124. A. ambitious B. constant c . investment D. exhaust •125. A. opportunity B. decoration c . temperament D. expectation ; 126. A, particular B. equipment c . identify D. miracle . 127. A. complete B. command c . common D. community 128. A. journal B. mourning c . calcium D. although U 29 . A. memory B. compare c. connect D. upgrade ^130- A. simulate B. permanent c . fertilizer D. variety |Exercise 11. W ord stress 131. A., accelerate B. digestive c . disorder D. infantry \ 132. A. cónvénieni B. previous C’ management D. purchase 1133. A. deliberate B. dramatist c . discovery D. improvement >134. A. redundancy B. comparison c. maintenance D. capacity Ị135- A. recognize B. stimulate c . activity D. adult 136. A. intelligent B. direct c. desire D. satisfactory 1137. A. relationship B. command c . vocabulaiy D. island 1 138. A. define . B. idea c . express D. figure VỈ39. A. suppose B. expect c . unusual D. literary 1140. A. magnetic B. radiation c . unpleasant D. equipment ^Exercise 12. W ord stress 114X A. distraction B. considerable c. recommend D. description Ỉ 142. A. probability B. attitude c . technological D. entertainment [143. A. emergency B. encourage c. shortage D. d istractio n 444. A. natural B- surplus c. dynamite D. decision 1145. A. create B. ordinary c. attitude D. scholar ; 146. A. obtain B. theory c. illustrate D. diagram

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B. manufacture B. assistant B. religion B. explorer

c. behavior c. enable c. suitable c. Italian

D. recommend

B. European B. valuable B. unnecessary B. complain B. strengthen B. relate B. available B. researcher B. continue B. reveal

c. century c. comment c. result c. arrangement c. forget c. empty c. different c. remain c. popular c. construction

D. spacecraft D. surface D. repeat D. temperature D. abolish D. effect D. sacrifice D. lable D. consumer D. together

c. support c. occasion c. eagerness c. deny c. result c. unfortunate

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ð. occur D. continue

B. inevitable B. iưelevant B. variety B. activate B. honor B. struggle B. politician B. nation B. position B. classical

c. innocent c. iưeparable c. psychological c. migrate c. title c. political c. immortality c. apply c. begin c. occasion

.D- insect D. irrational D. contribute D. inflate D. difficult D. society D. different D. moment D. enemy D. emotion

B. B. B. B. B.

c. industry c. integral c.succeed c. excite c. distinct

D. joyfulness D. expression D. event D. celebrate D. preview

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c . initiate c . arrival c. museum c. hollow

ð. friendship D. attempt D. phonetic D. language D.annoyed D. approximate D. project D. reception D. permanent D. fellow

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D. require

B. discomfort B. admit B. success B. hoưible B. imaginary B. astronaut B. profile B. announcement B. definite B. igloo

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147. A. gravitation 148. A. messenger 149. A. agree Ỉ50. Ạ. passenger Exercise 13, W ord stress '151. A. traveler 152. A. unmanned 153. A. leisure 154. A. already 155. A. result 156. A. suggest 157. A. colleague 158. A. discovery 159. A. identify 160. A. adequate Exercise Ỉ4. W ord stress 161. A. experience 162. A. numerous 163. A-immediate 164. A. conference 165. A-politics 166. A. Japan 167. A. consequently 168. A. conference 169. A. argument 170. A. ignite Exercise 15. W ord stress 171. A. innovate 172. A. irritable 173. A. spectacular 174. A. estimate 175. A. admire 176. A. describe ill. A. independence 178. A. comfort 179. A. ashamed 180. A. express Exercise 16. W ord stress 181. A. atmosphere 182. A. popular 183. A. solemn 184. A. anthem 185. A. settle

entertain different express lyric distance

12

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D. active D. misunderstand D. regional D. alternative D. extinct

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

electricity academy circumstance peninsula in forma i notebook begin camera retirement numerous

D. activity D. mechanics D. original D.scenery I), lecturer D. office D. explode D. difficult D. picturesque D. advancement

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

underground argumentative marine uncomfortable conservative indestructible determined phenomenon however cultural

D. display D. simultaneous D. fantastic D. behind D. distinguish D. democracy D. evidence D. approximate D. linguist D. climate

residential gallery convince entertainment birthday restaurant temperature chocolate engineer admit

D. cosmopolitan D. numerous D. assure D. incorrect D. concert D. physicist D. destination D. decorate D. February D. manuscript

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c . jealous c . dimensional c . ethereal c . repetitive c. protect

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Ị186. A. pleasing B. precise Ị187. A. emergency B. comparative ^188. A. confident B. physical 1 189. A. practically B. electrify 1 190. A. inspire B. wealthy Exercise 17. W ord stress B. pollution 1 191. A. simplicity I 192. A. mathematics B. statistics B. mistake 193. A. serious ■ 194. A. valley B. mountain i 195. A. uallery B. holiday ;• 196. A. return B. market [ 197. A. wardrobe B. tonight B.banana > 198. A. opposite Ị. 199. A. expensive B. forgotten ị 200. A. substantial B. apologize Ị Exercise 18. W ord stress I 201. A. apparent B. arrange s 202. A. interrupt B. potential i 203. A.seasonal B. extinct ■ 204. A. tropical B. incredible B. lucrative : 205. A. athktic B. competition ; 206. A. predecease B. minority Ị 207. A. outstanding B. disability 208. A. material B. believe 209. A. facility B. unlike 210. A. accent Exercise 19. W ord stress B. together 211. A. information B. attractive 212. A. average B.exceed 213. A. audience B. repetition 214. A. superior B. address 215. A. doctor B. together 216. A. wonderful B. centigrade 217. A. kilo B. balcony 218. A. attractive B. headmaster 219. A. musical B. synonymous 220: A. extent Exercise 20. W ord stress B. available 221. A. inadequate B. responsible 222 . A demonstrate B. expectation 223. A. secondary

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

c . authority c . simplify c . supervision

D. purpose D. celebrate D. sociologist 13

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c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

campaign knowledge century interesting periodical business suitable

D. apartment D. immense D. include D. immediate D. remove D. within D. commercial

B. convenient B. elastic B. flexible B. chemistry B. energy B. possess B. employment B. nourish B. government B. prisoner

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

executive improvement prosperous explosive process survival courageous marine courage agency

D. creative D. equipment D. endeavour D. synthetic D. temperature D. current D. dependent D. landscape D. dismiss D. family

society conventions! protection improve opinion proficient c. microphone c. benefit c. decorate c. character

D. dedication D. vulnerable D. conference D. soldier D. wastepaper D. typewriter D. contradict D. influence D. pesticide D. diversity

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TR c. c. c. c. c. c.

B 00

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B. federation B. emergency B. president B. propose B. elastic B. religious B. promise B. defective B. deduction B. inhabit

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B. furious B. impressed B. fertile B. family B. impotant B. relationship B. assortment

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224. A. instead 225. A. particular 226. A. excellent 227. A. recent 228. A. forgettable 229. A. appreciate 230. A. dependable Exercise 21. W ord stress 231. A. infrastructure 232. A. schedule 233. A. comfortable 234. A. enthusiasm 235. A. alternative 236. A. potential 237. A. burglary' 238. A. comment 239. A. obstacle 240. A. disaster Exercise 22. W ord stress 241. A. international 242. A. catastrophe 243. A. suffering 244. A. involve 245. A. deposit 246. A. permission 247. A. alphabet 248. A. persecute 249. A. excellent 250. A. migrate

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Chuyên ñể 2: VOCABULARY (TỪ VƯNG)

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PHẦN 1: W ORD-FORMATION (CÁU TẠO TÙ)

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A. LÝ THUYẾT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO * Tiền tố và hậu tố (prefixes and suffixes) Một dạng bài tập rất phổ biến ñổi với các bài thi học sinh giỏi tiếng Anh là loại bài tập cấu tạo từ (tạo ra một từ phái sinh từ một từ cho sằn). ðối với dạng bài tập nàỵ, người học có thể sử dụng kiến thức của mình về ngữ pháp ñể chọn ra ñúng từ ỉoại cần dùng trong ngữ cảnh cụ thê (danh từ,; ñộng từ, tính từ. . ); ñông thời nắm 'vũng cách cấu tạo từ qua việc sử dụng các tiền tố và hậu tố thích hợp ñể ñiển ñúng từ cần ñiền. Sau ñây là ý nghĩa của một số tiền tổ và hậu tổ thường gặp trong tiếng Anh và nghĩa của chúng. Cũng cần lưu ý ràng khi nắm ñược ỷ nghĩa của các tiền tố và hậu tố

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của từ, người học có thê sử dụng chúng ñể ñoán nghĩa của từ mới trong quá trình làm các bài tập ñọc hiểu. 1. Tiền tố (Prefixes) Tiền tố ñược ñặt vào ñầu một từ ñể thay ñổi nghĩa hoặc tạo ra một nghĩa mới cho ị từ ñã cho. Sau ñây là một số tiền tố thường gặp trong tiếng Anh và nghĩa của chúng. Nghĩa Ví dụ Tiền tố Dis, non, il, không, phi, dishonest (không trung thực), illegal (không hợp pháp, phi pháp), impossible (không thê) irregular (bât im, in, un, ir. bất, vô quy tăc), non-sense (vô nghĩa), unlucky (không ráay) unlock (mở - trái với lock là khoá), disagree un, dĩs không (hoặc (không ñồnệ ý), disappear (biển mất - trái với mang nghĩa appear là xuât hiện) unhappy (không vui) trái lại) reteỉl (kể ìại), rewrite (viểt jại), reprint (in lại) lại, Re antiwar (chống chiến tranh), anti-nuclear bomb, Anti chống lại anti-aircraft (phòng không), anti-clockwise (ngược chiều kim ñồng hồ) counter-attack (phản công), counter-argue (phản Counter phản lại, bác lại ỉập luận), counter-blow (ñòn ñánh trả) chông lại sai, nhâm misunderstand (hiêu nhâm), mistake (sai lâm), Mis misuse (sự ñùĩrg sai, sự lạm dụng) Super hơn hẳn^ siêu, superheat (ñun quả sôi), supermarket (siêu thị), superman {siêu nhân) supersensitive (nhạy càm quả ñộ) vưọt quá pre-war (trước chiền tranh, tiền chiến), pre-historic trước, tiên Pre (tiền sử) post-war (sau chiền tranh, hậu chiến), post-graduation Post sau, hậu (sau khí tốt nghiệp), post-birth (sau khi sinh) foresee (dự kiến ừước, thẩy trước), foretell (nói Fore trước trước, ñoán trước), forecast (dự báo trước) quá (nhiêu) Over overeat (ãn quá nhiêu), oversleep) (ngù quá giờ) overweight (quá cân), overdrink (uông quá nhiêu) ex-manager (cựu giám ñôc). ex-president (cựu. chủ ex cựu, cũ tịch), ex-wife (vợ cũ) cooperate (hợp tác), co-author (ñônu tác già) cocùng, ñông Co teấching, cùng dạy) co-chaiman (ñồng chủ tịch) up nâng cao, lên upgrade (nâng câp), upstairs (iến tail? trên) trên

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tiểu (chia thành subtitle (tiểu ñề, phụ ñề), subdivision (sự chia nhỏ phẩn nhỏ hơn), ra), sub-sensibỉe (dưới ngưỡng cảm giác) dưới qua> chuyển Transplant (cấy ghép), transatlantic (vượt ðại Tây ðương), transcontinental (xuyên lục ñịa) International (thuộc vê quôc tê (giữa nhiêu quôc Reaction (tương tác gia), inteirelation (môi quan hệ tương tác) bên trong)

NG

Sub

15

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cAua-unguisiic context (ngoại ngôn), extraactivities (ngoại khóa) Poly polysemantic (ña nghĩa), polyglot (người biết nhiều thứ tiêng) Mono ñơn, ñộc monolingual (ñơn ngữ), monọsymantic (ñơn nghĩa), monosyllabic (ñơn âm tiết) Under dưới Undergraduate (chưa tốt nghiệp), undercook (chưa nâu chín), under-ñevelop (kém phát triẽn) Bi hai, song bilingual (hai ngôn ngữ. song nmì). bicycle (xe ñạp = hai bảnh) 2. Hậu tố (Suffixes): Hậu tố ñược thêm vào phía sau của một tt'r ñể tạo từ mới với nghĩa mái vả loại từ mái. Sau ñày là một vài hậu tố phố biến._____________________ Hâu tố Nghĩa Ví du ẽrr, or, câu tạo một teacher (giáo viên), actor (nam diễn viên), actress danh từ từ ñộng ,(nữ diễn viên), assístant(ngưò’i phụ tá), accountant ess, ant, từ ñê chi người (kế toán) làm việc nào ñó Ness câu tạo một ñanh happiness (niêm vui, hạnh phúc), sadness (nôi từ từ tính từ ñể buôn), loneliness (sự cô ñon) chỉ tình trạng, trạng thái nào ñỏ Ism một chù nghĩa, socialism (chủ nghĩa xã hội), Maxism (chủ nghĩa một học thuyết, Mác), heroism (chù nghĩa anh hùng) niềm tin ship, friendship (tình bạn), scholarship (học bổne), thêm vảo một authorship (nguồn íảc giả), championship {chức vò hood danh từ ñể tạo ñịch), childhood (thời thơ ấu), neighbourhood (hàng thành một ñanh xóm, vùng lân cận), motherhood (tình mẫu tử) từ mới chỉ ñiểu kiện, tình trạng, thời gian, hoặc những ngirời thuộc một nhóm nào ñó Less không có, thiếu, useless (vô ích, vô dụng), childless (không có con), homeless (vô gia cư, không cỏ nhà cửa), fatherless vô (không có cha, mô côi cha), harmless (không có hại, vô hại) hopeful (có hi vọng), useful (có ích, dùng ñược), có (phẩm chất Full successful (thành công) nào ñó) ỉoveiy (ñáng yêu), lively (sinh ñộno, sống ñộng), ly, ous, y, cẩu tạo một tính hearty (nông nhiệt), dangerous (nsuy hiêm). ent, ant, từ ñể chỉ có ñặc tính nào ñó, thuộc poisonous (có ñộc), jealous (ghen tị), important ese (quan trọng), independent (ñộc lập), Vietnamese nhỏm nào ñó (người Việt Nam), Chinese (người Trung quôc. cấu tạo một tính socialize (xã hội hoá), modernize (hiện ñại hoá), Ize từ chỉ hoạt ñộng industrialize (công nghiệp hoá), privatize (tư hữu hoá)

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ngoại nhiêu, ña

íó

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Fold

giống, như, tương-tự nhir gấp một số lần

Ward

về hướng

en,ize, fy, ate,

cấu tạo ñộng từ từ tính từ

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hơi hơi, có ñặc tính này ờ mức ít

TP

Ish

wooden (làm bằng íộ), woolen (làm bằno len), 1 íĩolden (iảm bămi vàníĩ) ! understandable (có thể hiểu ñược), visible (cỏ thề nhìn thấy ñược, hữu hinh), drinkable (có thê uổng ñược) childish (hơi trẻ con), foolish (ngốc nghếch), reddish (hơi ñò), yellowish (hoi vàng), youngish (hơi trẻ, khá trẻ), childlike (như trẻ con, gíổng trẻ con), businesslike (nhưthưong gia) twofold (gấp hai lần), tenfold (gấp mười lần), thousandfold (gấp hàng nghìn lần) southward (về hưóng nam), backward (lùi ìại), northward (vể hướng bấc) weaken (bị suy yếu), darken (làm tối lại), brighten (lảm cho sáng lên), specialize (chuyên môn hoá), horrify (ỉàm hoảne sợ), beatify (làm ñẹp), liberate (phóng thích, cho tự do), vaccinate (tiêm vac xin)

ĐẠ O

able, ible

ñược lảm từ cái gì ñó có thể

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en

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B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Bài tập cơ bản Dạng bài 1: Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the words in brackets. Exercise 1 1. I (HONEST) _____think that this is the best thing to do. 2. This (OBSERVE)___________ houses the largest telescope in the. country. 3. UFO means (IDENTIFY)___________ Flying Object. 4. They said my illness was (IMAGINE)_ Don’t they realize I’m in a lot of pain? 5. They’re selling these toys at a very (COMPETE)________ price. 6 . A letter should always end with the (SIGN)__________ of the writer. 7. John hates waiting, he's so (PATIENT)_________ 8 . A large number of crimes remain (SOLVE)_________ 9. The elderly tourists do not find the thought of climbing the hill (APPEAL)

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10; We need to (CYCLE)___________ more of our waste and glass. Exercise 2 1. It's not a very pretty town, but the (SURROUND)_______ are beautilul. 2. Australia is famous for its (SCENE)__________ beauty. 3. The dentist’s (SURGEON)__________ is closed.on Thursday. 4. “This is not a uood essay,” said the Ìlecturer, “I find your arguments (CONVINCE) 5. I had to (SHORT)_________ your speech as we started late. 6 . In the past few years this area has become heavily (INDUSTRY)____________ 7. In some places the weather changes so quickly that it’s very (PREDICT) 8 . The world of computers is extremely (COMPETE)

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9. The professor explained his idea withfgreat (CLEAR)__ 10. The judge told him it was (RESPONSIBLE)___________ to drink and drive. Exercise 3 1. I’ll help you (FAMILIAR)__________ yourself with the city. 2. Despite the star-stuffed cast, the film was only (PART) _________ successful. 3. I lost my temper because he was being so (HEAD) _________ and was refusing to accept that he was wrong, despite all the evidence. ■ 4. He wrote the book alone, so he doesn’t have a(n) (AUTHOR) _________ 5. He felt very (COURAGE)______ __ when he saw he had failed the exam again. 6. Are all those (A D D )____________ they put in food really necessary? 7. The teacher warned the children that if they (BEHAVE) ___ __ again. they’d be punished. 8. Librarians spend a lot of their time (CLASS)__________ books. 9. I don’t care if you had had too much to drink. Your behavior last night was quite (DEFEND) 10. Don't worry! Our new product will keep your bathroom clean and (ORDOƯR)_________ Exercise 4 1. It was a complete (FAIL)_________ due to poor planning. 2. It was very (FRIEND)__________ of you to slam the door in his face. 3. The man cycled (CARE)_________and had an accident. 4. Could you (STRAIGHT) ________the picture over the sofa? 5. It’s hard to buy meat on the island but fish is (PLENTY) _______ 6 . I?ve only been to Paris (ONE) ■ before, and that was many years ago. 7. My car is much too (RELY)__________ to take on a long journey. 8 . In (CONCLUDE) , I’d like to thank the people who have helped me while I have been workine here. 9. She was sentenced to forty years (PRISON)____________ for manslaughter. 10. There was a (DEE) __ _ silence when he mentioned his ex-wife’s name. Exercise 5 1. These quantities are (SUFFICIENT)_______ for the number of orders received. 2. I am n,ot saying he is (HONEST)________, but he is not very good with money. 3. The (PERFORM)________ she gave last night was marvellous. 4. She has one of the biggest (COLLECT)_________ in Britain. 5. They managed to find three miners who were still (L IV E )_________ three days after the underground explosion. 6 . Cats are supposed to have nine (LTVE)___ 7. “Look after your mother,” were his (DIE)_______________________ words. 8. He claimed that his (BRJNG UP)______ had caused him to become a cnmrnal. 9. It was a difficult (PREGNANT) __________and she almost lost the báby. 10. The government has promised to deal with the problem o f (EMPLOY) among young people.

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Exercise 6 1. This screw needs (TIGHT)_________ 2. Scientists consider it (BELIEVE)______ _ that gods create volcanic eruptions. 3. We brought back several carved (WOOD) ______ statues from our holiday in Africa. 4. The accommodation was (SPACE)___________________________________ _____ and comfortable. 5. There’s no easy (SOLVE)________ to this problem. 6 . His hands were wet and (SLIP) _ 7. We were lucky enough to get tickets for the first (PERFORM) _____ of the hit musical. 8. What she did was so (SHOCK) . that I can hardly describe it. 9. My aunt is a (PLEASE) '_____ woman so everyone wants come to her when they are in troubles. 10. The palace is closed for (RESTORE)_________ work. Exercise?in simple things. 1. People often find (HAPPY)_______ 2. This is-a very (VALUE) __________ grandfather clock. 3- Katie’s (ILL) _ _ _ _ _ has kept her away from school for a week. 4. Nowadays most teenagers have the (FREE)_______ to do whatever they pỉease. 5. A good (FRIEND) ____ will last a lifetime. Ố. An (INSPECT) J_____ __ of the building was.made and it was declared safe. 7. The children looked unhappy and (MISERY) 8. Please send your (APPLY)________________________ to 22 Market St. 9. You’d be (PATIENT) ______ too if you had been waiting for two hours! 10. This outfit is (SUIT) ■ for the dance, don’t you think? Exercise 8 1. The (EMPLOY)at Maxwell’s are all trained in customer service. 2. The children’s (EXCITE)__________ was obvious at the birthday party. 3. My brother and I had a(n) (A G R EE)________ and now we don’t talk to each other. 4. I’ve worked hard all my (LIVE)________ . 5. The film is a bit depressing as it deals with the (REAL)_____ of homeless people. 6 . This knife is (USE) It doesn’t cilt at all. 7. We were (HELP) _ None o f us knew any first aid. 8. He works with great (ENTHUSE)_________ 9. (NATURE)__________ , we are concerned about our son’s progress at school. 10. I can’t find the (SOLVE)______ _ to the last maths problem. Exercise 9 1. A lot of encourage children’s (IMAGINE)________ . 2. The factory has provided cheaper (PRODUCE)_________lately. 3. According to some sciéntists the earth is losing its outer atmosphere because o f (POLLUTE) 4. (FOREST) _________ has caused many so called man made disasters. 19

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______ otten walk trough the streets shout in ÍĨ or singing abut something they sell. 6 . Gas and oil (CONSUME);_______ _aỉw ays increase in cold water. 7. The police are interested in the sudden(APPEAR) _______ of the valuable painting. 8. He claimed that his (BRĨNG U P)________ had caused him to be a criminal. 9. Travelling in big cities is becoming more(TROUBLE)_____ everyday. Ì 0. Less public transport is now available because of the(SHORT) of staff. Exercise 10 1. Therefore the roads become (JAM) with private cars as people drive to work. 2. Because o f the volume o f traffic local councils-are forced to give (PERMIT) for more roads to be constructed. ' 3. (FORTUNE) many house have to be demolished to make ways for the road. 4. The injury 10 their key player couỉñ be a (DliClDL)_______iactor in ihe game. 5. But travelling by public transport is very( ATTRACT)_____ as there are long delays. 6 . The (FREQUENT)______ of the trains and the buses causes frustration and annoyance. 7. The situation is so(CHAOS)_______ in some cities now that it is difficult to see any solution. 8. His behaviour always (EMBARRASS)_______ me at parties. 9. The new film is (EXCEPTION)_______good. 10. She felt a sense o f (LOSE)________when her friend went to live abroad. Exercise 11 1. Please give the handicapped some (CONSIDER)_______when building stairs. 2 . Mr. Lim has been having (FINANCE)_________ problems for a long time. 3. We need to give our local stars a lot of (PUBLIC)________. 4. Money is (SECOND) _ Family comes first. 5. She displayed her (WILLING)_________to help him by giving hiin a cheque. 6 . More local (NOVEL)________ are getting recognition for their work. 7. Can I have an (EXTEND)________ on the dateline of my project? 8 . It was (COINCIDE)________ that both our birthdays fell in the same day. 9. A (NURSE)__________ for children has just opened near my workplace. 10. Angie is quite (TOLERATE)_________of the screaming of her children. Exercise 12 1. New York is the home o f the United Nations and the centre of (GLOBE) finance. 2 . There are always interesting (EX HIBIT)________ _______ at the big art museums in New Yoric. 3. The cinema changed (COMPLETE)________ ,______ at the end o f the 1920s. 4. I was absolutely (EXHAUST) ■ after such a long journey. 5. Rivaldo (SCORE)_________ an amazing goal from a free kick in the last minute.

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Ò. Are you (INTEREST)__________ in any sports? 7. The movie was (DISAPPOINT)____ ___ 8- Please write your name, age, and (OCCUPY) ' on the form 9. I find it (INTEREST)________ talk to Peter’s father 10. The river is (DANGER)_________ for swimmiers. Exercise 13 1. The boy felt quite (SATISFY)_________ with his examination results. 2. A (FISH)_________ is someone who catches fish, either a job or as a sport. 3. Our (FLY) _________will arrive at Tan Son Nhat Airport at 6:30. 4. Hamid is a (FRIEND)__________ person. 5. The (HO T)_____________ destroyed all the crops. 6 . Our teacher has a profound (KNOW)_____________ o f Moroccan history. 7. Walt Disney is the (CREATE)_____________ of Mickey Mouse. 8. We need to join efforts and work together to find a (SOLVE)_____________ to the problem of pollution. 9. Literature is a source of great (WISE) ______ 10. At the age of just 14 Lauren Murray was (ADDICT)____________ to heroin. Exercise 14 1. Edith Piaf was (FA M E)____________ _ not only for her magnificent voice but also for her black dress 2. ỉn this poem, Robert expresses his patriotic (PROUD)__ !_. 3. The children were very (NOISE)__________ _ when their mother was out. 4. (CHILD)_____________ is the period of time in which we learn to become a personality. 5. Try not to become a man of (SUCCEED)_____________ but a man of value. A. Einstein 6. Don't worry about (FAIL)_____ _______ as long as you are ready to try again. 7. A basic premise of American jurisprudence is that a person is presumed (INNOCENCE)____________ _ until proven guilty in a court of law. 8 . “The situation o f human rights in the Arab world has (INCREASE) deteriorated in 2008,” the CIHRS said. 9. (IGNORE) __________ of the law excuses no man. 10. The school expects students to dress in proper attire and maintain 0 (RESPECT)_______ _ level of deportment throughout the day. Exercise 15 1. There has been an outbreak of racial (VIOLATE)__________ in the south of Spain recently. 2. The soldiers were responsible for the (D IE )_________ of many civilians in the South of the counfry. 3. The company’s director lacks (LEAD)___________ skills. 4. Sugar is (HA RM )_________ for your teeth because it sticks to them causing plaque and decay. 21

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5. The first key to beating drug (ADDICT)_________ lies in understanding it and identifying its causes. 6. Mounir Alhamdaoui holds joint (CITIZEN)________ in Morocco and Holland. 7. My daughter Hajar received many (GIVE)__________ for her birthday. 8. It is (LA W )_________ _ to drive a car if you don’t have a driver’s licence. , 9. Taha Hussein lost his (SEE)_________ at an early age. . 10. His behaviour is often (CHILD)_________ and this makeS'ine angry. Exercise 16. Complete the following statem ent by adding the right suffix from the list given; -hood, -ship, -th, -ful, -dom ,-en, -ous, -less 1. Most people reach (ADULT)____________ at 18. 2. All love that has not (FRIEND)_______ for its base is like a manson built upon sand. 3. The longer I live, the more (BEAUTY)_____ _ life becomes. 4. Its cold. Why don’t you put a sweater on for extra (W ARM)__________? 5. Obama is (HOPE) ' about the future of American economy. 6 . The fire gutted all the (WOOD)________ buildings in our neighborhood 7. A teeage girl died under (MYSTERY) _________ circumstances and the investigation process is now under way. 8 . Thousands o f people are still (H O M E)________ two weeks after floods in Sidi Slimane, Morocco, 9. Arrogance is like a (KING)________ without a crown. 10. Only the unknown (FRIG H T)men. But once a man has faced the unknown that terror becomes the known. Exercise 17 1. Our team were (LUCKY)__________ to lose as they had a lot of chances but they missed them. 2. We must not be (POLITE)_______ to our teachers. They are our mentors and our greatest resource. 3. The government and the trade unions had a (AGREEMENT)__________ over the wage hikes. 4. Our association launched ar campaign to raise awareness o f (DIVERSITY) and its importance in all our lives. 5. The teacher asked me to (WRITE) ________ my essay as it was full of spelling mistakes. 6. Hundreds of people joined the (WAR)________ protest in Copley Square in Boston. 7. If you think corruption can be solved by punishment alone, you completely (UNDERSTAND)____________ problem. 8. Let’s not (JUDGE)__________ the situation until we hear more details. 9. (-DEVELOPED) ___________ countries lose their human capital to the developed countries. 10. I grew up in a (LING UAL)________ family who spoke both Berber andArabic at home. Exercise 18 1. (STABLE)_________ could prevent countries from developing and progressing.

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HƯ NG

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2. Raja fans (NUM BER)__________ those of IZK last Sunday at Mohammed V Stadium in Casablanca. 3. In case of war, it is usually children, the sick, the elderly, and the (ABLE) who get stuck in the crossfire. to obtain food, water, 4. During wars civilians may be (ABLE) ______ shelter, and medical care: 5. Deforestation causes the extinction o f species which depend on the forest for (SURVIVE) 6 . Poverty is (DOUBT)__________ a determinant factor in the use of child labor. 7. (GROW) _____________ deficiency is prevalent among working children. 8. Bilal's mother often blames him for his (CARE)_________ 9 . Many people in developing countries are (PO O R )_____ ' remunerated for all the hard work they do. 10. The Moroccan and Spanish authorities (OPERATE)________ _ to fight terrorism.

NH ƠN

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Exercise 19 -1 . Be sure to contact him if you need advice. He's a very (HELP)_____ .__ person. ■2. It was a really (ENJOY)_______ __ party. Thanks for inviting me. 3. He has just taken out a (MONTH)___________ subscription to the magazine. !. 4. She smiled (HAPPY)_________ when they offered her the new job. 5. (HOPE)________ we'll have enough money saved to get married next.year. 6 . In order for the medicine to work (EFFECT)________ you must take the correct amount. 7. Although our teacher is very strict in class, she is (FRIEND)______ than you would expect. 8 . What a beautiful vase! That’s the. (LOVE)___________ present I’ve ever had. 9. He told her that he (SYMPATHY)________ with her problem but couldn't do anything to help. 10. My belt feels a bit tight after that huge lunch. I think n i have to (LOOSE) _ it a little.

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Exercise 20 1. She was severely (W EAK)_______ __by the long illness she had. 2. There are many different ways to (CLASS)________areas of English Grammar. 3. If you're really sorry far what you said you won't mind (APOLOGY)_______ . 4. There's no need to (CRITIC)________ my work. I'm trying as hard as I can.

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5. The pain in his back (LESS) •as soon as he took the medication. 6 . Everybody was (HORROR) _ _ _ _ _ by the news o f the earthquake. 7. When he became a teenager he wanted to be more (DEPEND) _________ from his parents. 8. It was really (HONEST) _____ of you to take that money without asking. 9. If you hadn't been so (CARE) _ with that book you'd still have it now. 10. My broken leg means I'll be (ABLE)________ to go on holiday with you. 23

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Uñllg cau

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Dạng bài 2: Complete the passage using the correct form of the words in the capital letters. Exercise 1 To neighbors, Mr Stewart is a dull man who speaks very ( 1 - POLITE) is his job. __________ and whose only form of (2- ENTERTAIN)____________ And to a certain extent it’s true, since Mr Stewart finds his job very (3- INTEREST) _ He is an antique dealer and goes to work (4- H A PPY )__________ every day. He handles some very (5- EXPENSE)_________ pieces sometimes, which can make his job ( 6- DANGER) ______ , as there have recently been quite a few (7- ROB) ________ at antique shops. So not ( 8- SURPRISE)___________ , Mr Stewart decided that his own business needed some extra (9- PROTECT) Aftr having an alarm system put in, Mr Stewart doesn’t feel ( 10 - COMPLETE)__________ secure but he does feel more protected. Exercise 2 You may know that Asian, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cultures have (1TRADITION)__________ used garlic in their dishes. What you may not know is that garlic was also thought o f as a (2- VÀLƯE) __________ medicine by many ancient civilisations. Today, (3-PROFESSION)___________ in the field of nutrition have come up with new (4- INFORM) __________ which is indeed quite surprising. Apparently, not only is garlic good for you but it also helps overcome various (5- ILL) The main ( 6- ADVANTAGE) _________ to eating garlic is of course bad (7BREATH) _ Cooking it reduces the strong smell and eating parsley, which is a ( 8NATURE)_________ deodoriser, also helps minimise the smeli. So, it’s time we took the benefits of garlic (9- SERIOUS)________ . Why not add it to some of your (10FAVOUR) _ _ _ _ _ dishes! Exercise 3 Being a ( 1 - JOURNAL)__________ , I often have to go on strange assignments. So when my editor told me to do a story on one of the (2- FAME) ' health spas in Switzerland, I was only too happy to go and take it easy for a week or two. However, when I got there and saw the programme, I began to panic. I had to go on a diet and participate in a (3- V A R Y )________ of exercise classes. My (4- ANGRY) ______■ ■ turned to rage when they insisted I go to bed very early so as to get up at 3:00 a. m. and eat breakfast in a (5- BUILD) _________ which looked like a greenhouse. I must admit that they ran an excellent (6- ORGANIZE) Anyway, you ‘.an imagine how happy I was to see my familiar (7- NEIGHBOUR)___________ vhen I finally arrived home. A few months later, I received an ( 8- INVITE) _______ _ from the same clinic for a week’s worth o f free treatment. My family bought it rather (9- AMUSE) _________ when they saw the (10- FRIGHT) __________ look on my face. 'xercise 4 My father was a police (I- INSPECT)_________ , my mother a (2- TEACH) ; ■Their (3- DECIDE)__________ to move to a small town when I was a child hanged my life, it was a very (4- PEACE)________ place and of course living there leant that I had much more (5- FR EE )_________ to go wherever 1 pleased. The ĩople were (6 - FRIEND)______ but I missed my close friends, my school and the N OISE)________ city I had lived in. As I grew up, I realized that there wasn’t I

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5 Ịnuch for a young person todo mere, except rusn invo {Ồ-m^vra\ I ) _________ . T, „u,

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\ II left, my parents were sad,but they realized that staying there wouldonly make me 1 ^9- M ISERY)_______ . The big city I live in now is not very far away, so I can visit Ị; my parents (10- FREQUENT)________ and have the best of both worlds. ; 'Exercise 5 I The economic crisis facing many countries today, has created serious (1; EMPLOY)_________ problems. (2- ENERGY)_________ young people, willing to work, are confronted by many (3- DIFFICULT)___________ when trying to find a ijob. Filling in countless (4- A PPLY )_________ forms and hearing that they are (5SƯIT) _____ _ for the job because they don’t have the right (6- QUALIFY) ị can be disheartening. Finding a job seems just (7- POSSIBLE) However, ị their ( 8- DISAPPOINT)_____ . shouldn’t affect them nor make them give up. LThere is no straightforward (9- SOLVE) ________ other than (10- PATỈRNT) Ĩ_________ and persistence. I Exercise 6 I The (1- EX CITE)_________ game between the Dragons and the Tigers is over. p The Tigers1 failure to win o f coursemeans that they won’t pịay in the finals. The p Dragons played a (2-WONDER) '_____ game and earned everyone’s (3Ễ ADMIRE) Their (4- COMBINE) ____________ of tactics and strength definitely if'helped them win. Due to the continuous (5- DEVELOP) ___________ of new '_______ 1: strategies by their coach, this will be the (6- FIVE) 1 Dragons will play in the final. Their (7- POPULAR)___________ has increased over I the years and there is no doubt that Hillbell Stadium will be ( 8- CROW D)_________ I with (9- ENTHUSE)__________ fans on the day of the final. If they play like today, I they are sure to be (10- SUCCESS) ji Exercise 7 ■ In our (1- L IV E )________ we are constantly bombarded by (2- ADVERTISE) : _________ whose role is to make products (3- ATTRACT)__________enough so that [ people will want to buy them (4- IMMEDIATE) There has been a lot of (5I DISCUSS) on the powerful effects of advertising. Are ads re a lly .(6 - USF) : _________ ? Are they (7- TRU E)__________ ? Do they give us a ( 8- REAL)_______ idea of the product? People are rarely in (9- A G REE)__________ on any of these I questions, but the fact is (hat ads are (10- H ELP)_______ in letting people know the \ wide variety of goods available. Exercise 8 There has been a significant (1- REDUCE)__________ in policc popularity in the last few years. That’s why this week a public relation campaign is being launched to make people more (2- SENSE) ■ ______ to the role of the police officer. The adds will stress that police do more than just give (3- MOTOR) *_________ speeding tickets. They often act as unofficial social workers, visit schools and talk to students, familiarising them with traffic signs and warning them of (4- VARY) _________ dangers. Being a police officer is (5- RISK) .______, considering that every day they deal with ( 6- CRIM E)_____ such as thieves and even (7- MURDER)__ In ( 8- CONCLUDE)__________ , the campaign wants to make the public realise that even though in some cases the police’s approach may seem extreme, they cannot ignore the (9- PO SSIBLE)__________ of injury or even (10- D IE )_____________ while on duty. 25

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Exercise 9 ' ' My decision to become an (1- A C T )__________ was not an easy one. After all one’s ability to act well isn’t enough. It isn’t a stable profession. However I find acting most (2- ENJOY)__________ and am willing to live without job (3- SECURE) ________ ■I don’t work on TV serials or anything like that. I only take part in theatre (4- PERFORM) It’s most rewarding as you get the audience’s immediate (5REACT) _ For example, when doing a (6- HUMOUR)_________ pfay we all wait to hear the audiencs s (7- LAUGH) If we don’t, we know that the production has been (8- SUCCESS)__________ and we have failed. Even though I’ve had many years of experience, I’m always (9- TERROR) _______ __ and (10- NERVE) before going on stage. But once I start performing, I quickly lose myself in the play. Playing a character completely different from your own is always a challenge. Exercise 10 During cold winter afternoon, I{1- NORM AL)___________ meet my friends at the local fast food restaurant. It’s an (2- ID EA )________ meeting place as there is lots of (3- WARM) _ (4- TA STE)_______ food (which my mum calls (5- POISON) ________ ) is also available. So, it’s a (6- COM FORT)__ _______ place to chat. Young people like me, need a place to go and talk. We usually talk about our interests and hobbies, mine being (7-PHOTO) _ Our behavior is typiòal o f many teenagers I suppose. However, my parents think I go out too often. Luckily though, after many (8ARGUE)________ __ they have begun to accept my (9- EXPLAIN)__________ that young people need to find ways to relieve their (10- BORE)__________ especially If they live in a small town like I do. Exercise 11 After 1948, the Hollywood studios, where films for the cinema were produced faced a new kind o f competition. The (i- ARRIVE)____________ of television. At first, Hollywood didn’t work. After all, John Baird’s (2- INVENT) could only produce small black and white pictures. However, they were mistaken. To the (3ASTONISH)_________ o f the Hollywood studios, by the early 1950’s (4- WEEK) _________ attendance at cinemas had dropped by fifty percent. Television today has become part of everyday life. These boxes give (5- END) _ _ _ _ _ hours of (6- i PLEASE)_________ to millions o f people. It IS also an (7- ECONOMY) form of entertainment. However, TV can also be (8- HARM )_________ and not only ’ for the eyes. For instance, programmes contain scenes of (9- VIOLENT) can influence children’s (10- BEHAVE) _ _ _ _ _ negatively. Who would have thought that television would influence our lives so much? Exercise 12 Sky diving isn’t something new, but (1- COURAGE)__________ cameraman jumping out of planes with all the necessary (2- EQUIP) to film a sky-diver, is. The cameramen are not o f course totally (3- EXPERIENCE) as they go through a (4- TR A IN )________ programme. After a lot of (5- THINK)1 and careful planning this amazing idea was put into practice so that judges could observe the sky-divers’ (6- .SKILL) manoevres from the ground. Then they judge them accordingly in (7- COMPETE) at a (8- HIGH) of over 10,000 feet! The pictures are shown on huge screens on the ground for the judges. Crowds gather and look on with (9- CURIOUS) and (10AMAZE) _________ at seeing such a dangerous sport in action. Exercise 13

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Las Vegas has a new (1- ATTRACT)_________ ; the tallest American building west o f the Mississippi. Its owners have high (2- EXPECT)_____ _ o f its success. I The design is (3- ORIGIN) _________ and certainly (4- DIFFER) _ to ! anything ever seen before. Taller than the Eiffel Tower, the building has something for ị everyone. The (5- DESCRIBE) _________ _ of what the building offers is quite \ amazing The building has a casino, for which the state is famous for. Also, there is a (6- FASHION) . decorated revolving restaurant, so that clients are able to ; see the (7- IMPRESS)_________ views through the glass windows. Three chapels are : available for anyone who would like to get married and have a (8- RELIGION) ; ceremony, 800 feet in the air. In (9- A D D )_________ , two o f the highest ị Tides are available for ride lovers. The roller-coaster, 865 tracks in (10- LONG) ■ and the space Shot ride, which goes up to the top o f the tower at approximately 90 km per hour, are not for the faint hearted. ị Exercise 14 Ì The (1- DISCOVER)_________ that a member of your family is sleepwalking f may be (2- ALARM )_________ , but it is not an uncommon phenomenon. Both aduhs I and children sleepwalk, however it is more common in children. Sleepwalking is not a I psychological (3- ORDER) _________, as some may think. Nor is there any (4[’ CONNECT) _________ between dreams and sleepwalking. The explanation which y experts give for sleepwalking is that it is mainly due to being (5-TIRE)________ and I under a lot of stress. (6-ANXIOUS) (7- PRESS)__________ at work or ị at school or even the loss of a favourite (8- POSSESS)________ could trigger it off. I- Sleepwalkers mover easily around the house despite the (9- DARK) ________ , I sometimes opening drawers as if searching for something. It is difficult to wake up a sleepwalker and it is considered (10- W IS E )________ because it can cause great [ distress. The following morning the sleepwalker doesn’t usually remember anything. Exercise 15 i'. The lion is known as the king of the jungle. Perhaps this is because of its size, (1I STRONG) : and (2- ABLE) to run up to 35mph. Yet, for twenty I hours a day the lion just lies under the sun doing nothing. However, when it gets (3i HUNGER) _________ , its manner changes and it becomes (4- THREAT) Its only (5Ê INTEND) . is to satisfy its enormous appetite. In its natural (6- SURROUND) ị _______ _ the lion will eat anything, from rats to animals as large as giraffes. But zebra I meat provides the lion with the'greatest (7- SATISFY) Lions live in groups called prides. I The lioness is (8- TRU E)_________ amazing. She is quicker than the male. She is so (9Ỉ CARE) that she will hunt and look after her young for two years before they I become (10-DEPEND) ị Exercise 16 I People are becoming more security conscious these days. Crimes like burglary ị and ( 1 - THIEF) are definitely on the increase. One of the most (2- PAIN) _ _ _ _ experiences a home (3- O W N )________ can have IS to arrive home and ị find that his or her (4- V A LU E)________ have disappeared, because a window had r (5- ACCIDENT)_______ been left open. What can we do to protect ourselves? Ị/ The most important piece of (6- ADVISE) - _ is to make sure that your (7i INSURE) coverage is up to date. Another (8- SEN SE)________ thing to r do is to go along to your local police station, where they will be more than willing to Ị make (9- SUGGEST) on (10- R ELY )________ ways of safeguarding your property. f. Exercise 17

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u,ul SUIUC people are just bom (1- LUCK) _ . They seem to have everything,, from the perfect family to the best (2- EMPLOY) at the most successful company in town. Their good fortune causes (3- JEALOUS) in less ortunate people, who do all sorts of things to bring luck into their lives. Some people carry good luck charms, such as blue stones and horseshoes, on a (4- DAY)

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n?r^Dr>make sure that they Wlil s? y (5~ HEAL™ ) ■safe and free from (6„ U“ L ------— ■* ls0- some Olhenvise (7- LOGIC)___ .___ "peoplego through superstitious actions like touching wood in order to bring themselves good luck. But is there really any (8- RELATE) ___ between .all these thines and success in life? Many people consider good luck charms (9- FOOL)_______ __ and (10- REASON) ---------- . They believe that success in life comes through working hard Exercise 18

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P » rn > i r i ° ple read their horoscoPe for an insight into their character and for the (1- PREDICT) — which are made. Graphologists claim that they too are able to understand a person’s character - by examining their handwriting! How big the letters, how straight the lines, the presence of loops and even your (2- SIGN) can reveal something about your (3- PERSON) For example if your handwriting slants to the right, you have a (4- CHEER) nature. Writing with upward arches indicates that you are (5- CREATE) A hiffh t

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bar means that the writer is ( 6 - IMAGINE)

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fifty when analysing a this is IS im tn

What will homes be like by the year 2050? What ( 1 - ÍMPR.OVE)

will

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there be in the genera] standard of living? Forget about entering the house with a key (2 -ADMIT)___ ___ _ _ wil!Lonly be possible with a (3- PERSON) _ card It will be no (4-IMPORT ANT) ____ if you leave lights or heaters on when you go out. They will be (5- AUTOMATIC) ________ switched off The (6- SAFE) --------- of your house will not be a problem. (7- PROTECT) _ _ _ againsts fire and intruders win be guaranteed. Doing the shopping, going to the bank talking and seeing people on the other side of the world without leaving home will all be possible due to the (8- EXIST)________ _ of 21s*century technology. Each home wiil have a (9- CEN TRE)______ computer controlling all sorts of (10- PRACTICE) -------------- devices that will make life easier and more comfortable Exercise 20 At times, it seems that people have no sense of (1 -RESPONSE) towards their environment They have the (2- TEND)______ to (3- CARE) drop their rubbish wherever they happen to be, even when there is no (4- SHORT) ofmbbish bm^. However, this must change. Littering doesn’t only make a place look ugly it also puts public health at risk and can (5- DANGER)______ wildlife. The authorities need to become more (6- INFORM) _______ about how pollution affects our everyday lives providing the community with a better (7- EDUCATE) concerning the preservation of the environment. There IS no quick or simple solution. One thing is certain though. (8- FAIL) to act now with the long terra means a great (9- LOSE) • The (10- CHOOSE)_______ is ours.

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PHÀN 2: C O N F U S IN G W O R D S (C Á C T Ư HAY GÂY s ự N H Ầ M LẢ N )

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Ịl. RENT, HIRE, LET * . RENT: trả liền thirờnii xuyên cho người chủ ñể sử dụng cái gì ñótrong một thời igian dài. (danh từ: số tiền trả ñể sừ dụng một ngôi nhà) HIRE: (1) trả tiền cho niiười chù cùa một cái gì ñó ñê dùng nó trongmộtkhoang :thời aian Iiíĩẳn (2) thuê ai ñó làm một công viẹc ñạc biệt cho bạn LET: {\) cho phép ai ñó thuê tài sản (nhà cửa. .) cùa bạn ñẽ ñôi lây tiên hàng tuân hoặc hàng tháng (2) cho phép ai làm gì Exercise 1: Choose rent, hire, let to fill in each gap. r 1. My parents never____their country house. \ 2 When she moved to the city, sh e______ a bungalow to live. ^ 3 The school_______ a teacher to help the slow learners. I4 They__________ a dozen men to dig a ditch. ■ 5 Interhome has over 20,000 houses to __________ across Europe. I 6 Nick’s b een______ for five years now, and he can’t afford to buy. ■ 7 Why don’t we • a boat for the afternoon? j 8. r u have to _______ a'suit for the wedding. Ị 9 , 1 can _ you have a copy of the report. 10 I’ve my spare room to a Japanese student, ị 2. JOB OCCUPATION, PROFESSION, WORK, BUSINESS, DUTY, TASK JOB: công việc một người làm ñể ñược trả lương OCCUPATION: nghề nghiệp, việc làm, trang trọng lion JOB và có thê không ị mang lại thu nhập ñều ñặn PROFESSION: nghề ñòi hôi giáo dục cao và có ñào tạo chuyên nganh WORK.' (1) nhiệm vụ cụ thể mà ai ñó phải làm trong công việc cùa họ; (2) nơi : một người làm công việc của họ ■ BUSINESS' (1) công việc có liên quan ñến sàn xuất, mua bán hàng hoá, thương ' mại' (2) to chirc (cong ty?hãng, cửa hảng) thực hiện một công việc như vậy ỉ DUTY: nhiệm vụ ai ñó làm vì trách nhiệm, bôn phận _ TASK: thườnơ là một nhiệm vụ ngắn liạn và ñòi hòi phải cô găng, và có thê là mọt ; phần trong một dự án lớn hon Exercise 2: Fill in each gap with only one word from the list (job, occupation, I profession, work, business, duty, task) 1. Don’t interrrưpĩ me now. I’ve got a lot o f— -------to do. 2 When he applied for the loan, they asked him what h is.------------ was. I Julie found a good close to where she lives. 4 One of my as a nurse is to be on time because lives depend on it. 5 Out teacher gave us a few _________ _to do during the summer holiday. 6. Ỉ know I want to have a _ but I’m not sure in which field. I might

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study law. 7. My aunt runs her ow n_________ 29

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______ . 9. He was given th e ________o f stacking the chairs in the auditorium. 10. I need a part-time________ . 3. RESULT, EFFECT, CONSEQUENCE, SOLUTION RESULT: kết quả của một hoạt ñộng hoặc một tình huống. EFFECT (of sth on sth else): sự thay ñổi mà một cài gì ñó gây ra cho một cái-khác CONSEQUENCE: kết quà, hậu quả của một cái gì ño (thường !à không tốt) SOLUTION: câu trả lời cho một bài toán, câu ñố, giải pháp cho một vấn ñề Exercise 3: Fill in each gap with only one word from the list (result, effect, consequence, solution) 1. Fintfing th e _______ to this maths problem is very difficult. 2. Pollution has a very harmful_______ on our health. 3. If you don’t take our advice, you’ll have to face the 4. Did you get your exam __________ ? 5. The election_______ were announced at midnight. 6 . High unemployment is a direct______ of the recession. 7. Inflation is having a disastrous______ on the economy. 8. He broke the law, and now he must face th e _______ o f his actions. 9. Do you understand the harmful_________ of smoking? 10. The safety procedures had been ignored, with potentially tragic 4. TRAVEL, TR IP, TOUR, VOYAGE, CRUISE, FLIGHT, JOURNEY, ROUTE TRAVEL: chuyến ñi từ một nơi này sang nơi khác khá dài, nhất là ra nước ngoài ñê vui chơi hoặc vì lợi ích; hành ñộng du hành, ñu lịch TRIP: hành trình ngắn ñến một nơi và trờ về lại ñiểm xuất phát TOUR: chuyến ñi du lịch (ngắn hoặc ñài) thăm niìiều nơi VOYAGE: chuyến ñĩ dài trên biên hoặc trong không gian CRUISE: chuyến du ngoạn trèn mộl con thuyền FLIGHT: chuyến ñi bằng máy bay JOURNEY: chuyến ñi từ một ñịa ñiểm này ñến một ñịa ñiểm khác ROUTE ỉ tuyến dường, lộ trình, ñường ñi Exercise 4: Fill in each gap with only one word from the list (travel, trip, tour, voyage, cruise, flight, journey, route) 1. Our business _ _ _ _ _ to Brussels was productive and very pleasant. 2. What’s- the quickest ' from your house to the city centre? 3. As soon as they arrived', they went on a _________ of the city. 4. At the airport they told us that th e__________ to Rome had been cancel led. 5. Instead of going to an island, we decided to go on a luxury________ around the Mediterranean. 6. People say that the safest and quickest way to ________ is by aeroplane.

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8. Please state your name, address and

7. T h e_________ from Athens to Salokina by car takes around five hours.

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to the Far East. 9. I couldn’t carry everything at once, so I had "o make several ______ [ 10. I have a 25-minute _______ to work. 15. DEBT, LOAN, ALLOWANCE, DONATION, FINE, CHARGE, TIP, CHANGE, CURRENCY, PRO FIT, INCOME DEBT: khoản tiền mà bạn nợ ngân hàng hoặc một người nào ñó LOAN: sổ tiền bạn vay (thường là vay ngân hàng) ALLOWANCE: tiền bạn ñược trợ cấp thường xuyên, ñều ñặn ị DONATION: tiền ñóng góp cho một tô chức từ thiện I FINE: tiền phạt phải trà vì ñã làm gì sai hoặc phạm luật ị CHANGE: (1) tiền lẻ, tiền xu (2) tiền thôi lại khi bạn mua cái gì [ TIP: tiền.thường cho một người (l��i xe, phục vụ khách sạn, nhà hàng. . ) ñể cám ì on họ ñã phục vụ mình ị CHARGE: số tiền phải trả cho một dịch vụ hoặc ñể mua cái gì ñó CURRENCY: loại tiền sử dụng ờ một quốc gia, tiền tệ Ị PROFIT: tiền lãi, tiền lời I INCOME: thu nhập, sổ tiền ai ñó kiếm ñược ^Exercise 5: Fill in each gap with only one word from the list (debt, , loan, allowance, donation; fine, charge, tip, change, currency, profit, income) 1 . The magistrate imposed a £ 100 __ ______ on the man for throwing litter on the street. 2. T h e______________Sandra earns allows her to live very comfortably. 3. I like to make ■ to worthwhile causes. 4. Do you make a large _ _ _ _ _ _ out of the jewellery you sell? 'ị 5. If I don’t get good service in a restaurant, I never leave a _________. 6 . Come back sir! You forgot your________ . 7. My.parents give me a weekly_________and Ĩ can spend it however I like. 8 . The Jones took out a ________to buy a new car. 9. There’s no extra _____ for delivery. ; 10. What _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is used in Australia? 11. The national_____ is always, increasing and as a result the cost of living rises. 6. CREW STAFF, TEAM, EMPLOYEE, COLLEAGUE, CLIENT, CUSTOMER * CREW: những người cùng làm việc trên một con thuyền hoặc tàu, thuỳ thủ ñoàn, ■phi hành ñoàn STAFF: những người làm việc cho một công ty hoặc tổ chức: nhân viên của một ; công ty TEAM: nhóm người làm việc cùng nhau hoặc cùng chơi một môn thể thao nào ñỏ EMPLOYEE: người ñược trà lương ñể làm việc cho một cá nhân hoặc tổ chức COLLEAGUE: người cùng làm việc; ñồng nghiệp CLIENT: người nhận sự giúp ñộ hoặc lời khuyên cùa một người làm nghề chuyên môn (như ỉuật sư, kế toán, kiến trúc s ư ..); khách hàng CUSTOMER: người mua một hàng hoá hoặc dịch vụ, ñặc biệt là ở một cửa hàng

NH ƠN

8 . The old captain had spent his life making

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Exercise 6: Fill in each gap with only one word from the list (CREW, STAFF, TEAM, EM PLOYEE, COLLEAGUE, CLIENT) 1. The hospital •_____ are on strike today. 2. I work for a law firm which has a lot of business people as 3. M y________ played well but we lost the game. 4. How m any______ does he need to sail his yacht? 5. There weren ’t many people on the plane; just the ten o f us and th e______ . 6. Whenever I need help at work, I can always rely on my 7. Employers often complain that they can’t find reliable________ . 8. There are nine players on a.baseball_______. 9. These pỉanes carry over 300 passengers an d _______ . 10. He is the best________ of our company. 7. GUEST, HOST, VISITOR GUEST: ( I) người ñến íhăm ai hoặc có mặt tại một sự kiện vi ñưọc mời (2) khách trọ tại khách sạn HOST: chù nhà. ngưòi tiếp ñón kiiách mời VISITOR: người ñên thăm một nơi nào ñó hoặc một người khác CUSTOMER: người khácỉvmuạ hàng của một cửa hàng Exercise 7: Choose one suitable word above to fiil in each blank to complete the following sentences. 1• A ll________ entering the factory must wear this card. 2. He is one of the best________ of our shop. 3. We had____________ staying with us for ten days. 4. O ur_______provided us with a delicious meal. 5. T hecomplained about the bad service to the manager. 6. I always buy my groceries from this shop. I am a regular______ here, so I expect good service. 7. I’d like you to be m y________ for dinner tonight. 8. They were expecting_______ _ and had cleaned the house. 9. O ur_______ brought in some more wine and-food. 10. The hotel takes very good care of its________ . 8. HABIT, ROUTINE, USUAL, NORMAL, COMMON HABIT: ñiều ai ñó lảm tlurờiiíĩ xuvên, thói quen ROUTINE: một chuỗi những hoạt ñộng ai ñó làm thường xuyên vào những thời ñiểm nhất ñịnh USUAL: xảy ra hoặc ñược làm, ñược dùng. . . trong nhiều hoặc ña số trường hợp. thông thường, thường xuyên NORMAL: bình thưởng, thông thường, tức là không có gì khác biệt hoặc không bình thường COMMON: phổ biển, thưòng thấy ở nhiều nơi Exercise 8: Choose one suitable word above to fill in each blank to complete the following sentences. 1. When I’m nervous, I’m in th e______of biting my nails. 2. Parts of our daily______ include a jog before breakfast.

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^ 3. Harm is a very_______ German name. Ỉ 4. Despite his ability, heleads a ___________________ life. 5. Waiter, I’ll have m y_____________drink. 6. Bad dreams are fairly_________ among children. 7. He seems a perfectly_________ little boy. ;; 8. Train services are back t o ________ again after the strike. 9. Mark longed to escape from the oldfamiliar_________ . \ 10. I’ll meet you at th e _______ time. ị SEE, LOOK, WATCH ; SEE: I . nhìn thấy một cái gì một cách khõng chù ñịnh, ví dụ "ỉ opened the curtains and i'flw some birds ouísiíỉe" - Tôi kéo rèm cửa sô và (trông) thây mây con èhim ờ bên ngoài. Như vậy có nghĩa là chúng ta không chù ñịnh nhin/xem/ngắm ạhững con chim ñó, mà chi íà do mở cửa thì trông thấy chúng. 2. hiêu, V! dụ: ỉ see ỵkat you mean. \ LOOK: nhìn cái gì một cách có chù ñịnh ví ñụ: "This morning ỉ looked at the newspaper" - Sáng nay tôi xem báo, và có nghĩa là tôi chủ ñịnh ñọc báo, xem báo ị WATCH: theo dõi, xem, tức là chủ ñộng nhìn cái gì một cách chăm chú và quan sát xem có cái gì ñang xảy ra, ví dụ "/ watched the bus go through the traffic lights ĩoì nhìn theo/theo ñõi chiếc xe buýt vượt ñèn ñô, hay "ỉ watch the movie" - Tôi xem ^him. Và ờ ñây diễn ra ý chúng ta chủ ñịnh muôn nhìn, xem, theo dõi, và nhìn một pácli chăm chú. Thông thường là có sự chuyển ñộng trong ñó. Exercise 9: Choose one suitable word above tó fill in each blank to complete the following sentences. \ 1. You c a n 't_____ far in this fog. 2. Denny and Phil ______ good tonight. 3. Did y o u ____Coronation Street yesterday evening? ị. 4. ______ out for pickpockets. 5. Can you_________ the blue car an the left? Ỉ 6. ____ you tomorrow, if nothing comes in between. I 7. I t ______ like rain, doesn’t it? I- 8. Oh yes, I ______________ what you mean. I 9. Hey, what’s wrong? You really ‘_______unhappy. 10. I’m afraid, Linda has to.______doctor. 10. MAKE, DO DO: chỉ các hoạt ñộng hằng ngày nhưng những hoạt ñộng này thường là không Ịtạo nên vật gì cụ thể, không sáng tạo nên cái mới. i - Một số cách nói phổ biến dùng “do”: E. g: ño one’s best / do good / do harm / do a favour / do business MAKE: diễn tả các hoạt ñộng tạo nên cái gỉ ñó cụ thêmà bạn có thê chạm vào ñược. E. g: make food / make a cup of tea / coffee or make a mess - Một sổ cách nói pho biến dùng “make": ; E. g: make plans •/ make an exception / make arrangements /make a telephone call make a decision / make a mistake / make noise / make money / make an excuse make an effort.

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Exercise 10: Fill in the gap with MAKE or 0 0 . 1. I’m going t o ______________ a cake for Tom’s birthday. 2. They are goirm to ________ the shopping 3. Tonight you have t o ______the beds 4. She always __ fun of her friends. 5-. The teacher asked us to ______ this exercise. 6. They’r e ______ a documentary about the Civil War. 7. W ho_______ those marks on the wall? 8. The decision her very unpopular with the staff. 9. Mary spends ages______ her hair in the morning. 10. Jane__________ aerobics three times a week. 11. LIFE, LIVE, LIVES LIVE /llv/ (v) sốiìiỉ Can you live on £Ỉ0Ỡ0 a month if1 London? LIFE (n) cuộc sổng, ví dụ: He wanted to live his own life Without the inlerfereno from the others. . % • LIVE /laiv/ (adj) trực tiếp a live programme một chương trình truyền trực tie (añv) trực tiếp We will he broadcasting the program live from. Austin. LIVES /livz/ (v) sons (ngôi thử 3 số ít thì hiện tại ñơn) He lives in New York. LIVES /laivz/ (n) số nhiều cùa life Many people lost their lives in the war. Exercise 11: Choose one suitable word above to fill in each blank to complete tli following sentences. 1. Angela in Argentina. 2. You must go to th e________ concert of Robbie Williams. 3. Peter still_________ with his parents. 4. There is n o _________ on the sun. 5. Do you still __ _ __ _ _ in this small house? 6. This is a ________ recording. 7. _______ is short. 8. The body showed no signs of 9. He’s lived here all h is_______ . 10. Three__________ were lost in the fire. 12. BRING, TAKE, FETCH BRING: mang cải gì tới vị trí mà người nói/ níihe ñang ở ñó (nơi ñến), ví d "Bring vour homework to me" (Hãy mang bài tập về nhà cúa các em ñcn chò tôi) ;ị TAKE: mang cái 2 Ìñi khòi vị trí nỉĩirời nói / nsưò'i níĩhe. ví dụ • They 're m kơrư. He must have taken them lo the dub. He's taken, my umbreỉỉa too. (Chúiị không có ở ñày. Chắc chắn anh ta ñira chúng ñến câu ỉạc bộ rôi. Anh ta cũng mang cùa tôi ñi nữa). FETCH: ñi tim và mang về, ví dụ: Don’t worry. You need some wooden rod don’t you? r 11 fetch them. Exercise 12: Fill in each blank with only one word from: BRING, TAKE, FETCH. 1. _____ this book to the library, please. ■ ■ 2. Could y o u ______ _ me some water, please? 3. He o ften_______his sister to her aunt.

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When you come to my party, don't forget to _ _ _ _ _ something to drink. Is Peter______ Steve to my party? He i s ______ out the rubbish now. Can you _ _ _ _ _ the CD to your uncle, please? My husband often________ flowers when he comes home. Would y o u _____ _this to the shop for me? Can yo u________ the car to the garage on Wednesday? They live in an isolated village so they have t o _______ water to drink from I the mountain. \ ■12. We need some waste cans. Can y ou________ some for us now? 13. COME, GO [. COME: một chuyên ñộng ñên nơi mà người nỏì hoặc người nghe ờ ñó, ví dụ: ịCouỉứ you come here fo r a minute, please, Diane? " (Cậu ñến ñây một lát ñi Diane). ị, ~ "I’m c o m i n g (Mình ñến ñây). I GO: ñê chi một chuyền ñộng rời xa vị trí, ñịa ñiểm mà người nói hoặc người nghe lạng ờ ñó: Are you going to the pub tonight? (Tối nay anh có tới quán rượu không?) I COME WITH or GO WITH? I Khi chúng ta muôn nói ñến việc tham gia một chuyển ñộng cùng với người nói và feười nghe thì người ta thường sử dụng come with (ñi cùng) chứ không dùng go with |ê cả khi ñó là chuyên ñộng rời khỏi vị trí mà họ ñang ờ ñó: I * Fm going to the hospital this afternoon to get the test results. Could you come mth me? (Chiêu nay tôi ñịnh ñên bệnh viện ñể lấy kết quả xét nghiệm. Bạn có ñi cùng ầi không?)

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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■ 3. W e've_____ to ask you if we can borrow your car for a week. ' 4. i've got some people_______ for a meal tonight. Can you and Henry_______ too? j; 5. Let's_________ and see Auntie Mary before the holiday is over. I 6. When did y o u ______ _ here? I 7. She did not want t o _______ to school today. I 8. Stay athome, I w ill_________ to see you tomorrow. I 9. We will __to England next month. I 10. W e're________ to Egypt for a week at Christmas. Would you like to _______ I with us? | . BORROW, LEND I BORROW: mượn cái gì cùa ai, ví ñụ “Vả Uke to borrow your umbrella” (Tôi |uôn mượn cái ô của anh) I LEND: cho ai mựợn cái gì thuộc sỏ; hữu cùa minh, ví dụ "l ean lend you my Inbreỉỉa. ” (Tôi có thể cho anh mượn chiếc ô của tôi) Ixercise 14: Choose BORROW or LEND to ill] in each blank to complete the I following sentences. 35 I 1. Could y o u ________ me some money, please?

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oome pupils can books from their school 3. Will you me your umbrella till tomorrow? 4. Should I him my football? 5. You may my bike, but be careful. 6. Couỉd I your cup? 7. You can your book to Steve. 8 , Why do students . _ so much monev from th e ir p a re n t-^ 9. Peter won't his car to anvone. 10. Will your mother you some money? 15. BIG, GREAT, TALL, HIG H ị BIG: lớn vể kích cờ, mức ñộ, ví dụ a big stone một hòn ñá to ĩ GREATUung bình rất nhiều, ví dụ a great success một thành công vĩñ HIGH: khoảng cách từ ñáy lên ñỉnh; ví dụ a hỉgk mountain range một dãy núi cao \ LARGE: lởn vẽ kích cỡ và sô- ỉượng. ví dụ: a large country ĩĩiột ñất nước rộnơ lc a large number o f people rât nhiều người -° ; TALL: cao hơn chiêu cao trung bình, ví dụ: a tall man một người ñàn ônơ cao lọ *4™. ý; Chúng ta dùng high hoặc íaỉỉ khi nói về các tòa nhà, và dùng tail khi n vê người. Exercise 15: Choose BIG, GREAT, TALL or HIGH to fill in each blank ; complete the following sentences. 1. There is a nice house with a ________ warden. 1 2. Albert Eintsein was a ________ physicist. ! 3. She is a very child for her age. ; 4- A ________ rate of inflation makes exports uncompetitive. 5.

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6. He is making a ________ mistake. 7. Can you see the _ _ _ _ trees behind the lake? 8. The city has a ________ level of pollution. 9. This pullover isn’t ________ enough. 10. My grandfather lived to a ________ age. 16. RISE, RAISE, ARISE RISE (rose, risen, rising) trờ nên cao hơn (nội ñộng từ, không có tân ngừ ñi kèm] vỉ dụ: The sun rises in the east. Mặt trời mọc ờ phía ñônơ. Ị ^ RAISE (raised, raised, raising) làm cho. . . cao lên, nuôi nấng dạy dỗ (trẻ con) nuôi (con vật), ví dụ: All those in favour please raise your hands, (tất cà nlìữnơ ai ùiiị hộ hãy. giơ tay lên)

ARISE (arose, arisen,, arising) xảy ra, nảy sinh, xuẩt hiện; ví dụ: Some problem have arisen recently. Gần ñây một số vẩn ñề mới nảy sinh. Exercise 16: Choose RISE, RAISE or ARISE to fill in Ẽãch blank to complete the' following sentences. 1. The governments a re _____VAT (value added tax) to 20% next year. ! 2. An unxpected problem h as______ and so we have had to cancel the meeting 3. Suddenly the mist that had hidden the canyon _______ _ and we had a mosi spectacular view.

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Prices h a v e _________ again due to the recent increase in inflation..

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Are there any matters_______from the minutes (written record) of the last meeting? My parents are farmers and ________ chickens and pigs. I was bom a n d ____on a farm, so Ỉ know all about animals. She________ from her chair and went over to the window. |9.1 would love to work in Africa should the opportunity ________ . |0 . University entry requirements have________ sharply over the last decade. |7 ; SAY, TELL, SPEAK, TALK / ^ r SAY (sth to sb) (1) nói cái gì với ai thành lời; thường dùng ñể tường thuật lại lời £ội (không có tân ngừ chỉ người ñi cùng, ví ñụ: He said that he lived in London. ) (2) lay hello, say goodbye I " TELL: (1) dùng với một bổ ngữ trực tiếp chỉ người (He told me that he ỉived in ■London) ñể tường thuật lại ỉời nói; (2) tell sb + ñộng từ nguyên thể ñược dùng cho các mệnh lệnh (She told him to hurry up); SPEAK: (1) nói chuyện I ’d Uke to speak to Mrs. Jones, please? (trang trọng hơn |rALK) (2) nói một ngôn,ngữ nào ñỏ speak English, Vietnamese ỉ; TALK: (1) nói chuyện Can ỉ talk to Susan, please? ỉ TALK gợi nên ý là hai người ñang nói chuyện với nhau: We talked fo r hours ịbout thê meaning o f life, CÒĨÌ SPEAK thường hay dùng về một người nói chuyện với Inột nhóm người He spoke to the class about the dangers o f smoking. Exercise 17: Choose SAY, TELL, SPEAK or TALK to fill in each blank to complete \ the following sentences. r 1. H e ____ _French well but has trouble reading it. I 2. W e________ Helen everything that had happened. 1 3. Susan decided to ______ to her father about it. Ị' 4. What exactly did h e ________ to you yesterday? :■ 5. Can y o u _________ me the way to the station, please? L 6. He didn't___________________ a word. f 7. S he_______________________ her name was Sue. 8. Let me._______you something about my hobbies. 9. Forget everything I ju s t_______ . \. 10. Why didn’t you him that before? \ IS. WAIT, LOOK FORWARD TO, EXPECT WAIT: (for sb/sth) hành ñộng chờ ñợi ai hoặc diều gì I’m waiting for him to 'ị arrive (Tôi ñang chờ anh ta ñên) ị LOOK FORWARD TO; dự tính ñiều gì ñó sẽ xảy ra và nóng lòng mong chờ ñiêu ñó EXPECT: tin tường ràng ñiều gì ñó sẽ xảỵ ra, mong chờ, trông ñợi I’m expecting him to arrive soon. (TÔI chắc rằng anh ấy sẽ ñến) ^ ; Exercise 18: Choose WAIT, LOOK FORWARD TO, EXPECT to fill in each blank to complete the following sentences. 1. What time do y o u ________the guests to arrive? 2. I’m _________ visiting Japan. I 3. Can yo u_____ for me, John? I 4. Have you been_______ long?

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5. You can’t __________ to learn a language in a week. 6. We are_______ for the rain to stop. 7. We’re so m uch________ seeing you again. 8. You’ll have to till the end o f the month before I can pay you. 9. I’m sorry to have kept you 10. I ________ that I will be back on Sunday. 19. MATCH, SUIT, FIT MATCH: hợp. tương xứng, nhất là về màu sắc: The curtains and the carpets match perfectly Rèm và thảm hẽt sức hợp nhau. SUIT: phù hợp về thị hiếu, sở thích, kiểu tóc, quần áo với ai: Does this skirt suit me? Cái váy này có hợp với tôi không? FIT: vưa vạn ñúng kích cỡ, ăn khớp Her coat fits her exactly. Chiếc áo khoác rất vừa vặn với cô ấy. , Exercise 19: Choose MATCH, SUIT or FIT to fill in each blank to complete the following sentences. 1. These brown gloves________with this dress very well. 2. You look nice in green. Green________ you. 3. These shoes are too small. They don’t ________ me. 4. The key doesn’t _________ the lock. ! 5. It doesn’t __ you to have your hair cut short. 6. Can you this wallpaper? 7. That color doesn’t _________ your age. '1 S. Very spicy food doesn’t ________ my stomach. ị 9. I can never get clothes to me. :-i 10. A pink shirt does n o t_______a brown pair of trousers. j 20. ALONE, LONELY, SINGLE, ONLY I ALONE: một mình Mr. Jones came to the party alone as his wife was away 01 business. Ông Jones ñến dự tiệc một mình vì vợ ông ñang ñi công tác. LONELY: buồn bã cô ñộc Ị get really lonely at Christmas because all my family Ity abroad. Vào dịp lễ Giáng sinh tòi thực sự thấy buồn vi cả nhà tôi sông ờ nước ngoài. ị SINGLE: ñộc thân, chưa lập gia ñình All my friends are married except Kate, who I still single: Tẩt cả bạn bè tôi ñều ñã lập gia ñình, trừ Kate, cho ñến nay vẫn còn ñộc thâr ONLY: duy nhất, chỉ có Our only hope is to win tomorrow's match. Hi vọng dự nhất của chúng tôi là thẳng trong trận ñấu ngày mai. ; Exercise 20: Choose ALONE, LONELY, SINGLE, ONLY to fill in each blank! complete the following sentences. The thing I do not understand in mathematics is geometry. ■■■-ị 2. After Bob's parents' death he feels 1 3. Do not worry! He can do this w ork_______ _! } 4. Tom does not know anyone in the town. He feels_____ . ÍỊ 5. The accused did not say a ________ word during the lawsuit. ị 6. The teacher w as_______ in the classroom before the pupils came. I 7. Do not go out at night

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NH ƠN

8. Some players feel sometimes_______ in their new team. 9. Their_______ child died in yesterday’s accident. 10. It is not wise to live in a house .

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Chuyên ñể 3: COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (CHỨC NĂNG GIAO TIẾP CỦA NGÔN NGỮ) MỘT SÓ MẨƯ CÂU TRONG GIAO TIÉP CẰN CHÚ Ý

ĐẠ O

Ịa. LÝ T H Ư Y É T c o BẢN VẢ NÂNG CAO f Introduction and response to introduction Introduction Responses to introduction I’d like you to meet my friend, Lan. - It’s nice/ pleased to meet you! I’m Nam. May I introduce myself? - Nice to to meet you! I’m Nam. - I’m happy to meet you! - How do you do! Can you introduce yourself? . - It’s a pleasure to meet you. My name is Lark It’s nice to meet you! - The pleasure is all mine. Miss Lan. |How do you do! i’m Lan. r Come and meet Miss Lan. Responses to a goodbye I Saying and response to a goodbye - Goodbye! See you around. /See you I Saying goodbye ỉater. / Keep in touch!/ Let’s have -Goodbye! See you soon (again). lunch/dinner/coffee soon. I Bye bye! Let’s get together soon. /Give - 1 hope we meet again. pe a call soon. / Give me a call/ a ring - Stop by and see me sometime! Ịpmetime! - Farewell! |Look at the time! I’ve really got to go. - Take care. I'l’ve enjoyed seeing/meeting you. I - Have a good/nice day (week) |)pe to see again. Bye bye!

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^Making and respond to suggestions 1 Suggestions |Vhy don't you / we go to the movies tonight? vYou / we could visit New York while you’re / pje’re there. BLet’s go to the cinema, tonight. |vhat about asking your brother for help? flow about going to Hawaii for your vacation? Ị suggest you / we go out for lunch.

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Invitation and response to invitation I Invitations I would like/love to invite you to my ihdayparty.

I

Responses to suggestions Acceptances: - Sure!/ Great! Super! That is a good idea! - Yes/ Ok. i ’d ỉove to/ (That) sounds great/ fun. Declines: - Thank you very much but I’m afraid..:. - 1 wish I could but...................

Responses to invitations Acceptances: - Thank you very much for your invitation.

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* Giving offers and response to offers Offering assistance/ Offers May I help you? Do you need any help? Let me help you.

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- I’d love to/ I’d be delighted to__ - Sure!/Great! That would be fun/ wonderful Declines: - Thank you very much bat I’m afraid I’m busy then. - 1 wish I could but I’m busy. May be another time. Thanks/ thanks anyways. / What about next Saturday,__

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Responses to favors Acceptances: - Sure. / Certainly. / Of course. / Noprobleii - What can I do for you? - How can I help you? Declines: - ĩ ’m sorry. I’m really busy.

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- Would y o u like / care to come to my birthday party? - 1was wondering if you’d like to join us far a picnic. - Can / Will you come to my birthday party? - What / How about coming to my birthday party? - Why don’t/ not you come................ * Asking and response to favors Asking for favors Can/ Could you help me, please? Could you do me a favor? I need a favor. Can/ Could you do St for me?

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Response to assistance Acceptances: Yes/ No. ]Thank you. Yes. That’s very kind o f you. - No. Thank you. I’m fine. Response to offers - Yes, please. - That would be nice. - No, thank you.

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Offers Would you like me to close the door? What can I get for you? / Can I get y o u .. . ? Shall Ỉ ’___ Will / Won’t you have a cup of tea. I’ll make for you? * Making and response to promises Promises Response to promises I’ll study hard. I promise. - 1 hope so. I promise I will/ won’t........ - Good. Ipromise to study hard. - I’m glad / Don’t forget. Expressing thanks and response to thanks Thanks Responses to thanks - Thank you very Oh, it was the least I could do. • It was my pleasure (Formal) much fo r........ Think nothing of it. • You’re welcome. (Formal) It was nothing. • You’re very welcome. - Thank you very My pleasure. (Forma!) much for your Don’t mention it. • You’re more than welcome. help/ helping Not at all (Anytime- ^ 0 big deal. me! Don’t mention it (Informal) • My pleasure

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Iwould you mind if I closed the door? - Not at all.

NH ƠN

.Making requests and response to requests I Requests Responses to requests fbo/ Would you mind closing the door" - No, I don’t mind. - I’m sorry, I can’t. |Do you mind if I close the door? - No, of course not. - I’m sorry, that is not

possible.

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ị -P lease do. - I’d prefer you didn’t, r . Please go ahead. - I’d. rather you didn’t. 'M aking compliments and response to compliments J Making compliments Responses to compliments ^Congratulation! - You are too kind. -Congratulation OĨ1 your first prize! - It’s very nice of you to say so. I love your new hairstyle. - Thank you for your compliment. Ịvour new hairstyle is very wonderful. - Thank you. I’m glad you like/ enjoy it. I - You must be kidding/ You have got to be p . kidding. 1 thought 1 was terrible {refusing) I Making and response to an apology I M aking an apology Responses to an apology ■jTm awfully/ terribly/ very sorry about - That’s (quite) all right! breaking your ruller. - Think nothing of it. Il’m awfully/ terribly/ very sorry th a t. . . . - Don’t worry abou it. - That’s ok. II beg your pardon for........ - Forget it. ■ Pardon me for........................... | l hope you’ll forgive me for.................' . . - No big thing/ No harm done/ No problem. i. -- It’s alright. I - I t’s fine. I - It’s OK this time, but let’s not let it I happen again. B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LƯYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the best response (A, B, c or D) to each of the following. ;1 Nam: Thank you for your gift, Jenny. L o n g :______________ A. I’m sorry. B. Very glad, c . No, of course. D. I’m happy you like it ụ. Nga: Would you like something to drink? Mai: __________ A. Yes, 1 do. B. No, thanks. c . I win. D. No, I would. ■3. Nga: Thanks forthe wonderful party. Lan:_______ A. No, it’s not good. B. Yes, it’s realỉy great c . Oh, that’s right. D .T m glad you enjoyed it. 4. Mr. John: Could you bring me a cup of coffee? Waiter: ___________ A. Certainly, sir B. Yes, I can c. I don’t want to D. No, I can’t

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5. Mai: You look very nice in your new dress, Lan.

______

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Lan: ___________ A. Thanks. It’s very nice o f you to say so. B. You can say that again c . I’d rather not. D. It’s up to you. 6. Ha: Give my regards to your parents. •

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A. Good idea, thanks. B. It’s my pleasure. ; c . You’re welcome. D; Thanks, I will. ; 7. Your close friend needs to get to the railwaystation asquicklyas possible. Youj have a car. What do you say to him: ' A. I’d like to give you a lift. B. Can you sit in my car? c . Do you mind sitting in my car? D. Do you like my car? 8. Ha: I’m reading a newspaper Could you turn the TVdown,please? M ai:_____ A. Never mind. B. You’re welcome. c . Yes, of course D- Really? I 9. Hoa: Congratulations! - Ngat __ ' A. Don’t worry. B. Not at all. c . You’re welcome. D. Thanks. 10. Nam: I’m sorry, I have broken your bicycle. Long: _______ - I can fix it. ; A. Don’t worry B. Not at all c. You’re welcome. D. Thanks Ị 11. Hoa: Let’s go to Nhatrang on the weekend. Nga: _______ ; A. That's a fine day. B. That’s a good trip. ! c . Yes, please. D. That’s a great idea. 12. Mai: Thank you very much. I’ ve had a great time. ~ Lan: _____________j A. Are you worried? B. Not all. c . You’re welcome. D. Nothing. 13. Nga: We’re going to have a pinic next Sunday. _______________ Nam: Thanks, I’d love to. I’m really busy. A. Do you come? B. Could you come? c . Do you feel like going? D. Would you like to come? 14. Nga: Let’s go out for a dinner.. Hoa: ____ __________ A. Yes, please. B. Thank you. c . Certainly. D. Great. . 15. Jenny: A n n , __________________ Ann: I’m sorry, but I can’t do it now. A. would you like some coffee? B. why don’t you make some cơffee?

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D. will you drink some coffee? ị 16. Ha: Do you mind if I borrow your laptop a moment? Hoa:__ _ A. Pm sorry. B. Not at all. c . Yes, I ño. D. Yes, I would. '17. Nam: How about going swimming next weekend? Long: ____________ _ A. Let’s do that. B. B.Wfr Why not? D. Oh, I c. Sure. . D. Oh, there’s no hurry.

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c. would you mind making some coffee?

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p8. Nga: Would you like me to go with you? ~ Hoa: I . A. Yes, I like. B. Not at all. c . Go ahead. D. No, I wouldn’t. 1 9. An: I think, we should take a shower instead of a bath to save energy. I • M inh:__________ I A. That’s a good idea. B. Let’s do that. c . All right. D. A, B and c are correct. 20. Mai: Well done, Trang. ~ Trang: _______ . A- Thanks. B. It’s nice of you to say so. c. That’s very kind of you. D. A, B and c are coirect. 21. Mai: It’s very stuffy in here. ~ Hoa: _______ A. Sure. . B. Really? c . All right. D. Ok. I’ll open the door. |22, Nga: Would you like a cup of tea? M ai:_______ . A. Yes, Ỉ would. B. Just a little, thanks, c . Yes, I do. D. You’re welcome. 23. Mai: Do you mind closing the door? ~ Hoa:________________ A. Nó, I don’t mind. B. No, o f course not. jf c . Not at all. D. A, B and c are correct. |24. Nga: Remember to return that book to my m other.. ~ Lan: _______ A. Yes, I will. B. Why not? c . I won’t. D. Of course. ?25. Hoa: Do you mind if I sit here? Mai: _______________ _ A. Not at all. B. Yes, I do. c . I’m sorry. D. Yes, I would, f26. Lan: Now, please bottom up to give best wishes to all of us. . Others: (in chorus) : ______ A. Thanks B. Have a good day c . Cheer up D. Great 27.- Nam: Would you mind giving me a hand with this bag? - Minh: _______ . A. Yes, I’ll do it now. B. No, not at all. c. Well, I’d love to. D. Yes, lam . 28. Shop assisstant: Can I help you? ~ A customer:____ A. Yes, please. B. That would benice. c . Yes, you cari. D. A notebook and some pens please. 29. Hoa: It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? - Lan: _____ A. No . B. Oh, why not c. Yes, it’s lovely D. I’m not sure

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30. Mai; What shall we do this weekend? ~ Hoa: _ _ _ A. I went out for dinner. B. Oh, that’s good. G. Let’s go out for dinner. D. No problem. 31. Mai: You’ve got a lovely singing voice. - Ha: ___________ A. Don’t mention it. B. Congratulations! c . Thank you. I’m happy you like it D. it’s all right. 32. Lan: I suggest we go on a picnic on the hill near the waterfall. Nga: ____________ A. It’s a nice day! B. Have a good trip, c . Great idea! D. Congratulations! 33. Lan: I wish I could visit your village again some day, Ba. Ba: __________________ A. Too true! B. Yes, let’s. c . What a day! D. You’re always welcome! 34. Lan: So long no see! ~ Mai: Y es,______ A. Yes, I have. B. Uhm, how are you getting on? c . No, let’s not. D. No, I don’t. 35. Long: I think we should use less paper so that we can save trees in the forests. Mai: _____________________ A. Why not? B. Yes, I’d love to. C-1 totally agree with you. D. It’s nice of you to say so. 36. Nam: But for your help, I couldn’t have finished my essay on time. I highly appreciate it. » Judy: ____ A. With ail my heart ' B. Never remind me c . It’s my pleasure D. Wish you 37. Hoa: Ob dear, I’m too hungry now. - M ai:_____________ A. I ll bring you something to eat. B. Really? c. Yes. Here it is. D. I see. 38. Lan:____________ detective stories? Hoa: In my opinion, they are very good for teenagers. They can sharpen our mind. A. What do you think about B. Are you fond of c . How about ð, What do people feel about 39. Jenny:________ ;________________ ? . Tom: “He’s tall and thin with blue eyes. ” A. How is Jack getting B. What is Jack like c . What does Jack look like D. How does Jack appear 40.

th

Lan: “Today’s my 16 birthday.” ~ Long: ______ A. Many happy returns! B. I don’t understand.

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D. Have a good time! Take care! Ha: 10: Would you like beer or wine? B..Ĩ couldn’t agree more. ^A. Yes, I’d love to. D. I'd prefer beer, please. |c. No, I've no choice. lNam: Is it all right if I use your bike? ~ Nga:___________ pÀ. Sure, go ahead. B. I don’t care. c . I accept it. D. Oh, forget It. Passer-by: Is there a post office near here? n Linh: _______ t§A. Yes, there is | b . Turn left and take the first street on the left. It's on the right, f c . No, really? p D . No, there isn’t. pậ Hoa: Bye, bye! - N ga:____________ A. See you later. B'. Meet you again, c . Thank you. D. See you lately. Nga: How do you do? ~ H oa:__________________ . B. How do you do? A. Yeah, OK. D. I’m well. Thank you. c. Not too bad. - Lan:_____ @LHoa: Can you do the cooking today? D. I know that. c. Yes, please. A- No, thank you. B. Oh, all right.

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. Nam: In my opinion, computer is the most wonderful invention.

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c. Keep in touch.

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c. Ihope so.

D. Why not?

B. Don’t forget it. D. A and B are correct.

53. Lan: Your hair style is wonderful. - Mai: 45

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c . No. I haven't tried any. D. The one I tried on first. Hoa: I can’t speak English well enough to apply ibr that job. Mai: _ A. Me either B. Me too c. Me also D. Me neither Long: Our team has just won the last football match. — Iiunm ___ A. Yes, it’s our pleasure. B. Good idea. Thanks for the news. c . Welỉ~ñone! that’s very surprising. D. Yes, Í guess. Hoa: I've enjoyed meeting you.~ N gà: A. Take care! B. I’d love. c . I’m happv. 1 ). My pleasure ^ Nga: Would you mind if I closed the door. It’s too cold oiuside. Lan:___________________________ A. No, I don’t like.. B. I’d rather you didn’t. It’s stuffy. c . No, never mind. D. Why not do it?

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A. You’re kidding. I thought it’s terrible! B. Why so? B. Really? D. Oh, no. Don’t say so. 54. Hoa: I beg your pardon for breaking that flower vase. ~ H a:___ A. Never mind. B. No problem c . All right. D. A, B and c are correct 55. Lan: I’ve passed ray driving test. ~ Nam: _ _ _ _ _ A. Do you? B. That’s a good idea, c. Congratulations! D. It's nice of you to say so. 56. Shop-keeper: Which hat do you like better? - Mai: ____ A. Which one ño you like? B. Yes, I’d like it best,

NH ƠN

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A

Chuyên ñể: GRAMMAR (NGỮ PHÁP)

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PH ÀN 1: C Ấ C T H Ì T R O N G T ĨẾ N G ANH - E N G L IS H T E N SE S

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A. LÝ THƯYÉT c o BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO 1. The Sỉmpie Present (Thì hiện tại ñơn giản) • Cấu trúc: s + V (s/ es) + (O) + A • Cách sử ñụng: 1 - Diễn tà một chân lý hay một sự thật hiển nhiên. ị Eg. The Earth goes around the Sun. 'i - Diễn tả những thói quen, tập quán hay ñặc tính tồn tại một thời gian dài ở hiệ; tại. Eg. she usually reads newspapers before her bedtime. j - Diễn tả nhừng sự việc xảy ra và ñúng trong một thời gian dài ở hiện tại. \ Eg. She works in a hospital. ] • ðấu hiệu nhận biết Thì hiện tại ñơn giản: thì hiện tại thưòng ñược ñùng với một a các phó từ chỉ thời gian như: today, present day, nowadays every + thò1 gian. . J ■ * -Ị 46

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yeryday = daily; every week= weekly; every month = monthly; every year =yearly, . . . ; low and thenỈ from tíme tơ tùne; , . . . và vói các phó từ chỉ tần suất {always, usually, pen, frequently, occasionally, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never) hay một so cụm từ chỉ an suất như (once a dạy/ twice a day/three tùnes a day,.......... ) Ị • Ghi chú cách thêm ‘s, es’ vặo ngôi thứ 3 (ba) số ít (He, she, it) - NhCms ñộns: từ (Verbs) tận cùne bằng nhữns chữ (s. X. z. ch. sh. oì thì phải thêm "es". (Eg: misses, mixes, washes, does, goes,. .. .

Các ñộng từ có âm kết thúc vởì ñuôi ch, X, sh, s / P’ *. t Không thuộc hai loại trên

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:Cách ñoc Hzỉ Js/ /zỉ

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-ỳcarries; bury -ỳburies)

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c ấ u tróc: s + Be (am/ is/ are) + V-ing + (O) + A Cách sử ñụng: - Diễn tả một hành ñộng, một sự việc ñang xảy ra tại thời ñiểm nói. 1^ Eg. My mother is cooking now .) I - Diễn tả một sự thay ñổi, và thưởng ñi với các ñộn2 từ ‘aet/ become/ turn' và |eo sau các ñộng từ nảy ỉà cấp so sánh hơn. Eg. Our examination IS getting more and pore difficult. - Diễn tả một hành ñộns ñaiiíì xảy ra xirnu quanh tliòì ñiểm nói. Eg. I am reading a novel but I haven't finished Jl yet. - Diền tà một kế hoạch tươn« lai.ñược ỉẻn kế hoạch từ trước và sắp xảy ra. ' Eg. She is going 10 Hanoi tomorrow. Chú ý: |ĩế u sử ñụng thì Hiện tạí tiếp ñiền cho hành ñộng tương ỉai thì người nói muốn nhấn Itậnh rằng kê hoạch cho hành ñộng ñó ñã có sự chuẩn bị, sắp xêp kỹ lưỡng. ịVới các ñộng từ chuyển ñộng như: come, go, arrive, return, leave, - - . người Anh có Éuynh hướng ñùng thì hiện tại tiêp diên cho hành ñộng tương lai thay cho thì tương Irgần ‘ be going to \ * • Ệ > Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn: thì hiện tại tiếp diễn thường ñược Ự;. dùng với một số các phó từ chì thời gian như: now, rightnoWy at this moment, n at present và thường ñược ñùng sau các câu mệnh Ịệrth. (Look! She is crying. / Keep silent! She is sleeping.) Cách thêm ñuôi ‘ -ỉn g ’ vào sau ñộng từ - Nếu ñộn" từ có ‘e ’ câm ờ cuối, ta bò ‘e’ ñi rồi mớithêm ING: Ệ. give - giving / ñrink - drinking - Neu ñộng từ ờ cuối có phụ âm’ và trước phụ âm mà có một níiuyèn âm, ta phai ■Pñôi phụ âm rồi mới thêm ING: cut -cutting run -running

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- Nếu ñọrig từ có ie ờ cuối, ta ñỗi ie thành Y rọi mới thêm ING tying die -dying lie

j - lying

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ị - Khỉ ñộng từ một vần tận cùng một phụ âm (tìr h. Vi', Avv), ñi írirớc là mọt nguyầ âm, ta gâp ñôi phụ ãm trưởc khi thêm ‘ing’ Ị

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stop-stopping get-getting . ; Nhưng fix- fixing play- playing (vì ñộng từ tận cùng bằng ‘x y ’ greet- greeting (trựớc ‘t ’ là 2 nguyên âm) working- working (tận cùng bằng 2 phụ âm) Quỵ luạt nay thường ñược áp dụng cho ñộng từ 2 vần miễn là trọng âm nằm trêĩ vân cuôi cùng. suffer —suffering (trọng âm roi vào âm ñầu) . • Chú ỵ: Các ñộng từ trạng thái (stative verb) như: know/ beỉieve/ hear/ see/ smell wish/ understand/' hate/Iove/Hke/wan^sound/have/need/appear/seein/taste/own idiom ñurợc chia ờ íhê tiêp diên (bát cứ thời nào) khi chúựg là những ñộng từ tĩnh diễn ñạt trang thải cảm giác cùa hoạt ñộng tinh thần hoặc tỉnh chất của sự vạt, Sự việc. Nhưng khi chun] quay sang hướng ñộng từ hành ñộng thỉ chúng lại ñưọc phép dùng ờ thể tiep dien. Eg; He has a lot of books. # He is having dinner now. (ðộng tư hành ñộng: an toi)/1 think they wiil come in time. # I’m thinking of my test tomorrow. (ðộníĩ từ hành ñôn^ ðang nghĩ về) ị

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_ • Chứ ý: Trạng từ năng diễn always ñì với hiện tại tiếp diễn diễn tả sự phàn nàiỊ vê thói quen xâu/ vê hành ñộna sâv ra sự bực dọc cùa ai ñó Eg: Teacher to her students: You are always making noise in the class. 3. The Present perfect (Thì hiên tai hoàn thànhì • C ấu trủ c: s + have/ has + p2 + (O) • Cách sử dụng: Dien ta một hành ñộng xày ra ờ một thòi ñiêm không xác ñịnh trong quá khứ nhưng có kết quả lưu lại ờ hiện tại. Eg: ỉ have watched this film three times. / She has been to many countries. ■ Dien tả một hành ñộng bãt ñâu trong quá khứ, kéo dài ñến hiện tại và c tiếp diễn ờ tương lai. Eg. she has lived in Vinh city for 20 years. Dien ta mọt sự viẹc SÊ hoan thành ờ tương lai và ñuực dùng .trong các mệnh ñề

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sau các liên từ như: iff when/ before/ after/ until/ till/ as soon> as . . . . . Eg. W eil go out after we have finished our work tomorrow evening.. • Dấu hiệu nhận biếí Thì hiện tại hoàn thành: Thỉ hiện tại hoàn thành thưòno ñựợc ñung VƠI các phó từ chì thời gian như: FOR + khoảng thời gian (for three days for ten minutes, for twenty years); SIN CE + thời ñiếm bat ñầu (since 1982, since January, since we were ten/ already (vừa mới) và yet (vẫn chưa)/ now that. . . (giờ ñây khi mà. . .) / till now, until! now, so fa r /u p to now (cho ñến giơ)/ recently, lately (gầnñây); Dùng với before ñứng ờ cuối câu (I have seen him before-)/- Dùng với ju st (vira mới); ever (ñã từng), never (chưa bao giờ), in the past + time (in the past five year trong 5 năm qua)/- Dùng sau câu trúc câu so sánh hơn nhẩt: This is the first/second/ third time I have (ever) d o n e ...........Eg: This is the first time I have been to England. / 1 have never seen such a beautiful girl. 4. T he p re s e n t D efect co n tin o ư s (T hì hiên ta i hoàn th ả n h tiế p d ỉễ n ì • Câu tróc: s + has/ have + been + V-ing+ (O) + A

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• Cách hình thành ñộng từ quá khứ: - Những ñộng từ lập thành thời quá khứ và quá khứ phân từ băng cách thêm ed vào sau ñộng từ gôc (gọi ỉà ðộng từ có Quy tăc)

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Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quả khứ ñơn: Thì này thường ñược dùng với các phó tư chỉ thời gian như: yesterday, at that moment, last week/last month/ ÍỈÍÍÍỂ+ ago (5 years ago)/ at that time/ at that moment.

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ị. • Cách sử dụng: I - Diễn tả một một hành ñộng bắt ñầu trong quá khứ, kéo ñài ñến hiện tại và có ■thể tiếp diễn ở tương iai. Eg. I have been living in Hanoi since I was bom. Diễn tả một hành ñộng kéo dài trong quá khứ và mới vừa chấm dứt ờ h^ệntại, Ịcòn ỉưu lại dấu vết cùa hành ñộng còn mới nguyên. ị Eg. His hands are dirty with some paint. He has been painting the wall. * Dấu hiêu nhận biết thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn: xẹm vế trước nỏ có ; chứa ñựng ñấu vết của 1iành ñộng còn mói nguyên, hay dâu hiệu răng hành £: ■. ñộng còn tiếp tục tiếp diễn ở tương lai. ••5. The past Simple (Thì quá khứ thường) r V • Cấu trúc: s + V (ed) + (O) + A t • Cách sử dụng: Diễn tả một xảy ra và hoàn thành ở một thời ñiêm xác ñịnh trong quá khứ. ; Eg. He boughtthis car 2 years ago.) Diền tả một chuôi các hành ñộng quá khứ xảy ra hên tiep nhau. Eg. She went to the shop, bought a new shirt and gave him.

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Vỉ dụ: I work - worked/ I washed -washed / I visit - visited Chủ ý: Neu ñộng từ tận cùng bẳng■“y” và có một phụ âm ñi trước y thi phai I ñổi “y” thành “i rồi mới thêm “ed” (y - ied) ị Ví dụ: I study - studied ĩ - Nhưng khi trước y là nguyên âm thì: y+ed [ Ví dụ: I play - played ị - Nếu ñộng từ tận cùng bằng ‘e \ thì chi thêm ‘ñ’

Ị: í

Ví dụ: ĩ live- lived - Nếu môt ñộng từ (Verb) cỏ một hay nhiều âm tiết/vân mà khi ñọc nhân mạnh

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Ị vào CUQ1, va tan cùng bang mọt phụ am (trừ ‘h, w, X, y ’ và ñi trước phụ âm ñó có một ị nguyên âm, thì hãy gâp ñôi phụ âm rôi 1Ĩ 1Ớ1 them ED

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Ví dụ: F it-F itted Stop-stopped Drop - Dropped \ Nhưng: Visit - Visited (Vi visit khi ñọc, nhấn mạnh vào vần thứ nhất) Prefer - Preferred (Vì prefer khi ñọc, nhấn mạnh vào ván thứ hai) Ngoài ra ngữ pháp tiếng Anh còn quy ñịnh một loại ñộng từ bât quí tă c n g ự ơ t i học phai học thuọc lòng ba (3) thế ñộnậtư: Gốc, Quá khử (PI) và Quả khứ phân từ f (PII). Cỏ the (ra ờ Bàng ñộng từ bất qui tắc ® Cách ñọc ñuôi ñộng từ quá khứ có/ed/ - đoạn bởi NếuGV. ñộn° từ tận cùng bàngTú âm kếtWWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BOIDUONGHOAHOCQUYNHON thúc với ñuôi /t; d/ thì /ed/ ñuợc phát âm là há! Giới thiệu trích Nguyễn Thanh


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Ví dụ: wanted needed invited - Neu ñộng từ tận cùng bàng nhũn 2 âm kết thúe với ñuôi /s/; /sh/: / ch/: /k/: /f/: /p/ thi /ed/ ñược phát âm là /t/. - Còn lại các ñộng từ không thuộc hai loại trên thì /ed/ ñược phát âm là /Ư Ghi chú: Có một sổ tính tìr ngoại lệ có ñuôi led’ ñọc theo cách riêns (xem kv ờ phần Phonetics (Ngữ Àm) 6. The past continuous (Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn) • Cấu trúc: s + w as/w ere + V-ing + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng: Diễn tả một hành ñộng ñang xảy ra tại một thời ñiểm xác ñịnh trong quá khứ. Eg Mai was watching TV at seven o’clock last night. Diễn tả một hành ñộng ñang xảy ra trong quá khứ thì bị một hành ñộng khác “chen ngang'7 (khi ñang. . . thì bỗng. . . ): Eg. He was watching TV when I came home. Diễn tả hai hành ñộng cùng ñồng thời xảy ra trong quá khứ. Eg. Lan was watching television while Nam was reading a book. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn: Câu có dấu hiệu về thời sian khi hành ñộng quá khứ ñan 2 xảy ra như: at that moment, at that timeỈ at 7 o ’do ck yesterday. - Cảu cỏ 2 vé, mồi vế chứa một hảhh ñộng quá khử, chủng ta chia theo công thức: Clause I (QKTD-The past continuous) + when + Clause 2 (QKðG- The I __ past simple)_______________________________________________ Clause 1 (QKTD-The past continuous) + while + Clause 2 (QKTD-The past continuous)____________ __________ _____________________________ 7. The Fast Perfect (Thì quá khứ hoàn thành): • Cấu trúc: s + had + p2 + (O) + A • Cách sử (lụng: Diễn tả một hành ñộng xảy ra và hoàn thành trước một hành ñộng khác trong quá khứ. Eg. when I came home last night, my parents had gone to bed. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ hoàn thành: Thời quá khứ hoàn thành ñược dùng với 3 phó từ chì thòi gian là: after, before và when. 8. T h e S im ple F u tu r e (T h ì tư o n g taì th ư ờ n g ) • C ấu trú c : s + w iil (S h aỉl) + V (b a re in fin itiv e ) + 0 + A • Cách sử dụng: Diễn tả một hành ñộng sẽ xảy ra ờ tương lai (I will buy a new car). • t)au hiệu nhận biết Thì tưoug ỉaỉ ñơn giản: Thưòng dùng thì này với một số phó từ chì thời gian như tomorrow, next + time, in the future, in future, from now on, in 2 m onths/ in three years. 9. The Near future (Thì tương lai gần) • Cấu trúc: s + be + going to-V + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng: Diễn ta một hành dộng sẽ ehấc chắn xảy ra trong lương iai gân. Eg. I am going to buy a new car, so I am saving now. • Dấu hiệu nhận bỉết Thì tương lai gần: thường dùng thì này với các phó từ dưới dạng: In a moment (một íẩt nửa), a t 2 o 1clock this afternoon. Nate: Chúng ta cần phân biệt 2 thì The Simple Future và The Near future 50

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Simple F uture (will do St) - Hành ñộng không chắc chẳn xày ra trong tương lai : I -Diễn tả sự suy luận, tiên ñoán dựa trên chứng - Diễn tà sự suy ñoán cá nhân: / think/ ' ịj; : \ cử hiện tại: Look at those black clouds, it is expectfpromise/ hope/believe + that going to rain. / He is very lazy, and he is going a clause (mũ do St) to fail in his exams. - Diễn tả hành ñộng ñược lẽn kế hoạch trước - ðiền tả hành ñộng ñược quyết ñịnh thời ñiểm nói: I have saved money for many ngay thời ñiêm nói: Nam: It is so hot here. / Mai: I’ll turn on the fans: years because I am going to buy a car. ;f [ M Ộ TSÔ TH Ì TIẾNG A N H NGOÀÌ CHƯƠNG TRÌNH PTCS \ I to. Future Progressive (Thì tương lai tiếp diễn): • Cấu trúc: s + will be + V-ing + (O) + A Cảch sử dụng: : - Dùng ñể diễn ñạt một hành ñộng sẽ xảy ra vảo một thời ñiểm nhất ñịnh trong từơng lai. ; ' Eg. At 8:00 am tomoưow morning we will be having Mark’s wedding party Have a nice trip to America! We will be thinking of you. ị - Dùng kết hợp với present progressive khác ñể diễn ñạt hai hành ñộng ñang ị song song xảy ra. Ị Một ở hiện tại, còn một ờ tương lai. r Eg: Now we are enjoying our party here, but by this time tom orrow we will be i working hard for a new project at the office. f - ðược ñùng ñề ñề cập ñến các sự kiện tương lai ñã ñược xác ñịnh hoặc quyết ĩ- ñịnh (không mang ý nghĩa tiếp diễn). I ' Eg: I will be giving another lecture on environment pollution at the same time |. next week. ^ - ðược ñùng ñể diễn tả những sự kiện ñược mong ñợi là sẽ xảy ra theo một tién E trình thường lệ (nhưng không diên ñạt ý ñịnh cửa cá nhân người nói). ị' Eg. ĩ will be seeing you one of these days, ĩ - ðược dùng ñể dự ñoán cho tương iai. ỉ Eg. Don’t phone now, they will be sleepping. ị - ðược ñùng ñể diễn ñạt ỉời ñề/nghị nhã nhặn muốn biếtvề kế hoạch của người khác. Ỷ Eg. Will you be having dinner with us this evening? (ông có ñự ñịnh ãn tôi vỡi ị chúng tôi tối nay chứ ạ) • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì tương lai tiếp diễn: câu cỏ hành ñộng tiếp diễn với i thời ñiểm thời gian cụ thể ở tương lai: at 7:00 am tomorrow/by this time next week. ) 11. Future Perfect (thì tương lai hoàn thành) ị • Cấu trúc: s + will have + V (pp2) + (O) + A ị e Cách sử dụng và Dẩu hiệu nhận biêt thì tương lai hoàn thành: - Dùng ñề chi một hành ñộng sẽ phải ñược,hoàn tất ỡ vào một thờiñiểm nhất /ñịnh trong tương lai. Nó thường ñược dùng với trạng từ chỉ thời gian dưới dạng: by I the end o f . b y the time + sentence (will have done)

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Near F uture (to be going to do St) - Hành ñộng chắc chắn xảy ra trong tương lai

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NH ƠN

Eg. We will have finished our project by the end of next week. By the time my parents retire, I won’t have graduated vet. 12. Future Perfect Continuous (Thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn) • Cấu trúc: s + will have been + V-ing + (O) + A

Cách sử dụng và Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn: Dùng ñê chi một hành ñộng sẽ xảy ra và kéo ñài cho ñên một thời ñiểm nào ñ trong tương lai và còn tiếp tục diễn ra nữa. Nó thường ñược dùng với trạng tù’chỉ thời gian dưới dạng: by the end o f.---- - bv the time + sentence (wiU have been doing). Eg. By 2020, we will have been living in Vinh city for 20 years. * S ự phù hơp về thì giữa hai vế của một câu Trong một câu tiểng Anh có 2 vế (hai mệnh ñề) thì thời của ñộng từ ờ hai thành phân ñó phải phù hợp với nhau. Thời của ñộng từ ờ mệnh ñề chính sẽ quyểt ñịnh thời của ñộng từ ở mệnh ñê phụ.___________ _________ ___________________ ________

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MỆNH ðẺ PHỤ Present progressive Hành ñộng cửa mệnli ñề. phụ xàỵ ra cùng lúc với hành ñộng cùa mệnh ñề chính I see that Mai is writing a letter. Do you know who is watching the film?______________________________

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Simple Future___________ I Simple present (or Present Perfect) ðộng từ trong các mệnh ñề sau các liên từ chl thời gian như {when, until, till, as soon as, before, a fte r , by th e tim e. . . ) thường ñược chia ờ HTðG (Simple Tense) hay HTHT (Present Perfect) cho dù hành ñộng sẽ xảy ra ỏ’tuơng iai. I will lend you this book when 1 have finished It. ________________She will continue writing to him until he accepts her love. Simple present__________ Will/ Can/ May + Verb (hoặc Near future)

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ID

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TO ÁN

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A

Hành ñộng của mệnh ñề phụ xảy ra sau hành ñộng của mệnh ñề chính trong một tương lai không ñược xác ñịnh hoặc tương lai gân. My brother says thai he will buy a new house. I know that she is going to win that prize. She says that she can play the piano very well. ________________________ Simple present _____________________ Simple past Hành ñộng của mệnh ñề phụ xảy ra trước hành ñộng của mệnh ñề chính trong một quá khứ ñược xác ñịnh cụ thể về mặt thờỉ gian. I hope he arrived safely. Jenny thinks Tommy was here last night.___________________________ , Simple present ______ I . Present perfect (progressive) Hành ñộng cùa mệnh ñề phụ xảy ra trước hành ñộníỉ của mệnh ñề chính tro nu một quá khứ không ñược xác ñịnh cụ thê vê mặt thời gian. John tells us that he has been tó Hanoi before. We know that you have won a prize.__________________________________

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Simple past

'

Past progressive/ Simple past

I

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ID

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Í-

A

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P2

+3

10

00

B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

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NH ƠN

liỉầnh ñộng của mệnh ñề phụ xảy ra cùng lúc với hành ñộng cùa mệnh ñề chính prong quá khữ. I lent my sister $ 2000 when she visited us last Sunday. Jack visited us while he was staying in Ho Chi Minh city.__________________ Simple past________ I______ Would/ Couldf Might + Verb |Hành ñộng của mệnh ñê phụ xảy ra sau hành ñộng cùa mệnh ñê chính trong một :tương ỉai ữong quá khứ. y He said that he would look for a job. ■ Mary said that she could play the piano.__________________ Simple past_____ ______ ____________ Past perfect Hành ñộng của mệnh ñề phụ xày ra trước hành ñộng cùa mệnh ñề chính, lùi sâu về ' trong quá khử. I hoped he had arrived safely. They thought he had been here last night.______________________________ Chú ỷ: Sự phù hợp thì còn ñi với các câu ñiêu kiện và các câu gỉa ñịnh với các từ như /wish, i f only, as if, suggest,. . . . ) và các câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp (chúng ta sẽ xem kỹ hon ở phần cáu ñiều kiện, câu gián tiếp, câu giả ñịnh cách. Lưu ỷ: Những nguyên tẳc trên ñây chỉ ñược áp dụng khi các mệnh ñề trong câu ịcó liên hệ với nhau ve mặt thời gian nhưng nếu các mệnh ñề trong câu có thời gian íiêng biệt thì ñộng từ phải tuân theo thời gian của chính mệnh ñê ñó. Eg: He promised to write to me, till now Ị haven't received any letter from him. . B. B À IT Ậ P Ô N LUYỆN Exercise 1. P ut the verbs in the following sentences in the correct verb forms. 1. At last you’re here! I (w ait)________ _____ here for more than half an hour! 2. My father (w ork)_________________ in Canada for the last year, so by the time he (return)_____________ the month after next I (not see) ______________him for fourteen months. 3. When you (see) him again you (b e )___________surprised to see that his health (improve) '_________________since he (go)______________ to Switzerland. 4 . Why (you not ie 11) ______________ me you (can)_______________ lend me the money? I (not need)_______________ to borrow it from the bank. 5. It’s time we (leave)________________ now. 6. The manager (talk)___________ to an important customer at the moment but he (be) ______ free to see you presently. Would you like to take a seat for a i few minutes? 7. When I last (see)_____________ him, he (live)______________ in London. He ■ (tell) _________________me that he (think)_______. of moving to Australia, and he may well have done so by now. 8. Notuntil we (arrive) ____________ at his house (wediscover) _______________ that he (be) _________ __ on holiday, and that we (waste) _________ our timein calling on him. 9. I’m tired of working in an office. I (think)_______________ of changing my job. 10 I just (smell);________ your roses. Do you think they (smell)__________ wonderful?

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NH ƠN

11. How long (you learn)_________ ■ English? 12. When the children (arrive) ______ home it was clear that they (play --------------------in mud. Their clothes were covered with it. 13. r will never forget it. It was the first time I ever (go) to a far.™ dress party. ~ ' J

17. Roger (m eet)_______ his wife in the early 70s. She (act)

in thê

ĐẠ O

theater then.

TP

.Q UY

14. Michael (wait) — _____-------- in the queue to buy a ticket for the train when hi (hear)------------- an announcement saying that there was going to be a delay 15. By 1995 Susan (lecture) _________________ at the academy for ten years. Ỉ6. In my youth I (travel) _ ______ the world and I often (sleep) undei the stars. —--------

)

HƯ NG

Ỉ8. The thieves (break into) ______________ houses for 2 years before they (bfi finally caught)______ , 19.1(complete)________ ______ my university degree by 2014 20. By the time you (arrive)__________ _ here next month, I (study)_________ in London

P2

s tu d y in g

A

A . IS i n h e r r o o m

+3

Robert IS going to be fam ous some day. H e ________ _

~ I m sure he’ll be a star. A. has been appearing c . has appeared 3. Where’s Polly? - She

CẤ

2.

10

00

B

TR

ẦN

Exercise 2: Choose the correct answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the following sentences. 1Hurry up! We re waiting for you. What’s taking you so long?” “I for an important phone call. Go ahead and leave without me. ” wait B- will wait c . am waiting D. have waited in three m ovies aỉreañý

B. had appeared D. appeared B . in h e r r o o m

IS s t u d y i n g

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c . studies m her room D. has in her room studied 4. Hello? Alice? Thi& is Jeff. How are you? ~ Jeff? What a coincidence! I about you when the phone rang. A. was just thinking B. just thought c. have just been thinking D. was just thought 5. What----- ------ about the new simplified tax? ~ It’s more confusing than the old one! A. are you thinking B. do you think c. have you thought D have you been thinking 6. When is Mr. Fields planning to retire? ~ Soon, I think. He .__________ here for ề long time. H e’ll probably retire next year or the year after that A. worked g had been working c. has been working D. is working 7. Why-did you buy all this sugar and chocolate? ~ I _ _ _ _ _ _ a delicious desserj for dinner tonight. * A. make B. will make c. am going to make D. will have made

54

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Let’s go! What’s taking you so long? ~ I’ll be there as soon as I --------- --------my keys. •

B. will find

NH ƠN

A. found

Q find D. am finding Next week when there_;_____ a full moon, the ocean tides will be higher.

Ik

,

ĐẠ O

HƯ NG

ẦN

P2

+3

tifc

TR

13.

B

I,-|l . I'i 1*2

00

'

c will be Dhave been While I _______ TV last night, a mouse ran across the floor. A watch B- watched c . was watching D. am watching Fish were among the earliest forms of life. Fish________ _ on earth for ages and ages. A. existed B. are existing c . exist D. have existed The phone __________ constantly since Jack announced his candidacy for president this morning. A. has been ringing B- ranê c .h a d rung D. had been ringing The earth________ on the sun for its heat and light. A. is depend depending c . has depended D. depends I don’t feel good. I _______ home from work tomorrow. A. am staying stay c. will have stayed ð. stayed Today there are weather satellites that beam down information about the earth’s atmosphere. In the last two decades, space exploration --------iireai

10

|o

IS

.Q UY

A. is being

TP

b

I

A

CẤ

A. is making B. has made c . made ’ D. makes |l6.. On July 20th 1969, Astronaut Neil Armstrong_______ _ down onto the moon, the I first person ever to set foot on another celestial body. A. was stepping

Í-

f-. c. has stepped

stepped

D. was steP

-L

'1 7 The plane’s departure was delayed because of mechanical difficulties. When the

BỒ

ID

ƯỠ

NG

TO ÁN

i • weaiy passengers finally boarded the aircraft, many were annoyed and irritable \ because they________ in the airport for three and a half hours. ir? A. are waiting were waiting |: c . have been waiting had been waiting Ijg . If coastal erosion continues to take place at the present rate, in another fifty years I this beach_______ ;anymore. | . A. doesn’t exist B. isn t going to exist ị c . isn’t existing D. won t be existing |l9 . Homestead High School’s football team _______ _ a championship until ỉast season when the new coach led them to take first place.in their league. A. has never won B..IS never winning c . had never been winning D. had never won 55

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To be able to qualify as an interpreter, many years of intensive language study; required for non-native speakers. By the end o f this year, Chen English for three years, but He will still need more training and experience before ’ masters the language. A. will be studying B. has studied c . will have been studying D. has been studying Exercise 3: Give the right form of the verbs in brackets in the following paragrapb into the correct tenses. 1(1- b e ) .........................................Swiss. I (2- com e)............................................ tbf London six months ago to leam Engish. I (3- not m eet)........................................... many English people yet, only my teachers. I (4- start).................................................I learning English at school in Switzerland when I was 1 1, so 1 4- leam)...........................\ ................... it for nearly 10 years. At first in London, I (5- not understand).................I .................................... anything, but now my English (6- im prove)....................... • ■• I ...................... I (7- just/ ta k e ).............................................................. .. . an exam. If Ĩ (8-1 p a s s ) ................................. , I (9- m ove)............................................ into the next! class. I’m excited today because my parents (10- com e)..................................................... j tomorrow to stay with me for a few days and 1 ( 1 1 - not see ).............................. .. I .... them for a long time. They (13- never/ b e ) ................................................ .....................I to England and they (14- not speak).................................................... .. English. I Exercise 4: Give the right form of the verbs in brackets In the following letter I into the correct tenses. Dear Ann, I (1- receive)...................................................................... .. your letter about two t weeks ago and ( 2 - try)..........'.................................. to find time to write you back ever ■ since. I (3- b e ).. . . . .................................................... ........ ............. very busy lately. n the past two weeks, I (4- have)............. ’...................................... four tests, ; ind I have another test next week. In addition, a friend (5- stay)....................... ............ .. ............................with me since last Thursday. She wanted to see the city, so we ; 6- spend)....................................... .............................. a lot o f time visiting some of the Interesting places here. We (7- be)....................... ................ ............ ................ to the oo, the art museum, and the botanical gardens. Yesterday we (8- go). . .............. ............ .......... ........................................ to the park and (9- watch).................................. • • • • .......... ...............a balỉợon race. Between showing her the city and studying for my xams, 1 ( 10 - have)....................................................................... barely enough time to reathe. Right now it (11- be)....................................................................... - . . . . 3 a. m. nd I (12- sit)'............. ........ ..................................... at my desk.i (13- sit).............. ............................................................................ here five hours doing my studying. My iend’s plane (14- le a v e )............................................................................. . at 6:05, so I 5- decide)..................................................... not to go to bed. That’s why I (16- write). ......................................................................to you at such an early hour in the day. I 7. get)............................................................ . a little sleepy, but I would rather stay ). I (18- take)....................................................................................a nap after 1(19- get)..... .......................back from taking her to the airport. How (20- you, get)......................................................along? Please write soon.

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ID

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NG

TO ÁN

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Í-

A

CẤ

P2

+3

10

00

B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

20.

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ercise 5: Rewrite the following sentences, beginning as given, so that the I meaning stays the same. He began playing football ten years ago. He has ____________________ ._______________________________________ . He has been investigating the casefor a week. He started_____ ____________________________________________________ . When is Peter and Sarah’s wedding? f When are _________________________________________________________ . I have never read such a romantic stoiy. This is _____________________________________________________________. 5. We started cooking for thè party four hours ago. We h a v e ___________________________________________________________ . 5. He forgot about the gun until he got home. Ị , Not u n til_______________________________________ ___________________ . j? I haven’t been to an Indian restaurant for ages. It’s ages __________________________________________ ;_________________ . 8. The last time Nancy came here was in 1986. Nancy hasn’t ____________________________________________ ___________. 9. This is my first visit to Japan. This is the first tim e _____________ .___________________________;_________ . 10. How long have Helen and Robert been married? When _______________________________ ______________________________ . 1.1. It’s along time since our last conversation. - W e _________________ ________________________________________________ . 12. Thanks, but I had something to eat earlier. Thanks, but I’v e ______________________________________________________ . 13. This is the most interesting book I’ve ever read. I’ve never .___________________________________________• 14. This is my first game of water-polo.

A

CẤ

P2

+3

10

00

B

TR

ẦN

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TP

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NH ƠN

I 1 . ■

-L

Í-

I ___________________ _____ _________________________ •

ID

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TO ÁN

15. When she heard the results, Mary began to feel more confident. Since hearing the results _______________________________________________ • Exercise 6: Using the word given and other words, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence: 1. John never stops criticizing my friends. always John___________________________ ________ my friends. 2 We’ve arranged to meet at 8 . 00 p. m. tomorrow. are W e ________________________________ at 8. 00 p. m. tomorrow.

BỒ

3. Helen rarely goes to the theater. not H elen________________________________ the theater very often. 57

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ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

thinking I rny cousin in Canada1next Slimmer 5. What time is you plane scheduled to arrive at Heathrow? land What time at Heathrow? 6. I have arranged to have dinner with Jerry tonight. am I with Jerry tonight. 7. The older he gets, the more eccentric he becomes. is As time goes by, eccentric. 8. They don’t like spicy food, so they avoid eating it. never They as they don’t like it. 9. Jane has found a job at a supermarket for the summer. at a suoermarket this summer.

HƯ NG

Jane 10. How much is that green jacket, Sir? cost How much

A

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, Sir? Exercise 7. Rewrite the sentences, using the word in brackets, so that the meaning stays the same: 1. I put on ten kilos and then I decided to go on a diet. (by the time) 2. First, they washed the car and then they waxed it. (aft) 3. Lisa made a sandwich and then sat on the sofa to watch TV. (before)_______________ 4. We packed our suitcases and then left for the airport. (as soon as) _____________ ____________________________ 5. The lecture started. Then I entered the lecture hall. (w hen)_________________________________________ 6 .1 hadn’t tasted Chinese food before. (first)

-L

Í-

7. That was the only science-fiction book he had read. (never)____________________________

TO ÁN

8. Norman took that package. Then he realized it was the wrong one. (after)

NG

9. Mark was parking his car when he noticed the wing-mirror was broken {While)

ƯỠ

10. Judy was walking down the street when she saw an accident. (As)

BỒ

ID

11. I m sorry I can t talk to you now. I’m going to work in a minute. (about to )____________ ___ ________ ____________ 12. The Council is going to close the old swimming pool. (intends)_______________ _______

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3. They are going tò have a big wedding in the summer.

NH ƠN

(planning to) 14, The economy will collapse in the very near future, it will happen at any time now. _________ 1_______ ______________________ _____ ____ I (on the point of) |5 My grandfather is going to die soon.

.Q UY

ỵ (about t o ) _________________________ ____________ ______ ________ _____ |6. You will arrive at the hotel at 7. 30 in the evening.

ĐẠ O

!

PHẦN 2: SỰ HÒA HỢP GIỬA CHỦ NGỮ VÀ ðỘNG TỪ (SUBJECT AND VERB CONCORD)

TP

I (due to)___________________ _____________________________________ _____

-L

Í-

A

CẤ

P2

+3

10

00

B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

L LÝ THUYẾT C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO |ron<* một câu tiếng Anh, chủ ngữ và ñộng từ phài phù hợp với nhau về ngôi và số (số ỉt hay số nhiều) I The boy speaks English very well. I số it so it The bovs speak English very well, số nhiều sô nhiêu |.c Sau ñây ỉà các trường hợp về sự phù hợp giữa chù ngừ và ñộng từ mà chúng ta |cần lưu ý: 1. Khi chủ ngữ ñứng tách khỏi ñộng từ Trong câu tiếng Anh, có nhiều trường hợp rẩt khó xác ñịnh ñược ñâu là chù ngữ của câu do chủ ngữ và ñộng từ không ñi ỉiền với nhau. The stưdens in the class are reading books. / The’ danger of water pollution js killing marine life.

BỒ

ID

ƯỠ

Together with (cùng với); as well as (cling như): In addition to (thêm vào);

NG

TO ÁN

r Chú ý rẳnậ trong các VI dụ trên các danh từ nằm trong ngữ giới từ ñều trái ngược Ị với chủ ngữ ve sổ ít / sổ nhiều nhưng ñộng từ luôn ñược chia theo chù ngữ chính. |'2. Các cụm từ sau cùng vói các danh từ ñi theo sau nó tạo nên hiện tường ñông Ị chủ ngữ. ----- __________________________________________________ ;-----------

along with (di cung accompanied by (ñược dông hành vói) cùng với) L ik e (như) No less than (not less than): không ít-hơn là As well as (cũng niur) Besides (bèn cạnh)

59

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sỊỈSỗir** - ' “

.Q UY

NH ƠN

JSiffiM. along with her mother and some friends, is w in g to a party tonight accompanied by her wife and chUdren. is a n v m g tonight. 1 * Neu 2 danh từ riêng biệt làm chủ ngữ nối với nhau bằng ‘an d ’ thì ñônơ từ chia ơ ngôi thứ 3 sô nhiêu (tương ñưong với they) & ị Mary and her manager are going to a party tonight. X You and I are close friends.

W:; ỉtó 5

ĐẠ O

5

TP

- * i f u -? dí nh từ iàm chủ nỗữ n° ’ với nhau bẳng ‘an d ’ và hải danh tử ñố rfềi The singer and the actor (Mr. Quang Dung) is interviewed on TV tonight. (Ngiroi ca sĩ kiêm diễn viên)

HƯ NG

Bread and milk IS my favourite breakfast. (Bánh mì và sữa chỉ một món ăn)

ẦN

, , fiV ^ ng nêu 2 ñô?§ chủ ngữ nối với nhau bằng o r thi ñộng từ phải chia thed danh ưr ñứng sau or. Néụ Ị t a Ặ S ñó là sé ít thì ñộng ứ ph™ c L sé í t v ĩ n g u ạ c lẩ Mâiỵ or her manager js_going to answer the press interview. ° ; 3' Ơ so i t ỈUÔn ñỉ VÓÌ danh fử h0ặc ñại từ phiếm chĩ

ñộng từ chia

TR

**" n- ữ

Nobody 110 one nothing everybody

A

CẤ

P2

Anybody aD^ 1.e anything every + singular noun

+3

10

00

B

ðó là các danh từ ờ bảng sau (còn gọi là các ñại từ phiếm chỉ): any + singular noun no + singular noun some + sraguiar noun

euaer either *"

each — " +' ouiguuu singular noun Ỉ1VUII each of plural noun

g ỉ,h“ i ng

ID

ƯỠ

NG

TO ÁN

ìên dtg ^ a ị - S

everything

Neither Neither **

Í-

S fr V t h /n

BỒ

somebody someone something everyone everyone

n? ỉther} k số k nếu chúnỗ không ñi với or hoặc nor. E ither (có nghĩa 1

-L

l Eithe'

Some time (một thời gian nào ñó) Some student (một sĩnh viên nào ñó)

S

3 "S™

trong L

S

ìS

<&)«

g ch0 " * * * ' 2 .

phải

3

o3«>ã*

IO get sch0larsh,p has ‘° pass thlS

- Anybody who commits the crime has to be put into prison. - Neither o f his close friends is kind to him - If either of you goes.,out. now, we will not be able to finish the work - Nosollution is good for this problem. - Nobody studies harder than Minh does. ỉ. Danh từ ñ i với None và No ĩàm chủ ngữ trong câu. None và No ñêu dùng ñược với cả danh íừ số ít và số nhiều. 0

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I Nếu sau None of the là một danh từ không ñếm ñược thì ñộng từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 |so ít. Nếu sau nó ià , I- một danh từ số nhiều thì ñộng từ phải chia ờ ngôi thứ 3 sộ nhiêu. None of the + non-count noun + singular verb

NH ƠN

None of the + plural count noun + plural verb

'

.Q UY

- None of the lost cars have been found. _ None o f money has been invested in the local primary schools yet. Nếu sau No là một danh từ ñếm ñược sổ ít hoặc không ñếm ñược thì ñộng từ phai o liigôi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì ñộng từ phàì ờ ngôi thứ 3 sô nhieu

No + {singular noun / non-count noun} + singular verb No + plural noun + plural verb

TP

I

.

_ No actor IS suitable for this role. / No bread IS left in the cupboard.

ĐẠ O

!’:

B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

I - No actors are suitable for this ro le.. b . Cách sử dụng cấn trú c e ith e r.. . or (h o ặ c.. . hoặc) và n e ith e r.. . nor (không.. . ?• mà cũng không) , , , .. ị - Khi sư dụng cấu trúc này, chúng ta lưu ý rằng ñộng từ phải chia theo danh từ ñi sau ôr hoặc n o r Nêu dalìh từ ño là so ít thì ñộng từ chia ở ngôi thứ 3 sổ ít và ngược ị lại. Nêu or hoạc nor xuat hiện mọt mmhJldiorLi có either hoặc neither) thì cũng áp I Sing quy tắc tương tự (như ñã ñề cập ờ phần trên)------------ -------------------- ---------ị Ị neither Ị + noun Ị+nor + plural noun + plural verb

Ỉ Ị'

+ singular noun + singular verb

00

I iẵ te í

CẤ

P2

+3

10

either ______ __ ____ + or—--------------- —----- —----------— - Neither Minh nor his friends haveto go to school today. - Either Minh or his friends have to go to school today. - Neither his friends nor Minh has never seen any UFOs. - Either his friends or Minh has never seen any UFOs.'

-L

Í-

A

6. V-ing làm chủ ngữ _ ^ - Khi v-ing ñùng làm chủ ngừ thì ñộng từ cũng phải chia ở ngôi thứ 3 so ít. - Knowing English enables him to get promotion in his work. _ Not studying hard has made him fail in his examination. 7 ðôns từ nguyên thể (To- infinitive) làm chủ ngữ. ðọng từ nguyen the fTo- infinitive) cũng có thể dùng làm chú ngữ và ñộng tứ sau

TO ÁN

nó sẽ chia ở ngôi thứ a; . 3 so ít. Nhưng người ta thường dùng chù rigữ già it ñê mờ ñâu câu. To learn English well is necessary for him. = It IS necessary for hhn toleam

NG

Engbs h w e l ^ environmeTit pollution isn’t easy for us = It isn’t easy for us tojolve

ID

ƯỠ

environment pollution. 8. Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh vỏi mệnh ñề quan hệ . .: ; Un , oẢ - Câu chẻ nhân mạnh với mệnh ñề quan hệ có ñộng từ ñược chia sô ít hay sô

BỒ

nhiều tuỳ thuộc vào danh từ nó thay thê. It is I who am a teacher here. / It is he who is a student here. It is ỵọụ who don't believe me. / It is the dog who often barks at night.

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group (nhóm)

.Q UY

NH ƠN

9. Câu hỏí với ‘W ho’ và ‘W hat’ thường dùng với ñộng từ số ít. Who wants milk now? - \vc all do, please. What has happend? 10. Các danh từ tập thế - ðó là các danh từ ở bảng sau dùng ñể chì 1 nhóm ngườỉ hoặc 1 tổ chức nhưng trên thực tê chúng là những danh từ số ít, do vậy các ñại từ và ñộng từ theo sau chúng cũng ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Congress (ðại hội/Quốc hội) Organization (Tổ chức) Government (Chính phu) family (Gia ñình) team (ðội) jury (Hội thẩm ñoàn)

armv (quân ñội)

majority* (ña sổ)

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

committee (Uỷ ban) Club (câu lạc bộ) minority (tiểu số) class (lớp) crowd (ñám ñông) public (công cộng/ dân chúng - The committee has met, and it has agreed on the sollutions. - The family is important for everyone. - The crowd was excited about the football match. - Our team is going to win this m atch.. Note-. Tuy nhiên nếu các thành viên trong nhóm ñans hoạt ñộng riêng rẽ, ñộng từ sẽ

ẦN

chia ờ rìỉiỏi thứ 3 sò nhiêu:

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TO ÁN

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TR

- Our family are having dinner. (Gồm các ihành viên ííia ñình) - The team are searching for ihe murder. (Gôm các cánh sátviên hoạt-ñộnii riêng rẽ) 11. Danh từ m ajority ñược dùng tuỳ theo thành phần sau nỏ ñể chia ñộng từ The m ajority + singular verb The m ajority of the + plural noun + plural verb - The majority believes in that rumour. The majority of the students study under the pressure. 12. The police/the sheep/the fish + plural verb. - The sheep are lying gently on the meadow. - The police are trying to find out the murder. 13. A couple + singular verb/ The couple + plural verb - A coupỉe is walking hand in hand in the park. - The couple are smiling happily. 14. Các cụm từ ơ nhóm sau chì một nhỏm ñộng vật hoặc gia súc. Cho dù sau giới lừ oj ỉà ñanh từ sô nhiều thì ñộng tìr vẫn chia theo ngôi chủ ngữ chính - ngôi íhú' 3 số! ít .flo ck o f birds (một ñùn chim)/flock o f sheep (một ñàn am), school o ffish (mội ñàn củ), herd o f cattle (mội bây gia sứcKpride o f Hom (một ñàn SIC ỉựỉypack of iỉoịỊS (mộí hủy chó):; a bunch o f flowers (mội hũ hoa)............. - The jlock of birds is singing in ihe trees. - The herd of casưle is breaking away. - A bunch of roses is very nice. 15. Danh từ tập thể chỉ thòi gian, íiền bạc, số ñ o ,.. . làm chù ngữ. - Tàí cã các danlì từ tập thê chì thời gian, tiền bạc, số ño.. . . khi ñượcñề cập ñến như mộtihè thống nhất thì ñều ñược xẹm là một danh từ sổ ít.Do ñó các ñộno tù và ñại từ íheo sau chúng phài ờ ngôi thứ 3 số ít. - Twenty-five dollars is too much for the meal. -

Fifty m inutes isn ’t enough tim e to finish this test

-

Two miles is too much ÍO run in one day

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|Ị6, Cách sử dụng a num ber of, the num ber of: ỊỊ-- A number of = “Một số những... ñi với danh từ số nhiều, ñộng từ chia ở số nhiều.

The num ber of + plural noun + singular v e rb ., .

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ID

ƯỠ

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TO ÁN

-L

Í-

A

CẤ

P2

+3

10

00

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TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

- The number of months in a week is twelve. (Số ỉượng ngày trong tuần là 7) - The number o f students is unemployed now. %1, Sổ thập phân làm chủ ngữ * Decimal num ber of plural Noun + plural verb Eg. About two third of students are unemployed now. * Decimal num ber of uncoutable Noun + singular verb ị Eg. Three fourth of water is salty water. |i8. Phần trăm và.tỉ lệ phần trăm làm chủ ngữ * Percentage of Noun + sỉnguỉar verb Eg. What is the percentage of water on the Earth? * Percent of plural noun + plural verb. Eg. 20 % of English people are very poor. * Percent of uncountable noun + singular verb. Eg. 75% o f water on the Earth is salty water. |l9 . Manv a + singular Noun + M any a + singular Noun + Singular Verb (Biêt |bao nhiêu.........) I Eg: Many a strong man has left the village because of such a hard life. Biết bao chàng trai ñã rời làng vì cuộc sôníỉ khó kiiãn nhir thê. ị Many a teacher and many a student has taken part in the campaign. Biết bao nhiêu gaío viên và sinh viên ñã tham dự vào chiên dịch ;20. Các cum từ ñi vói các ñại từ chì ñại Iưọng làm chủ ngữ_____ _ I A lot of Much of Much too much of A large amount of A great deal of Plenty of singular verb + uncountable noun Little of Most of Almost all of None of Half of The majority of Eg. Half of bread has been eaten. __________A large amount of money is going to be invested in OU!^education.

.Q UY

- A number of doctors are going on holiday (Một số bác sĩ ñang ñi nghỉ.) - A number of workers have already been interviewed. I - The num ber of = “Số lưọiig n h ữ n g .. . ”, ñi với ñanh từ số nhiêu, ñộng từ vân ờ |ngôi thứ 3 số ít.

NH ƠN

A num ber of + plural noun + plural verb

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21» Các danh từ luôn ở số nhỉền làm chủ ngữ

ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

Many so many A lot of / lots of Plenty of Almost all of All of + Plural noun + Plural verb .. Most of Few of Half of The m ajority of of_______ __________ '_________ policy Eg. Half of the students have have disagreed disagreed with with this this policy A lot of students are looking for a job after graduating now. ___________A ,

:

j

I a

I

HƯ NG

Bảng sau ià những danh tử bao giờ cũng ở hình thái số nhiều vì chúng bao gồm 2 thực I

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ID

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TO ÁN

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+3

10

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TR

ẦN

thê nên các ñại từ và ñộng từ ñi củng vớichúng cũng phải ờ số nhiều. 1 Scissors jeans eyeglasses I shorts tongs pliers I pants trousers tweezers I Nêu muôn chúng thành ngôi số ít phải dùng a pair o f . .. The trousers are in the washing basket. A pair of trousers is in the washing hasVpi These scissors are sharp. (Cái kéo này săc. Chú ý chỉ có 1 cái kéo nhưng cũng,; dùng với these) • I 22. Cách dùng there is, there are j - ðược dùng ñê chì sự tồn tại của người hoặc vật tại một nơi nào ñó. Chủ ngữ thật cửáỊ câu là ỉà danh từ ñi sau ñộng từ. Nêụ nó là danh từ số ít thì ñộng từ to be chia ớ ngôi ■ thứ 3 sô ít và ngược lại. Mọi biên dôi vê thời vả thê ñều ở to be CÒĨ1 there giữ nguyên There is There was + singular subject (or non-count) There has been - There has been an increase in population. There are There were There have been

+ plural subject

- There have been a large number of unemployed people today. - There were too many people at the wedding. L ư u y: - Các câụ true: there is certain/ sure/ likely/ bound to be —chắc chắn là sẽ có Eg. 7 There is sure to be a trouble when she leaves her home. (Chăc chan là sẽ có rắc rối khi cô ấy rời khòi nhà) Do you think there is likely to be storm. (Anh cho rằng chắc .chắn sẽ có bão chứ) Trong dạng tiêng Anh quy chuẩn hoặc văn chương một số các ñộng từ khác ngoài to t>e cũng ñược sử dụng vớỉ there:

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NH ƠN

Dộng từ trạng thái: stand/ lie/ remain/ exisư live ðộng từ chỉ sự ñến: enter/g o /come/follow/develop Eg. There exists nothing between them. / There follows a sudden bang. There you are. / There he comes.

BỒ

ID

ƯỠ

NG

TO ÁN

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Í-

A

CẤ

P2

+3

10

00

B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

B. BẤI TẬP ÔN LƯYỆN Exercise I: Give the right form of the verb in brackets to complete the following èntences. . Either the physicians in this hospital or the ch ief_______ (be) going to have to make a decision. . (Be)_______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this grievance? . Some of the votes_______ (seem) to have been miscounted. ^ The tornadoes that tear through this area every spring_______ (be) more than just a nuisance. ;; Everyone selected to serve on this ju ry ________ (have) to be willing to give up a I lot of time. i Kara, together with her teammates,_________ (present) a formidable opponent on I the basketball court. I ; He seems to forget that there _______(be) things to be done before he can graduate. If There (have)_______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday’s flood. IgSome of the grain (appear) tobe contaminated. $: Three-quarters of the students (be) against the tuition hike. | | Three-quarters of the student body________________(be) against the tuition hike. % A high percentage of the population_________(vote) for the newschool. jf-.A high percentage of the people__________(vote) for the newschoolnow. I Politics (be)___________ sometimes a dirty business. i^N ot only the students but also their instructor________ (have) been called to the pprincipal's office. I;E ach and every student and instructor in this building______ (hope) for a new pĩíacility by next year. i ỈThe students and instructors each________ (hope) for a new facility by next year. ặrhe chairman, along with his two assistants,_________ (plan) to attend the annual ^convention. pThe fishing boat that has been tied up for three d ay s_______(be) finally on its tway this morning. I When there (be) thunderstorms approaching, we are always reminded of •the threat of tornadoes. iercise 2: Choose the best answer (A, B, c or D) to complete each sentences below. I Jenny with two dogs__________ walking in the park now. A. is B. are c. was D. were I Mai as well as her friends_________ having a picnic now. A. is B. are c . was D. were

65

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BỒ

ID

ƯỠ

NG

TO ÁN

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Í-

A

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+3

10

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ẦN

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ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

married. 3. My close friend and colleague, Mark, c. just has got D. just have got A. have just got B. has just got going to have a live show in our city next month. 4. The singer and actor c. is D. are A. was B. were ___ donated a large amount o f money to the loci 5. The singer and the actor__ orphanage. c. is D. are A. has B. have __always the most impórtant for me. 6 . My family B. are c. is D. are A. is 7. Two hundred thousands________ not enough for us to have a iiood meal in restaurant now. B. were c. is D. are A. was _ like a long time for her to live apart from her beloved parents. 8. Three years___ B. are seeing c. seems D. seemed A. is seeming playing very well and they make their fans shout and yell. 9. The team ___ D. were B. are c. was A. is allowed to graze on this meadow. 10. Cattle D. aren’t B. weren't c. isn't A. wasn’t __earned by his working, 11. None of his money D. were c. was B. are A. is 12. None of students_ _____ _ failed in this examination. D. were B. have c. was A. has willing to take part in the environment monlh. 13. Every student___ c. was D. were B. are A. is looking for a job now. 14. The number of students__ c. were D. is A. are B. was worried about iheir employment after graduating.': 15. A number of students c. feit D. is feeling A. feel B. feels my favorite subject. 16. Physics__ c. was D. have been B. is A. are 17. The boy, along with his two classmates ______ climbing on the roof now. c. is D. are A. has B. have 18. Neither the mother nor the children___ _ aware of the danger, c. is D. has been A. were B. was 19. None______ sorry for what they_____ for me. B. was feeling/ had done A. is feeling/ did D. has felt/ has been going c. feel/ have done 20. If anyone______ , tell him I'll be back later. B. called c. call D. calls A. was calling 21. Each of the boys ____to write his cuưicuỉữm vitae now. B. has c. had D. are having A. have 22. Under the free full of food. A. a basket was B. was a basket c. are a basket D. were a basket 66

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.Q UY TP

BỒ

ID

ƯỠ

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TO ÁN

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Í-

A

CẤ

P2

+3

10

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B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

donated for the poor, m A. is • B. are c. was D. were M,’About 60% of students in this class _ from the countiyside. I A. was B. were B. were c. are D. is ị. A flock of sheep ___ grazing .grass now. ; A. are B. is c. was D. were ). The number of books in this library______ written in English. c. was D. were A. are B. is %Either you or I ______ here to clean the class before the teacher comes in. D. were p A . am B. is C are Neither her trousers nor her shirt ____with this hat. c. goes I': A. is going B. are going D. go fiThe homeless_______ our help to settle their own life. I ’A. is needing B. are needing c need D. needs §f Several of the students ______ absent yesterday. I' A. has been B. had been c were D. was ik The President, accompanicd with his sons and wife, a n o f f i c i a l v i s i t to Africa, next week. I- A. pay B. pays c. paid D. is going to pay ll'Xhe majority __________ in the rumor an d ____ him in isolation B. believe/leave A. believes/ has left Ệ. C. believe/ have left D. believes/ have left E'His patience __ _ him a lot in his work. If'iA* help B. helping c. help D. helps __this question will be given an award. 1 Anybody who_ answer B. answers c. is answering D. are answering in London since 1950. ỆỊrhe Blairs___ |-A. are living B. have lived iG. have been living D. has been living V. Long, as well as L _ a student in Vietnam National University. |> A. are B. were c. am D. has been __also in debt. I Not only Jack but also his parents |:/A..is u.B. nayt; have c. was D. were £The majority o f the TOEFL tests .difficult for us to pass, 1 A; are ”B. is :" c. be D. being i News, on sports ___ on TV every night at 8:30 ỆẤ. were B. was c. is D. are !|Ạ half of men in this city______ died from a lung cancer which is resulted from I'Smoking. c. is D. are Ễ A. have B. has ■ There available for us to choose in my hometown, n A. isn't a lot of job B, aren't many jobs |.c . isn’t a lot of jobs D. aren't a lot of job

NH ƠN

Is. Two-thirds of the lottery money___

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B

TR

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

42. The Chinese______ strong and old traditions and customs. ^ A. has many B. have much c . have many D. has much 43. The percentage of Vietnamese people who moved to other counfries to earn Iivirr very high. A. is B. are G have D. has ~ 44. Natural disasters, in addition to pollution,________ this area poor and dirty. A. has made B. have made c . make D. making • 45. Half an hour______ not enough for me to make an important decision.. A. are B. is c. being D. were 46. Miss Lan, accompanied by her friends on the piano.______hishly evaluated bj the judges. A. was B. were c. have been D. has been 47. My new pair of pan ts_____fit me. A. isn’t B. doesn’t c . aren’t D. don't 48. I’m happy that everything______ better now. A. are B. been c . is D. have 1 49. Statistics_____ a difficult course for many students to understand. 5 A. is B. are c . were D. being j 50.1 think every man and wom an___the right to have the freedom of speech. A. have B. has c. are D. is 'Ị

+3

10

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PHÀN 3. CÂU CHỦ ðỘNG VÀ BỊ ðỘNG TRONG TIÉNG ANH (ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH)

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A. LÝ THƯYÉT CO BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO j Trong tiếng Anh, người ta rất hav dùng câu bị ñộng. Khác với à câu chủ ñộng chí ngừ thực hiện hành ñộniĩ. trone câu bị ñộng chú nsừ nhận tác ñộn" cùa hành ñộnầ Câu bị ñộng ñược dùng.khi muôn nhân mạnh ñến tìổi tượng chịu lác d0nii cua hàní ñộng Iioiì !à bản thân hành ñộng ñó. Chính vì thê. câu bị ñộng trong Tiêng Anh thườnị ñược dùnỵ irons. các văn phong traniỉ trọng, thê hiện tính khách quan cùa hành ñộne. ỉ Cấu trúc câu bị ñộníỉ: s + be + past participle + (by)............... ĩ Các cẩu trúc câu bị ñộng ở các thì cơ bản r. Thì HTðG: s + Aiĩi/is / are + Ved/V-3 5. Thì ỌKTD: s + was/ werev-i- being + Ved/V-3 1 Eg: Cars are produced in Japan. Eg: Mai was being interviewed at 3. p. m yesterday, ị ị 2. Thi HTTD: s + Am/is / are + being + Ved/3 6. Thì QKHT: s + had + been + Ved/V-3 Eg: All food had been eaten before we came there. Eg: A new building is being built here. 3. Thì HTHT: s + Have/has been + Ved/3 7. Thì TLðG: s + will + be + Ved/V-3 Ĩ Eg: They hope that the new bridge will be buih soon, ị Eg: This report hasjust been finished. 8. Thì TLDð: s + Am/is / arer going to be + Ved/3 ị 4. Till QKðG: s +was/ were+ Ved/V-3 Eg: My house was built 5 years ago. E«: a festival is going to be held in our city, next week* Cách chuyển từ câu chủ ñộng sang câu b ị ñộng Xác ñịnh tân ngừ cùa câư chù ñộng, ñựa nó lên làm chủ ngữ cùa câu bị ñộng. Xác ñịíih ñộna từ chính của câu chủ ñộne. chuyển nó thành ñạns phân từ quá khứ. ñộng từ ‘to be' ớ câu bị ñộng ñược chia theo iiii cùa ñộiìiĩ từ chinh cua cảu chu ñộng.

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If . Xác ñịnh chủ ngữ cùa câu bị ñộng chuyển nó thành tác nhân gây ra hành ñộng sau

I giới từ ‘by’.

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1' • Nếu chù ngừ ñó !à những ñại từ bất ñịnh (nobody, anybody, everyone,.. . ) H' hoặc they, people thì không nhât thiết phải có ‘by . . . I • Nêu ñộng từ có 2 tân ngừ, muôn nhấn mạnh tân ngữ nào. ta ñưatân nuừ ñỏ lẽn t: làm chù ngữ. Ị:- Eg: I gave him a book I gave a book to him. He was given a book (by me), p Một số câu phải chuyển theo cách riêng, theo cấu trúc riêng Ị* To have someone ño something -ỳ to have something done (Nhờ ai làm gì) ■EX. Yesterday, I had them repaint my house. -> Yesterday, I had my house repainted. I Note: Eg: Peter had his car stolen / My brother had his leg broken while playing ffootball (Dien tả sự khôns may bị gì) Ị* To make sbd ño st to be made to ño st I Eg: They made David work hard David was made to work hard, f Sbd needs to do St = To need to be done = to need doing. !■ Eg: The house is a mess. I need to tidy it It needs to be tidied = it needs tidying. F To let sbd do St -ỳ to be allowed to do St I Eg: My father lets me to go out at night. I am allowed to go out at night * Ip Like/ love/ remember/ hate/ dislike (doing st/ Ị clause/ sbd doing St) Like/ love/ Iformember.'/ hate/ dislike being done. I Eg: - Ỉ remember that someone gave me that book on my birthday = Ĩ remember Ibeing given that book on my birthday. I* BỊ ñộng với Modal verb: s + can/ may/should/might/must + be +Ved/V-3 I Eg: Your homework must be done at home. r:'* Bị ñộng với cẩu trúc: s + have/has to do St -> s + have/has to be + done (Ved/V-3) !■ Eg- Uniform has to be worn at this school. I* Bị ñộng với cẵu trúc: s + used to do St " ^ 5 + used to be + done (Ved/V~3) I Eg: He used to be taken to school when he was a little boy. Bị ñộng với các câu trúc ñộng từ ñi với ñộng từ nguyên thê: s + v+ to be + V-ed/ V-3 I Eg: He wants to be given the first prize) ế* Bị ñộng với các cấu trúc ñông từ ñì với danh ñộng từ: s ■+V + being + Ved/ V-3 1 Eg: I dislike being told what to do. I * B ịñộng với các ñộng tit: say; report; think; believe, understand; know; expect •• s + say (report/ think/ believe/ understand/ know/ expect) + that + 1 clause ị'-> It + be + said (reported/ thought/ believed/ understood/ known/ expected) + 'th at + 1 clause -> s + be + said (reported/ thought/ believed/ understood/ known/ expected) + to|infy to be V-ing/ to have + V-ed/3/ to have been + V-ing)/ to have been v+ed Xem các ví dụ ờ báng sau:_________________________________________________ Active voice say (said) (that) + 1 clause Subject John lives in NewJork. (people; report (reported) someone; 69

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John will live in Australia in two years. John is traveling in Africa. John has been to Germany. John went to Japan last year. John has been writing a good book. John is going to build a new villa in London.

think (thought) believe (believed) understand (understood) know (knew) expect (expected)

NH ƠN

r they; everyone; nobody)

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TP

ĐẠ O

< \ •] 1 j

ẦN

It is/ was

(that) + Ị clause John lives in NewJork. / John will live in Australia in two years. John is traveling in Africa. John has been to Germany. John went to Japan last year. John has been writing a good book for 1 year. John is going to build a new villa in London.

HƯ NG

said (that) reported thought believed ■ understood known expected

.Q UY

Passive voice (cách chuyển 1)

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Passive voice (cách chuyển 2) I said (that) to live in NewJork to live in Australia in two years. John is/ was reported thought to be traveling in Africa. believed to have been to Germany. understood to have gone to Japan last year. known to have been writing a good book for 1 year. expected to be going to build a new villa in London. Active Voice: People said that John was traveling to Africa. Ị Pasive voice: ->It was said that John was traveling to Africa. j . -> John was said to have been traveling to Africa. Active Voice: They expect that the government will build a new highway here. j Pasive voice: -Mt is expected that the government will buHd a new highway here, j A new highway is expected to be built here by the government.j The government is expected to build a new highway here. I Một so cấu trúc cậu bị ñộng j - to be made of: ðược làm bang (ðe cập ñen chất liệu lảm nên vật): -i This ring is made of gold and diamond - to be made from: ðược làm ra từ (ñề cập ñến việc náuyên vật liệu bị biến ñổi khỏi . trạng thải ban ñầu ñể làm nẽn vật): Wine is made from rice. .j - to be made out of: ðược làm bằng (ñề cập ñến quá trình làm ra vật) These biscuits were made out of flour, butter, sugar, eggs and milk. ; - to be made with: ðược làm với .(ñề cập ñến chỉ một trong số nhiều chất liệu làm nên vật] This soup tastes good because it was made with a lot of spices. : -ị - to be made by sbd: ñược [àm bởi ai This blouse was made for me by my mother Ỉ 70

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to be made in somewhere: ñược sàn xuất ở ñâu. These laptops were made in Japan. B. BÀI TẶP ÔN LƯYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the best answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the following sentences. 1. I still can’t believe it! My wallet__________________________ last night. A. was stolen B. was stealing c . stolen D. stole 2. The current computer problem is _____ by some experts in the country. A. studying ' B. being studying c . being studied D. been studied 3. Something funny_______ in class yesterday. A. happened B. was happened c . happens D. is happened 4. The child’s arm was swollen because h e ________ by a bee. A. stung B. had stung c. had been stung D. had being stung 5. Today, many serious childhood diseases________by early immunization. A. are preventing B. can prevent c . prevent D. can be prevented 6. Í ______ with you on that subject. A. am agree B. am agreed c . agreeing D. agree 7. Many u . S. automobiles_______ in Detroit, Michigan. A. manufacture B. have manufactured c. are manufactured D. are manufacturing 8. Let’s go ahead and do it now. Nothing________ by waiting. ... A. accomplishes B. accomplished c . has accomplished D. will be accomplished <9/. "When_____ ?” "In 1928. " A. penicillin was discồvered 3. did penicillin discovered c . was penicillin discovered D. did penicillin discover 10. In recent years, the government has imposed pollution controls on automobile manufacturers. Both domestic and imported automobiles must_____ antipollution devices. A. equip with B. be equipped with c . equip by D. be equipped by 11. A shortage o f water is a problem in many parts of the world. In some areas, water from the ground faster than nature can replenish the supply. * A. is being taken B. has been taking . c. is taking D. has taken 42. Vitamin c ______ by the human body. It gets into the bỉood stream quickly. A- absorbs easily B. is easily absorbing c . is easily absorbed D. absorbed easily ■13.’"When can I have my car back?" "I think it'll______late this afternoon." Ỉ; A. finish B. be finished c . have finished D. be finish 14. I didn't think my interview went well, but Ĩ guess it must have. Despite all my anxiety, I _ _ _ _ _ for the job Ĩ wanted. I’m really going to work hard to justify their confidence. A. was hiring B. hired c . got hiring D. got hired

NH ƠN

-

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15. My country________ the pursuit of world peace. ' A. is dedicating to B. is dedicated to c . is dedicating by D. is dedicated by j 16. About 15,000 years ago, northern Wisconsin under ice a mile deep. ■ A. buried B. was burying c . was buried D. had buried ị 17. Ed was new on the job, but he quickly fit himself into the - - routine oi the office. A. established B. establishing c . establishes D. establish -i 18. The Mayan Indians________ _ an accurate and sophisticated calendar more than seven centuries ago. ị A. were developed B. developed I c. are developed D. have been developed j ị 19. George i s __________ Lisa. A. marry with B. marry to c. married with D. married to 3 20. The rescuers ‘ for their bravery and fortitude in locating the lost mountain climbers. ? A. were praised B. praised c . were praising D. praising j Exercise 2: Rewrite tbe following sentences into the passive voice j 1. People often take him for his brother. i Someone seems to have made a terrible mistake.

3.

He recommends fitting new tires.

j

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2.

It is your duty to make tea at eleven o ’clock.

5.

People know that he is armed.

6.

Someone has seen him pick up the gun.

7.

We know that you were in town on the night of the crime. __________________________________________ • They think that your father was a spy in the World War II.

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He suggested allowing tenants to buy their houses.

______________ j \

We believe that he has special knowledge which may be useful to the police.

10. You needn’t have done this. II. He likes people to call him “Sir”. Ỉ 2. Don’t touch this switch.

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13. You have to see it to believe it.

[   --------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------:---------------

NH ƠN

14. He doesn’t like people laughing at him.

is. You don’t need to wind this watch.

ĐẠ O

It is impossible to do this. ------------------------------------------- -----------:--------------- 1-----------He hates people making fun of him.

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------They shouldn’t have told him. _________________________________________________________________________________ Don’t speak until someone speaks to you.

TP

I;. 16. $' tj. w i:8. I; I?.’

HƯ NG

ịị;;-■’-------- ------------ ---------------------- ------ -------------- 7-------- ;----ip. Everyone thought that the Government had ignored their opinions.

P2

ị. Nobody told me about it. (not) %

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21. They gave him artificial respiration. Ĩ’ ___________________________________________________________________ I2 . Before they invented printing people had to write everything by hand. I ._______ _______________ ■ ________________________________________ ' Exercise 3. Rewrite the sentences, using but not altering the bold word in \ brackets, so that the meaning stays the same. ị. People say he is a good doctor. (It)

CẤ

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A

|. She doesn’t like the others laughing at her. (laughed)

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p. The boss had his secretary type all these' letters, (typed) They employed the workers to repair their house, (had)

7.

They say that elephants never forget, (forget)

&

I don’t want the others think of me as a burden, (thought)

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% People thought that he killed his wife, (been)

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tj   ------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------|o. People believe that 13 is unlucky number, (be) -Ị1. People expect that the strike will begin tomorrow, (begin)

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12. I remember that someone gave me that shirt on my birthday, (rem ember)

NH ƠN

13. He recommended using secondhand ciothes. (should) 14. John made me leave soon. (I)

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15. It is your duty to do your homework before class-time. (You)

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Exercise 4: Both sentences in each pair have the same meaning- Complete the second sentences: 1. The crowd was slowly filling the huge stadium. The huge stadium ________________:____________ky the crowd, ị 2 The invention of the computer simplified the work of accountants. Since the computer ______________ •_____ the work of accountants.: ____________________ simplified. 3 ‘I’d take out some travel insurance if I were you, Mr, Smith. take out some travel insurance. Mr Smith_____________________ __ 4. Someone used a knife to open this window. This window___________________ -_____ 2 knife. You will hear from us when we have finished dealing with your complaint.

6.

After your complaint __________________ _____ >y°u W1^ hear fr0ĩĩl usAn announcement of their engagement appeared in the local paper.

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They paid Sheila $1000 as a special bonus.

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Their engagement_________ __________ ________________m the l°ca^ PaPer7. Nobody ever heard anything o f David again. Nothing_______ _____ _____ _______________ David again.

A

$ 1000______________ ________Sheila as a special bonus.

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PHẦN 4: CÂU T R ự C TIẾP VÀ GIÁN TIẾP TRONG TIÈNG ANH (DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH IN ENGLISH)

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A. LÝ THUYẾT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO ðể biến ñổi một câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp cần: 1. ðổi chủ ngữ và các ñại từ nhân xưng khác trong câu trực tiếp theo chu ngừcủí thành phần thứ nhất. 2. Lùi ñộng từ ờ vế thứ 2 xuống một cấp so với ỉúc ban ñầụ. 3. Biến ñổi các ñại từ chì thị, phó từ chi thời gian và ñịa ñiêm theo bàng qui ñịnh. Báng ñồi ñộng từ____________ Indirect speech Direct speech Simple past Simple present Past progressive Present progressive Past perfect (Progressive) Present perfect (Progressive) Past perfect ________ Simple past______________ TA

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Would Should Could Might Had to ĩảng ñôi các ñại từ chĩ thi, phó từ chỉ ñỉa ñiểm và thời gian Today That day Yesterday The day before I The day before yesterday Two days before Tomorrow The next/ the following day The day after tomorrow ỉn two days' time The following + Time (the following Next + Time (next week/ month/ year) week/ month/ year) The previous + Time (The previous week/ Last + Time (last week/ month/ year) month/ year) Time + ago (2 months ago) Time + before (2 months before) This, these That, those Here There Overhere Qverthere L I i r u u g liiuại II1ỤI cau aoi aạng 1-0/ tvnong ^ỵes/ ÍNO question) - Cãn cứ vảo thì của ñộng từ trong câu hỏi trực tiếp, chúng ta dùng thì cùa mệnh ñề phụ chính xác theo phần ñỗi từ ñã neu trên: - Bò dâu châm hỏi và bò ñảo ngừ (inversion) trong câu hòi ừực tiếp, nghĩa là chù

NH ƠN

Wili/Shall Should Can May Must

P2

| íừ vin nằm trước ñộng từ.

CẤ

- D ùng ñại từ nhân xưng, sở hữu tính từ cho phù hợp tình huống. - Mệnh ñê phụ khởi ñầu bang if hoặc whether. I

- Các ñộng từ thường dùng trong mệnh ñề chính là: + asked (hôi), có thể có túc tử

IT

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1'kếm íheo;_+ wondered (tự hỏi, thắc mẳc);+ wanted to know (muốn biet);+ didn'tknow

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asked wondered wanted know' didn’t know

(0 )+ If/w hether

s + v.........

NG

"Did you watch TV Iasi night?”Jenny askecfme. Jenny asked me if/whether I had watched TV the night before.

ƯỠ

Câu tuờng thuật một câu hỏi dạng “\VK question”

BỒ

ID

Ghi chú: - Chúng ta vẫn áp dụng mọi hướng dẫn ờ phẩn trên: +.cách ñôi thì của ñộng từ khi ñã biết thì của ñộng từ tron £ câu hòi trực tiếp. + thay ñổi ñại từ nhân xung, sở hữu tính từ + bỏ dâu c.hẩm hòi, bò ngoặc kép và bò ñảo ngữ. + ñộng từ mệnh ñề chính vẫn giống như phần trên.

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■ ị

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A_________ _*r _ . • .Á__

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- Chúng ta ñã biết câu hỏi dạng Wh-question là những cảu hòi khôi ñẩu bằng: who, which, what, when, where, why, how. Và các mệnh ñề phụ trong câu tưởng thuật loại này khởi ñầu bằng từ ñể hỏi, ta dùng ký hiệu là Wh. Chúng ta có cấu trúc; như sau: asked s + wondered (O) + WH-Question + s + V ._______ wanted to know didn’t know Eg: “What were you doing at 5 p. m yesterday?” Marry asked me. M any asked me what I was doing at 5 p. m the day before; “Who are you?” Marry asked me. -ỳ Marry asked me who I was. +

m

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asked told (O/ sbd) to do St *Don't walk in rain”, said his mother. His mother asked him not to walk in rain. ‘Keep silent in class’ said his teacher. “^His teacher asked him to keep silent in class * MỘT SÓ CÂU GIẢN TIẾP ðI VỚI ðỘNG TỪ TƯỜNG THƯÀT (REPORTING VERBS) PHẢI CHUYÈN THEO CẤU TRÚC RIÊNG CỦA ðỘNG TỪ TƯỜNG THUẬT ðÓ. * deny doing st: từ thối làm gì Direct speech'. ‘No, it’s not true, I didn’t steal the money,’ said Jean Indirect speech'. Jean denied stealing (having stolen) the money.

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* suggest doing st: ñề nghị làm gì

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Direct speech: ‘Why ñon’t we go to the cinema this evening, ’ Peter told us. Indirect speech: Peter suggested (us) going to the cinema. * suggest th at + 1 clause (should): ñề nghị rằng ãỉ ñó nên làm gì. Direct speech: “It’s very hot in this room, isn’t it?” said the guest. Indirect speech: The guest suggested that the room should be opened/ aired. * agree to do St: ñồng ý ỉàm gì Direct speech: ‘‘Yes, of course. I’ll give you a lift, Helen” said Jenny. Indirect speech. Jenny agreed to give Helien a lift. * apologize to sbd for doing St: xin lỗi ai yì ñã làm gì. Direct speech: “I have broken your pen. I am awfully Sony. Jack” said David. Indirect speech: David apologized to Jack for breaking (having broken) Jack’s pen. * remind sbd to ño St: Nhắc nhò’ ai làm gì Direct speech: “Don’t forget to post my letter, will you, Sue,” said Diana Indirect speech: Diana reminded Sue to post the her letter. * offer to ño St: ñề nghị ỉàm gì Direct speech: “Let me cany your suitcase, John,” said Harry. Indirect speech: Harry offered to carry John’s suitcase. * offer sbd St: m òi chào ai cái gù Direct speech: “A cup of tea?” said Mai ~ “No, thanks,” said I Indirect speech: Mai offered me a cup of tea but I refused.

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* adm it thai + 1 clause: thú nhận rằng Direct speech'. “All right, it is true, I was nervous,” said the leading actor. Indirect .speech'. The leading actor admitted that he had been nervous. * doubt w hether.........(or not)............ : nghi ngờ có hay không................ Direct speech: “I don’t think Liverpool will win,”said Jack. Indirect speech'. Jack doubted whether Liverpool would win (or not). * advise sbd to do St: khuyên ai làm gì Direct speech: “I were you, Bili. I’d buy a mountain car,” Stephen told Bill. Indirect speech: Stephen advised Bill to buy a mountain car. , * promise to ño si: hứa làm gì Direct speech: “Don’t worry, Martin. I’ll bring your book back,” saidLilly. Indirect speech: Lilly promised to bring Martin’s book back. * accuse abd of doing St (having done St): buộc tội ai là ñã làm gì. Direct speech: “You murdered Lord, didn’t you, Collin,” said the inspector. Indirect speech: The inspector accused Collin of murdering Lord. * blame sbd for St/ doing St: ñổ lỗi cho ai vì cái gì/ ñã làm gỉ Direct speech’. “It’s you who broke my glasses,” Hoa said to me. Indirect speedy. Hoa blamed me for breaking/ having broken her .glasses. * insist on stỉ doing at/ having done St: nài nỉ cái gì, làm gì, ñã làm gì. Direct speech: “No, no, you really must have another drink!” Dick told me. Indirect speech: Dick insisted on my having another drink. * confess to doing St/ having done: thứ nhận ñã làm gì Direct speech: “It was me who has stole the money,” said Jim. Indirect speech-. Jim confessed to stealing the money. * decide to ño St: quyết ñịnh làm gì Direct speech'. “Right, I’ll take the brown pair,” said Andrew. Indirect speech: Andrew decided to the brown pair. * refuse to do St: từ chối làm gì Direct speedy. “No, sorry, Ĩ don’t want to lend you my camera. ” AlEg told me. Indirect speech-. AỈEg refused to lend me his camera. * threaten to do st: ñe doạ làm gì Direct speech'.“I’ll kill you if you don’t give me your money,” the robber said to the old lady. Indirect speech: The robber threatened to kill the old lady if she didn’t give him her money. * request sbd to ño St: yêu cầu ai làm gì Direct speedy. “Please write your full name under your signature,” said the clerk. Indirect speech: The clerk requested me to write my full name under my signature. * urge sbd to do St: thúc giục ai làm gì Direct speech: “Hurry up,” said my mother. Indirect speech: My mother urged me to hurry up. * beg sbd (not) to do St: van xin ai (không) làm gì Direct speech: “Please, please, don’t leave me now,” the girl said to the boy. Indirect speech: The girl begged the boy not to leave her then.

77

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* encourage sbd to do St: khuyến .khích,''ñộng viên ai làm gì Direct speech: “Go on. Try your best. Don’t give your hope. You’ll win your ‐1 prize. ” said Jen. Indirect speech'. Jen encouraged me to try my best, not to give my hope and assured that I would win the prize. * warn sbd (not) to do St: cảnh báo ai không ỉàm gì. Direct speech'. “Don’t eat these fruits, will you? They’re very poisonous,’ said my mother. Indirect speech: My mother warned me not to eat these fruits because the) were very poisonous. : * check w h eth er.. . . (or not): kiềm tra lại rằng Direct speech'. “You are a teacher, aren't you?” my old friend said. ' Indirect speech: My old friend checked whether I was a teacher. * invite sbd to do St: mòi ai làm gi ; Direct speech: “Would you like to join in our picnic next Sunday,” Mai saii to Lan. indirect speech'. Mai invited Lan to join in their picnic the following Sunday.ị * refuse to do St: từ chối làm gì Direct speech: “I'm sorry. I can’t go with you now. I’m busy with mj homework” Lan said. ' -1 Indirect speech: Lan refused to go with me then and explained that she was busy with her homework. ' Ị * reply thaư answ er that + 1clause: ñáp lại rằng/ trả lòi rằng I Direct speech: “Do you like your job?” I asked him ~ “No,” he replied. I Indirect speech: I asked if he like his job and he replied he didn’t. I * assure sbd that: bào ñảm vói ai rằng Direct speech'. “You can have a refund if the product has any faults,” Mr. Brown assured me. Indirect speech'. Mr. Brown assured me that I could have a refund if the; product had any faults.. ; * object that + 1 clause: phản ñối r a n g .. . / object to doing St: phản ñối làmị Direct speech:

BỒ

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TO ÁN

“No, I don’t want to sit here in order to wait for his pity,” said5 the girl. Ị Indirect speech: The girl objected to sitting there inorder to.wait for his pity. 1 * argue that + 1 clause: tranh cãi rằng Direct speech: '■‘But using our own motorbikes will cause air pollution.” said Mai. •; indirect speech: Mai argued that using their own motorbikes would cause air pollution. * claim that + 1 clause: tuyên bố rằng- -. Direct speech'. “Right. I’ve written that letter to the boss,” said Jack.

Indirect speech :

Jack claim ed that he had w ritten that letter to the boss.

* complain that + 1 clause: phàn nàn rằ n g .. .............

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|2 .

.Q UY TP

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ĐẠ O

“Oh, you have never complimented me on ray work.” Lan told her father. Indirect speech: Lan complained that her father had never complimented her on her work. * exclaim that + 1 clause: thốt lên rằng Direct speech: “Hey, hey. My team has won!” said the boys. Indirect speech: The boys exclaimed (with joy/ joyfully) that his team had won. * Shout/ yell/ scream at (to) sbd (that + 1 clause): la hét, thét lên vói ai. Direct speech: “Go away!” he told his wife angrily. Indirect speech: He shouted at his wife and asked her to go away. Direct speech: “Help, help,” said the young girl. Indirect speech'. The young girl yelled for help. * compliment sbd on St/ doing St: khen ai về cái gì Direct speech'. . '‘WeiỉdoneIll's a great effort. You played ihe guitar skillfully.” Mai told me. Indirect speech'. Mai complemented me on playing the guitar skillfully. * reproach sbd for St/ doing St: chỉ trích, trách mắng aì vì cái gì, ñ ã làm gì. Direct speech'. “You should have locked the door open this morning,” my father told me. Indirect speech'. My father reproached níe for not having locked the door that morning. * rem ark th at + 1 clause: nhận xét rằng................... Direct speech: ‘i think that you’re making progress,” said my English teacher. Indirect speech: My English teacher remarked that I were making progress, k BẰI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Complete the second sentence in each pairs so th at the meaning stays the same: p . ‘It’s pouring with rain down here. ’ She told m e ____________________________._____________________

NH ƠN

Direct speech:

T 1Ỉ com e and see you on Friday if th a t’s all right. ‘

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TO ÁN

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She said th a t________________________________________________ 3. The club lost quite a lot of money last month’ The treasurer told, the meeting___________________________________ ‘I’ll have finished writing the report by the time you get here,’ She promised m e__________________ ________5. enjoyed myself last night’ Clare said that 6. "What are the most interesting sights?" A young man wanted to know _ _ _ _ _ 7. "Have you got a town plan?" A German student asked___________ 8. . "Where can we stay?” A French couple wondered _________

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"Where is Mount Everest?" asked a student.

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9. ’’How long does the film last?" Carol asked. j -i Carol asked 10. "Are there guided tours?" -'3 A Japanese man asked : 'j 11. "Which way is the castle?" A tourist wanted to know 'ỳ 12. Peter to Nick: Would you like to stay for lunch? ■Ẵ Peter invited 13. Tim to Martin: You ought to see a doctor. Tim advised 14. Louise: I’m sorry I caused so much trouble. Louise apologized -i 15. ;Andy: Why don't we go out for the day? • Andy suggested 16. Tracy: I'll do the washing up. ■1’ Tracy offered ■'i 17. Pat to Jane: You're going to post the letter, don't forget. Pat reminded Jane . 1 18. Travel agent: Yes, we made a mistake. ị The travel agent admitted ■^ 19. Steve to Mike: Don’t touch the electric wires. Steve warned 1 20. Are you taking much money with you to France? ị My bank manager wanted to know_________ ;_____ _________________ j Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into reported speeches- Use one of the' reporting verbs given below: advise, promise, suggest, inquire, warn, agree, threaten, apologize, complain, refuse 1. "Why don't we invite Jane to dinner tonight?" Mrs. Stone said.

-L

3. "If you scream, m shoot,” said the robber to the girl.

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Ì. ”1 have been standing in this queue for two hours!" said the man. "You should stay in the shade and wear a hat, Mrs. Bent," said the doctor

/Ị

_______________________________________________________________________________________________ "You'll bum yourself, Tom, if you keep playing with matches," said his sister.

I I

. "I'm really sorry that I woke you up this morning, Harry,," said Chris

. I think you are right, Tracey. We ought to let the others know," said Kerry

I

)

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'TỊ1 definitely pay you b ack by the end o f the week, M um , ” said Sue

NH ƠN

I will not let you borrow my car tomoưovv, Graham," said Michael " ércise 3: Change the following sentences into reported speech. Use the verbs Ệ given in the box. Use each word once only. whisper admit

shout protest

.Q UY

claim boasi

suggest agree

TP

“I can speak six languages fluently,” he said.

ĐẠ O

2. “Let’s go to the cinema this evening,” he said.

HƯ NG

“Stop that noise in the classroom,” said the teacher. %, “That car you are driving is my property,” the man said.

ẦN

5. “Yes, I broke the windows with my catapults,” the boy said.

“Well, yes, if the weather is bad, we can’t go,”

+3

8.

10

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:7. “I shall always love you,” said his fiancée.

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6. “You can’t take me to prison. I know my rights,” the man said.

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■Exercise 4: Continue reporting each sentence, using only the num ber of words stated in brackets. 1 “Do you think you could possibly tell me what the time is?” David asked m e______ ________________________ (five words) 2. “Excuse me, but Ĩ wonder if you’d mind opening the window. ” The man sitting next to me asked m e__________________________ {four words) 3. “You go down this street, turn left, then take the second turning on the right. The cinema is just down the street on the left. ” A passer-by told me how __________________________________ (five words) 4. “Ỉ want to know how much this bike cost. Can you tell me?” John asked h o w _________________________________ (four words) 5. “Look, don’t worry, I’ll help you if you like. ” Sue said she_______________________________ (three words) 6. “All right, I tell you what, the car’s yours for, let’s say $ 500. ” The salesman said I could________ _____________________ _____ ỰÌVC' words) 7. “I hope you don’t mind my saying this, but you’re being a bit silly, aren’t you?” Peter told me I ______ .________ ______ _________ ựìve words) 8. “It doesn’t look as if I’ll be arriving until after eight, I’m afraid. ” Jane said she probably _______________________________________(six words)

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PHẦN 5: CẨU ðIẺƯ KIỆN - CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

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A. LÝ THUYÉT c o BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO 1. Type h ðiều kiện cỏ thể thực hiện ñưọc ở hiện tại (ñiều kiện dạng I): s + simple future (will do St) if + s + simple present tense + should/ may/ might/ can + do St Eg: If he tries much more, he will improve his English. / If I have enough time, I can finish my work. Cân ñiều kiện diễn tà thói quen hay sự thật hiển nhiên (HABITƯALi FACTUAL ACTION) ___________ if + s + simple present tense s + simple present tense.: Eg: I usually walk to school if I have enough time. If you heat the ice, it melts. / If summers come, it is hot and sunny Câu ñiểu kiện diễn tà MỆNH LỆNH (COMMAND)____________ if + s + simple present tense + command form of verb + . . . Eg: If you go to the Post Office, mail this letter for me. Please call me if you hear anything from Jane. 2. Type 2: ðiều kiện khÔBg thể thưc hiện ñược ở hiệp tại if +s + simple past tense s + would + V(bare-infinitive)

00

Eg: If I had enough m oney now, I w ould buy a tourist trip to the moon.

s + would + V (perfect infinitive- have done)

A

if + s + p a s t perfect tense

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(1 don’t have money now and I can’t buy a . . . . . ) Chú ý: ðộng từ to be phải chia là were ờ tat cả các n g ô i . Eg: If I were rich, I would travel around the world. (I am not rich) (I’m not going to travel around the world) 3. Type 3: ðiều kiện không thẻ thực hiện ñược ỏ*quá khứ_______________

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Eg: If he had studied harder for that test, he would have passed it. (he didn't study harder and he didn’t pass the test) If Ĩ hadn't been in a hurry, I wouldn’t have had an accident. (I was in a hurry) (I had an accident)

TO ÁN

Câu giả ñịnh với wish / i f only

Trái với hiên tai (mong ước một sự ĩhay ñổi tình trạng ờ hiện tại) s + wish + s + Verb (Past s im p le ) ____________ I Eg: Ỉ wish 1 were rich / Ĩ wish Ỉ had a car / Ỉ wish Ỉ could speak English well. ị • Trái với Cịttả khứ (mong ước một sự thay ñổi tình trạng ờ quá khứ, thểhiện sà hổi tiếc về ñiều ñã xảy ra trong quá khử)__________________ ị ss + wish + ss + Verb (Past Perfect)_____________ Perfect) ; Eg: I wish I hadn ’t lost my bike last night. / 1 wish Ỉ had studied harder last year. • Trải với tương lai (mong muốn một việc gì xảy ra hoặc ai ñó làm việc gì C

BỒ

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82

tương lai)

s + wish + s + would I could + V erb (infmive)

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Eg: Ỉ wish she would come / 1 wish it would stop raining. Câu trúc ỉrên còn diễn tà sự phàn nàn về thói quen xẩu của ai ñó Eg: I wish you wouldn 't make so much noise it1 the class. * Câu true: VVish + To-Inf. (wish = want = expect) diền tả sự mort” muốn lảm việc gì ; Eg: I wish to pass the exam. NOTE: If only = I wish Eg: I f only Ĩ were rich. I f only / had passed mv exams Chú ý: Lược bó 'i f trong câu diều kiện, chủng ỉa theo cấu trúc sau: I Type 1 Should you go out, please buy me some stamps. = if you go out, please ibuy me some stamps Type Were I the president of America, I wouldn’t have the war on Iraq. = If I |were the President, I wouldn’t have the war on Iraq Type 3: Had she studied hard, she would have passed the examination, last year. Ị= If she had studied hard, she would have passed the examination, last year. Mixed conditional sentences: Câu ñiều kiện hỗn hợp I Câu ñiêu kiện hỗn hợp là loại câu mà eó thời gian ờ hai vế (vế ñiều kiện - if ễclause và ve kết quả - result clause) không cùng một thời gian với nhau. Các cẩu trúc pủa eâu ñiều kiện hồn họp: Ị * IF* CLAUSE (PAST PERFECT) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would be/ Verb (inf)) i; ðây là câu ñiều kiện kết họp giữa loại 2 và loại 3, dùng ñể diễn ñạt một ñiều kiện |chông có thật ờ quá khứ và kểt quả tương ửng không có thật cùa nó ở hiện tại: “ Examples: - If I had won the lottery, I would be rich.

NH ƠN

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WWW.DAYKEMQUYNHON.UCOZ.COM

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{BUT Ỉ DIDN’T WIN THE LOTTERY ỈN THE PAST AND Ĩ AM NOT RICH NOW. ) ench

ỈỈỈCỈỈ SCHOOL AND Ị DON'T HA VI• MANY JOB

ỉn

P2

1' (B u t / DIDN’T TAKE F r OPPORTUNITIES.)

+3

- If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities.

w a s n 't b o r n i n t h e

Un i t

ed

St a

t e s a n d s h e d o e s n e e d a v is a n o w t o

A

K {B u t s h e I YORK HERE. )

CẤ

- If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn't need a visa to work here.

I

{B u

TO ÁN

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I IF- CLAUSE (PAST PERFECT) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would be + V-ing) I ðây ià câu ñiều kiện dùng ñể diễn ñạt một ñiều kiện không có thật ờ quá khứ và |kết quả tương ứng không có thật cúa nó sẽ xảy ra ờ tiromg lai. ^Examples: ị - If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. t s h e d i d n 't s i g n u p f o r

t h e s k i t r i p l a s t w e e k a n d s h e i s n 't g o i n g t o

I

(B u

t

Ma r

NG

JOIN us TOMORROW. ) I - If Mark had gotten the job instead of Joe, he would be moving to Shanghai. k d i d n 't g e t t h e j o b a n d

Mar

k is n o t g o in g t o m o v e t o

Sh

a n g h a i.

)

{ B u t D a r r e n l o s t m s MONEY IN THAT GAMBLE AND HE WON'T GO TO M e x ic o

ID

p

ƯỠ

I - If Darren h adn’t lost his money in that gamble, he would go to Mexico with us ’next month.

BỒ

WITH us NEXT MONTH.) r-IF-CLAUSE (PAST SIMPLE) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would have done)

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ðây là câu ñiều Kiện ñùng ñể diễn ñạt một ñiều kiện không có thật ờ hiện tại và kêt quà tương ứng không có thật cùa nó ờ quá khứ. Examples: . - If I were rích, I would have bought that Ford car we saw yesterday.

NH ƠN

(B i ỉ t I A m N o t C u r r e n t l y R i c h A n d Th a t I s W h y ỉ D i d n 't B u y T tm F o r d C a r Ye s t e r d a y . ) '

- If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you.

.Q UY

{BUT S a m IX)ESN'T SPEAK R u s s i a n AND TỈỈATIS WHY HE DIDN’T TRANSLA TE THE LETTER.)

- ỉf I didnH have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night. (B V T Ỉ HAVE TO WORK A LOT AND THAT IS WHY Ĩ DIDN'T GO TO THE FARTY LAST NIGHT. )

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

* IF- CLAUSE (PAST SIMPLE) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would be / V(inf)) ðây là câu ñiều kiện dùng ñe ñiễn ñạt một ñiều kiện không có thật ờ hiện tại và/ kêt quả tương ừng không có thật cùa nó ờ tương lai. Examples: ■ If f didn’t have so much vacation time. I wouldn’t go with you on the cruise Alaska next week. { B u r l DO HA YE A LOT o r VACA TION TIME A N D I WILL GO ON THE TRW NEXT WEEK. )

ẦN

- If Cindy were more creative, the company wouki send her to New York to ■ work on the new advertising campaign.

TR

{BUT C i n d y i s n o t c r e a t i v e a n d t h e c o m p a n y w o n ’t s e n d ỈỈER TO NEW Y o r k t o WORK ON THE NEW CAMPAIGN. )

00

B

- ĩf Dan w eren’t so nice, he wouldn’t be tutoring you in math lonight.

10

(BU T D a n is n i c e a n d h e is g o i n g t o t u t o r y o u t o n i g h t . )

A

CẤ

P2

+3

* IF- CLAUSE (PAST CONSTIUOƯS) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would have done) ðây là câu ñiều kiện dùng ñể diễn ñạt một ñiều kiện không có thật ờ tương lai vả ; kết quả tương ứng không có thật cùa nỏ ờ quá khứ. Examples: - If I w eren’t going on my business trip next week, I wonld have accepted that new assignment at work.

{B u t ỉ a m g o i n g t o g o o n a b u s i n e s s t r i p n e x t w e e k , a n d TỈỈAT ỈS WHY / DIDN’T -i 4CCF.PT THAT NEW ASSIGNMENT AT WORK.) .

-L

Í-

- If my parents weren't coming this weekend, 1 would have planned a nice trip lust far the two of us to Napa Valley.

TO ÁN

{B u t m y p a r e n t s a r e g o i n g t o c o m e t h i s w e e k e n d , a n d t h a t i s w h y ị d i d n ’t UI.A N A TRIP FOR W E TWO OF v s TO N a p a Va l l e y . )

{B u t s h e i s g o i n g t o m a k e u s a b i g d i n n e r t o n i g h t ,; AND T1ỈA T IS WHY I DIDN'T ĨUGGEST THA T WE CO TO THA T NICE ỈTAUAN REST A URANT.)

*IF- CLAUSE (PAST CONSTIUOUS) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would bave done) ðây là câu ñiều kiện ñùng ñể diễn ñạt một ñiều kiện không cỏ thật ở tương lai và cêt quả tượng úmg không có thật cùa nó ờ hiện tại.

Examples: - If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited.

BỒ

ID

ƯỠ

NG

r If Donna w eren't making us a big dinner tonight, I wonld have suggested that jve go to that nice Italian restaurant.

*4

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{B u t Ỉ AM NOT GOING TO 0 0 TO THAT CONCERT TONIGHT AND THAT IS WHY Ị AM NOT &ỊCỈTED.)

- If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. (B u

t

Sa n

d y is

NOT GOING TO GIVE A SPEECH TOMORROW AND THAT IS WHY SHE IS

NH ƠN

'OT N E R V O U S.)

- If Seb didn't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed.

(B ư ĩSE B WIU COME WITH I’S TO W E DESERTAND THAT IS WHY.EVER YONE is s o HAPPY.)

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Một so mẫu câu diễn tả câu ñiều kiện I*Unless + positive = if ... not: Trừ phi, nếu không. I: Eg: You will be late unless you start at once. But fo r that + unreal condition: Nếu không thì % Mệnh ñề sau nó phải lùi một thời. + Hiện tại: My father pays my fee, but for that I couldn't be here. + Quá khứ: My car broke down, but for that we would have been here in time. * Otherwise + real condition: Kèo, nếu không thì. We must be back before midnight otherwise I will be locked out. I* Otherwise + unreal condition: Kẻo, nếu không thi. 1. ' Sau nó phải là ñiều kiện không thể tlụrc hiện ñược, mệnh ñề sau nó lùi một thời. > Hiên tai: Her father supports her finance otherwise she couldn't conduct these lexperiments. (But she can with her father's support). + Quá khứ: I used a computer, otherwise I would have taken longer with these calculations (But he didn't take any longer). * Lưu ỷ: Trong tiếng Anh. thông tục (colloquial English) người ta dùng or else ñể i thay thế cho otherwise. Ịv* Provided/Providing that. Với ñiều kiện là, miễn !à (= as long as) f: You can camp here providing that you leave no mess. ị * Suppose/Supposing — W haL. . if: Giả s ừ .. . . thì sao, Nêu.........thì sao. I Suppose the plane is late? = What (will happen) if the plane is late? * as if / as though -Trái với hiện tại: AS IF / AS THOUGH + s + Verb (Past Simple/Past continuous) - Trái với quá khứ: AS IF / AS THOUGH + s + Verb (Past Perfect) IĨ.B À IT Ậ PÔ N L U Y Ệ N Exercise 1: Give the right form of the verb in brackets to complete the following sentences. 1. We'li go to the beach if it................................(be) fine tomoưov/. '2. Had it not been for the goalkeeper, the team..................................(lose), the match. 3. Supposed that Ĩ. .....................(drop) in his house last night, I..................................... (tell) him the news. 4. If you aren't going to live in the house, why don't you sell it? If Ĩ.............................. .. (have) a house I couldn't use I..................................(sell) it at once. 5. He'll come and help you if he....................................(finish) his work before 5 p. m. 6. I fls e e h im I..................................(give) him a lift. 7. They..............................:. (play) football if it................................... (not rain) now.

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8. The police.................................. (arrest) hirh if they catch him. 9. He must tell the truth, otherwise nobody...................................................... (believé: a word he says. 10. Mr Black will buy a new house if he..................................(have) enough money. 11. Provided that I have free time, I..................................(come) to visit you. 12. It’s very noisy next door. It sounds as if they................... -. ............. (have) a partyj 13. That house is shaking. It looks as if it........................................(fall) down. 14. Ann coughs a lot. She sounds as though she......................................(have) a cod. 15. I don't like Norma. She talks as if she......................................(know) everything. 16. Providing that you kindly sit down I..................................(make) enquiries for youJ 17. Unless you..................................(be) more careful you 11 have an accident. 18. She (take, not)................................................ ....................care of the children for us next weekend if her business trip (be, not)...................................................canceled 19. Tom is not going to come to dinner tomoưow because you insulted him yesterday; But, he (come)............................................. .. if you (insult)................................ ... . him. 20. Marie (be)........................ happy now if she (give, not)................................. up he* career when she got married. 21. Dr. Mercer (accept)....................................................the research grant at Harvard i| he (take, not) ....................................................................6 months off to spenij more time with his family. 22. Professor Schmitz (talk, not)......................................................... so much about the Maasai tribe in the last conference if she (be, not)............................... ................. an expert on African tribal groups. 2 3 .1 (be, not).................................................... unemployed now if I (have, not). ........................................... a disagreement with my boss and Í (be, not)............ ; ........................................red. 24. Nicole (speak, not)......................................................... Chinese fluently if she (live* not)................................................ in China for ten years. 25. Ok. I (help)......................... ......................................you study for your'test if ’yoaj (spend, not)....................................... the last two weeks partying and wasting time. 26. But, Eleanor and Ben (go)........................ .. . ........... skiing with us this year if Eleanor (have, not, just).................................................. ............. a baby. 27. If I (be, not)............................................................. completely exhausted now, I (go)| ..................... .....................with you to the movies tonight. . ^ 28. She (be)........................................................................worried about the conference tomorrow if she (give).......................................... a speech. I 29. Frank (go)......................................................to the graduation ceremony tomcwrow if he (break).....................................................his leg snowboarding last week. ■] 30. But for my teacher’s help, I (not win). . . .■.............................. .....................thafj competition. Exercise 2: Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same. I. Ĩ didn’t have an umbrella with me and so I got wet. I wouldn’t

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Is. Ị |6.

___________

_______________

You drink too much coffee, that’s why you can’t sleep. If you____________________________• ___________________________ You press this button to stop the machine.

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r u call the police if you don’t leave me alone! Unless________________________________________________________ In the snowy weather we don’t go to school. I f _____________ Without Jack’s help, I wouldn’t have been able to move the table.

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It If ------------------— --------— --------------------|7, Make me some coffee, and I’ll give you one o f my biscuits. | ; . I f _______________________________________________________ _____ :8. If you hadn’t told me about Sue’s hair, I wouldn’t have noticed. Unless _________________ |9. If you see Peter, tell him he shouldbe here at 8. 00. I If you should____________ ;_________________________________.____ I wouldn’t accept if you asked me to marry you! . I If you were____________________________________________________ lExercise 3: Com plete.the second sentence ih each pair, using the word given, so I th at the meaning stays the same. |i . I didn’t know his address in London, soỈ didn’t visit him. '. visited If I had known _____________________________ ;__________ him. £2. If you don’t speak clearly, the audience won’t understand you. Í; else You have to ______ ____________________________ understand you. Angela, y o u ’re not old enough otherw ise you would be able to get a m otorbike,

n 1.4, n 15. I 1 6.

were Angela, ______ _________________________________ a motorbike. I wouldn’t mind being transíeưed to another city if they offered me a higher salary, condition I wouldn’t m ind___________________________ me a higher salary. If he decides to go shopping, there’s a chance that I will go with him. might . If h e ______ __________________________ _ with him. We can have dinner here unless you want to go to a restaurant, want I f _____________ _____________________ dinner here. Fortunately, they were wearing seat belts, so nobody was seriously injured, not If - ________________ _________ been seriously injured. I’d like to travel all over the world but I don’t have enough money. would I _____________ ___________all over the world if I had enough money.

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I Exercise 4: Rewrite the sentence given, using the word given so that the meaning

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I stays the same. I '1. We won’t go away if the weather is bad. I; U N L E S S ____ _____ ______________ 2. I didn’t have money so I didn’t bay a new shirt. WOULD 87

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If they offered you the job, would you accept? W E R E ________• _ 1 _____ _____ _ I f you are in London by any chance, come and see me. SHOULD If you do have any free time, could you give me a ring? HAPPEN Without you, I would have given up years ago. BEEN If Pauline hadn’t been interested, the project would have been abandoned BUT F O R _________________________________________________________ _; What would you do if you found some buried treasure? WERE_________________ ________________ :___________________ ______ Dick is in prison now because a detective recognized him. IF__________________________________ _____________________ _ ). The fire was brought under control thanks to the night-watchman. IT HADN’T _________________________ ______________________. xercise 5: Rewrite the sentences, using the word given, so that the meaning stays the same. Jeremy regrets not having accepted the job he was offered. WISHES ____________ ;____________________ _____________ ___ If you had heard the politician speak, you’d think he had won the election. THOUGH_________________________________ _ ________________ .. I think you should get a haircut. ABOUT__________ ;______________;_____________ ____ _________________ I can’t stand Betty borrowing my clothes without asking me first. RATHER_______ ;_______________;___________________________________ _ It’s a pity governments spend so much money on nuclear weapons. WOULDN’T _______________________________________________________ I advise you to see the dentist today; otherwise your toothache will get worse. BETTER_____________ ________________________________________; Jim would really like to participate in the debate, but he can’t. COULD_________________ :____________ __________________ __ Susan doesn’t like watching TV in the evenings, she’d rather read magazines. TO You should have waited for us. BETTER He should start studying hard. FOR We didn’t want to leave the party so early. LEFT It would have been better to have hired a car during the holiday. ' ONLY

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:13. We’d prefer to go shopping rather than stay at home. RATHER 14. I would like to know how to play the piano. KNEW 15. Mr. Smith wanted me to finish the reports yesterday but I couldn’t. I SOONER__________ ________________________________________ ' Exercise 6: C orrect the following sentences if necessary by taking out the unnecessary word. .1. Christine would rather not to work overtime this week. \2. Suppose you hadn’t found your car keys, what would you have done? 3. It’s high time he had tidied up his room. 4: It’s time for the children went to bed. 5. Ỉ would rather not Tom didn’t live so far away, 6. I’d rather we have visited a museum. 7. I wish we had lived in a bigger house because then I’d have a room of my own. 8. He acted as if he knew everything. 9. W e’d better to fix the leaking tap tomorrow. 10. If only I hadn’t broken my leg while playing football.

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PHẦN 6: CÂU GIẢ ðỊNH (SUBJUNCTIVE)

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A. LÝ THƯYÉT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAỌ Câu giả ñịnh hay còn gọi là câu cầu khiến là loại câu ñối tượnậ thứ nhất muốn ñối tượng thứ hai làm một việc gi. Câu giả ñịnh có tính chất cầu khiến chứ không mang tính ép buộc như câu mệnh lệnh. Trong câu giả ñịnh, người ta dùng dạng nguyên thẻ không có to của các ñộng từ sau một số ñộng từ chính mang tính cầu khiên. Thường có that trong câu giả ñịnh trừ một sô trường hợp ñặc biệt. * would rather (that) + s + V (bare infinitive)............. - Ngữ pháp hiện ñại Iiíĩày nay ñặc biệt là ngữ pháp Mỹ cho phépdùng would rather mà không cần dùng that trong loại câu này. . Eg: We would rather (tfeat) he not move to Hanoi. - Ngoải ra, chúng ta còn dung câu trúc: s + would rather sbd did St: thả răng ai ñỏ làm gì thì hon Eg: We would rather he wasn’t going to move to Hanoi. I would rather you didn’t talk loudly., - Phân biệt các cấu trúc trên với: s + would rather ño sí: thà rằng làm gi hơn. s + would rath er do St than do St: thà rằng làm gì hơn lảm gì. Eg: ĩ would rather stay at home. I would rather stay at home than go ou with you tonight. * * Một sổ ñộng từ trong bảng sau ñòi hỏi mệnh ñể sau nóphải có‘th at’và ñộng từ ñộng từ sau chỏ ngữ 2 ớ dạng nguyên thê bỏ to. Añvise: khuyên Ask: yèu cau Command: ra lệnh Decree: ra sắc lệnh demand: yêu cầu insist: nài nì move: kích ñộng order: ra lệnh Prefer: thích hơn Propose: ñê nghị recommend: giới Request: yêu câu Require: ñòi hỏi Stipulate: ñặt ñiều thiệu Urge: thúc giục kiện Suggest: ñề nghị 89

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ðộnỉi từ sau chù naừ 2 ở dạníi nguyên thể* không chia bỏ to. Nếu muốn thành lập thê phú ñịnh ñật not sau chù ngừ 2 trước nguyên thể bỏ to._______________ Subject + verb + that + subject + {verb in simple form) Eg: The doctor suggested that his patient do morning exercises. / The doctor suggested that his patient not do morning exercises. Neu bõ that ñi till chủ níỉữ 2 sẽ írừ về dạng tản ngừ và ñộng từ sau nỏ trở về ñạníì niiưyên thẻ cỏ to. câu mất tính chất íìià ñịnlvtrỏ' thành một dạna mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp. ' ; Eg: The doctor suggested his patient to do morning exercises. M The doctor suggested his patient not to do morning exercises. A Chú v: Trong ngữ pháp Anh-Anh. trước ñộng từ õ' mệnh ñề 2 thườn? có sỉỉOĩíỉd, người Anh chi bò should khi sau nó là ñộng từ to be nhưng ngữ pháp Anh-Mỹ không dùng should cho toàn bộ ñộng từ ò mệnh ñề 2. 'ị * Một sổ tính ỉừ trong bảng sau ñòi hỏi mệnh ñề sau nó phải có ‘th a t’ và ñộng từñộng từ sau chù ngữ 2 ờ dạng nguyên thể bò to. 1 Advised: khuyên Im portant: quan trọng Mandatory: có tính Recommended: giới Necessary: cần obligatory: bắt buộc, bắt buộc ^ thiệu 'Ậ thiết cưỡng bách proposed: ñê nghị Required: ñòi hỏi ;J urgent: khẩn cap

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suơơested* °ơi V

Imperative: mệnh j

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Chú ý ranii tronii bàng này có một sổ tính từ ỉà phân từ 2 cấu tạo từ các ñộn" từ ởj

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It + be + adj + that + s + Ịverb in simple form]

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EG: It is necessary that he leam English. / it is necessary that he not learn English.; EG: It has been proprosed that we raise money for that campaign. I It has been proprosed that we not raise money for that campaign. Neu bò that ñi thi chu ngữ 2 sẽ biến thảnh tân ngữ sau giới từ for. ñộniỉ từ trở về: dạníi nauyên thể có to và câu mất tính chất giả ñịnh írờ thành dạng mệnh lệnh thức; dán tiếp. EG: It is necessary for him learn English. / It is necessary for him not to learn trmlish. £G: It has been proprosed for us to raise money for that campaign. It has been proprosed for us not ỈO raise money for that campaign. Câu già ñịnh dùng với 2 loại trên thường ñược dùng trong các văn bàn hoặc thư giao dịch diễn ñạt lời ñề nghị .từ phía A -> B mà không có tính bẳt buộc. Không chì cỏ ñộng từ và tính từ mới ñược dùng theo dạng này, tất cả các ñanh từ xuất phát từ những ñộng từ và tính từ trên ñểu buộc mệnh ñề sau nó phải ờ dạng giả ñịnh, nểu như nó diễn ñạt các yếu tổ trên. There is suggestion from the boss that John work hard. It is recommendation that his wife be present at the court. * Thê giả ñịnh trong một số trường hợp khác Dùng ñể diễn ñạt một ước muốn hoặc một lời nguyềri rùa, thường bao hàm các thê lực siêu nhiên. 90

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God be with you - Good b y e.: Tạm biệt, chúa sẽ ñi theo bạn. Curse this toad: Chết tiệt cái con cóc này.

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ðùng với ñộng từ May trong một sổ trường hợp ñặc biệt sau: • Come what m ay .: Dù thế nào chăng nữa, ñù bất cứ truyện gì. * Come what may we will stand by you. : Dù thế nào ñi chăne nữa. chúns tôi luôn bẽn bạn. • May as well not do s th .. . . i f .. = Có thể ñừng........... n ếu .. . . không. I It's time for me to get to the airport: ðãbeñến ra sân You may as well not come if you can’t on lúc timtôi e.: phải Bạn có thể bay. ñừng ñến, nếu bạn I *hông I t ’s thê time (hightime/about time) (for sb) did stilt: ñã ñến ỈÍ 1 C mà (thời gian ñã trễ, ñúng giờ. I mang tính già ñịnh) • May/Might (just) as well ño smt = Chẳng mất gì mà lại không, mất gì của bọ. I ’ It’stim e I got to the airport / It's hightime the city government did smt to stop Since nobody wants that job, we might (just) as well ỉet him have it. I the traffic jam. Vì không ai thích việc này, mình chầng mất gì mà lại không cho hắn ta làm nó I BvBÀ ITẠ PÔ NLU Y ỆN • May diễn ñạt một iời ñể nghị mà ngưòi nói cho rằng chưa chắc nó ñã ñược E” * ihe best answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the following sentences. thực hiện: up his mind quickly or else he would lose his opportunity. The sign on the lawn says clearly that people may not walk on the grass. D. IS to make c. made maketrường hợp này). A. makes (không dùng .?/ỉo ỉí/íB. / trong for+that Í 2. • HisMay friends suggest that th êhoặc __ May + s +link verb + adj S +job. verb + complement (Cầu chúc cho). c . applying D. will apply t A. May applies B. apply you both very happy: Chúc các bạn bách niên giai lâo. May the conference be successful: Chúc -hội nghị thành công rực rõ'. 91 Long may our parents live to help ús: Chúc cho bố mẹ sống lâu ñể giúp chúng ta. If need be = If necessary = Nếu Cần: If need be, we can take another road.

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about our environment. c. should do D. to do A. did B. do 4. It is necessary that children of their old parents. A. to take care B. takes care c. took care D. take are .. 5. It is essential that all. students______ best use of learning facilities in the university A. make B. makes c. made D. making 6. The clients demanded that the post office _ _ _ _ earlier. A. opening B. opened c. open D. to open 7. It is necessary that he_____a certificate in English? B. gets c. get D. would get A. will get I demand that Í to retake the exam. B. am allowed c. will be allowed D. were allowed A. be allowed 9. The teacher ordered that all pupils inside their classroom c. will stay D. would stay A. stay B. stays 10. It is essential that Mai speak English. B. was able to A. is able to c. be able to D. must be able to n . He suggested that I__ kind to others. D. would be c. be B. was A. am 12. My doctor insisted B. me to diet A. that I diet D. for me to diet c. for me dieting his education. 13. Everyone urged that Bill_ A. continue B. continuing c. to continue D. continued 14. The director requests that all packages _ at the cerrtral office, c. to be mailed D. mailing A. to mail B. be mailed 15. Long may the Ọueen_______ D. would live. A. live B. lives c. living 16. It is important that you ■ to our meeting on time. A. to come B. should come c. would come D. come 17. It is imperative that you careful on construction site. A. to be B. were c. are D. be 18. It is advisable that she_____ care of her ill mother. A. to take B. takes c. take D! took 19. The teacher ordered that the students____ . talking. A. stop B. should stop c. stopped D. A or B 20. She insisted that w e _____our summer vacation in the countryside. A. spend B. spent c. should spend D. A or c 21. May you_____ happy all your life! A. are B. were c be D. to be 22. "Should I begin typing these letters?" "I suggest bookkeeping first”. A. you finished B. you to finish c. you finish D. you will finish

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3. It's high time we

92

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23. It is suggestion that my brother_______when our family are on holiday. A. not be working B. be working c. shouldn’t work D. not work 24. "Have you receivedthe gift sent from London yet?". "No, but it's possible that it_____in a few days” A. will come B. comes G come D. has come 25. I’d rather you_______ that present. A. not give B. wouM'n'd give c . didn't give D. give Exercise 2: Give the right form of the verbs in brackets to complete the following sentences. 1. It’s important that she (remember)______ _ to.take her medicine twice a day. 2. I suggest that Frank (read) ________the directions carefully before assembling the bicycle. He doesn't want the wheels to fall off while he is riding down a hill 3. Mrs. Finkelstein demanded that the heater (repair)_________ immediately. Her apartment was freezing. ;.4. It’s vital that the United States (focus)________ on improving its public education system. What we do now will affect our country for generations to come. ,5. The monk insisted that the tourists (enter)________ the temple until they had removed their shoes. 6. I am not going tQ Sit here and let her insult me. I dem and that she immediately

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(apologize)_______ for what she just said. 7. Judy asked that we (attend) ___________ her graduation ceremony next week. 8. Was it really necessary that (sit) Í __________there watching you the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again. It is im portant to rem em ber that Janinc (th in k ) _______

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you. She may not agree to the changes you have made in the organization of the company. 10. It’s a little difficult to find the restaurant. Ỉ propose that we all (drive)_________ together so that nobody gets lost alontĩ the way.

11. The w om an insisted that the lost child ( ta k e ) ___________ to store’s information

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desk so his parents could be paged. 12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) _________her daily fat intake. 13. The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the people of the city (allow )________ to voice their concerns over the new hotel being built on the bay. . 14. She told me that the government (regulate)_________ the airline industry. I don't know if that is true. 15. The sign at the pool recommended that you (swim) __________ after eating a large meal. 16. It is necessary that a life guard (monitor)___________ the summing pool while the children are taking their swimming lessens. 17. The sun is scorching today. I suggest you (put) _________ on sunblock immediately before you get a sun bum. 18. John insists that Sarah (invite)________to the wedding; otherwise he will not attend. 93

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PH ẦN7: MỆNH ðÈ QUAN HE (RELATIVE CLAUSE)

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19. It is the recommendation that we (send) our old clothes to poor people ire the remote area. 20. It is imperative that the world (work) ________ towards a solution to global: warming before the weather patterns of the world are disrruptedirreparably,! j

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A. LÝ THƯYÉT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO ị Tiếng Anh có 2 loại cáu: - Câu ñcm gián: là câu có 1 thành phần và chỉ cần như vậy câu cũng ñã ñủ nghĩa.I - Câu phức hợp: là loại câu có 2 thành phần (2 mệnh ñề) chính/phụ nối với nha«! bằn" một từ gọi là ñại từ quan hệ vằ mệnh ñề quan hệ chính là mệnh ñề phụ íậm rq

nghĩa cho mệnh ñề chính.

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1. ðại từ quan hệ và mệnh ñề quan hệ (relative pronouns and relative clauses) Who, Whom, which, whose, that dùng ñể thay thế cho danh từ ñứng trước nổ và nối kết hai mệnh ñề với nhau. __ H ðại từ QH/ Chỉ Ví dụ Chỉ vật Chức năng ngiròi Yesterday I met the man who/iỈ Ĩ C I Ỉ sold me that ! Which, Who,' painting. Chủ ngữ that that The-bag which/that is green is mine. J The woman who(m)/ihat you talked yesterday is ■ 'W ho, Which, my aunt. Tân ngữ whom, that The film which/that I watched yesterday is that interesting. ; 1 11 The boy whose father died o f a lung cancer looks : Of very miserable. ! Sở hữu Whose which/ I read a novel the content o f which /whose content ị whose is very magic. I * Chú ý: Những trưòng họp dùng ‘th at’ mà không dùng ‘which’. Dùng ‘that’ khi câu mang ỷ nhân mạnh hon. j Người ta dùng that chứ kliòns dùng which khi: Ị ị

He is the best student that has got that prize.

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+ ðứn<i trước 11Ó lả một tính từ so sánh bậc nhất + danh từ

+ Khi dằn a trư óc nó là m ộ t số các ñại từ phiếm chi nhu all, some, any, anything, í

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everything, much, little, nothing h'dy một sổ tính từ như: only; unique; mere,. .. hoặc sau một số danh từ liệt kê. Eg: I met'many people, their cattle and vehicles that went to the fair. I - I want to see all that he drew yesterday. - Ail the students' best paintings that will be exhibited. ] 2. Trạng từ quan hệ và mệnh ñề quan hệ (Relative adverbs and relative I clauses) ]

*

Trạng từ quan hệ ‘where’ dùnơ ñể mờ ñầu cho mệnh ñề quan hệ, thay thế cho Ị

danh từ chỉ nơi chôn ñứny trước nó. Eg 1: I always miss the small village where Ỉ was bom and grew up.

' ị

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jịEg'2: 7. 00 was rem arkable tim e when w e signed Olir co n trac t

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!> = I always miss the small village in which I was bora and grew up. lEg 2: She still remember the airport where she first arrived. = She still remember the airport at which she first arrived. |Eg 3: He angrily broke the table where she put her ex-husband’s letters. I = He angrily broke the table on which she put her ex-husband’s letters. ịNote: W here = in which; where —on which; where = at which, if Trạng từ quan hệ ‘when’ dùng ñể mỡ ñầu cho mệnh ñề quan hệ, thay the cho danh Ịừ ch ỉ thời gian ñứng trước nó. jfeg 1: She can’t forget the ñay when they first met each other. |f = She can’t forget the day on which they first met each other.

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I = 7.00 was remarkable time at which we signed our contract. Eg 3: December is an important month when we have a lot of festivals. I ■■• . - December is an important month in which we have a lot of festivals. I Vote: When = in which; when = on which; when = at which I * Trạns từ quan hệ Svhy’ dùng ñể mở ñầu cho mệnh ñề quan hệ. thay thế cho |iianh từ the reason' ñứrtíi trước nó. ị- Eg. Ị didn’t know the reason why you left me. p. Mệnh ñề quail hệ xác ñịnh (Defining relative clauses) và mệnh ñề quan hệ I; không xác ñịnh (Non-defining relative clauses) I * Mệnh ñề quan hệ xác ñịnh (Defining relative clauses) - Là loại mệnh ñề bắt buộc phài có mặt ở trong cầu, nếu bỏ ñi câu sẽ mất ý nghĩa ìban ñầu. Nên dùng that làm ch ù ngữ ciio loại câu này mặc dù which vân ñược chíìp |nhận. Câu phụ thường ñứng xen vào giữà câu chính hoặc nôi liên với câu chính vá vkhông ĩách rời khòi nó bời bât cứ dâu phảy nào. Trong ví dụ sau nêu bò ñi mệnh ñê phụ ñược sạch chân thì câu sẽ mans ý nghĩa hoàn toàn khác: EG: - The man who sits next me in my English class is a manager of a big company. - The girl who loved him very much killed herself last night. * Mệnh ñề quan hệ khổng xác ñịnh (Non-defining relative clauses) - Là ỉoại mệnh ñề mang thông tin plụi và có tính chát bò suim thêm thông tin, chừ Ikhông có dùng ñể mô tã, xác ñịnh và nhận diện danh từ ñứng trựớc nó, V! the írong I câu, nếu bò nó ñi câu khôníỉ mất nghĩa ban ñầu. Câu phụ thưởníĩ ñứníĩ chen vào giữa I câu chính và bắt buộc phái tách khói câu chính bans 2 dấu phẩy. Xem hai ví dụ sau:. F Eg 1: His best friends, whom he beltves most, has left him. Eg 2: I’ve given his address to Mrs Hoa, who was his old classmate. Chú v: Mệnh ñề quan hệ khôn" xác ñính thường ñược dùng khi danh từ nó thay the ớ trong nhừng trường hợp cụ thể như sau: 4- ði kèm với các từ sỏ’ Iiừir và ñược xem là ñuy nhất, có thể xác ñịnh dễ dàng. Eg: This is my father, who IS very strict to me. i- ði kèm với các danh từ chi tên riêng. Eg: Kim Lien village, which always reminds me of my sweet childhood, has become a tourist place now. À- ði kèm với các ñại từ chỉ ñịnh ‘this, that, these, those,. . . ’

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Eg: These computers, which our school are using, were the first generation of computer. 4 - Khi danh từ ñược miêu tả rõ ràng. Eg: The 8 o’clock news is always very brief. * TamI quan trọng của việc sử dụng dấu phẩy ñối với mệnh ñề phụ • “ o nhừng mệnh ñệ phụ băt buộc, khi không ñùng dấu phẩy tửc là mệnh ñề phụ xác ñịnh một giới hạn ñôi với danh từ ñẳng trước trong mệnh ñể chính. Eg: - The travelers who knew about the construction took another road. - The students who have passed this test will take an interview. ðối vói những mệnh ñề phụ không bắt buộc, khi có dấu phầy ngăn cách thì nó không xác ñịnh giới hạn ñối với danh từ ñứng trước nó. Eg: - The travelers,who knew about the flood, took another road - The students who have passed this test will take an interview. 4. Mệnh ñề quan hệ rú t gọn

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4 .1 . R elativ e clauses th a ỵ th ể bỏ i p re se n t p a rtic ip le p h ra se

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Eg 1. Those people who are taking photos over there come from London. *=> Those people taking photos over there come from London. Eg 2: The teachers who teach in mountainou areas should be paid higher salary. ■=> The teachers teaching in mountainou areas should be paid higher salary. - Mệnh ñề này thường mang nghĩa chù ñộng.

B

4. 2. R elativ e clau ses th a y th ế bòi p a st p a rtic ip le p h rase .

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Eg 1. The boy who was given a present is my son. Cv-The boy given a present is my son. Eg 2 . The motorbikes which were made in Japan are better ones, ^ The motorbikes made in Japan are better ones. - Mệnh ñề này thường mang nslìĩa bị ñộng (Chủ ý: Có thê bo ñại từ quan hệ khi nỏ làm tân ngử trong câu) Eg: I enjoy the book which / that you lent me yesterday. =>1 enjoy the book you lent me yesterday.

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4. 3. R elativ e clau ses th a y th ế bởi to- infln itv e: tr o n g các câ u có sũr d u n g : the first Ì 1 J

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the second, the last, . . . Eg 1. Neil Amstrong was the first person who landed on the moon, ==>Nei 1 Amstrong was the first person to land on the moon. Eg 2. Mai was the first girl in my school who got that scholarship. ° Mai was the first girl in my school to get that scholarship 5. Cách sử dụng A ll, Both, Some, Several, Most, Few + O f + W hom/ Which Xem các ví dụ sau:

d

are studying abroañ’ ca"

(

k

M

n

g

SOmc-o f-which 'vcre ® « * a d luggage, were stopped by the police. * w l T i f ^ n sñ ^ dimg? ! i " nhản ximgtân "2fr: lhe'”- ^ n g n ^ n s l i p này. 6. W hat W ngs that) CA thể iàm tân ngữ cho mệnh ñ i phu CÙM Me làm c h í

cho m -nh * cl" " h/ •>»?« l a m «

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What happened to him yesterday might happen to us tomorrow. |7 “T hat’ ñứng ñàu câu ỉàm chủ ngữ và ñi sau nó là một mênh ñê bô ngữ. Eg: - That I passed my examination made my parents happy. - That he refused to marry him broke his heart. - That he became famous surprised everyone in my village. - That she got scholarship was understandable. |8. Which thay thế cho một mệnh ñề. ị Eg: Sally lost her job. That wasn’t surprising. <=> Sally lost her job, which wasn’t surprising) ị She usually comes to class late. That upsets her teachers, ị She usually comes to class late, which upsets her teachers. |B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN iExercise 1: Choose the best answer (A, B?c or ð) to complete the following sentences. That book is by a famous anthropologist. It’s about the people in Samoa _____ for two years. [’ ; A that she lived B. that she lived among them c . among whom she lived D. where she lived among them k The missing man’s family is desperately seeking anyone------------ information I about his activities or whereabouts. A. has B. having C- who have D. have The publishers expect that the new biography of Simon Bolivar will be brought i people._________ in Latin American history. I A. who they are interested B. are interested

r e. interested

D- they are interested

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I have always wanted to visit Paris, _________ of France.

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B. which the capital IS

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c . that is the capital D. the capital t The chemistry book______ _ was a little expensive. I; A. that I bought it B. I bought that c . what I bought D. I bought 6 Have you ever met a man . over there? ~ Yes, I ño. ‘■ A. stands standing

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Do you have the book______ the teacher? ~ Yes, I do. A. that it belongs to B. to which belongs to c. to which belongs D. that belongs to The voters were overwhelmingly against the candidate________ proposals called for higher taxes. A. v/ho his B. whose c . whom he had D. that ms Do you remember Mr. Goddard, _________ taught US English composition? ~ I certainly do. A who B. whom c . that D. which -10.1 have three brothers,______ are businessmen. A. that all of them who they ali c . all of whom D. who all of them

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wallet you found? - Luckily, yes. 11. Were you able to locate the person ____ whose D. that’s A. which B. that his 12. Some fish is frozen, but is best. B. fresh fish A. fish is fresh D. fresh fish is caught c. fish fresh 13. Why do you get up at 4 A. M. today? - Because it’s the only tim e ___ without being interrupted. A. when I can work on my book B. when I can work on my book at c. when I can work, on my book then D. at when I cạn work on my book 14. You seem so happy today. - I am. You are looking at a person ______ ' has ju| been accepted into medical school. c. whom she D. whom A. who B. who she Ỉ 5. The movie _ last night was terrific. ~ What’s it about? c. Ỉ went to D. that Í went A. I went B. I went to it 16. Many people lost their homes in the earthquake. The government needs have homes. establish more shelters to care for those _ B. who don’t A. who doesn’t D. which don’t c. which doesn’t 17. The problem_______ never occurs. B. who I had expected A. I had expected it D. that Ĩ had expected it c. I had expected car wouldn’t St 18.1 had to drive to the factory to pick up my brother, _ D. whose who’s A. who his B. who 19.1 read a book about Picasso,________ . B. A. is a Spanish painter D. that is a Spanish painter c. who a Spanish painter is the acrobat turn circles in the air were horrified when 20. The p eop le_____ missed the outstretched hands of his partner and fel! to his death. A. watched B. watch c . watching D. were watching. 21. My writing has improved a lot in this ciass. - Mine has, too. AỈ1 the students do well in writing. A. whom Mr. David teaches them B. which Mr. David teaches c. that Mr. David teaches them D. Mr. David teaches 22. Have you seen the p la c e __________ the graduation ceremony will be held?; Yes. It’s big enough to hold 5,000 people. A. in that B. where c . is where that D. which 23. How’s your class this term? ~ Great. I have seventeen students, most of speak English very well. ■ A. who B. those c . whom D. which 24. Will everyone like the book? ~ No. Only people_____ interested in anthropoloị A. are B. who are c . in whom are D. that is 25. How did you enjoy your dinner with Mr. Jackson? It was boring. He talked onl about himself,________ almost put us to sleep. A. which • B. that c . who D. that he

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26. My grandfather,_______ a wise man, has greatly influenced my life. I A. is B. that is c . who is D. who he is 27. Is Dr. Brown the person _________ you wish to speak? ~ Yes, please. I A. that B.whom c . to that D. to whom ?8. In. the movie, a teenager to pursue a singing career meets resistance I from his strong-willed father. I A. wants B. wanted c . wanting D. who want b. Excuse me, but there is something about ______ immediately. ~ Certainly. I A. which I must speak to you B. which Ĩ must speak to you about it I c . that I must speak to you about D. that I must speak to you Little Women, ' in 1868, is my sister’s favorite book. I A. is a novel published B. a novel published I c . a novel was published D. was a novel published |iv Who is eligible for the scholarship? ~ Anyone __ _____ scholastic record is above I average can apply for the scholarship. I’ A .w h o h asa B .h a sa c .w h o ’s a D. whose Ũ. Dr. Sales is a person __ ' A. in whom I don’t have much confidence B. in that I don’t have much confidence c . whom I don’t have much confidence in him D. I don’t have much confidence p..Is April twenty-first the d ay _________ ? ~ No, the twenty-second. If A. you’ll arrive then B. when you’ll arrive Ị-. c. on thát you’ll arrive D. when you’ll arrive on I The severe drought ■ occurred last summer ruined the com crop. A- that it B. which it c . it D. that .Florida, __ ______ the Sunshine State, attracts many tourists every year. A. is B, known as c . is known as D. that is known as . The new shopping mall is gigantic. It’s as a place _________ you can find justabout anything you might want to buy. I A. where B. which c . in where D. in that |7. Lola's marriage has been aưanged by her family. She is marrying a man Ip A. that she hardly knows him B. whom she hardly knows him c. she hardly knows D. she hardly knows him People who exercise frequently have greater physical endurance than those__ _ Ạ. who doesn’t B.that doesn’t c. which don’t D. who don’t | j s this the address to _______you want the package sent? A. where B. that c. which D. whom Ann quit her job at the advertising agency, ________ surprised everyone. I A. which B that • c. who D. that it Jxercise 2:. Find and correct the mistake in the following sentences. L. Last Saturday I attended a party giving by one of my friends. My friend, who his i apaitment is in another town, was very glad that I could come. I- Dr. Dameil was the only person to whom 1 wanted to see.

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3. There are eighty students, are from all over the world, study English at this school! 4. The people who we met thern on our trip lasl May are going to visit us on October 5. Dianne Jones that used to teach Spanish has organized a tour o f Central Ameriq for senior citizens. 6. There is an old legend telling among people in my country about a man lived ir the seventeenth century saved a village from destruction. I. I’ve met many people since I came here who some of them are from my country. 8. An old man was fishing next to me on the pier was muttering to himself. I 9. People can speak English can be understood in many countries. i 10. When I was a child, I was always afraid of the beggars whom they went from house to house in my neighborhood. j II. One of the people which I admire most is my uncle. • 12. Baseball is the only sport in which I am interested in it. •! 13. My favorite teacher, Mr. Peterson, he was always wiling to help me after class, ị 14. There are some people in the government who is trying to improve the lives ol poor people. I 15.1 have some good advice for anyone who he wants to learn a foreign language. . I Exercise 3. Make one sentence from each group of sentences, beginning as shown! 1. The hotel was full of guests. The hotel was .miles from anywhere. The guests ha| gone there to admire the scenery. . ’ . I The hotel _____________ _____________________________________________ i 2. I lent you a book. It was written by a friend of mine. She lives in France. I The book ______________________________.____________________________ I 3. A woman’s jewels were stolen. A police officer was staying in the same hotel. The? woman was interviewed by him. j The wom an_________________________________________________________ J

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4. A goal w as scored by a teenager. He had com e on as a substitute. T his goal WOT).

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the match. ] The goal _______________________________________________ ;_________ • j 5. I was sitting next to a boy in the exams. He told me the answers. The boy _________________ ’____________________________________ :______ \ 6. My wallet contained $ 100. It was found in the street by a boy He returned it. : My wallet ______________________________ ________. ________________ I 7. My friend Albert has decided to buy a motorbike. His car was stolen last week. My friend Albert______________________________________________________ 8. Carol is a vegetarian. I cooked a meal for her last week. She enjoyed it. -I Carol _______________________________________________ . _____ ả 9. I got on a train. I wanted to go to a station. The train didn’t stop there. Ì The tra in __________________________________________________ __________-ị 10.1 read a book. You recommended a book to rne. This was the book. ; The book___________________________________________________ _______ ;j 11. The ship hit an iceberg and sank. Warning messages had been sent to it. The ship ignored these. J The ship ._______________________________________ ________________

100 i

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Ũ. The postman realized 1 was on holiday. You had sent me a parcel. The postman | r: left it next door. | : The postm an____________________________ 13.1 used to own a dog. People came to the door. The dog never barked at them. lệ; The d o g _____________________________________________________________ p.-1 bought my car from a woman. She lives in a house. You can see the house over there. I The w om an__________________________________________________________ |*5'.:We went to a beach on the first day of our holiday. It was covered in seaweed. ^ This smelled a lot. p The b e a c h _____________________________________ ;________________ _ ịtổ. My neighbors have three small children. The children make a lot of noise. My I neighbors never apologize. ?■ My neighbors ______ _________________________ ________________________ |7 :I lost my wallet last week. ĩt was found by a man. He was digging a hole in the r street outside our house. I; i?r -■The wallet ------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------it8. Carol slammed the door behind her. Her father had given a car as a present. She f : drove off in it. K Slamming° - ..... 1,1 , ‘' "" -- - ‘ |19. At the end of the sfreet was a building. The street was crowded with shoppers. I Tom had not noticed the building before. I At the end o f the stre e t________________________________________________ ipo. Some people have just moved in next door. They have the same surname as some I other people. Those other people have just moved out. ị The people ____________________________________________ _____________ The journalist will interview the old man. His house was broken into last night. The jo u r n a l is t_________________________________________ ;_____________ ị22. I listened to George patiently until he started insulting me. At that point I told him a few home truths. He didn’t like it. Ị G e o r g e _______________________________________ ___________________ JExercise 4: Put one suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the space I blank if possible. i M urder at the station (by Loraine Small, Episode 5) % The story so far: Jane Platt ( Ỉ) _____________ is traveling to London been use of I a mysterious letter, is the only person (2) ______________ witness a mur.ler at : Victoria Station. The detective to ( 3 ) ____________ she gives her statements then ^disappears. Jane goes to an office in Soho to answer the letter (4 )_________she has ^received. There she discovers that her uncle Gordon, ( 5 ) _____________ lives in Ị South America, has sent her a box ( 6 ) ______________ she is only to open if in trouble. Jane, (7 )_____________ parents have never mentioned an Uncle Gordon, is suspicious of the box, ( 8 ) ____ ______ she gives to her friend Tony. They go to [ Scotland Yard and see inspector Groves, ( 9 ) _____ ______ has not heard of the : Victoria murder, (10) ____________ was not reported to the police. Jane gives Ị Inspector Groves the murdered man’s ticket (1 1 )______________ she found besides \ his body. Then Jane and Tony decide to go to Redhilỉ, (1 2 )______________ was the

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town (1 3 )___________ the murdered man had come from. On the train they met i man, (14 )____________ face is somehow familiar to Jane, (1 5 )___________ says hẹ knows her Uncle Gordon. Now read on. Ị Sherlock Homes I Sherlock Homes, ( 1 ) ______________ name is well-known, didn’t really exists However, for many (2) . have been a real person. The man (3) ___________ created Holmes was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, bon? in Edinburgh in 1859. He trained as a doctor, but found he could earn more mcmej by writing than practicing medicine. He wrote not on]y stories about Holmes, birj many other books (4) _____________ people also liked. However, it is for thij detectives stories (5 ) ____________ he wrote that he is most remembered. The place: (6 ) _____________ the Holmes mysteries are set is Victorian England. Holmes, (7| _________ is a brilliant detective, uses his intelligence and scientific knowledge t<? solve the mysteries. Even though Doyle wrote many Holmes mysteries, we’ll nevei know the reason (8) ___________ he gave us so little information about Holmes’; private life. All the books were written in the first person, not by Holmes, but by his assistant, Dr. Watson, (9) _____________ knowledge of his master’s private lire was limited. I Exercise 5. Rewrite each sentence so that the meaning stays the same. j 1. I like Brenda, she is my kind of person. (THAT) -j

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PHẦN 8: MODAL VERBS (ðỘNG TỪ KHUYẾT THIẾƯ)

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A. LÝ THUYẾT CO BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Modal verbs', will/ shall (would)/ can (could)/ may (might)/ must/ have to (had to)/ should/ ought to; had better + Verb (bare infinitive) / semi-modal verb: need/ needn’t/ used to.

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Diễn tả khả năng làm gì 4- Can: ñược dùng ñể chi khả năng làm gì chung chung ờ hiện tại Eg: ĩ can use computer. / She can speak English well. 4- Còuỉd: ñược dùng ñể chỉ khả năng làm gì chung chung ở quá khứ. Eg: I could read and write when I was 4 years old. / She could drive when she was 18.’ Ngoài ra một so cấu trúc câu cũng dùng ñể chỉ khả năng ỉàm gì: 4- Was/ were able to do St: chỉ khả năng xoay sờ một cách thành công ñể làm . . gì trong quá khứ. Eg: Their house was on fire but they were able to escape from it. -4- To be able to do St/ to be capable o f doing St: có khả năng làm gì (chia theo các thì khác nhau) Eg: He will able to speak English well after this course. They have been capable of solving their own problems for many years. Diễn tả sự suy diễn, tiên ñoán * ðiễn tả sự suy ñoán khộng chắc chắn về cái gì, chúng ta sử dụng ‘could/ may/ Ịnight’ theo các công thức sau. ịí - C ould/may/might + Verb (bare infinitive), có lè làm gì r :Eg: It might rain tomorrow. /It may rain tomorrow. t it could rain tomorrow. / It will possibly rain tomorrow. = Maybe it •will rain tomorrow. I Chú ý: maybe là sự kết hợp cùa cả may và be nhưng nó là một từ và không phảilà Érợ ñộng từ. Nó lả một phó từ, có nghĩa như perhap (có Could/raay/might + be Verb-ing: có lẽ ñang làm gì Eg: It might be raining at 5 p. m tomorrow. Lan may be studying now. Mai sister could be playing computer game at 5 p. m tomorrow. • Could/ may/ might + have +1*2 = có lẽ ñã ỉàm gi. Eg: ít may have rained last night, but I'm not sure. He could have forgotten the ticket for the concert last night. I didn't hear the telephone ring, Ĩ might have been sleeping at that time. The cause of death could have been bacteria. Diễn tả sự suy ñoán chắc chắn về cái gì, chúng ta sử dụng ‘mụst/ can’t / couldn’t ’ theo các công thức sau. Must + Verb (bare infinitive): chắc l à . ..........(chỉ một kết luận logic dựa trên nhũng hiện tượng ñã xảy ra. ) Eg: The lights in his room are out. He must be asleep. She drives a luxirious car. She must be rich. Must + be + V-ing: Chắc là ñang làm gì L Eg: The grass is wet. It must be raining. Our children’s room is quiet. They must be sleeping. Must + have + p 2~ chắc ià ñã, hẳn là ñã làm gì: Eg: The grass is wet. It must have rained "last night. /(It probably rained last night)

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K ðộng từ khuyết thiếu ñược dùng với các chức năng ngôn ngữ sau:

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Jane did very well on the exam. She must have studied hard i - Can’t + be + adj/ + V (in f).. . . : Không thể như thế nầo/ không thể làm gì I Eg: Mai’s parents died when she was 4. She can't come from a rich family. She Ị can’t be a rich student in our class. - Can’t / couldn’t + be Verb-ing: không thể ñang làm gì : Eg: Minh can’t be playing football in the park now. He must be taking his examination ; now. {because the speaker knows exactly that it is time for the examination). - C an’t / couldn’t + have + p 2: không thể ñã làm gì Eg: Minh can’t/ couldn’t have stolen your money yesterday because we went out \ together all yesterday. :ị Mai couldn’t have gotten the scholarship because she was too lazy. 3. Diễn tả lời khuyên, sự mong ñợi. * ‘Should’ ñược sử dụng trong những trường hợp sau: “ ðe diễn ñạt một lời khuyên, sự gợi ý, sự bắt buộc (nhưng không mạnh). j Eg: He should study tonight. J - Diễn ñạt người nói mong muốn ñỉều gì sẽ xảy ra. (Expectation) j Eg: It should rain tomorrow. (I expect it to rain tomorrow) ■ My check should arrive next week. {I expect it to arrive next week).; Các cụm từ had better, ought to, be supposed to ño St ñều cỏ nghĩa -tướng ñương và cách dùng tương tự với should trong cả hai trường hợp trên (với ñiều kiện ñộng từ be] tfong be supposed to phải chia ờ thời hiện tại). I Eg: John ought to study tonight. / John is supposed to study tonight. /John had better study tonight. 1 4. Diễn tả các nghĩa vụ, sự bắt buộc ai ñó làm gì * Cách sử dụng ‘M ust’ và ‘have to’ ị * “M u st” có nghĩa k‘phải”: mang nghĩa hoản toàn bất buộc (mạnh hơn should). Với: should (nên), nhân vật cỏ thể lựa chọn có thực hiện hành ñộng hay không nhưng với ị must (phải), họ không có quyền lựa chọn. ; Eg: George must call his insurance agent today. 1 A car must have gasoline to run. j Ngoài ra ‘must’ còn diễn tả lời khuyên mạnh, xuất phát tír suy nghĩ của ngưòi nói. Eg: Teacher to her students: You must study hard. j * “have to .’ thay cho must với nghĩa bẳt buộc, nhưng ‘have to ’ chi sự bắt buộc mang; yếu tổ khách quan, từ yếu tổ bên ngoài) . ị Eg: We will have to take an exam next week. You have to wear uniform on Monday because it’s our school’s rule. * ‘had to’ ñược dung ñê ðẽ diễn ñạt một nghĩa vụ trong quá khứ. phải dùng had to] chứ không ñược dùng ‘must’. Eg: Mr Hung had to pass an examination before practicing law. You had to do your homework before going to class today. I Chú ý: . Ị - Trong câu hỏi, have to thườnệ ñược dùng thay cho m ust ñe hỏi xem bản thân người: hỏi băt buộc phải làm gì hoặc ñê diễn ñạt sự bắt buộc do khách quan ñem lại. 104

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s: Eg: Guest: Do I have to leave a deposit? ~ Receptionist: No, you needn't. But Jyou have to leave your I. D card. I’m sorry but that's the way it is. - Trong văn nói, người ta dùng have got to, cung có nghĩa như have to. Eg: He has got to go to the office tonight. I S. Diễn tả sự cấm ñoán làm gì “m ustn’t ’ và ‘can’t ’ ñược dùng ñể diễn tả sự cấm ñoán làm gì ị - Mustn’t / can’t do St = not be allowed to do St = it is necessary not todo St í (không ñược phép làm gỉ) Eg: You mustn’t take photos in die museum. / You mustn’t make noise in the class. You can’t drive on the left in Vietnam. Ị * Phân biệt M ustn’t với don’Ư didn’t have to do St ; -don’t/ didn’t have to do st= don’t /didn’t need to do St = needn’t do St/ needn't have done I St = it + not be necessary to do St (không cần thiết làm gì, hành ñộng làm là vô ích) I Eg: You needn’t apply for a visa to visit France if you hold a EƯ passport. ị You don’t have to go to school and wear uniform on Sunday. \ 6. Diễn tả sự bối tiếc làm gù I - Needn 't + have + P2i Lẽ ra không cần phải phải làm gì: ; Eg: You needn't have come so early - only waste your time. I- Should have + p 2 = Lẽ ra ñã phải làm gì, lẽ ra nên phải ñã làm gì. (Chỉ một việc Ị: lẽ ra ñã phải xảy ra trong quả khứ nhưng vì lí do nào ñó lại không xảy ra .) I Eg: You shouldn't have called me last night. (She did call him). My mother should have gone to her office this morning. Ĩ The policeman should have made a report about the accident. \Chú ý: Chúng ta cũng có thể dùng cụm từ was/were supposed to + [verb in simple form] ñể thay cho should + perfective. Chì ñược dùng had to hoặc should + perfective ị hoặc be supposed to khi diên tả một trách nhiệm băt buộc ỡ quá khứ. Eg: My mother was supposed to go to her office this morning, r The policeman was supposed to make a report about the accident, l' * Cách dùng should trong một số trường hợp cụ thể khác \ - Diễn ñạt kết .quả của một yếu tố tưởng tượng:(Sẽ Ịàm gì) Ị Eg: ỉf I was asked to many him, I should resign. ị- Dùng trong rhệnh ñề có that sau những tính từ chi trạng thái như anxious (sôt ruột)/ sorry (tiếc rằng)/ concerned (ỉo lăng, ỉo ầu) ỉ. happy (vui vé)/ delighted. . . Lấy làm ... rằng/ lấy làm. . . vì: Ị Eg: I’m anxious that she should be safe on that train. (Tôi ìo lắng rằng liệu cô ấy có ñược an toàn trên chuyến tàu ấy không/ We are sorry that you should feel uncomfortable here. Ị - Dùng với if/in case ñể chi một ñiều khó có thể xảy ra, người ta ñưa ra ý kiên chỉ ñề phòng ngừa. ...Eg: If you should make another decision, please let me know. In case he should have left you alone, I will stand by you. ị:- Dung sau so that/ in order that ñể chỉ mục ñích (Thay cho would/ could). Eg: I put away my diary so that noone should be able to read it. My teacher speaks slowly in order that we should understand.

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- Dùng trong lời yêu cẩu ỈỊch sự: I should like tỏ have a talk to you, if possible i - Dùng với imagine/ say/ think.. . ñể ñưa ra lời ñề nghị: Thiết tường, cho là ị Eg: I should imagine our celebration will be successful. •I (Tôi cho là sự tồ chức cùa chúng ta sẽ thảnh công.) - Dùng trong câu hỏi ñể diễn tả sự nghi ngờ, thiếu chắc chắn ■ Eg: How should I know?(Làm sao tôi biết ñược kia chứ) i Why should he thinks that? (sao nó lại nghĩ như vậy), ị - Dùng với các ñại từ nghi vấn như what/ where/ who ñể diễn tả sự ngạc nhiên,! thường dùng với "But". ị Eg: I was thinking of going to see John when who should appear but John himself. * Cách sử dụng Would + like: ðể ñiễn ñạt một cách lịch sự lời mời hoặc ý muốn gì? (Không nên dùng do you want khi mời người khác.) Eg: Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight. j Chú ỷ: (nếu ñể diễn ñạt sờ thích thì sau like là một V-ing). / He likes listening tơ music. :ị Nhưng ñể diễn ñạt sự lựa chọn hoặc sờ thích ở một thòi ñiểm cụ thể ta dùng (likể + V-ing). ị Eg: I’m hungry now, I like to eat some beef noodle now. ị Wouldn't like = không ưa # don't want = không muốn. 4 Eg: I wouldn't like any orange juice now. i Lưu ý rằng khi like ñược dùng với nghĩa "cho là ñúng" hoặc "cho !à hay/ khônị ngoan^íhì bao giờ theo sau cũng là một nguyên thê có to (infinitive). Eg: She likes the children to learn to play the guitar. * (Would like = would care /love/ hate/ prefer + to + verb: khi diễn ñạt ñiều kiện ị cho một hành ñộng cụ thể ở tương lai: Eg: Mait Would you (like/care) to come with me? *- Hoa: I’d love to Would like/ would care for/ would enjoy + Verb-ing khi diễn ñạt khẩu vị, ý thích; nói chung của chủ ngữ. Eg: She would like/ would eniov dancing if she could dance better. I I wonder if Tom would care for/ would eniov dining out tonight. I * Dare (dám): Dùng như một nội ñộng từ:K.hông ñùng ở thể khẳng ñịnh, chỉ dùng ớj thể nghi vấn và phủ ñịnh. Eg: Did they dare (to) do such a thing? = Dared they do such a thing? (Họ dám làm như vậy sao?) - Dare không ñược dùng ờ thể khẳng ñịnh ngoại trừ thành ngữ I dare say/ ỉ dare sayvới 2 nghĩa sau: Eg: Tổi cho rằng: 1 dare say there is a restaurant at the end of the tram. ; Tôi thừa nhận là: I dare say you are right. Ị - How dare/ dared + s + Verb in simple form: Sao. . . dám (tỏ sự giận giữ); [ Eg: How dared you read my diarỵ: Sao mày dám doc nhật ký của tao. - Dare sb to do smt = Thách ai làm gì Eg: They dare the boy to drive fast on that dangerous road.

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Exercise ỉ: Choose the correct completion (A, B, c or D) for each sentence below. AI painted his bedroom black. It looks dark and dreary. He a different colour. I A. had to choose B. should have chosen p. must have chosen D. could have been choosing 2. Tom is sitting at his desk. He is reading his chemistry text because he has a test tomorrow. He . A. could study B. should be studying c . will study D. must be studying % When Mr. Lee was younger, he ________work in the garden for hours, but now he has to take frequent rest because he has emphysema, if; A. has got to B. could I c . should be able to D. must be studying ị Whenever my parents went out in the evening, I the job of taking care of my younger brother. [ Ạ. would get B. should get i-r c . must have gotten D. had better get |5. Peter__________ rather sleep on a mattress than on the floor. A. shall B. could c . would D. must |6. Jimmy and Maria were mischievous children. They____________ tricks on their teachers. A. could play B. used to play c* could have played D. may have played |7. Robert has a new car. He it for a very good price. He paid 30 % less than the regular retail cost. A. could buy B. had to buy c . was supposed to buy D. was able to buy S. 11Did you enjoy a picnic?” / “ It was o . K, but ĩ ‘d rather_________to a movie. ” A. go B. be going c . have gone D. went 9. “Why are you so sure that Ann didn’t commit the crime she’s been accused of committing. “S h e_________ that crime because I was with her, and we was out of town on that day. ” A. committed B. may not have committed c . wasn’t supposed to commit D. couldn’t have committed 10. “Since we have to be there in a hurry, we ________ take a taxi. ” / “I agree. ” A. had better B. may c . have been used to D. are able to 11. “I t rain this evening. Why don’t you take an umbrella?”/ “That’s a‘ good idea!” A. had better B. could be c . must D. might Ỉ2. ___________ you hand me that pair of scissors, please?” / “Certainly. ” A. May B. Shall c . Will D. Should 13. “Larry drove all.night to get here for his sister’s wedding. He exhausted by the time he arrived. ”

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B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN

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A. ought to be B. could be c . must have been D. will have been 14. “What are you doing here now? Y ou___ be here for another three hours. ” “I know. We got an early start and it took less time than we expected I hope you don’t mind. ” A. couldn’t B. might not c . had better not D. aren’t supposed to [5. “ ____ taking me downtown on your way to work this morning?” / “Not at all. ” A. Can you B. Why don’t you c . Would you mind D. Could you please 6. “ I locked myself out of my apartment. I didn’t know what to do. ” / “ You ______your roommate. ” A. could have called B. may have called c . would have called ,D. must have called 7. You haven’t eaten anything since yesterday afternoon. You _______ be really hungry!” / “I am. ” A. might B. will c . can D. must 8. “How long have been married?’ / “W e ________ have been married for twenty three years on your next anniversary. ’ A. must B. should c . will D. could 19. “I _________ there at 6 p. M for the meeting, but my car won’t start. Could you please give me a lift in your car?” - “Sure. Are you ready to go now?” A. will be B. may be c . supposed to be D. have got to be -0. “I left a cookie on the table, but now it’s gone. What happened to it?” ~ “I don’t know. One of children__________________ it. ” A. may have eaten B. could eat . c. had to eat D. should have eaten -1. “My boss is always looking over my shoulder whenever I do anything. ” ~ 'That bother you. ”/ “But it does. ” A. shouldn’t B. might not c . may not D. won’t :2. “This movie is boring and too violent. ” / “ I agree. _________ leave?” A.. Will we B. Why don't we c . Must we D. Would we 13- “Chris, y o u __________ the fish in the refrigerator before it spoils. ” ~ uYou are right. I didn’t know it was still in the bag. A. hadr better put. B. had to put c . would rather put D. may put 14. “What does Mr. Griffin do for a living?” ~ “Nothing. He is very rich. He ______ work for ạ living. ” A. must not B. shouldn't c . doesn’t have to D. had better 5. ‘Why are you so ỉate?” ~ “I ___ my aunt to their airport. The traffic was terrible!” A. could take B. must have taken c . should take D. had to take

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26. “I heard that Laura was offered a job at a top computer firm in Chicago. ” very pleased. ” ~ “Oh? That’s wonderful! She_____ A. is supposed to be B. might be c must be D. is 27. “The hot weather doesn’t seem to bother you. ” ~ “ When I had my farm. I ________ work in the hot fields for hours. ” A. used to B. ought to c . must D. had better 28. “They towed my car away from the executive parking lot yesterday. ” - “Y ou______ have parked there. ” A. may not B. should not G. must not D. might not 29. “Are you going to have a big party for your father?” - “Not this year, but next year. H e ________________ 50 years old then. ” A. should be B. must be c . will be D. has to be 30. “I need some help with this table.________ you lift the other end, please?" ~ “Sure, just a second. ” A. May B. Should c . Could D. Shall 31. “Barbara just told me that she can’t go to the meeting tonight. ” ~ “She_________ go! We need her there for the financial report. ” A. has got to B. has gotten to c . have to D. must be 32. “_________ ỉetting me use your bicycle for a little while?” ~ “Not at all. ” A. Please to B. would you mind c . Will you D. Could you please 33. “W e _____be here. That sign says “No trespassing. ” ~ “ It is too late now. We ‘re already been here. ” A. couldn’t B. don’t have to c . might not D. aren’t supposed to 34. “Harry’s new jacket doesn’t seem to fit him very well. ” - “H e_______ it on before he bought it” A. must have tried B. was able to fry c . should have tried D. may have tried 35. “Do you like to play tennis?” ~ “Yes. When I work at the embassy, I ______ meet a friend at 5 every afternoon for a game. ” A. would B. should c . had better D. would rather 36. Thank goodness w e _______ eat fish again tonight. Dad didn’t catch any today. A. must B. have to c . must not D. don’t have to 37. The pen won't write; it______ out of ink. A. must run B. must be running c . must have run D. must have ran 38. The line is busy; someone______ the telephone now. Ạ. must be using B. must have used c . must use D. must have been using 39. Bob is absent, he______ sick gain now. A. must have been B. must be c . must be being D. must being

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40. He______his j ob because he seems very happy. A. would like B. can like c will like D. must like Exercise 2: Complete the second sentence in each pair, using the word given, so that the meaning stays the same. 1. There is a possibility that they won’t visit us at the weekend. might T hey______________________________________ at the weekend. 2. Karen, I’d like you to help me with the washing up. will Karen, __ ______________________________ with the washing up? 3. I’m sure it wasn’t Tim who calledyou because I saw him outside. been I t _______________________________ Ti m who you called because I saw him outside. 4. I suppose Bruce has gone to the dentist since he has a teưible toothache. have Bruce_____________ to the dentist since he has a terrible toothache. 5. May I borrow your tape recorder this afternoon? mind W ould_____________________ your tape recorder this afternoon? 6. You can’t walk your dog in the park. are Y o u_________ _______________your dog in the park. 7. Perhaps you didn’t buy that watch from this shop. could You_______________________ that watch from another shop. 8. Garry couldn’t remember where he had put his wallet. was Garry _____________________ where he had put his wallet. 9. You were wrong to drive through the red light. should You______________________ through the red light. 10. Our children were never in the habit of telling lies. used Our children_______________________________________ _lies. Exercise 3:Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the words in parentheses. Add not if necessary for a sentence to make sense: ]. A: Why wasn’t Pamela at the meeting last night? B: She (may + a ttend)_______________________ thé ỉecture at Shaw Hall. I know she very much wanted to hear the speaker. 2. A! Eg has a test tomorrow that he needs to study for. He (should + watch) _________________ _____ TV right now. 3. A: Why didn’t Diane come to the phone? I know she was home when Icalled. B: I don’t know. She (might + wash)_____________________ herhair when you called. Who knows? 4. There’s Tom. He’s standing at the bus stop. He (must + wait) _____ _____________for the two o’clock bus. 5. Kathy lost her way while driving to River City. She (should + leave) ■ her road map at home. 6. A: Where’s Ann? B: I don’t know. She (could + visit)___ __________________ her aunt and uncle right now. She usually visits them every Friday evening. 110

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You {should +watch) _____________________ the movie on TV tonight. I highly recommend it It’s a classic. I heard a loud crash in the next room. When I walked in; I found a brick on the floor, and the window was broken. Someone (must. + throw)________________ the brick through the window. Jack is in the employee lounge drinking coffee. He (should + work) _______on his report right now. It’s due at 3:00 this afternoon. He (should + waste)____________________ his time in the employee lounge. A: Where’s Jane? I haven’t seen her for a week. B: I’m not sure. She (might + travel)_____________ in Europe. I think I heard her mentioning something about spending a few weeks in Europe this spring. My tweed jacket isn’t in ray closet. I think my roommate' (might +borrow) ________________ it. He often borrows my things without asking me. Do you hear that guitar music? Carla (must + p la y )________■ her guitar. A: When I arrived, Dennis looked surprised. you. B: He (must + expect)_________________ A: I couldn’t reach Peter on the phone. 1 wonder where he was. B; He told me he was going to wash his car and then go to dinner at the Bistro Cafe. He (might + wash)_______ ' ____________ his car when you called, or he (may + leave + already)__________________________ for the restaurant by then.

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; Exercise 4: Rewrite each sentence so th at it contains the word given in capitals, and so th at the meaning stays the same: Ị. I think you should give up smoking immediately. ; . (HAD) ______________________________ , 2. 1 expect we will get there by 5:00, if there isn’t too much traffic. ■- (SHOULD) _ ___________________________________ : 3. Is it necessary for me to bring my passport? , (HAVE) ___________________________________________________________ 4. I am sure that the cat is in the house somewhere. (MUST) _____________ _________________________ ___________________ 5. An aerial is not required with'this radio. (HAVE) ________ ,____________________ __________ ;_________________ ___ 6. It is very inconvenient if you can’t drive. (ABLE) ________ ______________________ ___________________________ _ 7. I am sure that John is not the thief. (CAN’T ) _____________________ ____________________________________ 8. I am certain that Norman will be late. (BOUND)___________. _______________________ ___ 9. All students should report to the main hall at 9:00. (A RE)______________ . _______ __________________ __ 10. I thought that you would know better! (OUGHT)__________________ _ _____________________________ 111

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Exercise 5. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains catty could, must, have to or| should. Include not if necessary. 1. I’m sure that Helen feels rather ỉoneỉy. You are not allowed to park here.

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It would be a good idea if Harry took a holiday.

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I’m sure that Brenda isn’t over thirty.

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Do I need a different driving license for a motorbike?

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What would you advise me to do?

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Maiy knows how to stand on her head.

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You needn’t come with me if you don’t want to.

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It’s possible for anyone to break into this house!

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PHẦN 9: INVERSION AND EMPHASIS IN ENGLISH

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A. LÝ THUYÉT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG GAO Trong Tiếng Anh, người ta thường 'sử dụng ñảo ngữ trong các trường hợp sau: * Khi một câu chứa ñựng một từ hay ngữ diễn ñạt mang hàm nghĩa phủ ñịnh hay bán phủ ñịnh và từ, ngữ ñó ñứng à ñầu câu trong Tiểng Anh viết ñể có thể có ảnh hường kịch tính hơn, nhấn mạnh hơn, thì trật tự từ của câu ñó giong như trật tự của câu hòi, có nghĩa là có hiện tượng ñảo trợ ñộng từ !ên trước chủ ngữ của câu. Hãy xem các ví dụ sau: Examples: No-one should enter this room under/in any circumstances. *5 Under/In no circumstances should anyone enter this room. - She at no time told me who she was/She didn't tell me who she was at any time. => At no time did she tell me who she was. - Ỉ have rarely seen such a beautiful butterfly. <=> Rarely have I seen such a beautiful butterfly. - Ỉ have never heard suck a stupid thing. Never have I heard such a stupid thing. . - Ỉ did not witness the robbery, either. ■=> Neừker/Nor (less formal) did I witness the robbery. Trong câu có các từ hay ngữ diễn ñạt mang hấm nghĩa phủ ñịnh hay bán phủ ñịnh sau thường có hiện tượng ñảo ngữ: 112

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No sooner.............th a n .. . . : Không sớm hơ n .. . . thì......... On no account: Dù bất cứ lý do gì cũng không Under no circumstance: Dù trong bất cứ hoàn, cảnh nào cũng không. Neither: cũng không Only in this way: Chỉ bằng cách này Ảt no time: chưa khi nào In no way: Không sao có thề Nor: cũng không By no means: Hoàn toàn không Rarely: ít khi Not only.. . . . . but............ as well: Không những.......... mà còn Nowhere: không noi nào.. Not often: không thường xuyên___ í-Not until: không ñến khi Scarcely.. . . when: Chẳc chẳn không khi nào khi |Nơt once: Không một lúc Hardly ever: Chưa từ ng.. khó mà Only when: chỉ khi Barely: hoàn toàn không (Onìy later: chi sau ñó Only then/ only after: chỉ sau khi ; Examples: On no accout must this switch be touched. Only in this way could the problem be solved In no way could I agree with you. By no means does he intend to criticize your idea. Negative. . . , nor + auxiliary + s + V He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow. Chú ý: ðảo ngữ chỉ ñược thực hiện ngay phần ñầu của câu chứa ñựng những sụ diễn ñạt này. Xem các VI dụ sau: - We had hardỉy/scarcely/barely started to watch the film when the light went off. ^ Hardly/Scarcely/Barely had we started to watch the film when the light went off. - I felt much better after Ỉ took a sachet o f this medicine/ - 1 had no sooner taken a sachet o f this medicine than Jfelt much better. & No sooner had I taken a sachet o f this medicine than / felt much better. They had no sooner started the engine than the car exploded. = Immediately they started the engine, the car exploded. <=>No sooner had they started the engine than the car exploded. I was no sooner informed o f the facts than Ĩ took legal actio. = As soon as I was informed o f the facts, Ỉ took legal action. <=>No sooner was Ĩ informed o f the facts than I took legal action. As soon as he sees o. pretty girl, he asks her to go out with him. = He no sooner sees a pretty girl than he asks her to go out with him. <=>■ No sooner does he see a pretty girl than he asks her to go out with him. - They not only took care o f me, but (they) also treated me as i f I were their own daughter. => Not only did they take care o f me, but (they) also treated me as i f I were their own daughter. * Khi chúng ta ñặt một số từ và cụm từ ở ñầu câu ñể câu mang hàm ý nhấn mạnh, câu ñó có hiện tượng ñảo ngữ. Hãy xem các ví dụ sau.

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íever: chưa bao giờ eỉdom: hiếm khi 'ardly: BChó lòng m ả ..

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Examples: - It was only when my children arrived home safely that I felt relieved. <=> Qnly when my children arrived home safely did I feel relieved. - We did not know anything about what was going to happen to us next. Litile did we know about what was going to happen to us next. - Ỉ well remember when Ỉ saw her fo r the first time. <=> Well do I remember when I saw her fo r the first time, - Ỉ waitedfo r you to come back many times/many a time. Many is the time (that) Ĩ waited fo r you to come back/Many a time did I wait, for you to come back. * ðảo ngữ trong câu ñiều kiện (xem thêm phẩn câu ñiều kiện) Examples: - I f you should need a sun protection cream, please tell me. Should you need a sun protection cream, please tell me. - I f I were you, Ị would try to fascinate her. o Were I you, I would try to fascinate her. - I f they had confessed everything, they would have been expelledfrom school. Had they confessed everything, they would have been expelled from school * Khi một mênh ñê mở ñâu băng các thành Dgữ chỉ nơi chôn hoặc trậ t tự thì ñộng từ chính có thể ñảo lên chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt ñôi không ñược sử dụng trợ ñộng từ trong trường hợp này. Clause of place/ order + main verb + s (no auxiliary) In front of the house is a big garden.. First came the teacher, then came the headmaster. (Thoạt ñầu là giảo viên ñến, tiếp sau là thầy hiệu trưởng.) * Khi một ngữ giới từ làm phó từ chỉ ñịa ñiểm hoặc phương hướng ñứng ở ñẩu câu, các nội ñộng từ ñ ặt lên trước chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt ñôi không ñươc sử ñụng trợ ñộng từ trong loại câu này. Nó rất phổ biến trong vặn mô tả khi muốn ñiền ñạt một chù ngữ không xác ñịnh: Under the table was lying a big dog. Directly behind the mountain stood a great temple. On the table sat a black c a t.. * Tính từ cũng có thề ñảo ỉên trên ñầu câu ñể nhấn mạnh vàsau ñó là liên ỉừ nhưng tuyêt ñoi không ñược sử dụng trợ ñộng từ. / was so happy that ỉ arranged a big party/My happines was such that Ĩ arranged a big party. “=> So happy was Ĩ that I arranged a big party/Such was my happines that Ĩ arranged a big party. * Các phó từ away (= ofĩ), down, in, off, out, over, round, u p .. . có thể theo sau ià một ñộng từ chuyển ñộng và sau ñỏ ỉà một danh từ ỉàm chủ ngữ A way/dowrưũt/off/oiư/over/round/up. .. + motion verb + iwun/noun phrase as a subject Examples: - Away went the football hooligans/ Down fell the snow. - Peter goes up again, <=>■up goes Peter again. (But Up he goes again. )

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Chủ ỷ: Trong tiếng Anh viết (written English) các ngữ giói từ mờ ñầu bằng các giới tí down, from , in, on, over, out of, round, u p ... có thể ñược theo sau ngay bởi ñọng tì chỉ V? trí {crouch (nẻ mình, cúi mình), hang (treo), lie (nằm), sit (ngồi), stand (ñứng) .. ) hoặc các ñạng ñộng từ chỉ chuyên ñộng, các ñộng từ như be born/ die/ live và mội sô dạng ñộng từ khác.

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- The beautiful scenery I had been told about lay/was below me. ^ Below me lav/was the beautiful scenery Ĩ had been told about. + Nhưng nếu một ñại từ nhân xưng làm chủ ngữ thì ñộng từ phải ñể sau chủ ngữ Eg: Away they wenư Round ịand round it flew.

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Standing in the doorway was a man with a gun. Sitting on a armchaừ next to me was a black cat. * Có hiện tượng ñảo ngữ khi chủ ngữ sau các phó từ so sánh as/than quá dài Eg: - She was very selfish, as were' most of her family members. - Smokers have a higher death rate than do non-smoking people. * Tân ngữ mang tính nhấn mạnh cũng có thễ ñảo lên ñầu câu Eg: - Not a single word did he say. - Nothing but a full apology would satisfy him.

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Eg: - In the doorway stood a man with a gun. - On the wall hung a nice picture. - Over the wall came a strange man. Chú ý: Có thể diễn ñạt bang một VERB-ING mờ ñầu cho câu và ñộng từ BE ñảo lên trên chủ ngừ:

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* H ere/There hoặc m ột số các phó từ ñi kết hợp với ñộng từ ñứng ñầu câu cũng phải ñảo ñộng từ ỉên trên chủ ngữ ỉà một danh từ, những nếu chủ ngữ là một ñại từ thì không ñược ñảo ñộng từ Eg: - Here comes Mr John. {Incorrect. Here comes h e .) - O f f we go {Incorrect: Off go w e.)

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: * Emphasis in English Theo sau là một số cách ñể diễn tà thêm vào sự nhấn mạnh cho.câu nói (viết) trong Tiếng Anh khi mà chúng ta muốn diền tả quan ñiêm, sự không ñông ý, haý làm ^rihững lời ñề nghị mạnh mẽ, sự tức giận. * Use of the Passive (sử dụng câu bị ñộng) Câu bị ñộng ñược sử dụng ñể nhấn mạnh việc gì ñã xảy ra, hơn là ai/ cái gì ñã làm gì, nó nhấn mạnh con người hay cái gì bị tác ñộng bời hành ñộng.

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Examples: - At no time did I say you couldn’t come. - Hardly had I arrived when he started complaining. - Little did I understand what was happening. ' - Seldom have Ife ll so alone. Note that the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject which is followed by the lain verb.) Use the continuous form modified by ’always’, ’forever’ (sử ñụng dạng tiếp diễn ới ‘always/ forever) Chúng ta sử dụng dạng tiếp diễn với ‘always/ forever’ ñể diễn tà sự tức giận bay hàn nàn về một thói quen xấu nào hay xảy ra như thường lệ cúa ai ñó. Examples: Marika ừ always getting into trouble. Peter is forever asking tricky questions. George was always being reprimanded by his teachers. Niote that this form is generally used with the present or past continuous (he is always oing, they were always doing). Use of cleft sentences (sử dụng câu chè) Câu chè là là câu nhấn mạnh chủ ngữ hay tân ngữ và ñược hình thành theo công tức (It is/ was + Subjective pronoun / Noun/ Nounphrase + 1 clause relative) or âu có mệnh ñề ‘what* làm chủ ngữ. xamples: - It was ỉ who received the promotion. - It is tke awful weather that drives him crazy. - What we need is a good long shower. - What he thinks isn’t necessarily true. Exceptional Use of 'Do' o r 'ðiñ’ (sử dụng thêm trợ ñộng từ (do. Does/ did) samples: - No that's not true. John did speak to Mary. - I do believe that you should think twice about thừ situation.

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BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN ;ercise 1: Rewrite each of the sentences below, using the words given in the brackets, so that the meaning of each one has an emphasis. My brother went off without saying a word. (O ff.. , ) He went off without saying a word. (O ff... ) Her toys were along the corridor. (Along the co rrid o r.. . )

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4. The castle stands on a hill. (On a h ill.. . )

6. We have seldom fished so much here. (Seldom ... )

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7. They are in no way responsible for what occurred last night. (Ia no w a y .. . )

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5. Your chance to speak out is now..(Now.. . )

She not once offered us her help. (Not once.. . )

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.8. You should not on any account take these pills when you drink alcohol. (On no acco u n t.. . )

10. I did not became aware of what was going on until I saw her weeping. (Not until.. .)

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11. We little realised the dangers that were awaiting us. (Little . . . )

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13. My delight was such that Ĩ bought everybody a drink. (S u ch ., . )

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14.1 love him to such an extent that I would even give my life for him. (To such an ex ten t.. . )

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15. They not only supply us with food, but also with drinks. (Not o n ly .. . )

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17. I had hardly gone to bed when the telephone rang. (H a rd ly .. . ) 18. She took him to the zoo and to the cinema as well. (Not only . . . )

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19. The cock crows as soon as the day breaks. (No sooner)

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20. She agreed to go out with him only when be bought her some flowers. (Oniy w hen.. . )

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21. If you should need a good make-up remover, please let meknow. (Should.. . )

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NH ƠN

22. If I were to win the first prize in the national lottery, I would no longer work, i (W ere.. . ) 23. If you hadn’t flooded the engine, it would have started at once. (Had y o u .. . )

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25. If I were in your place, I would try to be more assertive. (W ere.. . )

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24. If my parents should need me, I will never let them down. (S hould.. . )

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Exercise 2: Finish the second sentence so th at the meaning has a similar meaning with an emphasis. Ỉ. You shouldn’t in any way consider him as your worst enemy. In no w a y ___________________________________________________________ 2. You must on no account upset your parents. On no account_______________, _____________________________________ 3. Mr and Mrs Adam live across the bridge. Across die bridge______________________________________________________ 4. I was so scared that I could not even scream. So scared________________________________________ 5. The horrific view of the massacre was in front of us. In front of u s_________________________________________________________ 6. The canyon lies behind those mountains.

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Behind those mountains________________________________________________ 7. He only then became aware of the dangers of the jungle. ■• Only th e n ________ _________________________________________ 8. She had scarcely begun to study when her boyfriend rang the bell.

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Scarcely_______ _ _____ ,_______________ 9. I won’t go trekking with him. No w a y _____________________ __________________________ ■ _______ I.0. My terror was such that I couldn’t move. S u ch ______________ ____ _____ _______ __________ ■ ____________ __ II. I had no sooner switched on the dishwasher than it broke down.

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_____ _____ ____________ __ No sooner_________________ ■ • 12. As soon as he saw her, he fell in love with her. No sooner___________ _________________ ____ _______ ________ ■' 13. If we had known that you were interested in buying the block of flats, we would have sold it to you. H a d _____________________ ■ __________________________________ .

113

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18. We not only wrote to her many times, but telephone her twice, too. Not only __________________ ____________ _____ ' ______________

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15. She went down the road. Down the road ______________ _________ ___________________ _____ 16. This disease is common only in hot countries. Only in hot countries_____ ____________________ _______ ___________ 17. You will never again have such an opportunity. Never again

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14. Your mother went down the road. Down the road

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19. Immediately he learnt about his mother’s incurable disease, he cried his eyes out. No sooner __________________________ ____________________ ___________ 20. We have both put aside some money and stocked up with a lot of groceries from the shop next door. Not o n l y ______________________________________ ;_____________________ 21.1 did not use suntan lotion, either. N eith er__________________________ . . •_____ _____ _____________ 22. The wood pigeon flew up.

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U p ______________ _____________________________ ____________________________ __ __________________ 23. If you should increase our wages, we will work overtime. Should _______________________________________________ ____________ 24. She had hardly taken everything out o f the picnic basket when it began to rain. Hardly ______________________ _____________________________________ 25. If you were to buy a new car, which of these would you choose? W ere__________________________________ 26. You should not press both button at once under any circumstances. Under no circumstances _______ ___________________________________ 27. Jean not once offered her boss a word Ò apology. Not once_______________________________________________■ __________ 28. I didn’t realize who he was until later. Only later ■ ______;__________ ;___________________________ __ 29. He never suspected that the money had been stolen. At no time ___________________ '_______________________________ 30. He insisted on a refund. Nothing

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TP

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Dùng as a result o f ñể nhấn mạnh hậu quà của hành ñộng hoặc sự vật, sự việc. Eg: He was blinded as a result o f a terrible accident. Eg: She couldn’t walk properly because of/on account o f (formal)/(nvỉng ỈO (forma, her injured leg * Because = As = Since = For (vi) Eg: Ba is tired because/ as/since/for he stayed up late watching TV. * The reason why / th at +1 clause: Lý do tai sao/ rằng Eg 1: Vie reason (why/that) we left a message for you was that we GQuldn'i contacl you. Eg 2: We couldn't contact you. This is (the reason) why we left a message for you. 5. Từ nối diễn tầ quan ñiểm/ suy nghĩ Eg ỉ : ỉ think (that) the government should do something about inflation. ^

ĐẠ O

hi my npinion/To my mind/ĩn my view/To me (infonmd)/To my H'avm thinking/As far as Ỉ am concerned/lj you ask me (informal)/ From my point (Ệ ~

ill the second place/S econd(ỉy)t.

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view/From my viewpoint/As Ĩ see it/The way Ĩ see it, the government should ddi something about environment. I Eg 2: Personally/For my part, I think (that) the government should do somethings about environment. J Eg 3: As fa r as I know/As fa r as Ĩ am aware/To (the best of) my knowledge/For all f know, the unemployment rate has fallen. 6. Từ nối diễn tả sự kết ỉuận, tóm tắt lại ý * To conclude = In conclusion - In short = In brief = Briefly =(To put it) in a nutsheil/Summarising/Summing Up/To sum up/ All in all/ After all/ Taking every I into account/ consideration,,. . . . (nói tóm lại rằng/ñê tóm tắt ỉại, ñổ cò ổọng ỉại,... Eg 1: If we consider everything, this business is profitable. Eg 2: Taking everything into account/consideration, this business is profitable. Eg 3: Taking account o f everything, this business is profitable. ị 5g4: All in all, the business is profitable. I Eg 5: Briefỉy/Ịn bnựf/In conclusioiì/ĩỉi short/(To put it) in a nutshell/ Summarising/ I iuniiiiitig up/To sunt up, this business is profitable. \ T ừ nối diễn tả sự xảy ra theo th ứ tự của các ỷ, các hành ñộng. ị : First (o f aỉì)/In the first piaceJFirstly, . .. ;+ Ị clause: Trước íiẽn ỉà, thứ nhấtỉà,. + ĩ clause: Thứ hai ỉà

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* ỉn the third place/Thìrdậy),.. . + I clause: Thử ba ỉà k Theti/NexƯAfter that,.. . . + ỉ clause: Tiếp theo ñó ỉà .. Ỹỉnalỉy/Lastlyãn the end/Last o f a ll,... Cuối cùng là ‘ To begin mtìưTo start wìtìĩ/For a start,.. . + / cỉause:ðể bắt ñầu với. .. : To end mtỉí/Tữ fin ish witft/To conclude with, . . ; ðê kểt thúc với. ... ỉn smnmary —T o sum up = To conclude —In conclusion ~ h i short ~ In b rief + clause. .. . (nỏỉ tóm hti rằng/ ñề (ỏm tẳí lại. ñể cô ñọng lợi.. g: First, we must consider the fact that this year’s income is lower than last year’s: >en, that we are working harder than last year. Từ nối ñê ñưa các ví dụ, ñẫn chứir For example = For instance (ví ñụ như là); in particular = particularly (cụ thể là ,.) such as (như là, theo sau là một loạt danh từ liệt kê; !2

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that is/ th at is to say/ namely (ñố chính là) so on; so forth: nhiều nhiều nữa, vân vân = etc (etcetera) J As a case in point: Trường họp cụ thể lả Eg 1: In this school, you can benefit a lot of things such as good learning ndition, good teaching condition, good friendship, safety, etc. (full form: et cetera) Eg 2: Working as a famous actor, he can get money, fame, troubles and so on. “ Eg 3: Some snakes in this region are poisonous. For example/For instance, ‘bras and vipers. Eg 4: Some snakes in this region are poisonous, such as/like (less formal) cobras -nd vipers. Eg 5: Some snakes in this region are poisonous. As a case in point, we can Mention cobras and vipers/We can mention cobras and vipers, as a case in point. Eg 6: Some snakes in this region are poisonous. The cobra is a case in point/A case in point is the cobra. fCTừ liổi ñể diễn tả m ột ý ngoại trừ hay một ñỉều gì ñó hiển nhiên. *Apartfrom + NP: tách ra khỏi •'*Except fo r + NP: ngoại trừ Ị* Needless to say: không cồn phài nói * Nothing to sa y/to mention: Chăng có gì ñê nói, ñê ñề cập ñẻ lì. * Let alone: ñê riêng, chí' riêỉỉg Eg 1: Apart from a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was ^marvellous, apart from a couple of incidents/A couple of incidents apart, our trip was marvellous. . . Eg 2: Except fo r a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was marvellous, except fo r a couple of incidents. Eg 3: You were the only person to aưive on time. / Nobody but /except you arrived on time. Eg 4: I do not think it necessary to say that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons. - Needless to say, you will have to bring your own forks and spoons. Eg 5: It goes without saying that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons. Eg 6: We don’t have enough money to buy food; and as you can imagine, it is impossible for us to pay the rent. = We don’t have enough money to buy food, k’t ạỉone pay the rent. Eg 7: Last night’s hailstorm ruined our fruit crop. But this is not a!ỉ. it also caused a lot of damage to the trees. = Last’s night hailstorm mined our fruit crop, to say nothing of/not to mention the damage caused to the trees. 10. Restating (từ nối diễn tả sự giải thích lại, diễn ñạt lại ý) * In other words (nói mội cách khác); that is (to say) (ñiều ñỏ nói rủng. . ); to put it simply (ñể nói một cách.ñơn giàn rung. . . ); W hat we want to say is that. . (những gi chủng la cân nói rănịỊ. . . ); to put it in another wav ịãìùn ổựi LÙch kỉiíh rằng. . ); I mean (tôi ỷ nói rằng. .) Eg 1: Experience is a necessity to apply for this job. What we want to say is that those who have no experience should not apply for it. 123

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HƯ NG

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1 I Eg 2: Experience is a necessity to apply fbr this job. To put ừ another way;''those I who have no experience should not apply for it. 1 Eg 3: Experience is a necessity to apply for this job, that is (to say) those who 1 have no experience should not apply for it. I Eg 4: Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. What Ị want to say IS that • I love him deeply. ‘ Eg 5: Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. I mean, I love him deeply. I 14. Từ nối ñể ñưa quan ñỉểm chung và nhấn mạnh tầm quan trọng của một cái gì '1 ñó khác. I * On the Whole/By and large (informaI)/BroadIy speaking/Generally speaking/In I general (nói chung) ị * but, above aỉl (else)/íĩrst and foremost (nhimg. (rên lất cư vù ñáu liên và i trước hểí) Ị Eg 1: Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. If we ị consider everything in general terms, it was a great success. Everybody came to my. I party and enjoyed themselves very much. On the whole/By and large (informal)/ n I

Eg 2: My sister is very intelligent, blit her best attribute is that she is a hardworking girl. Eg 3: My sister is very intelligent; but, above all (else)/first and foremost, she is a hard-working girl. 15. T ừ nối ñể ñể ñưa thông tin chì tiết về cái gì ñó hay khôog ñồng ý vóì cải gì ñã ñưọc ñề cập trưóc ñó. * In (actual) fecỉ/In point of facƯAs a m atter of fact/Actualiv (spoken): thực sự là, sự ihậí ỉà. vẩn ñề cùa sự thật là........ / ío be precise (chính xác ỉà); Eg 1: The weather was bad. It 1-ained all the time to be precise. Eg 2: The weather was bad. In (actual) facĩ/ỉn point o f fact/As a mutter o f fact/Actuaily (spoken), it rained all the time. F.e 3: She tơỉñ me that he was a little bit retarded, which was not exactly true, as he was very retarded. = She told me lhai lie was a little hit retarded; but, in (actual) fact/in point o f fit a/as a mailer o f fact/'actually, he was very retarded. 13. T ừ nối ñể giới thiệu một chủ ñiểm. * In connection with (noi kef với)/ As regards/Regarding/In regard to/With regard to (xem xét tới)/As for/Apropos (of) (ve van ñề ỉiên quan tới) * In this regard/ĩn this conaection/On this score/ln this respect/ On this m atter/On this subject/As regards this, (về mặt này, về khía cạnh này, về ñiêm này, về chú ñiêm này) Eg 1: Something must be done about the drop in sales. ~ In connection with the drop in sales, something must be done about it. Eg 2: As reganỉs/Regardỉng/ỉn regard to/With regard to/As fo r / Apropos (of) the drop in sales, something must be done about it. Eg 3: As far as the drop in sales is concerned, something must be done about it. Eg 4: Ĩ have something to say about this. ~ In this regard/in this connection/On this score/in this respect/On this matter/On this subject/As reuards {his. etc. . Í have something to say.

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Broadly spcaking/Generally speaking/J 11 general, It was a great success.

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Một số từ nối khác

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Eg: We have to work hard, or/e!se/otherwise we will fail the exam. * W hereas (Trong khi- chỉ sự tw rag phán) + I clause Eg: He learns hard whereas his friends don’t. . * While (trong khi- chỉ sự việc xảy ra ñổng thời) + 1 clause Eg: Don't sing while you work. / 1 was studying while he was listening to music. * Một số liên từ chĩ thòi gian: A fter (sau khi): as = when (khi): as soon as (nea (khi); before (trước khi); till/ until (cho ñến khi) Eg: The ship was checked carefully after she had been built. I will phone you as soon as I come home * Proved that/ providing th at + 1 clause: miễn là Eg: I will lend you my laptop provided (providing) that you use it carefully.

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* Or/ Else/ Otherwise (kẻo không thì) +1 clause

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B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the best answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the sentences below. . 1. I can't ride my bicycle______ there isn't any air in one of the tires' A. despite B. because c . although D. but ■■ 2. Í got to class on time_______ I had missed by bus. A. even though B. nevertheless c . because D. despite : 3. Brian Used to been active person, but now he has to limit his activities_____ . problem with his health. I A- nevertheless B. because of c . although D. in spite of I 4. It should be easy for Bod tó find more time to spend with his children_______ Ỉ no longer has to work in the evenings and on weekends. A. even though B now that c . due to D. but I 5. Jake is a very good student of languages. His brother M i c h a e l _______ h; never been able to master another language. A. therefore B. even though c . whereas D. on the other banc Ị. 6. The ancient Aztecs of Mexico had no technology for making tools from mcu Í ____, they had sharp knives and spears made from a stone called obsidian. I'. A. Whereas B. Although c . Nevertheless ð. Despite I 7. Roberts missed the meeting without a good reason. She had been told that it w critical that she be there. I couldn’t want to be in her shoes at work tomorrow. • . A. despite B. despite the fact that I C- even D. however ? 8. Ĩ usually enjoy attending amateur productions in small community theaters. T1 play we attended last night, _was so bad that 1 wanted to leave alter t] first act. A. therefore B. however c . whereas D. even though 9. Some snakes are poisonous,_____________________ other are harmless. A. but B. so c . for D. despite 10. Most 15th century Europeans believed that the world was flat and that a sh could conceivably sail off the end of the earth many sailors of tl time refused to venture forth with explorers into unknown waters.

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A. due to the fact that B. Nevertheless c . Therefore D. Whereas the salary meets my expectations, I will accept the job offer. A. Due to B. Even if c . Provide that D. Unless To power their inventions, people have made use of natural energy sources; ________ coal, oil, water, and steam. A. in addition to B. as c . and they use D. such as _________ excellent art museums, Moscow has a world-famous ballet company. " A. Because of B. In spite of c . In case of D. In addition to It is still a good idea to know how to ty p e .________ the many technologyca advances in typewriters and word processors, a skilled operator remains indispensable. A. Because o f B. In spite of c . In case of D. In addition to Even though a duck may live on water, it stays dry__________ the oil on its feathers.. The oil prevents the water from soaking through the feathers an' reaching its skin, A. due to B. besides c . in spite of D. in event of A!Eg cannot express himself clearly and correctly in writing. He will never; advance in his job______ he improves his language skills. A. otherwise B. if c . only if D. unless _______there was no electricity, I was able to read because Ỉ had a candle. A. Unless B. Even though c . Even D. Only if A fire must have a readily available supply of oxygen______ , it will stop! burning A. Consequently B. Furthermore c . Otherwise D. However Ĩ studied Spanish for your years in high school_____, I had trouble taking with! people when I was traveling in Spain. A. Therefore B. On the other hand c . Moreover D. Nevertheless I'm sorry you'vedecided not to go with us on the river trip, b u t________ youchange your mind, there will still be enough room on the boat for you. A. even • B. nevertheless c . in the even that D: provided that [ like to keep the windows open at night no matter how cold it gets. My wife,!. _______prefers a warm bedroom with all windows rightly shut. .( A. nevertheless B. consequently c . on the other hand D. moreover I Some fish can survive only in salt w ater,_____ other species can live only in fresh water. A. whereas B. unless c . if D. since ____ Jason became famous, he has ignored his old friends. He shouldn’t do that. if B. Ever since Even though D. Due to We’re going to lose this game________ the team doesn't start playing better soon. A. if . B. unless c. although D. whereas

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My two children are cooking dinner for the family for the first time tonight ________ the food is terrible, I’m going to enjoy this meal very much. It will be fun to have them cook for me a change. A. Only if B. if c . Even if D. Provided that Jack insisted that he didn't need any help,_______ I helped him anyway. A. and B. so c . besides D. but Florida is famous for its tourist attractions. Its coastline offers excellent white sand beaches_________ it has warm, sunny weather. A. Otherwise B. Furthermore c . Nevertheless D. On the other hand The flowers will soon start to bloom_______ winter is gone and the weather is beginning to get warmer. A. event if B. agree I c . I agree ð. I will agree Only if you promise to study hard_________ to tutor you. A. will Ỉ agree B. agree I c . I agree D. I will agree Camels have either one hump or two humps, the Arabian camel has one hump. A. nevertheless B. however c . furthermore D. otherwise Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in brackets. 1. He is too short to be a basketball player, (because)

ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

|25. I I I- " |26. I |27. I I |28. I I | 29: ; ' 30.

B

TR

2. Although I approve of parties, I can’t let you give one tonight, (much as)

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3. As you have not performed your duties,- you will be expelled from the club, (consequently)

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4. ‘However fast I ran, I was always in the same place,’ she dreamt, (although)

CẤ

5: His father has died, so he is crying his heart out. (owing to)

A

6. These are the rules, but there are exceptions, (nevertheless)

-L

Í-

7. I neither love you nor I want to see you again, (w hat’s more)

TO ÁN

8. Majorca is a paradise for tourists; this is the consequence of its popularity, (hence)

NG

9. The cause of his death was a heart attack, (due to)

ƯỠ

10. As our business is going from bad to worse, we will have to close down, (as a result)

BỒ

ID

11. Many people are dying from lack o f food everyday in the Third World, (on account of) 12. We will have to work hard at it because time is pressing on. (so) 127

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13. No matter how much you hate them, you will have to live with them, (even if)

NH ƠN

14. We will have to take strict measures, since the unemployment rate has increased, (thus)

TP

16. The lack o f discipline was the reason they lost the battle, (through)

.Q UY

15. You have failed all your exams, so we will not buy you the bike we promised, (since)

ĐẠ O

17. Even though he was happy, he felt lonely at times, (happy though)

HƯ NG

18. In spite o f being clever with his hands, he couldn’t fix it. (clever as) 19. The padlock I bought was not big enough for the gate, (but)

ẦN

20. He could not live without her, so he consented to all her wishes, (for)

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21. We have considered your proposal thouroughly, but we are afraid to tell you that we cannot assent to it. (however)

10

22. We were in a hurry, so we didn’t wait for them, (the reason)

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23. Nobody dared to dissent from the decision of the prime minister, but she did. (all the same)

A

24. If it hadn’t been for her, I would have drowned, (thanks to)

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Í-

25. Although she had told him that she would always be true to him, she wasn’t, (in spite of)

TO ÁN

26. It was snowing heavily, but they went on climbing, (despite) 27. Despite being caught driving dangerously, he was not fined, (all the same)

NG

28. I know you don’t love me; but, even so, I’ll many you. (eveo though)

ID

ƯỠ

29. As-well as being well-trained for the post, she is beautiful, (in addition to)

BỒ

30. These fairy cakes are not only homemade, but they also have the best-quality ingredients, (besides)

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Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in brackets. ; 1. You will have to carry, for example, a hundred pounds. (let’s say)

3. You should attend to your guests. Don’t forget you’re the hostess, (after all)

ĐẠ O

TP

\A. Consequently, we can reach the conclusion that something must be done to put an I end to violence on the streets and drug trafficking, (summning up)

.Q UY

2. If we don’t take into account the people next door, everybody in the neighbourhood is lovely, (except for)

HƯ NG

5. As well as being a very good íĩuitarist, he also sings beautifully, (apart from)

• 6. They lost all their money in a shady business. But this is not all. they took a loan out of the bank and lost it as w dl (not to mention)

TR

She likes many romantic poets. For instance, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Byron and keats. (like)

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8.

ẦN

7. I reckon you should put your cards on the table, (the way I see it)

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9. You're the only person that can make me happy, (except)

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no. They had little confidence in him, so they abandoned him to his fate, (for) ________________-__________ -___________________________________________________________ -____________

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1=11. They couldn’t*reach the peak because it had snowed heavily, (as a result of)

A

12. The country’s economy is becoming better and better. For example, inflation is stabilising now. (a case in point)

-L

Í-

|l3. There is no necessity to mention that all applicants must identify themselves Ị before the interview, (needless to say)

TO ÁN

p4. For my part, I found his remarks unnecessary, (personally)

NG

|'15. Time is short, so we’ll have to hurry, (since)

ƯỠ

|16. We’ll grant you a favour because your days are numbered, (which is whv) &/•

ID

in . Therefore, we can draw the following conclusion: we made a substantial profit last

BỒ

; year, (in conclusion) V - ______________________________________________________________________________________ __ |t8. I thmk you shouldn’t argue with them about politics, (to my way OÍ thinking}

t

________________________________________________________________

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19. If I can’t carry my belongings, how do you expect me to carry yours? (let alonejf

NH ƠN

20. Money is what makes the world go round. What I want to say is that the me money you have, the more powerful you become, (that is to say)

.Q UY

21. Hatred creates even more haired. What I want to say is that the more you há: somebody, the more they win hate you. (to put it another way) IS

that hej

TP

22. He is the most important person in this company. What I want to say the boss, (that is)

ĐẠ O

23. If we consider military service in general terms, it is a waste of time and mone| (on the whole)

—___ _______________________

HƯ NG

1

24. I don’t mind what time you arrive home. The most important thing is that yeg arrive safe and sound, (above all)

----------------

TR

ẦN

25. He has presented several television shows; but, most importantly, he is i journalist, (first and foremost) J —I may be divided intofour main parts!

--------------- ---------------- ---------~ ------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------

terms,this play

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26. If we speak ingenera] (broadly speaking)

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- —------------------------------------------------------------------ — --------- ---- ---------- ề 27. If we talk generally,Eivissa is oneof the best holiday spots in the world,(by and ỉargệỊ Ậ

CẤ

28. She told me that the grammar exercises were as easy as falling off a log; but it was untrue, since I found them very difficult, (as a m atter of fact)

A

29. The weather forecaster said that today would be quite hot, but it is quite chilly, (in fact);

________

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ID

ƯỠ

NG

TO ÁN

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30. I don’t want to see them any more. The truth is that I hate them, {in actual fact) .1 ị —------ ------------------------------------------ ---- ------- ---------------------------------------1 31. They said that they had done all the work, but the truth of the matter is that thej had done nothing, (in point of fact)

32. She told me that she was as poor as a church mouse, which was not true, as shẹ| was loaded, (actually) 33. With reference to your application for the job as a sales representative, we are glads to inform you that it will be offered to you. (regarding) 34. Concerning your brother, he is the most qualified person for the post, (in regard to)

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..In connection with air pollution, the government should take stronger measures to combat it. (as for) .

NH ƠN

- In connection to what he stated yesterday, we consider it the most appropriate V alternative, (apropos)

.Q UY

. The government should act at once about the decline in the counfry’s exports, (as ■ far as)

ĐẠ O

TP

Taking everything into account, we must do something to stop burglars, (in a nutshell)

HƯ NG

'..W e want you to write to us regularly; but, most importanily, don't foigci 10 J telephone us. (above all else)

ẦN

..... Firstly, it rained heavily that weekend. Secondly, Í felt unwell most of the time, f (on the one hand, on the other)

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KIÉN THỨC C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO

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PHÀN 11: TÍNH TỪ (ADJECTIVE), TRẠNG TỪ (ADVERB) VÀ CÁC CÁCH SO SÁNH.

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■ Tính từ và vị trí của tính từ trong câu: Tính từ ỉả từ chỉ tính chất, mức ñộ, phạm vi,- . . của một người hoặc vật. Nó bô Ighĩa cho danh từ, ñại từ hoặc liên từ (linking verb). 'v - Tính từ luôn ñứng trưóc danh từ ñược bổ nghĩa: That is her old brown hat. ỉ;Xính từ ñứng sau các ñại từ phiếm chi (something, anything, anybody... ) \ . Thai’s someone strange to me/ r d like to eat something spicy Tính từ ñứng sau linking verb như: ; be remain stay feel look become * appear sound taste turn smell seem

-L

£ Eg: Jack appears tired. / T his food tastes salty.

-

-

a sh o r t f a t OỈCỈ m an

a big square dining room

ƯỠ

NG

TO ÁN

k'. Nểu trong một cụm từ có nhiều tính từ cùng bổ nghĩa cho một danh từ thì thử tự các tính từ sẽ nlur sau: tính từ sở hữu hoặc mạo từ, opinion, size, shape, age, color, •origin, m aterial, purpose. Eg: - ,ạ tall young blonde Italian ladý

BỒ

ID

Chú ỷ: * Daiih từ dùng làm tinh từ Trong tiếng Anh có nhiều trưòng hợp một ñanh từ ñứng trước một danh từ khác làm nhiệm vụ của một tính từ (a wool coat, a gold watch, a history teacher). Các liên ìcết sổ ñếm - danh từ (number-noun) luôn ñược ngãn cách bời ñâu gạch nôi: Eg:We had a five-week holiday. / These are ten kilo bags. Ì3Ì

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TP

.Q UY

NH ƠN

* Phân từ ñược dùng như tính từ: Chúng ta có hai loại phân từ (Participles): ị - Hiện tại phân từ (present participles): V-ing mang ý chù ñộng, tích cực. ịị - Ọuá khứ phân từ (past participles) V-ed/ v 3 thường mang ý bị ñộng. I EG: - frightening news (tin tức ñáng sợ, tin gây sợ hãi) # frightened people:những I người bị sợ hãi ' Ị - boiling water (n ư ớ c ñ an g sõi) # b o iled w a ter (m rớc ñ ã ñun s ô i) ì - polluting waste (chất thải sảy ô nhiễm) # polluted water (nước bĩ ônhiễm) -ị 2.Trạng từ (Phó từ) và vị trí của trạng từ J - T:rạng từ (Phó từ) bổ nghĩa cho ñộng từ, cho một tính từ hoặc cho một phó tù khác. I - Thôiìíi thường, các tính từ mò tả có thể biến ñôi thành phó từ bang cách thèm I He is u careful driver. He alw ays drives ca rc iuilv .

I

ĐẠ O

ñuôi -ly vào tinh lừ:

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HƯ NG

* Một sổ tính từ chuyển sang trạng từ theo cách riêng: good =>well; hard =>hard; fast => fast; late =>late (soon/ early/íầir/higb) * Môt số tỉnh từ cũng có tận cùng tà ñuôi ty (lovely, friendlv/!ivelv) nên ñề thay thế I cho phó từ cùa các tính từ nảy, người ta dùng: in a + Adj + way/ manner ệ. He is a friendly man. He behaved me in a friendly wav. ■I * Một số írạng từ có ñuôi 4Iy’ nhưng nghĩa khác hãn: - Hardly = hardly any time/ almost no time/ never. Eg: She hardly passed her examinations. - Fairly. Eg: Fairly, she doesn’t love him but she loves his money. - Lately. Eg: She hasn’t seen him lately # she often comes to class late. - Nearly = almost. Eg: She nearly dropped ail plates # the truck came quite near me. - Highly = very. Eg: I highly appreciate your help. # The ballon didn't go very high - Mostly =mainiy/usuaNy. Eg: we mostly travel by train # What Í hate most is ĩeỉling lies

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3. Các cách so sánh 3.1. So sánh ngang bang_________________________________ s + V + as + {adj/ adv} + as + {noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliary verb) I Eg: She is as intelligent as her mother. / He works as last as his ialher does. 3. 2. So sánh không ngang bang____________________________________ s + V + not so/as + {adị/ adv} + as + {noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliary verb) j Eg: Lan is not as fat as her mother. /He didn’t come.as late as we (do). 3. 3. So sánh kém hon s + V + less + {adị/ adv} + than + noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliary verb) Eg: She is less carefull than her brother. / She drives less carefully than her| husband (does) 3 .4. So sánh hon / s + V + { short- adj/ adv} + er + than + noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliary verb) I s + v + more {long- ad ị/ adv} + than + noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliary’ verb) Eg: Today is wanner than yesterday. /This apartment IS more expensive than others. Her brother studies harder than she (does) / He speaks English more fluently than? I (do). _ ’ . 1 Chú v: Short adjective/ adverbs là nhữnii từ một âm tiết hoặc tử tận cùng bangj y/o\v/ le (pretty/ easy/ early/ ỉĩcntle/ slow/. . . ): ĩ.ong adjective / adverbs lủ nhtìnu tịj| hai âm tiẻt trở lên hoặc từ tận cùng bâng: ing/ ed I

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S0 sảtính n h ’ ctừ h úvà n gtrạng ta th êtừ m :sof asảnh r / m u c h / a ỉo t/ (nhiều); a bit/ little/ slightly (một it)f ựtrước EG: She is getting much fatter. / It is becoming darker and darker 3’ 5. So sánh bâc nhắt (từ 3 ñổi tưong trơ lềnì______ — ^ —táp { short- adj/ adv} + est {in {in + + N(sinwular N(singular count noun)} Ị _s + V + the most { long- adị/ adv {of + N (plural c {of + N (plural count noun)} s + V + í he least + añj/ adv} +

TP

11 ",e _ ire ta y —, th e family-7 These shoes are the least expensive 0 â ỉự S au cụnvtừ One o f the + so sánh bậc nhát + noun (sổ nhieu), và ñọng từ phải chi ơ so It. Eg: One of the greatest tennis players in the world is Johnson. / '

Tính từ So sánh So sánh nhất Tính từ Hoặc trạng tù hon/ kém hoặc trang từ Far

good well

better

Best

Old

bad badly

w orse

W orst

little few

farthest furthest oldest eldest leasi fewest

,j« r tu e r uu n g c n o tnonư Un hoặc cãc trướm

^ ........ . “ “ “ 6

B

\

farther further older elder less fewer

HƯ NG

M ost

So sánh nhất

ẦN

more

So sánh hon/ kém

TR

much many

ĐẠ O

So sá nh củ a cá c tín h fir vả n h n tìv itĂn

NH ƠN

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.Q UY

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00

hợp trim tượng khác.

CẤ

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- Elder dùng cho anh em trong gia/ older dùng cho các trường hợp khác. 3. ó. Phép so sánh không họp lý - Sỏ’ hữu- cách: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor’s / rtnefnirtnr-c -----------' ' instructor’s drawings) - Dùng that of thay thế cho danh từ số ít:

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of a rich man is more comfortable than that of a poor man / (that of = the life of) - Dùng those of thay cho các ñanh từ số nhiều: The books of Mr. Nam’s bookshop are cheaper than those o f Mrs Ĩ an'c / ftW ,’ = the books of) •

NG

TO ÁN

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3 .7. So sánh bột số lả so sánh: bans nữa, (half), gấp ñôi (twice), gấp ba (three times),. + V V+ + num niim K or m m iiltỉnln J. »much/ ,...1 .1 _____ . 1 .+ as + noun/ pronoun 1I ss + ber ultiple + A asC + many1+/ ____ (noun) im ha a lf aass manv manv CDs Inow 1 AU/ as II Vi-!/) ... .1 Nam hass hhalf had last year. / Minh ate three times as much food as Lan. ----------3.8. So sánh kép:Lả loại so sánh với cấu trúc: Càng càng

s+V

ƯỠ

The + comparative + s + V + the + comparative +

-c ^Qtt—i* is’ the more miserable I feel. I The bigger they are, the faster they iaJJ

ID

The more + s + V + the + comparative + s + V

BỒ

i Themore you study, the smarter you will become. /(Càng học, anil cans thôn" minh hon) ị 3.9 So sánh hon kém không dòng than (giữa 2 ñối tượng); Trong câu thương có cụm ị từ or the two + noun, nó có thê ñứng ñầu hoặc cuối câu.

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3

NH ƠN

Harvey' is the smarter o f the two bovs. /Of the two shirts, this one is the prettier! *‘ịr» _t_^give ____________ n _^‐1 __ 1 this one . _ is * *77 :ị Pẹalse me the smaller of____________ the two cakes. /O f ^the two- 1books, the more interesting. MỊỘt số cẩu trúc so sánh khác * Khi so sánh bằng danh từ, sử ñụng cấu trúc sau:

s + V + the same + (noun) + as + {noun/ pronoun} s + V + such (a/an) + (noun) + as + {noun/ pronoun}

.Q UY

I

}

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

EỌ: My house is the same height as his (house). / I’ve never seen such a nicegirl as her. j * to differ from / different from {noun/ pronoun}. EG: Their teacher differs (is different) from ours. .j * to be sim ilar to {noun/ pronoun} Eg: Their ideas are similar to mine (my ideas). I * to be like/ to look like/ to sound like/ to taste like + noun/. . . Eg: This sounds likẹl a i^reat success. * ủ) be alike: Eg: Their ideas are alike

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B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN 'ị Exercise 1: Put the ajectives in the brakets into the correct order to have a ; meaningful noun phrases. 1 . a (rectangular, cream, m odem )____________________ bathroom 2 . (silken, pretty, long)____________________ hair 3 . a (dreadful, pink, old)______________________chinawear 4. a (processing, nev/, central, tiny)________ ■ ________ unit 5 . a (tired, local, camera)____________________ crew 6 . (vast green, beautiful)______________ ■ _____ plains 7. a (vegetable, large, Greek)_____________________ trailer 8. a (middle-aged, good-looking, black, pop) '___________ ■ . star 9. a (traffic, tw o -h o u r)______ _________________jam

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10. a (dangerous, New York, gloomy) ___________________ alleyway 11. a(n) (brand-new, sports, mustard, American)____________________ car 1 2 . a-(fantastic, delightful)______________________evening 13. You look very (pretty, elegant)____________________ on that dress. 14. a (toilet, hoưible, lilac) ___________ _________ bag. 15. a(n) (enormous, sky-blue, round)____________________ spaceship 16. the (wonderful, colourful)____________________ scenery 17. a(n) (old, breakdown, red, white)______________________truck 18. a (leather, brown, pretty, turquoise)______ ____ '________ handbag 19. a(n) (long-distance, obstacle)_____________________ course 20 . a (country, magnificent)_____________________ house 2 1. a (tangerine, silk, lime, dreadful)_____________________ shirt 22. a pair of (Catalan, expensive)_____ ________ ;______ mocassins 23. a(n) (ice, peach, m odem )_________ ___________ bucket 24. a(n) (Chinese, blue, dining, oval) ___________________ table 25. a pair of (cheaps football, black, yellow)____________________ hoots 134

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Exercise 2: Choose the correct form of the participles used as adjectives in the I following sentences 1. Compassionate friends fried to console the (crying/cried) victims of the accident. |. When James noticed the (burning / burnt) building, he notified the fire ị department immediately. The {exciting/ excited) passengers jum ped into the lifeboats when Notified that the ship was sinking.

B

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ẦN

HƯ NG

ĐẠ O

TP

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4. The (smiling/ smiled) Moná Lisa is on dispiay in the Louvre in Paris. ■5. The wind made such (frightening / frightened) noises that the children ran to their parents’ room. 6. The (frightening/frightened) hostages only wanted to be left alone. ệ. We saw the (advancing / advanced) army from across the town. 8. Mrs. Harris’s (approving / approved) smile let US know that our speeches were well done. p. Our representative presented the {approving / approved) pian to the public. ■10. The (blowing/ blown) wind of the hurricane damaged the waterfront property. | l . We were going to see the movie at the Theater, but our friends told us it was a i (boring / bored) movie. 12. Mary’s (cleaning / cleaned) service comes every Wednesday. |3. The (cleaning/ cleaned) shoes were placed in the sun to dry. |'4. We found it difficult to get through the (closing / cỉosed) door without a key.

00

j!5. As w e entered the (crowding/croM'iied) room, I noticed my coitbin.

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ri6. Dr. Jameson toid my brother to elevate his (aching/achecf) foot. i'7. Ỉ was {disappointing/ disappointed) with tile film. I had expected il to be better. 18. The {breaking/ broken) dishes lay on the floor. :19. The {trembling/ trembled) children were given a blanket for warmth. ■20. The {interesting / interested) tennis match caused a great deal of excitement. Exercise 3: Choose the right word, adjective or adverb. 1 . The floor looks clean/cleanly. 2. The plane landed safe/ safely on the runway. 13. The man looked honest/ honestly, but he wasn't. 4. Jane iooked at her book thoughtful/ thoughtfully before she answered the teacher's question. 5. A rose smells good/, well. 6. Beth spoke confiảẻnt/ confidently when she delivered her speech. 7. Most o f the students did good/ well on their tests. ' 8. He spoke ciỉỉgry/ angrily ■9. He seemed very angry/ angrily. 10. The teacher taught us very careful/ carefully. Exercise 4: Write the comparative/ superlative of aw ord from the box for each blank. beautifully hard

1. If we don't walk

early late

fa st . peacefully

fluently sensitively

, we'll never arrive on time.

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I. She sings_________________than any one else I've ever heard. 3. Andy's the most intelligent, but Sue works_______ 4. Eight is late “ could you possibly get here any _______ 5. O f all the children, Helen writes_______ 6 . I would sleep_________________ if I weren't worried about Tom. 7. For the 10. 20 train,_______________ we can leave home is 10. 8. Mark speaks French________________ of all the boys in his class. Exercise 5: M ake sentences like the one in the example Example. He drives fast, he gets nervous. ~ The faster he drives, the more nervous he gets; and the more nervous he gets, the faster he drives. 1. He eats ice-cream; he gets fat. (The more ice cream.............) 2. He reads, he forgets.

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3. She ignores him; he loves her.

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4. She buys shoes; she wants shoes.

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5. We spend money; we have friends.

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6 . I sleep; I’m tired.

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Exercise 6: Complete each sentence by choosing the most suitable word or phrase 1. I really think that apologizing is __________ you can do. A. no as much as B. a little c . the least D. as far as 2. I can’t stand this weather. It’s getting_____ A. more and more B. worse and worse c . coldest and coldest D. further and further

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3. A lth o u g h B rend a ca m e last, e v er y o n e a ureed she had __ ____________her hc.sL

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A. done B. made c. had D. got I wish Charles worked as hard as M ary____ A. did B. can C-.will D. does The more you water this plant, the ■ __________ it will grow. A. best B. tall c . wetter D. faster From now on, we won’t be able to go out as much as w e____ A. were B. had c . used to D. will I’ve never ow ned_____________ independent cat as this one. A. a more than B. such an c . a so D. as much an Brian has been working since he was promoted. A. much harder B. as harder c . just as hardly D. more hardly I've been feeling_________ tired latdy, doctor. A. such a B. the most c . more and more D. much

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8.

9.

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À. farther B. much more c. as better D, a lot Exercise 7: Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so th at the meaning sti the same. 1. . That's the best meal I ’ve ever eaten: I’ve never eaten _________________________________ _________________ 2. Fish and meat are the same price in some countries. Fish costs ___________ _________________________;______ ___________ _ 3. I’ve never enjoyed myself so much. I’ve never h ad ____________ ________________________________________ 4. ĩf you run a lot, you will get fitter. The more 5. The doctor can’t see you earlier than Wednesday I’m afraid. Wednesday i s ____________________________________________________ 6 . I must have a rest. I can’t walk any more. I must have a rest. I can’t go _____________________ ______________ ____ 7. Home computers used to be much more expensive. Home computers aren’t ___________ ___________________ _____________ 8. I don’t know as much Italian as Sue does. Sue knows _______ ____________ ___________________________________ 9. I thought that learning to .drive would be difficult, but it isn’t. Learning to drive is ■ __________________________________________ 10. Barbara can skate just as well as John can. John isn’t ________________________________________________________ 11. Jill can run faster than Peter. P e te r________________________________ 12. I thought this journey would last longer than It did. This journey didn’t _______________________________________________ 13. I didn’t arrive as early as I expected. I a rriv e d _________________________________________________ _ ■14. You are working too slowly. You’ll have to _____________ •______ ____________ .___________________ 15. I have a brother who is older than me. I have an ___________________ ________________ ______________ ._____ 16. Martin thought the second part o f the film was more interesting. Martin didn’t think the f ir s t_________________________________________ 17. Paula’s work is less careful than Peter’s. Paula has been working Ì8. There aren’t any trains earlier than this one. This i s ___________ ______________________________________________ _ 9. All other pubs are further away. ■ This p u b ________________

NH ƠN

win give you ___________ practice.

TP

10 .This exercise

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20. Is this the best price you can offer? Can’t you ____ _______________

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Exercise 8. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word given in capitals. 1. Your car was cheaper than mine. COST 2. I’m not as good at maths as you are. BETTER 3. Keith is slightly taller than Nigel. LITTLE 4. Bill was growing angrier all the time. AND 5. Sally tried as hard as she could. BEST 6. I thought this film would be better. AS I 7. This is the bumpiest road I’ve ever driven along. SUCH 8. When you eat a lot, you get fat. MORE 9. George said he couldn’t do any better. COULD 10. This year’s exam and last year’s exam were equally difficult. JUST -------------- .--------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------1ijj

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PHẦN 12: CẤU TRÚC ðỘNG TỪ: VERB STRUCTURES

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A. KIỀN THỨC C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO . 1 Trong Tiếng Anh, ñộng từ ñi với ñộng từ phải theo một công thứcnào ñó, hay nổi| cách khác ñộng từ theo sau ñộng từ chính sẽ ở dạng nguyên thể có ‘to’ (to-mfiniíivẹ),| nguyên thể không ‘to’ (bare infinitive) nguyên thể tiếp diễn (to be V-ìng), nguyên thểl hoàn thành (to Have doneHiay dạng hiện tại phân từ (V-ing), quá khứ phân từ (having! done). Sau ñây ià một số cấu trúc ñộng từ. 'ị ĩ. Form 1: s + VI + V2 (Bare Infinitive)_______ 1 Vỉ = can / could / will / would / shall / should / may / might / must / need (aux) fi had better / would ra th e r................ Eg: You should stop smoking/ I can use computer very well/ I would rather/rd rather stay at home. * let / have (have got)/ make............ .. + Object + Verb (Bare Infinitive) Eg: My father doesn’t let me ride motorbike. / Hẹ has someone clean his car. 2. Form 2: S-+V1 + V2 (To-Infinitive)

138

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■s

+ V + to / in Oder to / so as to /-ĩn íìn itìv e I

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VI = decide Ỉ want / h o p e/ promise / agree/plan / manage / refuse / threaten / learn 1 jail / tend / intend / arrange / aim / attempt / afford / offer / would like / would love / rwould prefer / desire / expect/ prepare / seem ,............. Eg: We have decided to take this exam. / We promise to study well. 3. Form 3: I; s + VI + Object + V2 (To-Infinitive)________j m = want / get / ask / invite / advise / expect / tell / remind / force / enable / ■;encourage / warn / persuade / allow / permit / íeac/ỉ / instruct / forbid / recommend i iorder/ urge / prepare,. . .. ; Eg: She invited me to go to her party. / She asked me to give this dictionary to you. 4, Form 4: s + VI + Adjective + V (To-Jníĩnitỉve)____________ ; Adjs = anxious / boring / eager / easy / pleased / usual / prepared / common / . dangerous / good / ready / difficult / hard / strange / able / possible / unable Ĩ . impossible...................................... tEg: It’s boring to stay at home all day/ he is eager to learn English/ It is dangerous to [ drive too fast. \_5. Form 5: ________________________________________ _______

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I (dùng diễn tà mục ñích lảm gi) • __ Ị |Eg: I go to school to ỉeam / i n order to learn / so as tơ ỉearn. ___________________ _____ , 6. Form 6: ■ Ị; I s + VI + V2 (V-iDg) __________________ ;,V1= enjoy / mind / finish / hate / give up / quit / practice / risk / delay / pul ojj / keep / ịkeep on / carry on / imagine / avoid / consider / allow / permit / advise / fancy / %postpone / detest / fo rbid / encourage / suggest / recommend / deny / admit / miss /

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[report / appreciate / recaỉ��� Ỉ , . . . ; Eg: Do you enjoy playing soccer?/ He admitted having stolen money from his friends ; M ột số ñộng từ m à ngữ nghĩa của chúng sẽ ñỗi khác hoàn toàn khi tân ngữ [ sau nó là một ñộng từ nguyên thê hoặc verb-ing. í * Stop to do smt: dừng lại ñể làm gì I Eg: He stoped to talk to me = Anh ta ñừng lại ñể nói chuyện với tôi. Stop doing smt: dừng làm việc gì ị; Eg: He stoped talking to me and went out = Anh ta ngừng nói với tõi và bỏ ra ngoài. Ề* Remember to do smt: Nhớ sẽ phải làm gi [■ £g: Remember to lock the door before going out. = Hãy nhớ khoả cửa trước khi \ ñi ra ngoài nhé! : # Remember doing smt: Nhớ tà ñã làm gì ị Eg: I remember locking the door before leaving, but now 1 can’t find the key. ðặc biệt nó thường ñược dùng với mâu câu: s + still remember + V-ing: Vân còn ị nhớ là ñ ã ... Ị: Eg: ĩ still remember meeting him at Jenny’s house. * Forget to do smt: quên sẽ phải làm gì

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Eg: I forgot to buy some butter so we don’t have any butter now. = Tôi quên không mua ít bơ. # Forget doing smt: (quên ỉà ñã làm gì). ðặc biệt I1Ó thường ñược dùng với mẫu cảu s will never forget + V-ing: sẽ không bao giờ quên ñược là ñã. .. Eg: She will never forget meeting her boyfriend at the first time. Cô ay sẽ không bao giờ quên lần ñầu tiên gặp bạn trai cùa mình. * Regret to do smt: Lấy lảm tiếc vì phải làm gi (thường dùng khi báo tin xấu) Eg: We regret to inform the passengers that the flight for Hanoi was canceled because of the bad weather. # Regret doing smt: Lấy làm tiếc vì ñã làm gì Eg: He regrets getting married at very young age. It's the biggest mistake in his life. Một,số các ñộng từ ñặc biệt khảc: ðó íà những ñộng tù' 6‘ trong các mẫu câu khác nhau sẽ có ý nghĩa khác nhau. * agree to do smt: ñồng ỷ làm gì: .Eg: He agreed to leave early tomorrow morning. # agree to one’s doing smt: ñồng ý với việc ai làm gì. : Eg: He agreed to my leaving early tomorrow morning. * Mean to do smt: có ý ñịnh làm gì. : Eg: I mean to get to the top of the hill before sunrise. # If it + mean + verb-ing: cho dù cả việc, bao hàm cả việc làm gì. Eg: I was determined to study overseas if it meant learning English w ell.. * Propose to do smt: có ỷ ñịnh làm g ì.: Eg: I propose to work for that company. # Propose doing smt: ðề nghị làm gi: Eg: I propose waiting till the boss comes back. / * Go on doing smt/smt: tiếp tục iàm gì, cái gì (một việc ñang bị bỏ dở): Eg: He went on writing after a break # Go on tờ do smt: Quay sang tiếp tục làm gì (vẫn về cùng một vấn ñề nhưng chu>cn :; sang khía cạnh khác) ị

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Eg; He show ed the picture o f his family then w ent qn to tell about his family. ]

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* Try to do smt. cổ gắng làm gì: Eg: He tried to solve his own financial problems. # Try doing smt: Thử làm gì: Eg: Ỉ try eating this strange kind of food. ðộng từ ñứng sau giói từ: Tất cả các ñộng từ ñứng ngay sau giới từ ñều phải ở' dạng V-ing. Sau ñây là bảng các ñộng từ có giới từ theo sau. vì vậy các ñộng từ khác ñi sam ñộng từ nảý phải dùng ờ dạng verb-ing. Verb + prepositions + V-ing worry abount give up rely on approve o f object to succeed in insist ơn be better o f look forward to think about count on keep on think o f depend on put o f f confess to intent on capable o f accustomed to successful in tired o f afraid o f interested in fond o f 140

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• Be busy with 1 have difficulty spend (time/money) waste time/money on St/doing St 1 (in) doinsi St í :_ Eg: I look forward to seeing you soon. / She is surprised at getting a prize. I have some difficulities (in) working here. / She spends a lot of money O) clothes/ buyine clothes M y father gave UP smoking because of his doctor’s advice. My sister is thinking of going to France next year. Noun + preposition + verb-ing intention o f method fo r

pọssibứitỳ o f reason fo r

(method of)

ĐẠ O

choice o f excuse fo r

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eager easy good strange

pleased prepared ready able

usual common difficult

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anxious boring dangerous hard

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EgLThere IS no reason tor .staving here. /Lan has no ifttefltipfl.of breaking .your, camera. ðộng từ ñi sau tính từ: Nói chung, nếu ñông từ ñi ngay sau tín h tìr (không C' giói từ) thì ñưọc ñùng ờ dạng nguyên thê. Những tính từ ñó bao gôm.

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I Eg: It is dangerous to drive so fast in this busy street. / Minh isanxious to see his bos I We are ready to go now. / It is difficult to pass this test. I Chú ý: able và capable có nghĩa như nhau nhưng cách dùng khác nhau:(able/ unable I to do smt = (capable/ incapable) of doing smt. I *> Trưòng họp tân ngữ là V-ing |. Trong trương hợp tân ngữ là một V- ing thì ñại từ/daiih từ phải ờ dạng sở hữu.

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I Subject + verb + {pronoun/ noun}(possessive form) + verb-ing. . I' Ễ I ; Eg: We understand your not being able to come to my party. / W e object to their picking UP flowers in the park.

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I M ột số cấu trúc ñộng từ theo sau nó là nguyên thể hoàn thành và phân ti I hoàn thành. I * Dùng vói một số ñộng từ: to appear, to seem, to happen, to pretend Nên nhớ rằng hành ñộng C-ủa nguyên mau hoàn thành xảy ra trước hành ñộng cù; ị mệnh ñề chính. I .. Eg: He seems to have passed the exam = It se/ms that he has passed the exam. I She pretended to have read the material - She pretended that she had read' the material. I * Dùng vói sorry, to be sorry + to have + P2: Hành ñộiìg cùa nguyên mẫu hoãn than! I xảy ra trước trạng thái sorry. Eg: The girls were sorry to have missed the Rock Concert f:(The girls were sorry that they had missed the Rock Concert.)

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Ị * Dùng vói một so các ñộng từ sau ñây ỏ‘ thể bị ñộng: to aekowiedge. believe ì‘ consider, find, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand. Hành ñộng cua nguyêr È;mau hoàn thành xảy ra trước hành ñộng của mềnh ñề chính.

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Eg: He was believed to have gone out of the country. (It was believed that he had gone out of the country.)

* Dùng vợi một so các ñộng từ khác như to claimy expect, hoper promise. ðặc biệt

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lưu ý răng hành ñộng của nguyên mâu hoàn thành sẽ ở future perfect so vợi thời của ñộng từ ờ mệnh ñê chính. Eg: He expects to have graduated by June. (He expects that he win have graduated by June.) He promised to have told me the secret by the end of this week. (He promised that he would have told me the secret by the end of this w eek.) * Cách sử dụng to get trong một số trưòng hợp * To get + P2: get washed/ dressed/prepared/lost/drowned/ engaged/ married/divorced. Chi việc chủ ngữ tự làm lấy một việc gì hoặc tình huống mà chù ngữ ñang .gặp phải. (Chú ý: không ñược ỉẫn trường họp này vói dạng bị ñộng-) Eg: She is very sad because she has just got divorced. My son got lo st in the m arket yesterday.

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* Get + V-ing = S tart + V-ing: Bắt ñầu làm gì Eg: We’d.better get moving, it's late. * Get sb/smt +V-ing: Làm cho ai/ cái gì bắt ñầu. Eg: Please get him talking about his aim of doing that. 4. 4. Get + to + verb * Get to do St: Tìm ñược cách làm gì Eg: We should get to know about English culture. * Get to do St: Có CƠ may làm gì. Eg: When ño I get to have a better job. * Get to do St: ðược phép lảm gi Eg: At last we got to meet the headmaster. * Get + to + Verb (về hành ñộng) = Come + to + Verb (về nhận thức) = Gradually = dần dần

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Eg: We will get to speak English more easily as time goes by. He comes to understand that his situation is not too bad. "> Cách sử dựng ‘to be’ trong một so trường hợp * To be of + noun = to have: có (dùne, ñể chi tính chất hoặc tinh cam) Eg: Mary is of a gentle nature = Mary có một bản chất tử tế. ? To be of + noun: Nhấn mạnh cho danh ùr ñứng ñẳng sau Eg: Hoa Hong restaurant is of (ớ ngav) the center o f the city. To be + to + verb: là dạng cẩu tạo ñặc biệt, sử dụng trong trường hợp: ðe truyền ñạt các mệnh lệnh hoặc các chỉ ñẫn từ nsôi thứ nhất qua noôi thứ hai ñến .gòi thứ ba. Eg: No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police. Dùng với mệnh ñề if khi mệnlì ñề chính diễn ñạt một câu ñiều kiện: Một ñiều phải ảy ra trước nếu muốn một ñiều khác xảy ra. (Neu muốn. . . thì phải. .) Eg: ỉ f we are to get there by lunch time we had better hurry. Something must be done quickly if the environment are to be protected perfectly. ðược ñùng ñể thông báo những yêu cầu xin chỉ dẫn: 12

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Eg: He asked the guide where he was to go next. 'ðược dùng khá phổ biến ñể truyền ñạt một dự ñịnh, một sự sẳp ñặt, ñặc biệt khi nó là chính thức. Eg: She is to get married next month. / I am to go to London next month. * was/ w er^+ s + to + verb = if + s + were + to + verb = thế nếu (một grậ thuyết) Eg: Were Ị to tell you that he'won the first prize, would you believe me. * was/ were + to + verb: ðể diễn ñạt ý tưởng về một số mệnh ñã ñịnh sẵn Eg: They said goodbye without knowing that they were never 10 meet atiain. * to be about to + verb = near future (sắp sửa)/ Eg: They are about to leave. * Một so cấu trúc cau khien (causative) * To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = Sai ai, khiến ai, báo ai làm gì Eg: I’ll have him fix my car. /I’ll get him to fix my car. #To have/to get sth done = làm một việc gì bàng cách thuê người khác Eg: I have my hair cut. (Tòi ñi cat tóc - chứ không phải tôi tự cat) I have my car washed. (Tôi mang xe ñi rữa ngoài dịch vụ - không phải tụ l ira) * To make sb do sth - ta force sb to do sth = Bắt buộc ai phải làm gi Eg: The robbers made the shop kepper give them all the money. - ðằng sau tân ngữ của make còn có thề dùng 1 tính từ: To make sb/sth + adj Eg: Wearing a necklace made her more beautiful. * To make sb + P2 = làm cho ai bị làm sao:Working all night on Friday made me tired on Saturday. - To cause sth + P2 ~ làm cho cái gì bị làm sao Eg: The big thunder flood caused many houses damaged Chú ỷ: Nếu tân ngữ của make là một ñộng íừ nuuycn the thì phái dỊil iĩ Ịiuni make \;'i

P2

tính từ, ñật ñộng từ ra phía ñang sau: make iỉ + adị + V LIS object. Eg: The wire servicc made it possible to collect and distribute new s faster and cheaper.

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Tuy nhiên nếu tân ngừ cùa make ỉà 1 danh từ hay 1 ngừ danh từ thì không ñược ñặt it giữa make và tính từ: Make + adị + noun/ noun phrase. Eg: The wire service made possible much speedier collection and distribution of news. * To let sb do sth = to permit/allow sb to do sth - ñế cho ai, cho phép ai làm gi Eg: He lei me go. /A t first, she didn’t allow me to no out alone at night.

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* To help sb to do sth/ño sth = Giúp ai làm gì Eg: Please help me to throw this table away. /She helps me open the door. Chú ý: Nếu tân ngữ của help ỉà một ñạí từ vỏ nhân xưng mang nghĩa ngưòi ta thi không cần phải nhắc ñển tân ngữ ñó và bỏ luôn cả to cùa ñộng từ ñẳng sau. Eg: Modem machines help (people to) save labour force. - Nei! tân ngữ của heỉp và tân ngữ cùa ñộng từ sau nó trùng hợp với nhau, người ta sẽ bô tân ngữ sau help và bỏ luôn cả to của ñộng từ ñãng sau. Eg: The fur of the birds helps (them to) keep warm. * T q see/to w atch/ to hear sb/sth do sth (hành ñộn í; ñược chimu kiến lừ ñnu ñôn cuôi)

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Eg: I heard the telephone ring and then John answered it. * To see/to watch/ to hear sb/sth doing sth (hành ñộnữ khôníĩ ñơợc chứng kỉến tron vẹn mà chỉ ờ một thời ñiểm) Eg: I heard her singing at the time I came home. 143

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* Một sô câu trúc câu: f * s + V + enough + Noun + to -V. .. có ñù cái gì ñể làm gì

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Eg: He does not have enough money to attend ihc concerl.

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* s + v + Adj/ ADV + enough + to-V........ EgtShe is tall enough to reach the ceiling. * s+ v + so + adj/ adv + that + 1 clause = s + V + such + (a/an) + Noun (s,es) + that + 1 clause (ñến nỗi mà). Eg: The film was so boring that nobody watched it until the end.

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= It w as such a boring film that nobody w atched It until the end.

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* s+ v + so much/ little + Noun (uncountable) + th at + 1 clause. : Có quá nhiều (quá ít).. . . ñển npi mà Eg: He has so much money that he doesn’t know how to spend. * s + v + so many/ few + Noun (countable, plural) + th a t + 1 clause. Có quá nhiều (quá ít).. ñến noi mà Eg: They have so many children that they form their own football team. * s + V + so -I- adjective + a + singular count noun + that +1 clause. Eg: It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors. * s + V + too + adj + (for sbd) + to-V. . . . quá (ñối với ai) dển nỗi không lãm dược gìEG: H e is too short to reach ihe ceiling. / lig: Hngiish is too difficult lor us to study well

To fin d sb/sth doing sth . T h ấ y a i/ cái ỉìì ñan li iàm LÙ

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* It + be + too + adj + (for sbd) + to-V + Obj . . . . Eg: It is too difficult for us to study English well. Cách sử dụng một so cẩu trúc ñi vói Present Participle (V-ing) * Have sb/síh + doing: làm cho ai làm gỉ. John had us IauEhirm all through the meal. * s + won't have sb + doing —s + won't allow sb to dơ stir, không cho phép ai làm gì I won’t have him telling me what to do. Các cụm phân từ: adding, pointing out, remindingy warning, reasoning that ñêu có thể mở ñầu cho một mệnh ñề phụ gián tiếp. He told me to start early, reminding me that the road would be crowded. Reasoning that he could on!y get to the lake, we followed that way. * To catch sb doing sth: bắt gặp ai ñang làm gì (hàm ý bị phật lòng). If she catches you reading her diary, she will be furious.

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I found him standing at the doorway He found a tree lying across the road. * To leave sb doing sth. ðe ai Jam gi I left Bob talking to the director after the introduction.

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* Go/come doing sth (dùng cho the thao và mua sắm) Go skiing/ go swimming/ go shopping/ come dancing * To have a hard time/trouble doing sth'. Gặp k.hó khăn khi làm gì He has trouble listening to English. I had a hard time doing my homework. * To be worth doing sth: ñáng ñề làm gì This project is worth spending time and money on. * To be busy doing something: bận ỉàm gì

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She is busy packing now. * Hai hành ñộng xảy ra song song cùng một lúc thì hành ñộng thứ hai ở dạng V ing, hai hành ñộng không tách ròi khỏi nhau bởi bât kì dấu phảy nào. Eg: She was walking home singing a love song, (cô ấy vừa ñĩ về nhà vừa hát mộ bài hát tình yêu) Khi hành ñộng thứ hai hoặc các hành ñộng tiếp sau theo nó là một phần tron; quá trình diên biên của hành ñộng thứ nhât thi hành ñộng thứ hai hoặc các hành ñộn: tíêp theo sau nó ờ dạng V-ing. Giữa hai hành ñộns có ngãn cách nhau bời dấu phây. Eg: She went out and bought some stamps = She went out, buying some stamps. : - KAŨ hành ñộng thứ 2 hoặc các hành ñộn" sau nó là kết quà của hành ñộníỉ thi [ nhất thì hành ñộnii thứ 2 và các hành ñộníỉ tiếp-theo sệờdạníì'V-irtg. Nó sẽ lìíiãn cácl ■ với hàtìh ñộng chính bằng một dấu phẩy. I Eg: He fired two shots, killling a robber and wounding the other. i *‘Một số ngữ ñộng từ I go + gerund: ñể chì một hoạt ñộng nào ñó: Do + V-ỉng: ñể chi một hoạt ñộn<z nào ñó: I “ go fishing ñi câu cá -do (the) washing giặt giũ - go shopping ñi mua sắm - do washing up • rùa chén - go swimming ñi bơi - do cleaning lau chùi - go hiking ñi bộ dă Tigoại - do gardening làrii vườn - go walking ñi bộ - do shopping mua sắm I - go sightseeing ñi ngắm eảnh -d o ironing: ủ quần áo & * Một số thành ngữ + gerund - can’t help doing St: không thể nhịn ñược làm gi: We can’t help laughing - can’t bear doing St: không chịu ñược làm gì: I can’t bear hearing his lies - can’t stand doing St: không chịu ñược làm gi: I can’t stand seeing him here - rt’s no use doing St: Vô ích ìảm gỉ It’s no use phoning him at I' ■ ' ■ this time I Exercise 1- Complete the following text, putting the verbs into the gerund or the I to- infinitive 1 . Hike (go)___________ to the zoo.

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2. The play w asn ’t very good. The audience started (leave) ___________ before it i was over.

1 3V \.A. 15. |ộ .

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After a brief interruption, the professor continued (lecture) __ The children love (swim) '_________ in the ocean. I hate (see) _ _ __________ any living being suffer. I can’t bear it. I’m afraid of flying. When a plane begins (move) _______ down the runway, my heart starts (race) __________ Oh - oh! The plane is beginning (move)_______ _ _ and my heart's starting (race)________ 7. When I travel, I prefer (drive)_______________ to (tak e)_________________ a i . plane. '. 8. Ĩ prefer (drive)________________ rather than (take-)________ ________ a plane. p . I always remember (turn) _________________ off all the lights before I leave my house. 10.1 can remember (be) __________ ________ very pioud and happy when I graduated. 145

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11. Did you remember (give) Jack m y m essage? 1 2 . 1 remember (play)______ with dolls when I was a child. 13. What do you remember (do)_ - ■ ' ' ~ ' w hen you were a child? 14. What do you remember (do) ___________ before you left for class this. morning? ......... ■| Ỉ5. What did you forget (do) __ __ before you leave for class every I day? J _ ■ ....................... ’ my wife over the threshold when we I 16. I’ll never forget (carry)_____ 1I moved into our first home. our team score the winning goal in'l 17.1 can’t ever forget (watch)_____________ the last seconds o f the game to capture the national nal championship. ' "i .-í— I »-1^ r< rV *f t .J 18. Don’t forget (do) __________________ your homework tonight'. 19 I regret (inform) you th&t yoụr loân âpplicătion hss not i been approved. to my father’s advice. Hể was right. 20 . 1 regret (not listen) Exercise 2. Supply an appropriate preposition and verb forms for a new job. (look) 1 . Alice isn’t interested _____ for India. (leave) 2 . Henry is excited____ betlcr work. (do) 3. You are capable____ late. 4. I have no excuse (be) a big breakfast. (have) 5. I'm accustomed the work. (complete) 6. The rain prevented u s _____ a headache. ___(have) _ 7. Fred is always complaining Margaret wenl 10 a ball game With Instead ________ (study) _ some of her friends. _____ me cany the package to the 9. Thank y o u ___________ _ (help) post office. the whole truth. (know) 10. Mrs. Grant insisted a map. (draw) u - He showed us how to get to his house _ here. (live) 12. You should take advantage________ to class yesterday. 13. Laura had a good reason__________ (not go) _______ (search) 14. Everyone in the neighborhood participated _______________ for the lost child. her wait for me. 15.1 apologized to Diane ■ (make)___________ _________ (not want) 16. The weather is terrible tonight. 1 don't blame you to go to the meeting. and (dry) (wash) 17. Who is responsible the dishes after dinner? to school full-time, Sam has a part18. In addition _______ (go)____ time job. my mind. 19. The angry look on his face stopped m e________ (speak)___ 20. Where should we go for dinner tonight? Would you object _____(go) to an Italian restaurant?

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Ì . The mayor made another public statement for the purpose _________ (clarify)_____________ the new tax proposal. I. The thief was accused__________(steal) __ ______ _____a woman's purse. 3. The jury found Mr. Adams guilty (take) money from the company he worked for and (keep) ______________ it for himself. 4. Bill isn’t used___________ (wear)____________ a suit and tie everyday. 5 .I’m going to visit my family during the school vacation. I'm looking forward _________ (e a t)___________ my mother’s cooking and (sleep )_____ _____ in my own bed. "’xercise 3. Supply an appropriate form, gerund o r infinitive, of the verbs in brackets. Mary reminded me (not b e)_______________ late for the meeting. Ị. We went for a walk after we finished (clean)_____________ up the kitchen. a book back to the library, so 1 had to pay a fine. 3. I forgot (take)___________ __________ on your trip? 4.. When do you expect (leave) when she was about eighteen months old. >5. The baby started (talk)____ ___ for you. Go ahead and finish (do) 6. I don’t mind (wait) ___ your work. here over vacation and (paint) 7. I’ve decided (stay) my room. our own our jobs and (open) We discussed (quit) business. . I’m getting tired. I need (take) ______________________________ a break. 10. Sometimes students avoid (look)_________ _____ at the teacher if they don’t want (answer)_____________ a question. 11. The club members discussed (postpone)____ ______ the meeting until March. television to (listen) __ _____ to 12. Most children prefer (w atch)______ the radio. 13. My grandfather prefers (read)_____ with youV 14. Did Carol agree (go)____________ (camp) _ 15- As the storm approached, the birds quit (sing) 1Ố. The taxi driver refused (take)_____________ a check. He wanted the passengers (pay)__________ in cash. 17. The soldiers were ordered (stand)__________ at attention. ____until August. 18. The travel agent advised us (not wait)__ 19. When a student asks a question, the teacher always tries (explain] ________________ the problems as clearly as possible20.1 tried everything, but the baby wouldn’t stop crying. I tried (hold) him. Ĩ tried (chanue) ________ him. I tried (feed) __ ___________ his diapers. Nothing worked. Exercise 4: Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same. 1. I was made to study hard when I was at school. ‘ They____________________________;______________________________

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2- If Í take the jo b , r i l have to move 10 Pari's.

NH ƠN

Taking the jo b ___________ ____________________________ 3. It’s very kind o f you to give me a lift. I appreciate 4. It m ight be good idea to use honey instead o f sugar.

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Why don’t you try •__________________________________ 5. I’m quite happy to look after the baby for you. I don’t m ind_______ ■ ________ . __________________ 6. I must see the manager! I demand_____________________________________________ 7. "Go on, Jack, apply for the job,” said Sally. « Sally encouraged______________________________________ 8. You wouldn’t know where the Hilton is, would you? Do you happen ________________________________________ 9. Parking is not permitted here. __ You a re ___________________________ . 10. “Shall I carry that bag for you, John?" said Pauline. Pauline offered____________________________________________________ Exercise 5: Compiete each sentence with the suitable form of one of the verbs given I . Mary was so angry that sh e ____________ to see the manager. B. hoped c. risked D. stopped A. demanded 2. The weather is so awful that I don’t iiOins; out this evening. .ị ii B. like c. try D. want A. fancy to leave their pets behind. 3. The children could hardly '4 B. forget. c. regret D. seem A. bear Ị ■/ 4. You don’t looking after the baby, do you? B. stand c. mind D. notice A. agree ị to know when this castle was built? 5. Do YOU 1 B. happen imagine D. like A. ask ầ to let his children go to the concert. 6. John s B. avoided refused D. stopped A. afforded ;! losing, my job! 7. i n Hive you the information. I •Ạ B. mean c. prepare D. risk A. expect -4$ to be doinỉì in ten years’ time? 8. What do you B- expect c. remember D. s u r e s t A. begin ■ii to tel! the police about the missinụ monev? 9. Do you 1 B. confess c. denv 0 . intend A. admit '1 ••4 looking at his walch? 10. Why does Basil . 1 B. attempt c. keep ð. mean A. appear rị Exercise 6: Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and Sfl that the meaning stays the same. I 1. Jack said that he hadn’t cheated in the exam. I

CHEATING

*

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2. It was difficult for me not to laugh at Wendy’s letter. HELP _______ _______________ _ 3. I’m sorry but you have not been appointed to the post. REGRET____________________________________ __________________ 4. I needed a drink of water and so I stopped running. _________ ' _____________________________ TO : 5. Luckily Peter didn’t pay a fine.

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6. I think it would be a good idea to take the train. : SUGGEST________ ________________ __________________________ _ '7. Don’t forget the lights when you leave. I OFF__________________ . ________________________ . 8. I can hear voices upstairs. _____________________ SOMEONE___ ;__________________ 9. I think Derek has forgotten the meeting. ■APPEARS_______ ______________________ _____ _________________ 10.My neighbor said he would call the police. THREATENED -___________________________________________ 11.Fm sorry I didn’t go to university. (REGRET)

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PAYING______________

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■12.Winning the football pools meant we could buv a new car. (ENABLED)

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think that this is the right street. (APPEARS)

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15.Does using the hotel swimming pool cost extra? (PAY)

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ầ 7.Jean succeeded in finishing all her work on time. (MANAGED) ~8-They said they would like me to stay with them in Florida. (INVITED)

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I9.Calling Jim is pointless, because his phone is out of order. (USE)

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, -0.lt is fcompulsory for all students to leave a cash deposit. (REQUIRED)

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PHẦN 13: M Ộ T SÓ THÀNH NGỮ VÀ NGỮ ðI VỚI G IỞ I TỪ L KIẾN THỨC C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO ñột số thành ngữ ñi với giới từ thường gặp trong các bài thi học sỉnh gỉõi . Một sô thành ngữ với ‘‘IN” In time for = ĩn good time for - ðúng giờ (thường kịp làm gi, hơi sớm hơn ậiò' ñã rỉnh một chút) / Eg: She arrived at the theater in good time fo r a coffee. (Cô ay ñến ihà hát van còn ñủ thời gian ñể uống một tách cà phê. ) In future = ửom now on = từ nay trở ñi Once in a while = ñôi khi, thỉnh thoảng Eg: Once in a while I enjoy fishing: (ðôi khi tôi cũng thích ñi câu cá. ) - In no time at all / in less than, no time = trong nháy mắt, một thoáng. Eg: The train will be here in no time at all. (Tàu sạp ñến ñây rồi. ) - In the middle of = ở giữa, ở trong. Eg: ỉn the middle o f difficulty lies opportunity. (Trong khó khăn mói có cơ hội.) - In the army/ airforce/ navy: trong quận ñội, trong lực lực lượng không quân,.. . . Eg: He has been in the army fo r thirty years. (Ông ấy ñã phục vụ tron 2 quân ngũ 0 năm .) - In the event = trong trường hợp mà Eg: ỉn the event o f a power failure we 'II have to change our plan. (Trong trường ợp mất ñiện chúng tôi sẽ phải thây ñổi kế hoạch.) - In case = ñể phòng khi, ngộ nhỡ. Eg: Bringyour umbreỉỉar in case it rains (ðưa theo cái ô phờng khi trời mưa.) - In the comer = ờ góc trong # At the comer = ở góc ngoâì/ tại góc phố Eg: The student ừ sitting in the cómer. (Cậu sính viên ñang ngồi ở góc phòng) - in favour of = có thiện cảm với, ủng hộ Eg: We are in favour o f his decừỉon to leave the city, (Chúng tôi ủng hộ quyết ñịnh ñi khỏi thảnh phổ của anh ẩy. ) - in common with sb = có cái gì chung với ai Eg: She has nothing in common with her sister. (Cô ay chẳng có gì chung vói chị lình c ả .) - in other worñs= nói cách khác Eg: ỉ have no more money, in other words, I am now broke. (Tôi không còn tiền ữa, hay nói cách khác, tôi ñang cháy túi.) - in tears = ñang khóc ' Eg: She was in tears over the death o f her puppy. (Cô bé ñang khóc cái chết của on chó nhỏ của mình-) - in private = riêng, không ai khác có mặt Eg: She wanted to see me in private. (Bà ấy muổn gặp riêng tôi ) # in public ông khai, ờ giữa công chúng - in bed - ñang ngủ # on the bed = ở trên cái giường. Eg: h ’s already ten o ’dock, but sh e’s still in bed. (ðã 10 giờ rồi, vậy mà cô ta ẫ.n ñang ngù.) - in all = cả thảy, tổng cộng. Eg: There were ten o f us in alỉ. (Chúng tôi có cả thảy lười người.) ■' - in general = nói chung. Eg: ỉn general Ị don ’t like her. (Nói chung là tôi không lích cô ta .)

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- in particular = nói riêng, nói cụ thể. Eg: The whole meat was good but the wine in particular was excellent. (Toàn bộ bữa ân là ngon, riêng món rượu thì thật tuyệt hào.) - in the way = chặn lôi, chắn ñường. Eg: I ’m afraid your car is in'the way. (Tôi e rang ô tô của anh ñang gây cản trở. ) - in a way = ở một mức ñộ nào ñó, theo cách nào ñó. Eg: ỉn a way, you are right. Ỏ một mức ñộ nào ñỏ thì anh ñúng. - in a hurry = vội vàng. Eg: She seetns to be in a hurry. (Cô ấy dường như ñang vội.) - in secret = bí mật Eg: They left the country in secret. (Họ rời khòi ñất nước một cách bí m ật.) - in advance = trước / Eg: Thank you in advance. (Cám cm anh trước nhé.) - in turn = lần lượt. / Eg: The students called out their names in ĩum. (Các học sinh ]ần lượt xướng tên mình) - in one’s opinion = theo ỷ kiến ai. Eg: ỉn my opinion, he is righí. (Theo ý tôi thi anh ta ñúng) - in writing - dưới dạng viết, bằng văn bản. Eg: You must get his agreement in writing. (Anh phải ñược ạnh ây ñông ý băng văn bản.) - in cash = bằng tiền mặt / Eg: Can I pay in cash? (Tôi có thể trả bằng tiền mặt ñược không?) - in charge (of sb/st) = phụ trách, ñảm trách/ Eg: Who’s in charge o f this class? (Ai phụ ữách lóp này?) - in addition (to) = thêm vào/ Eg: ỉn addition to the names on the list there are six other applicants. (Thêm vào tên trong ñanh sách còn có sáu người nữa.) - in comparison with = so sánh với / Eg: The tallest buildings in London are small in comparison with those in New York. (Những tòa nhà cao nhất ở London thật nhò khi sánh với những tòa nhà ờ New Y ork.) - in conclusion = kết luận, cuối cùng là. / Eg: ỉn conclusion ỉ ’d like to say that I ñon 7 agree with you. (Cuối cùng tôi muốn nói rằng tôi không ñồng ý với các bạn.) - in conữol of = chỉ ñạo, quán xúyến, cai quản / Eg: Who’s in control of. this project? (Ai chỉ ñạo dự án này?) - in danger = gặp nguy hiểm, bị ñe dọa. Eg: His life was indanger.(Cuộc song của ông ta ñang gặp nguy hiểm .) X out of danger. - in detail = một cách ñầy ñủ, chi tiết. Eg: He explained everything to us in detail. ('Anh ta giải thích mọi thứ với chúng tôi một cách rât chi tiêt.) - in fact = trên thực tế, thật ra. Eg: In fact, she has been lying to him fo r ten years. (Thực tế là cô ta ñã lừa dổi anh trong suốt mười nãm trờ i.) - in good / bad condition = trong tình trạng tốt / xấu. Eg: The house is sỉiU in good condition, (ngôi nhà vẫn CÒĨ1 rất tốt. ) - in one’s free time = trong thời gian rảnh. Eg: What do you usually do in your free time? (Anh thường làm gì trong thời gian rảnh?) - in love with = ñem lòng yêu mến ai/ cái gì, phải lòng ai. Eg: She is in love with one o f my friends. (Cò ẩy ñã phải lòng một người bạn của tôi. ) - in a good / bad mood - có tâm trạng vui vẻ / khó chịu.Eg: Todayshe's in a good mood. (Hôm nay tâm trạng cô ấy vui vẻ.) - in order = ngăn nắp, trật tự X in a mess: lộn xộn, bừa bộn, hãn loạn. Eg: My life is in a real mess! (Cuộc sống của tôi thật sự là một mớ bòng bong)

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- in pieces = võ’tan, thành từng mảnh. Eg: The boat was smashed to pieces on the rocks. (Chiếc thuyền ñã bị va vào ñá vỡ tan thành nhiều m ảnh.) - in practice / in theory = trên thực tế/ trên lý thuyết. Eg: ỉn theory, three things could happen. ('về lý thuyết, có ba khả năng xẩy ra. ) - in reality = trên thực tế, thực ra. Eg: The house looks very old, bui in reality i t 's quite new. (Ngôi nhà trông có vẻ cũ, nhưng thực ra nó còn m ới.) - in touch with = giữ liên lạc với. Eg: Pỉease keep in touch with each other when we are away. (Xin hãy giữ liên !ạc khi chúng ta xa nhau. ) - in uniform = mặc ñồng phục, thuộc các lực lượng vũ trang. Eg: How long was he in uniform? (Anh ta ñã ờ trong quân ngũ bao lâu rồi?) - in a loud / low voice = (nói) to / thì thẩm. Eg: 'Tm in love, ” he said in a low voice. (Tôi ñang yêu, anh ta thì thẩm. ) 1. Một số thành ngữ với “AT” at all costs = bang mọi giá, bằng bat cứ giá nào. Eg: We must get there at all costs. (Chúng ta phải ñến ñó bằng mọi giá.) at times = luôn luôn. Eg: I ’m at your service at all times. (Tôí luôn luôn sẵn sàng phục vụ các ông. ) at present = hiện nay, hiện tại, lúc này. Eg: ỉ can’t help you at present. (Luc nảy tôi không thể gi úp ánh ñược.) - at a profit = có lãi. Eg: The company is operating at a profit. (Công ty ñang hoạt ñộng có lãi.) at first = thoạt tiên. Eg: At first I think he is our new teacher. (Thoạt tiên tôi nghĩ rằng ñó là thầy giáo mới của chúng tôi.) at last = cuối cùng, rốt cuộc. Eg: At last the bus arrived. We'd been waiting for nearly an hour. (Cuối cùng thì xe buýt cũng ñến. Chúng tôi ñã ñợi gần một tiếng ñông h ô .) at the latest, muộn nhất (một thời ñiềm cụ thể nào ñó). Eg: I ’m in a hurry because Ỉ must have these reports ready by six o ’clock at the latest. (Tôi ñang vội bởi vì tôi phải làm xong những bản báo cáo này muộn nhât là 6 g iờ.) - At least = ít nhất. Eg: You could at least dean up your room. (ít nhất thì anh cũng dọn lay phòng của mình ñi chứ. ) At most = nhiều nhất, tối ña. Eg: At most I might earn $250 a -week. (Tôi có thề kiểm ñược tối ña là 250 ñô ỉa mỗi tuần.) At the same time = ñồng thời. Eg: You shouỉdn 't eat and talk at the same time. (Cảc eháu không nên vừa ăn vừa nói. ) At peace with = ờ trong tình trạng thân ái hoặc hòa thuận với ai. Eg: ỉn order to be happy, you should always be at peace with yourself. (ðề ñược hạnh phúc, bạn phải luôn thanh thản với chính bản thân mình.) X at war with at war with = trong tình trạng xung ñột, chiến tranh. Eg: The country has been at war with its neighbor fo r two years. (ðất nước ñã ở trong tình trạng xung ñột với nước láng giềng ñã hai nãm rồ i.)

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M ột số thành ngữ vói “OUT OF” out o f reach = ngoài tâm tay. Eg: Keep those medicines out o f reach o f childre (Không ñược ñể những thứ thuốc này trong tầm tay trẻ con.) out of doors - ờ ngoài trời. Eg: He likes to stay out o f doors. ("Anhtathích ngoài trờ i.) out o f breath = hụt hơí, thờ dồn. Eg: After Jive flight o f stairs I'm out o f breai (Chỉ sau năm bậc thang !à tôi ñã thờ dôc rô i.) out o f sight = ngoài tầm mắt. Eg: Out o f sight, out o f minñ. Xa mặt cách lòng out of mind = ngoài tầm suy nghĩ, không còn nhớ tới nữa out of work= thất nghiệp. Eg: He is now out ofwork. (Hiện nay anh ta ñang thất nghiệp out o f date = lạc hậu, lỗi thời X up to date: cập nhật, hiện ñại out of practice = không luyện tập. Eg: It ‘s important to keep in practice. (ði< quan trọng là phậi duy trì luyện tập) >< in practice out of control = không kiểm soát ñược, mat cjuyen kiểm soát. Eệ: The economy now seriously out o f control. (Nen kinh té hiện nay ñang mất kiểm soát trầ ứ ọng.) >< in control: trong vòng kiểm soát. out o f danger = hết nguy hiểm. Eg: She was very ill, but is now oul oj cỉangí (CÔ ấy ñang ốm, nhưng ñã qua cơn nguy kịch. ) x : in danger: trong ngay hiểm out of debt —trả hết nợ nần. Eg: We are poor, but we have been out o f del (Chứng tôi nghèo nhưng ñã trà hết nợ nần rồi. ) X in debt: trong nợ nần out o f fashion / style = lỗi mot. Eg: Long skirts are now out o f fashion. (Vảy d hiện nay ñã loi mot ro i.) out o f place = không phù hợp, không ñúng chồ. Eg: Her criticisms were qui out o f place. (Các lời chỉ trích của cô ấy hoàn toàn không ñúng ch ỗ .) out of the question = không bàn cãi, không thể ñược. Eg: Telling him the truth now out o f the question. (Nói cho anh ta biết sự thật vào lúc này là không thể ñược.) out of stock = hết hàng, không còn hàng ñể bán. Eg: ỉ'ìn sorry our shop is no out o f stock. (Xin lỗi, cửa hàng chúng tôi tạm thời hết hàng.) out of the ordinary = khác thường, không bỉnh thường. Eg: Her behavior is out the ordinary. (Cầch cư xử của cô ấỵ thật khôn 2 bình thường. ) nothing out o f the ordinary = không có gì ñặc biệt. Eg: Ỉỉ was an interestb lecture, but nothing out o f the ordinar\>■ (ðó là-một bài giảng hay. nluniii khôr có gì ñặc biệt lắm .) out of trouble = hết rắc rối >< in trouble = ñang gặp rắc rối Một số thành ngữ với “ON” on behalf of “ nhân danh, thay mặt. Eg: On behalf o f the whole class I thank yc fo r your help. fThay mặt cả lớp em xỉn cám'ơn thầy ñã giúp ñỡ chúng em .) on business = ñang làm việc, ñang ñi công tác. Eg: My father is in Hanoi c business this week. (Tuần này bo tôi ñi công tác Hả n ộ i.) on strike = ñình công. Eg: The workers are on strike fo r a pay rise. (Cồng nhl ñang ñình công ñổi tăng lương.) on a diet = ăn kiêng. Eg: I f you are on a diet you should avoid eating fatty foot and sugar. (Nêu cậu ñang ăn kiêng thì nên tránh ãn những thức ãn chứa nhiề chât béo và ñường.)

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j on average = trung bình. Eg: We fa il one student per year ori average. (Tính ■ trung bình môi năm chúng tôi bị ừượt một sinh viên.) on duty = ñang iàm việc, ñang có ca trực. Eg: The doctor is pn duty now. (Hiện j nay bác sĩ ñang trực >< off duty hết phiên trực.) on the whole —tóm lại, xét toàn bộ. Eg: On the whole, i ’m in favour o f the \ proposal. (Tóm lại, tôi ủng hộ ñề nghị ñó. ) j on holiday = ñi nghỉ. Eg: Where are you going on holiday this summer? (Hè này ■ cậu ñịnh ñi nghi ở ñâu?) ; on sale = a) có bán, sẵn ñể bán. Eg: The new model is not on sale in the shops. \ (Mâu mới không có bán tại các cửa hiệu); b) bán với giá hạ. Eg:These books are \ on sale. (Những quyển sách này ñang ñựợc bán hạ giá) >< for sale ñể bán. Eg: : ỉ ’m sorry this painting is not fo r sale. (Xin lôi, bức tranh này không b á n .) on a trip / an excursion / a tour = ñi một chuyến ñi / thám quan/ du lịch. Eg: v/e j are planning to go on a trip to Delphi next weekend. (Chúng tôi dự ñịnh ñi một í chuyên tới Delphi vào cuôi tuần tởi. ) í on the phone = có dùng ñiện thoậi. Eg: Are you on the phone? (Nhà cậu có dùng I ñiện thoại không?)

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chiêc túi cùa tôi) X by accident: vô tình, ño nhâm lân. Eg: ĩ opened his briefcase by accident. on TV/ radio = cnieu / phát qua tr vi, ñài. Eg: What is on TV tonight? (Tối nay TV có gi?) on the market = ñưa ra bán, ñang bán. Eg: These computers are not yet on the market. (Các máy tính này chưa thấy bán.) On foot = ñi bộ. Eg: His house is nsxĩ to school, so he get there on foot. (Nhà cậu ấy gần trường nên cậu ấy ñi bộ tới trường.) On fire = ñang cháy. Eg: Call the fire brigade. The neighbor’s house is on fire. (Gọi cứu hỏa ñi. Nhà người hàng xóm ñang cháy.) On one hand / on the other hand: Một mặt. . . mặt khác. . . Eg: On one hand I'd like more money, but on the other hand, I'm not prepared to work the extra hours in order tò get it. (Một mặt tôi vẫn muốn cỏ thêm tiền, nhưng mặt khác tôi lại chưa sẵn sàng làm thêm giờ ñể kiểm tiền.) On time = ñúng giờ (không sớm, không muộn). Eg: D on’t worry, she usually arrives at meetings on time. (ðừng lo, cô ẩy luôn ñến họp ñúng giờ) x in time/ in good time for: ñúng giờ, hơi sớm một chút.

Một số thành ngữ vói “BY” by means of = bằng cách. Eg: Lift the load by means o f a crane. /Nâng tải trọng băng cân trục) by no means / not by any means = không tí nào. Eg: S h e’s by no means poor, in fact, sh e ’s quite rich. (Bà ta không nghèo tí nào, thực ra, bà ta rất giàu. ) by chance = tình cò',' ngẫu nhiên, không cố ý. Eg: / met her by chance. (Tôi gặp cô ấy rất tình cờ. ) - by oneself = một mình. Eg: I did it by myself (tòi tự mình làm ñiêụ ñó. ) (know) by sight = nhận ra khuôn mặt ai, nhưng không biết tên. Eg: I knew him by sight. (Tôi nhận ra anh ta, nhưng tôi không biết tên anh ta)

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by heart —thuộc lòng. Eg: We have to learn this poem by heart'. (Chúng tôi phài học thuộc lòng bài thơ này .) by mistake = do nhầm ỉẫn. Eg: They took our case by mistake. (Họ xách nhầm va li của chúng tô i.) by cheque/ credit card = (trả) bằng séc/ thẻ tín dụng. Eg: Can ỉ pay by cheque? (Tôi có thế trả bằng séc ñược không?) ; by accident = by chance: tình cờ. neẫu nhiên. Ec: ĩ ran into un ohỉ friend hy accident. (Tôi tình cờ gặp một người bạn c ũ .) 5. Một số thành ngữ vói “UNDER”

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under the im pression = có cảm tường rằng, có ý nghĩ ràng. Eg: / \VÍỈS under the

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impression that you were coming tomorrow. (Tôi có cảm tường rằn 2 ngày mai anh mới tớ i.) under consideration / discussion = ñang ñược xem xét / thào luận. Eg: Your

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request is under consideration at the meeting. (ðề nghị cùa anh ñang ñược xem xét tại cuộc họp.) - under airest = bị bắt giữ. Eg: The three men were under arrest for robbing a bank. /Ba người ñàn ông ñang bị bắt giữ vì tội cướp ngân hàng.) Ị. - under certain conditions = ừong hoàn cảnh nào ñó. Eg: The mountain road is closed under certain conditions. (Con ñường núi bị chặn dò hoàn canh nào d ỏ .) under control = trong tầm kiểm soát. Eg: Tỉie fire was under contra! after the fire department arrived. (ðám cháy ñã ñược kiểm soát sau khi ñội cứu hòa ñến. ) >< out of control: ngoài tầm kiểm soát under one’s breath = thì thầm. Eg: The man was talking under his breath in the movie theater. (Người ñàn ông thì thầm tronu rạp chiếu phim. ) Under one’s nose = dễ thấy, ngay trước mặt ai. Eg: Ị put the hill right under his nose so that he coitldn '{ miss it. (Tôi ñể tờ hóa ñơn ngay trước mặt anh ta ñẻ cho anh ta không thể nào ỉờ ñi ñược.) Under the sun - khắp mọi nơi. Eg: We looked fo r the wallet everywhere under the sun. (Chúng tôi tìm cải ví khắp mọi nơi.)

A

Under the weather = khỏ ở, hơi mệt. Eg: / am feeling Wider the weather so / 'nì going

to bed early tonight. (Tôi cảm thấy hơi mệt vì vậy tôi nay tôi sẽ ñi ngủ sớm .)

Í-

U nder the wire = vừa kịp lúc. Eg: We sent in our payment for school fees just

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under the wire: (Chúng tôi ñóng tiên học phí vừa kịp lúc.) Under the circumstances = trong hoàn cảnh 6. Một số thành ngữ vói “FOR” for good = ỉâu dài, vĩnh viễn, dút khoát. Eg: She says that she 6 leaving the country fo r good (Cò ấy nói ràng có ấy sẽ rời khỏi ñất nước vĩnh viền. ) for a living = ñể kiếm sổng. Eg: What does he do fo r a living? (Anh ta làm gì ñể kiếm song?) for sale = ñể bán. Eg: She has put her house up fo r sale. (Bà ay xâv nhà ñể b án.) - for sure = chắc chấn. Eg: I think he lives there but I couldn Vsay fo r sure. (Tói nghĩ bà ta sống ờ ñó nhưng tôi không thể nói chắc chắn ñược. ) - for a while = trong một khoảng thời gian. Eg: She worked in a bank fo r a while before studying law. (Cò ẩy ñã làm việc ờ ngân hàng một thời gian trước khi học luật.) ì 55

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for now / for the time being = hiện tại, tạm thời. Eg: That's enough fo r now,, let 5 continue our conversation tomorrow. (Hiện tại thế là ñù rồi, chúns ta hãy tiếp tục ñối thoại vào ngày m ai.) . for a change = ñể thay ñổi. Eg: We usually drive to work, but today we look a taxi fợ r a change. (Chúng tôi thường tự lái ñi làm, nliưng hôm nay ñẽ thay ñổi chúng tôi ñi tắc xi. ) for "example / instance - ví dụ như, chẳng hạn như. Eg: ỉn this class there are many good students ~ John for example. (Lóp này c.ó nhiều học sinh giòi, chẳng hạn như em John. )

TP

for the sake of = vì lợi ích cùa ai ñó. Eg: / 7/ help you fo r your family's sake. (Tôi sẽ giúp ñõ' anh vi lợi ích cùa cà aia ñình anh. ) Một số thành ngữ vói k‘OFF” off duty - hết phiên làm việc / trực. Eg: The policeman wax o ff duty that evening. (Viên cảnh sát này ñã hết ca trực toi hôm ñó. ) OÍT school / work = nghi' học/ làm việc. Eg: May ỉ lake ư day.ojf work? (Tôi cỏ thề nglù làm một imày không ạ?) off and on = thinh thoảng. Eg: ỉ read his blog off atìtl on. {Thinh Ihoãnii lỏi cỏ ñọc blog cùa anh t a .) off the track = sao nhãng khòi dòng suy nghĩ, lĩiục tiêu. Eg: Your question has put me o ff the track. (Câu hói cũa anh cẳt ngang dòng suy nghĩ của tô i.) Một số thành ngữ vói “FROM ” from time to time —thình thoàna. Eg: From time to time we play cards 117/7; each other. (Thình thoảng chúng tôi cũng chơi bài cùng nhau. ) from scratch = từ ban ñầu. Eg: After the business failed, they decided to reorganize and begin from scratch. (Sau khi việc kính doanh that bại. họ quycí ñịnh tổ chức lại và bat ñẩu lại từ ñẩu. ) from head to toe /foot / heels - từ ñẩu ñến chân. Eg: He UY7.Vdressed ỉn hlack from head to toơ. {Anh ta mặc ño ñen từ ñần ñen chân. ) From the bottom of one's hearl: từ thảm sáu ñáy long. Ug: From the bottom of my heart, I am grateful to him for what he has just helped me. Một số thành ngữ vói “ W ITH” with regard to = ve việc gì. Eg: / have nothing to say with regard to your complaints, (Tòi chăng có íĩì ñẽ nói về những phàn nàn cùa anh cả. ) with respect to = vè, dôi với. Eg: This is true with respect to English but not to French. (ðiều này ñúng với tiếng Anh chừ không ñúng với tiếng Pháp. ) with difficulty - một cách khó khăn. Eg: He opened his mouth with difficulty. ("Anh ta mở miệng một cách rất khó khãn.) Một số thành ngữ vói “W ITHOUT” without deỉay = không tri hoằn, (làm) ngay. íĩg: Pỉeuse do these ỉasks wiihoul delay. (Xin hãy lảm những việc 'nảy ngay.) Without exception = không ngoại lệ. Eg: The rule applies to everyone without exception. eQưy tác này áp ñụng cho tất cà mọi ngưòi khôníỉ có ngoại lệ. ) Without (a) doubt = chắc chắn. Eí>: He ừ without doubt the cleverest student I've ever taught. (Cậu ay chắc chần là người thôníĩ minh nhắt mà tôi tì)T)£> dạv. )

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Without fail - nhất ñịnh. Eg: I ’ll be there at two o dock without fail (Tôi nl ñịnh sẽ có mặt ở ñay ñúng 2 giờ. )

instead o f on behalf o f regardless o f

7.

_______________ Steve, he believes that we should Slav w here wo arc.

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ỉ think I'd rather have coffee_______________tea. _______________ danger, Paul ran back into the burning house. ____________ fire, smash the glass and push the button. banning cigarette smoking completely! Personally, I am ________ • 1 would like to thank you,_______ everyone who was rescued. ___________ you, no one else knows that I have escaped.

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in common with in favor o f in from o f

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according to apart from ưs fo r

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B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise ỉ. Complete each sentence with one word or phrase from the box:

Jim managed to climb into the house________________ a ladder he found 9. ________________the rain the match was postponed. 10 . ______ ______ the timetable, the next train isn't for two hours.

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1 i. Julie lias n o th in g _________________ Bill. They arc quite different.

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12. A ỉarate black car suddenly drew u p _____________ the house. Exercise 2. Complete each sentence by using a suitable word from the list breath fa il impression secret strike costs hurry return stock words 1. This is important. You must catch the two men at all 2. He says he's ill. Or in other_____• he doesn’t want to come. 3 . 1 was under th e _________ that you enjoyed working here.4. Sorry, I can't stop. I'm in a _________ 5. Please hand your work in on Tuesday, without 6 . We can't go by train. The train-drivers are on _________ 7. Martin is supposed to have given up smoking, but he smokes in 8. I'm afraid \vc don't have your size, we are out o f _______ :______ 9. If i give you the information, what will you give me ill_________ ? 10. 1 ran for the bus. and now I'm out o f ___

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Exercise 3. Choose the most suitable phrase 1. 1 can't disturb John now. He's at bed/ in heci. 2. Tony always arrives exactly in time / on time for his lesson. 3. Tow pounds for each ticket, that makes $ !2 in aU/with all. 4. I can't pick that last apple, it's out o f hand/ out o f reach. 5. Joe and I met on the plane completely bv chance / by surprise. 6 . The children spend most of their time oili o f doors / out ofphicc. 7. I'm sorry but Jane isn’t here at present / at a time. Ì

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How can Sam love Lucy? They have nothing in common / in general. 9. They should be here soon. They are in the way / on the way. 10. Terry isn’t here. He’s always in bed /o n business. Exercise 4. Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the list. Use each word once only. averageforce particular profit sight detail him self practice public whole 1. Harry managed to sell his house at a _ I. What was he doing here all b y _____ ____ ? Larry is so famous that he doesn’t appear in _______ ______very often. ị. That was a terrible shot! I’m rather out o f_____ ). How many cars do vou sell, o n ______________, every week? ). The police are coming! Stay out o f __________ ; until they leave. 1, I might be able to help you. What do you want to know in -___? >. I suppose I enjoyed my holiday on th e______ Can you tell me about the plans i n _____________ ? 0. The gun had to be taken away from David b y _______ Exercise 5. Complete each seạtence with one of the phrases from the list. Use each phrase once only. by heart in difficulties in turn on holiday out o f work by sightin pain in two on sale without a doubt . When I sat on the pencil, it broke_____ Most of the people in the office are_____________at the moment.

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■. This i s _____________ the best washing machine on the market. Graham has been_____________ ever since he came to London. I know h er______________ , bụt I don’t know her name. 1. The lifeguard dived in to save a swimmer_________

John learned his first sp e e c h _____

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. Why don’t you share the bike? You can ride i t _________ . You could tell he was ____________ the way he kept groaning. 0. Cigarettes and ice-cream are_______________ in the foyer xercise 6, Complete each sentence, using the suitable preposition Police officers d o n 't have to wear uniform when they a r e ____________ duty.

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A. on B. underc . cut of D. off I feel very tired.________ times I consider giving up work-: A. for B. at c. During D. Some The children were all upset, and some w ere______________ tears. A. for B. at c. in D. on This factory needs modernizing. Everything here is_______________date. ; A. in B. out c . out of D. beyond Don’t worry, everything is _____________ control. A. under B. in c . out of D. for

>8

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Sorry, I seem to have taken the wrong umbrella ________ mistake. A. on B. by c . for D. with Please hurry. We need these documents ’delay. A. on B.. in c . without D. no That wasn’t an accident! You did i t _____________ purpose! A. on

B. o f

c . fo r

D. with

We thought the two films were very similar ________ a great extent. A. on B. to c . with D. at 10. We decided to take a holiday in W ales____________ a change. A. with B. for c . at D. in Exercise 7: Put in by, from, ill or Oil into the blanks to complete the following sentences. 1. There’s something I want to watch___________ television. 2. They’ve toỉd me I can have time off, but I haven't,got i t ___________ writing. 3. I found the English to be fairly friendly people,_____________the whole. 4. Why can’t you look at the problem_______;_____my point of view? 5. Would you mind moving? You’re rather_______________ the way here. ố. I dialed the wrong number____________ mistake. 7. Is it OK if I w rite___________ pencil? 8. Are you here__________ holiday o r______ _____business? 9 I booked our seats a month _____________ advance and paid __________ cheque. 10. Jessica fell ill while she was ■ __a trip to Ireland. 11. Could you be quiet for a moment,please? I’m ______the phone. 12. We’ve had a few nice days, b u t____________ general it’s been a poor summer. I

was lucky. I found the so lu tio n ___________ accidcnt.

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14. It’s a long journey. Let's stop somewhere __________ the way and have a meal. 15. Ispent ages looking for a phone box,___________ the end I found one.

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E x ercise 8: P u t in th e c o rre c t p re p o sitio n s (Eg.

3.

Y ou m ay also need to

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use ‘th e’ or ‘m y ’. Do you think we ought to book seats___________ advance? - No, I don't think so .________ the whole it’s better to buy a ticket on the day. ỈS it all right if I pay ____________credit card? ~ Well, if you don t mind, I d prefer i t _________ cash. A lot of this information is _ _ _______ date. ~ Ỉ know. We do our best to keep _________ date, but it’s difficult. Did the others lock you out of the house ____________ purpose? ~ No, it happened quite__________ chance.

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Is there a n y th in g ___________ television tonight? - No, but there'b something

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_ radio 1 want to listen to. These flats are still___________ sale. - Yes, they’ve b e e n _______ _____ market for over a year now. Was it an interesting talk? - ___________ opinion, It was boring, but everyone clapped__________ end.

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Chuyên ñê 5: READING (ĐỌC HIỂU)

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A. CÁC DẠNG BÀI KIÊM TRA KỸ NĂNG ðỌC H iẼ ll Sau ñây là số dạng bài kiểm tra ñọc hiểu phổ biến: - ðọc ñoạn văn hay ñoạn hội thoại và trả lời câu hỏi. - ðọc và tim một từ phù họp vãn cành ñiền vào chồ trốniĩ (i»ap-filliim). - ðọc các câu cho sẵn và sắp xếp chúng thành bài hội thoại họp lý. - ðọc và tim ỷ chính của ñoạn vãn. ' ðọc ñoạn văn, ñoạn hội thoại và sắp xếp các thử tự thông tin. - ðọc ñoạn văn, ñoạn hội thoại và ñặt câu hỏi với từ gợi ý và trá iới. - ðọc ñoạn vãn, ñoạn hội thoại và ñiền thôníỉ tin còn khuyết theobản tóm tắt. - ðọc ñoạn văn, ñoạn hội thoại và hoàn thành các câu cho săn hay xác ñịnh các câu ðứnR (TRUE) hay Sai (FALSE) hay Không chứa thông tin (NO INFORMATION) từ bài ñọc - ðọc ñoạn vãn, ñoạn hội thoại và tim hay íĩiài thícli nìihĩa cúa từ tro nu văn cành.

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- ðọc ñoạn văn và chọn ñáp án ñúnỉĩ ñể trá lời từng cảu hòi (multiple-choice) - ðọc một ñoạn văn ñài và chú ý các thônc tin chi tiết, các quan ñiẽin. thái ñộ và noi các sự lựa chọn phù hợp cho từn<z ñoạn văn ngấn (muitiple-matchinìỉ) B. MỘT SÒ THỦ THUẬT LÀM BÀI THI ðỌC HìẾV Theo các chuyên gia ngôn ngũ. ñê làm-tổt bài thi ñọc hiẽu cần dọc trưó’0 câu hỏi ñê ñịnh iurớnu nội dung cần lìm trong bài ñọc hiểu: Thí sinh nên tập truII” ñọc những thông tin cẩn cho câu trà lời. chứ không nên co gắn*Ị ñọc và hicu liẻt tất cà các từ trong ñoạn văn, ñọc mà khônii có ñịnh hướng uì chiếm rất nhiều thời uian và ỉiâv ra sự khó hiêu. Tùy theo các ñạm> bài kiểm tra ñọc hiếu mà chúniỊ ta có các cách làm khác nhau. Ví dụ: * *

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1. ðối với bài thi Dọc và tim một từ phù họp văn cành ñiền vảo cho trong U apnilinii) hay ñọc ñoạn văn và ñiền thông tin còn khuyết theo bán tóm íắỉ, thí sinh cẩn xác ñịnh vị trí cần, ñiền là loại lừ gi (danh từ, ñộnsì íừ, tính từ. iìèn từ hay mạo

tù.........). sau ñó có sự lựa chọn từ cho phù hợp với V nclìĩa văn bán. thôiìíỉ thường

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ñọc Urớt toàn bài trước, nắm ý chính cùa ñoạn vãn sẽ ui úp thí sinh có ñáp án dễ dàniỉ và chính xác hơn.'. Exercise 1: Read the paragraphs below and the summary which follows. Air pollution is a cause of ill-health in human beings. In a lot of countries there arc laws limiting the amo.unl of smoke which factories can produce. Although there isn't enough information on the effects of smoke in the atmosphere, doctors have proved that air pollution causes lunu. diseases. The gases from the exhausts of cars have also increased air pollution in most cities. The lead in petrol produces a poisonous gas which often collects in busy streets surrounded by high buildings. Children who live ir. areas where there is a lot of lead in the atmosphere can’t think as quickly as other children and are clumsy when they use Iheir hands There are other long-term effects of pollution. If the gases in the atmosphere continue to increase, the earth's climate may become warmer. A lot of the ice near the Poles ma melt and may cause serious floods.

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* Complete the summary by writing the correct word in each blank (write on word only.) A i r ____________( 1 ) can make people __________ (2 ). Consequent!) some countries pass (3) to control the quantity of (4) in the air. Air pollution causes particular damage to the body by harming th (5)____________ ( 6) should not be used in peirol because It 1 bad for children’s ________ ______ (7) and makes them clumsy in using thei hands. Poisonous gas from _____________ ( 8) collects in those parts o f citie where there are tall buildings. Pollution can also have an influence on the earth' __________ : (9). The ice may melt near the North and South Poles, resulting ii very b a d ____________ ( 10 ). Exercise 2: Read the following passage and fill in each gap with only ONI appropriate word TELEVISION Television is an important invention of the twentieth century. It has been. . . . (1).. . popular that ROW we can ' t imagine what life would be.........( 2 ) . . . . . . . if there wer no television. Television is a major. . . . (3). . . . of communication. It brings picturc and sounds from around the world into millions of homes. Through. . . . (4). . . . viewers can see and leam about people, places and things in faraway landi Television.. . . (5). . . . our knowledge by introducing to us new ideas.. . . ( 6) . . . . ma' lead us to new hobbies and recreations. In addition. . . . (7). . . . the news, televisio: provides us with a variety o f programs that can satisfy- . . . (8). . . . taste. Most peopl now seem to like spending their evenings. . . . (9). . . . television. It is more convonicr for them to sit at home watching T V .. . . (10). . . . to go out for amusements anywher else. Exercise 3: Read the following passage and the decide which option A,B>C or ! best fits each space. Have you ever stopped (I)................. why people give each (2)....................... egg at Easter? - The Christian festival of Easter celebrates the return o f Christ from th dead, but the festival is actually name (3)...................... the goddess of the sun, Eostrt whose name is taken from the East where she (4).......................In very ancient times Easier was a celebration that winter was (5).................. and that a new life was abou to begin. The rabbit, ( 6). . . ................... to the number of young it produces, it th symbol of life. In some parts of the world, the rabbit leaves large ( 7 ) ...............of egg (another symbol of new life) in the garden and children have to find as many as the can. This is very ( 8)......... .. Christmas when Santa Claus ieave presents fc individual children. At Easter children have to be independent and (9). . ..............afte themselves. In this (10)....................... the hunt for Easter eggs presents the need fc young people to go out in to the world and make their own fortune. D. wander c. wonder B. wondering 1. A. to wonder D. other c. others 2. A. else B. person c. after D. with 3. A. for B.about 4. A. goes D. raises B. sets c. rises D. over B. conclusion c. up 5. A. finish 6. A. as B. since c. due D. because D. totals B. sums c. figures 7. A. numbers

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c.

B. unlike different D. similar 9. A. take B. get c . look D. carry 10. A day B.way c . habit D. time 2. ðối với bài thi ðọc và trả lời câu hỏi về chi tiết cụ thề: thí sinh nên tim ra từ ’ñịnh hướng’ trong câu hói (từ ñịnh hướng ñó sẽ giúp thí sinh biết câu hỏi lả về vẩn ñề gì và'ñịnh hướng cho thí sinh phải tìm thông tin gì trong bải ñọc, ñọc lướt qua toàn bài, nhưng ñọc kỹ phẩn có từ ‘ñịnh hướng’ trong ñoạn vãn ñể tìm chính xác câu trả lời. Exercise 4: Read the following passage and answer the questions. The world’s oceans are so vast that they can cope with the present levels of pollution. However, little is known about the long-term effects of such slow poisoning. The most serious problem of modem time is that man is destroying the earth's natural resources and transforming huge areas into waste land. As a result. It is becoming extremely difficult to grow enough to feed the world’s rapidly increasing population. A way of protecting all wild life on the earth must also be found as many species are in danger of disappearing completely from the face of the earth. The smoke in the atmosphere, for example, is increasing so much ihsl the amount OÍ' sunlight has been reduced in many cities. Man’s whole environment is being changed in a serious way. 1 . What is the process of making something dirty? r

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5. What is a-difficulty which needs attention and thought?

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3. ðối với bài thi ñọc và trả ỉời các câu hỏi tham chiếu: thí sinh cần xác ñịnh một từ, thường là ñại từ chì ñển một từ ñã cho trước ñó, hay ñối vỡi bài thi ñọc tìm nghĩa cùa từ trong văn cảnh, thí sinh cần chủ ý tới vãn cành mà từ ñó ờ.trong, hiểu ñoạn văn chứa từ ñó mà suy diễn nghĩa của từ, ñừng tập trung quá vào nghĩa ñen cùa nó vốn có. Exercise 5: Read the following passages carefully, then choose the ONE best answer (A, B» o r D) to each question The Winterthur Museum is a collection and a house. There are many museums devoted to the decorative arts and many house museums, but rarely in the United States is a great collection displayed in a great country house. Passing through successive generations o f a single family, Winterthur has been a private estate for

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more than a century. Even after the extensive renovations made to it between 1929 and 1931, the house remained a family residence. This fact is of importance to the atm osphere and effect o f the m useum . T he im pression o f a lived-m house IS apparent

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to the visitor: the rooms look as if they were vacated only a short while ago whether by the original owners of the furniture or the most recent residents of the house can be a matter of personal interpretation. Winterthur remains, then, a house in which a collection of furniture and architectural elements has been assembled. Like an English country house, it is an organic structure; the house, as well as the collection and manner of displaying it to the visitor, has changed over the years. The changes have coincided with developing concepts o f the American arts, increased knowledge on the part of collectors and students, and a progression toward the achievement of a historical effect in period-room displays. The rooms at Winterthur have followed this current, yet still retained the character of a private house. The concept of a period room as a display technique has developed gradually over the years in an effort to present works of art in a context that would show them to greater effect and would give them more meaning for the viewer. Comparable to the habitat group in a natural history museum, the period room represents the decorative arts in a lively and interesting manner and provides an opportunity to assemble objects related by style, date, or place of manufacture. 1. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. The reason that Winterthur was redesigned B. Elements that make Winterthur an unusual museum C.-How Winterthur compares to English country houses D. Historical furniture contained in Winterthur 2. The phrase "devoted to" in line Ỉ is ciosest in meaning to A. suưounñed by B. specializing in c . successful in D. sentimental about 3. What happened at Winterthur between 1929 and 1931? A. The owners moved out B. The house was repaired c. The old furniture was replaced D. The estate became a museum .4. What does the author mean by stating ’’the impression of a ỉived-in house is apparent to the visitor” (lines 5-6)? A. Winterthur is very old. B. Few people visit Winterthur. c . Winterthur does not look like a typical museum. D. The furniture at Winterthur looks comfortable. 5. The word "assembled" in line 9 is closest in meaning to A. summoned B. appreciated c . brought together D. fundamentally changed 6 . The word ”it" in line 9 refers to A. Winterthur B. collection c . English country house D- visitor 7. The word "developing’’ in line 11 is closest m meaning to A. ứañitional B. exhibiting c informative D. evolving 163

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8. According to the passage, objects in a pếriod room,are related by all of the

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following EXCEPT A. date B. style c. place o f manufacture D. past ownership 9. What is the relationship between the two paragraphs in the passage? A. Paragraph 2 explains a term that was mentioned in Paragraph 1. B. Each paragraph describes a different approach to the display of objects m a museum c . P aragraph 2 explains a philosophy o f art appreciation that contrasts with that

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explained in Paragraph I. D. Each paragraph describes a different historical period 10. Where in the passage does the author explain why displays at Winterthur have changed? A. lines B. lines 4-5 ỉines 6‐8 D. lines 10-12 4. ðối với bài thi ðọc và trả lời câu hòi có ý ttrơns tự: thí sinh cần hiêu các cáclì ñiền ñạt khác nhau của ý ñó. (Ví ñự: ðọc ñoạn vãn và xác ñịnh các càu ðúng (TRUE) hay Sai (FALSE) hay Không chứa thông tin (NO INFORMATION) tìr bài ñọc) Exercise 6 : Read the passage below then state whether the following sentences are TRUE or FALSE: TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain, traditions play a more important part in the life of the people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres are closed on Sundays. No letters are delivered, only a few Sunday papers ạ're published. To this day, an English family prefers a house with a garden to a flat in a modem house with central heating. English people like gardens. Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement painted green in imitation of grass and a box of flowers. Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday, and in Scotland it is not kept at all, except by clerks in banks; all the shops, milỉs and factories are working. But six days later, on New Year’s Eve the Scotch begin to enjoy themselves. All the shops, mills and factories are closed on New Year’s Day. People invite their friends to their houses and “ sit the Old Year out and the New Year in”. When the clock begins to strike twelves, the head of the family goes to the entrance door, opens it wide and hoỉds it untiỉ the last stroke. Then he shuts the door. He has let the Old Year out and the New Year in. Now greetings and small presents are offered. A new national tradition was bom in Britain. Every year, a large number of ancient motor-cars and motor-cycỉes__ sometimes described as Old Crocks__ drive from' London to Brighton. “Crocks” means something or someone who is " crocked up” broken down and in bad condition. Englishmen keep up the old veterans. Veteran cars are those which were made before the year 1904. Some cars look very funny,some are steered by a bar, like a boat. Somecars are driven by steam-engines (by boiling water and not by petrol). This run from London to Brighton is a colourful demonstration. People are dressed in the clothes of those times. The cars start from 164

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Hyde Park only in die morning, the oldest cars are leading. It is not a race, and most of the cars come to Brighton, which is sixty miles from London, only in the evening. This demonstration takes place on the day of the announcement of the law in 1896. which said Ị; that a man with a red flag must walk in front of every moior-car when it moved along ; die streets. These were the early days of motor-cars and people were afraid of them. TRUE o r FALSE 1. In Britain, traditions are very important in the life of people. 2 . Englishmen have always changed their traditions. \ 3. English families prefer living in modem flats to in houses with gardens. 4. Christmas is the biggest holiday in Scotland. 5. People in Britain like celebrating “ sit the Old Year out and the New Year m”. 6 . A demonstration of ancient motor-cars and motor-cycles is held in England every year. I I 7. This is a national race for ancient motor-cars and motor-cycles from London to Brighton. ; 8 . On the early days o f motor-cars, drivers had to wear red clothes when driving j their cars. 5 5. ðổi yới bài thi ðọc và trả lời câu hỏi suy diễn: cần phải suy diễn logic ñể tìm ra íhôrm ị I tin cái mà Iñỉông ñược thể hiện rõ ràng mả ngụ ý ñẳng sau thông tín trong bài. 1 Ị Exercise 7: Read the following passages carefully, then choose the ONE best answer (A, B, c or D) to each question Ị ■ As frees grow old they add a new ring for each year, this discovery, it seems, was V 'first made by Leonardo da Vinci, the famous Italian painter and scientist. It took a j -long time, however, before the serious study of tree rings started; this was done in ; Arizona by Andrew Ellicott Douglas. Douglas developed a simple technique for dating trees called cross-dating and ; 'for a period o f over twenty years continued the study of free rings. He spent much of j ịhis time in logging camps near Flagstaff ; Ị: The Douglas method has been used by many scientists. Some of themused it to Ỉ ;examine logs in Indian pueblo ruins; they were able todate thebuildings right back to the ■| fctenth century. Others used it to date the wodd's oldest living trees, the bristlecone pines. I Ị 1 . What can be inferred from the first paragraph? ‘ A. Leonardo made many discoveries. ; ;; B. Leonardo was famous as a painter c. Leonardo was interested in the aging process D. Leonardo became famous because of his free ring discovery, j 2. What also can be inferred from the first paragraph? • A. Leonardo started the serious study of free rings. B. Leonardo's discovery was not developed for many years, c . Tree rings were studied in Arizona for a long time after Leonardo. D. Douglas was a famous Arizona scientist, j [ 3. What can be inferred from the second paragraph? i I A. The term cross-dating was invented by Douglas, ị í B. An uncomplicated method of tree-dating was discovered by Douglas. : c . It took Douglas 20 years to developed a tree-dating technique.

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D. The technique of cross-dating was developed near Flagstaff. I 4. What also can be inferred from the second paragraph? ] A. Logging camps are good places for studying free rings. I B. Douglas spent 20 years near Flagstaff. I c . Douglas spent most of his life studying tree rings. j D. There are courses for studying tree rings near Flagstaff. ' I 5. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? ! A. The Douglas method has been used since the 10th century. I B. Indians used the Douglas method to examine loggs. j c . The earliest known frees can be dated by the Douglas method. D. Indians used bristlecone pines to construct theừ buildings I 6. What can be infeưed from the last paragraph? A. American Indians lived in the region investigated nearly a thousand years ago.] B. The Douglas method can be used to date all the 10th century ruins. Ị c . Scientists dated the bristlecone pine to the 10th century. D. The Indian pueblo ruins were not as old as the bristlecone pines. ! 7. What was involved in the passage? ị A. Leonardo spent much o f his time in logging camps near Flagstaff. B. Leonardo spent much of his time in logging. c. Leonardo spent much of his time in examining logs. Ị D. None is correct. I 6. ðối với bài thi ðọc và trả lời câu hỏi khái quát (hòi về ý chính hay chủ ñề củaj bải): Thí sinh nên tìm câu trả lời ờ câu ñầu tiên hay câu cuổi cùng của ñoạn văn. ị 7. ðổi với bài thi ðọc vả chọn ñáp án ñúng cho mỗi câu hòi từ các ñáp án ñã chà (multiple-choice): Thí sinh cân ñọc toàn bộ bài ñọc trước tiên ñể hiểu nội dung của] bài ñọc, sau ñó bao phù các phương án lựa chọn, vả chỉ nhìn kỹ vào từng câu, từng! ý, hay từng câu hỏi, và sau ñó có thê tìm câu trà lời trong bài ñộc bằng, chính ngôĩiỊỊ ngữ cùa mình. Sau ñó, mói bắt ñầÍỊ ñọc các phương ấn lựa chọn, xem thứ phương ánj

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nào gần với câu trả lời ñẩu tiên của mình nhất, và ỉoạì bò những phương án vô lýj hay gây nhiễu nhất. Bằng phương pháp ỉoạì trừ ñần cầc phưong án sai, chúng ta sẩ quyêt ñịnh một phương án tối ưu cho ñáp án của mình. ðỗi với dạng bài ñọc hiểụ] nảy, cần chú ý các câụ hòi thường theo trật tự như các thông tin trong băí ñọc. Neuf có câu hỏi về toàn thể bài ñọc và câu hỏi về mục ñích hay thái ñộ của tác giả ñoạir văn sẽ thường là câu hòi cuôi cùng và nên dùng thù thuật "read between lines' ñể| suy nghĩ về thái ñộ và tình huống cụ thề của ngửời viết. 3 Exercise 8: Read the following passages carefully, then choose the ONE besii answer (A, B, c or D) to each question \ THE BEATLES j In the 1960s, The Beatles were probably the most famous pop group in the whole world. Since then, there have been a great many groups that have achieved enormousi fame, so It IS perhaps difficult now to imagine how sMISũtioìiOỈ The Beatles were at: that time. They were four boys from the north of England and none of them had any; training in music. They started by performing and recording songs by black; Americans and they had some success with these songs. Then they started writing: their own songs and that was when they became really popular.- The Beatles change!

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pop music. They were the first pop group to achieve great success from songs they had written themselves. After that it became common for groups and singers to write their own songs. The Beatles did not have a long career. Their first hit record was in 1963 and they split up in 1970. They stopped doing live performances in 1966 because it had become too dangerous for them - their fans were so excited that they suưounded them and tried to take their clothes as souvenirs! However, today some o f their songs remain as famous as they were when they first came out. Throughout the world many people can sing part of a Beatles song if you ask them. 1. The passage is mainly about________ A. How the Beatles became more successful than other groups B. Why the Beatles split up after 7 years c . The Beaties’ fame and success

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2. The four boys of the Beatles________ A. Came from the same family B. Were at the same age c . Came from a town in the north o f England ð. Received good training in music 3' The word “sensational” is closest in meaning to ____ A. Notorious B. Bad c . Shocking D. Popular 4. The first songs of the Beatles w ere______________ A. Written by themselves B. Broadcast on the radio , c. Paid a lot of money D. Written by black Americans 5. What is not true about the Beatles? i A. The members had no training in music B. They had a long stable career c . They became famous when they wrote their own songs ' D. They were aửaid o f being hurt by fans ị. The Beatles stopped their live performances because_________ A. They had earned enough money ;■ B. They did not want to work with each other c . They spent more time writing their own songs D. They were afraid of being hurt by fans. 7. The year 1970 was the time when__________ \ A. They split up B. They changed pop music ■ c . They Started their career

D. They stopped singing live

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8. What the fans of the Beatles often did w as______ A. Sing together with them B. Take their clothes as souvenirs ; c . Ask them to write more songs D. Ask them why they should separate 9. Some songs of the Beatles now_______ A. Are still famous as they used to be B. Became too old to sing c. Are sung by crazy fans D. Are the most famous ỈỈ0. The tone of the passage is that o f______ A. Admiration B. Criticism _ c . Neutral D. Sarcasm ðối với bài thi ñọc về một bài vịết có nhiều ñoạn nhỏ, và có khoảng 7 câu bị lược í' bỏ ñi từ cấc ñoạn văn nhỏ và ñể ỉại chỗ trống. Thí sinh ñược cung câp khoảng 8 ! cau khong theo trật tự nôi dung(ñược ñánh số từ A tới H) và ñược yêu cầu phải k . chọn câu nào phù hợp ñể ñiền vào chỗ trống (gap-filling). ðôi với dạng này, thí 167

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Reef would still be a wonderful place to see.

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sinh nên ñọc lưót toàn bộ ñoạn văn, hiểu ỷ bao quát của ñoạn văn. sau ñó cố gang ] ñoán các thông tin bị thỉếu trong ñoạn vãn, hình dung thông tin cân ñiên vào các \ chồ trông là gi. Tiếp theo; thí sinh nên ñọc kỹ các câu ñã cho ñể ñiền vào chỗ j trống, cố gắng tìm ra sự nối kết giừa các câu ñó và bài khóa (chú ý: câu eẩn ñược I chọn ñể ñiền vả ñoạn văn chứa nó phải có cùng chù ñiểm). Sau khi ñã chọn ñược Ị ñáp án rôi, thí sinh cũng nên ñọc lại toàn bộ ñoạn văn xem nó có nghĩa không, ñê I khang ñịnh lại một lần nữa sự lựa chọn của mình lả chính xác. . ‘ Exercise 9: Choose from sentences A-K the one which fits each gap 1—6- There is i one extra sentence you do not need to use. (12 points) A Industries have polluted the water, fishing has destroyed sea life and divers I have damaged large parts of the coral. ! B The crew were helpful and pleasant and the price was also very reasonable. ] c Altogether, it was a wonderful trip. D Tm not sure I would go again. f E It stretches for 2000 kilometres and is up to 800 metres wide. I F However, I didn’t think I could take part in a dive cruise and not dive. I G At no point were we permitted to swim away on our own. I H I was right it was an incredible sight. I A Natural W onder I When I was asked to visit and write about the Great Barrier Reef, I was thrilled. i| had heard reports of damage done by tourism and other industries, but felt that the; ]_____ ■

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I wasn’t sure how From the air, the Great Banier Reef seems huge, best to explore such a giant place, so after I had landed, I made enquiries and was told thq best way to see The Reef is to take a dive cruise. I booked a place on a three-day cruise, andỊ despite warnings about the state of some of these boats, the boat I was on was comfortably

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Although I have been diving before, I am not an experienced diver. I was nervous to begin with, but soon felt completely safe. We were divided intpj groups according to our ability and each group was given an instructor. They had verystrtct rulesL41: .U ......—J. I

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were friendly and the evenings on board were very pleasant. While I was at the Great Barrier Reef, it became perfectly clear from ửíị conservation programmes I came across, that the damage I had heard about had been

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Environmental groups have done much to stop this damage, bui done. sadly it continues. Ị Despite this, the Great Barrier Reef IS a wonderful piace 10 go. i-*or me a! least'iị is one of the most significant natural wonders our earth has to offer. 5 9. ðối với bài thi ñọc ờ dạng như sau: Thí sinh ñuợc yêu cầu nổi các câu hỏi hay các câử nói vó i các ñoạn vãn ngắn của một bài ñọc dằi. Các ñoạn văn ngắn nảy có thể về các> con người, nơi chốn, . . . khác nhau. Thông thường, thí siníi ñược yêu cầu nối cácthông tin chi tiết hay quan ñiểm, thái ñộ ñược diễn tà trong bài ñọc với chù thê cù'

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A. Veronique Tadjo Tae Kwon Do is a martial art which has become popular as a sporting activity in recent years. I started learning it in the Ivory Coast in Africa when I was about 13, and later became the country’s first black belt. My teacher, Kim Young Tae, had been sent by the Tae Kwon Do federation in Korea to open a club. It was very successful. When he arrived he didn't know a word of French so he used to demonstrate rather than explain. At the time my brother and I started learning Tae Kwon Do, we were fighting like mad. But we quickly understood we had to stop fighting because we realized that fighting was about self-defence, not aggression. Tae Kwon Do teaches you to control your anger and control your body. It IS very good for your memory, co-ordination and self-disciplme. And you are acquiring a philosophy.' Later on, Kim opened a restaurant and then moved back to Korea. We had a very friendly relationship, but somehow I feel like Ĩ was a disappointment to him. He thought Ĩ had a future in the sport. But when I was 17 Ĩ decided it was not what Ĩ wanted to do. B. Helen M irren Everyone loved Miss Welding. She taught me between the ages of 13 and 17 and was instrumental in my becoming an actress. She knew Ĩ was interested in acting, bút it just wasn’t an option in my world. My father was a driving -examiner and I wasn’t exposed to acting as a career. It was Miss Welding who told me about the National Youth Theatre, which was an organisation I was unaware of. She suggested I look into it and think about going there. About ten years after I left school, when I was with the Royal Shakespeare Company and plaving fairly high-profile parts, I got a letter from Miss Welding saying she was following my career with interest, but as far lib I know, she never came to see me perform. She certainly never came to see me backstage.

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taught more than one member of the same family? 2 might have preferred their pupil to choose a different career? was popular with all the pupiỉs? had to overcome á disadvantage when teaching? made contact after their pupil left school? 6 taught in an unusual physical position? 7. changed their pupils’ behaviour? became their teacher as a result of a personal contact? developed their pupils* physical and mental skills?

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từng ñoạn ñọc ngắn ñó. ðể làm tổt dạng bài thi này, thỉ sinh càn ñọc lướt mỗi ñoạn môi phân của bài ñọc ñẽ ỉây ý tông ạuan. Sau ñó ñọc các câu hỏi và gạch chân các từ khóa mang ý chính (key-words), khẳng ñịnh rằng mình hiểu chính xác ý cùa câu hòi. Sau ñó lại nhìn nhanh lại bài ñọc ñể tìm ý trả lời cho ý chính của câu hỏí (chú ị các từ khóa trong câu hỏi chưa hẳn là có trong bài ñọc mà trong bài ñọc có các từ dien ñạt ý tương ñương. ). Neu thí sinh tìm ñirợc các từ khóa ñó ơ trong ñoạn văn ữiì hay iàm tương tự cho các ñoạn khác và chọn ñáp án cho bài thi. Chú ý vì thời gian làm bài ñọc có hạn nên các thí sinh không nên ñọc quá kỹ và cổ găng hiêu hêt các từ trong ñoạn văn mà vẫn chưa có cách thức chọn câu tra lòi. Exercise 10. You are going to read an article in which four people describe their best teacher. For questions 1 - 1 5 , choose from the people (A - D) The people may be chosen more than once.

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Nisha Ishtiak My father was editor of Pakistan’s largest newspaper and he knew and liked its librarian, Atif Burkhi. Atif was well-' educated and when I was about Ỉ2 my father decided I should learn more about the region’s history and he chose. Atif as my tutor. It turned out to be an inspired move. He would come 10 our house once a week to teach me, from the end of school until supper. He took me through a lot of history, but after a few lessons I got bored. '1 know you’re beinsr paid bv TTTV parents to teach me this stuff,’ I said, ‘but there are other things in the' world. ’ He burst out laughing as he so often did and asked: ‘What do you want to talk about then?’ And SO we would discuss global issues and world literature. D. Suzanne Terry Brian Earle, my English teacher was á very intense man with thick glasses, and the fact that he taught a lot of his classes standing on his head was also seen as extremely peculiar. He taught me for just one year and it was probably one of the most creative years of my life. He didn’t believe in giving marks for grammar or punctuation; he implied that the mechanics of writing were not important if you had somet hing to say. When I wrote a short story for him called ‘Army’, he simply wrote across the bottom: 'You’ve just got to keep on writing. ’ Those few words of support had a fantastic effect on me in terms of wanting to write and be involved in writing. Brian Earle had a love of teaching and his subject.

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10. pointed their pupil in the direction of a successful career? 11. demonstrated a sense of humour? 12. decided what to . teach by responding to. their pupil’s interests? 13. showed what was necessary instead of talking about it? 14. was also doing another job? 15. put an emphasis on what pupils expressed, not the way they expressed it?

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Trong các ñề thi học sinh giỏi cấp PTCS, các bài thi yiết thường ờ các dạng sau: Viêt một lá thư (vỉêt lá thư cho bạn bè, người thân kể về một chuyến ñi của mình haý vê lớp học, tình hình học tập, sinh sông cùa mình, hay lá thư mời bạn tới dự sinh nhật mình, hay ñi nghỉ hè cùng mình,. . . . (write an informal letter); viết ỉá cho ông (bà) hiệu trưởng, một nệựời ñứng ñầu tổ chức, câu lạc bộ nào ñó ñể ñề nghị hay phàn nàn, yêu câu vê vân ñê gì, hay ñăng ký xin học bổng, xin việc,. . . . . (write a formal letter) Viet một ñoạn văn miêu tả về quê hương, bạn bè, ngưòi thân, nghề nghiệp yêu thích, lễ hội, kỳ nghỉ,.. . . Viểt một bài luận nêu quan ñiểm cùa mình, hay ñưa ra lập luận ñể ñánh giá một cái gì ñó. Sau ñây là một số gợi ý, giúp các em làm tổt phần thĩ này: * HOW TO W RITE A LETTER I. How to write a forma] letter. (Cách viết một lá thư trang trọ nu) * The format of the formal letter (Hình thức cùa một lá thư trang ừọng):

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- Có một số luật lệ qui ước về cách thức trình bày một ỉá thư trang trọng trong tiếng Anh, nhưng chúng ta nên viết và trình bày một lá thư cảng rõ ràng, ngắn gọn, trang trọng càng tốt. Sau ñây, là một hình thức và một số qui luật viết lá thư trang trọng:

Writer's address

Receiver's aññress

The receiver "s address Dale (ngày tháng) (tin nrtk hitfli, «5njỉ jy. ñịa chi aia ngur'/t lĩhợn)

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D ear Sir/ M adam , (opening a letter)

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Giving the content of the letter (nội dung chính của bức thư)

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(The receiver's nam e The receiver ’•* title The receiver ',v company)

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Ending the letter I look forward to your reply Yours, faithfully, Your signature,____________________________________________________

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* M ội sổ quỉ ước khi viết thư: - ðịa chỉ cùa người viết ờ góc bên phải cùa iá thư - Tên tước hiệu, tên công ty hay ñịa chỉ của người nhận ờ góc bên trái cùa lá thư, ;dưới ñịa chỉ người viết. ■ ' Ngày tháng nên viết góc bên phải, ngay dưới ñịa chi người viết, tlìáng nên vièt bằng chữ. , - Lời chào của lá thư, bạn nên dùnệ 'Dear Sir/ Madam’ nếu bạn không biết, tên Ị của ngươi bạn ñang viết tơi. Nếu bạn biet tên người mình viết tới, bạn nên dùng tước ! hiẹu va tên họ {Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, Pro, etc. ). ðối với phụ nữ nếu minh khóng ; chắc chắn biết họ có gia ñình hay chưa chúng ta dùng ‘My + tôn h ọ \ ñôi VỚI phụ mì Ị.ñã có gia ñình, chúng ta dùng íMrs + tên họ’, ñôi với phụ nữ chưa lập gia ñinh, chung *ta ñùng ‘Miss + tên họ’ ñổi với nam giới, chúng ta dùng “Mr + tên họ’.) - Cuối.lá thư, thường có câu ‘ỉ look forward to your reply (Tôi mong ñợi sự phúc /ñáp từ ông/ bả)/ ‘7 look forw ard to hearing from you. ’

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- Kết thúc thư bằng ‘Yoụrs faithfully nếu bạn không biết tên cùa người gửi. kêi ' thúc bằn g *YoursSìncereỉỳ nếu bạn biết tên cùa người gửi. Viet chữ ký và tên ñầy ñù của mình ở cuối cùng cùa ỉá thư : * BỐ cuc của ỉá thir: nên có nhiều hơn 3 ñoạn. - ðoạn ñầu nên ngắn gọn chỉ mục ñích của iá thư (yêu cầu hay phàn nàn cái gì) : - ðoạn giữa của iá thư nên chứa ñựng các thông tin cần thiết, không viêt dài dòng; chú ý viêt cho logic, dễ hiểu. - ðoạn cuối nên chì ra những hành ñộng, sự hồi ñáp mà người viêt mong ñợi từ [ người nhận thư,. . ..

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,Chủ ỷ. Không nên viết tắt trong các lá thư trang trọng. Ví dụ: Tránh viết (I’m ... / She’s ..

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.) For example:___________________________________________________________ _ Fortune Goods 317 Orchard Road Singapore

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Mr David Choi Sales Manager Everiong Batteries \ Ỉ 71 Choi Hung Road Hung Horn Hong Kong

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Dear Mr Choi, 1 am writing to inform you that the goods we ordered from your company /rave not been supplied correctly. On 23 September 20] Ỉ we placed an order with yourfirm for 12,000 ultra super long-life batteries. The consignment arrived yesterday but contained only Ỉ.200 batteries. Thừ errorput ourfirm in a difficult position, as we had to make some emergency purchases tofulfil our commitments to aíĩ our customers. Thừ caused us considerable inconvenience. Ỉ am writing to ask you to please make up the shortfall immediately and to ensure that sitch errors do not happen again. Otherwise, we may have to look elsewherefor our supplies, I lookforward tơ hearingfrom you by return. Yours sincerely J. Wong Purchasing Officer_______________________________________________________ II. How to write an informal letter. Cách viết một lả thư mang tính bạn bè, thân mật cùng giong như cách viết một !á thư công việc, nhưng iời chào, lời kết thúc lá thư và nội dung lá thư, chúng ta sử dụng ngôn ngữ thân mật hon và có thê viêt tãt trong lả thư. Cụ thê: Chúng ta bắt ñầu lá thư bàng 'Dear + first name (Dear Hoa,) Chúng ta kết thúc iá thư bằng: > Fm look forward to seeing you. > Write to me soon. > Love, > From a lot o f love. > Good luck > Best wishes. > See you then. > Take care. >

.......

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For example:

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Dear Jack, I just receivedyou emailand Ỉ 7n loo glad dial you ’re making reality what you aiwuys wanted You asked mem your email when ừ is the best time to come. I thmk that it would befor yen to come in the summer because during the summer we have many cooking festival. You also mention that you want to meet people cooking everyday. That's possibh basiccaUy if you go to our restaurant where everyday delicious meals are prepared. Moreover, if you want to know what our traditionalfood is ỉhaí’s 'Briham 'which contain, many vegetables and tí’s very high in vtiamins and carbohadratel Now asfor your invitation I ’m very sorry but that time Ỉ will he sifting my school exams. I ’d love to see.you when you will come. Take care. Roman_______________________________________________________________ III- Cách viết cụ thể một sô ỉá thư X. How to write a letter of invitation Cũng như bô cục của một ỉá thư thông thường, lá thư mời cân có ñây ñù lòi ch; và kết thúc của lá thư, nhưng nó cần ñảm bảo ñược nội ñung sau: Phần 'ñầu thur nên nói mục ñích viết thư của mình, mình ñịnh mời ai ñến dự ; kiện gì (What the event?), ở ñâu (where?), khi nào (when) Phần nội ñung chính của lá thư nên nêu lòi mời {making invitation) và yêu cầu cho khẳng ñịnh lại cộ ñến hay không cùa vị khách ñược mời (askmgfor confirmation) - Chủ ý: Có 2 thì ñược sử dụng trọng lá thư mời: Present Simple Tense ñược ñù; ñể nói-về sự kiện; Future Tense ñược dùng ñể hói và khãnu ñịnh lại rẩim vị khá có ñến hay không. * M ột số ngôn ngữ thirờng sử dụng trong lá thư mời: Making invitation: * Informal ways: to come to my birthday party next Saturday? Would you like I’d like you Are you free come to my birthday party next Saturday? Why don’t you Will you coming to my birthday party next Saturday? How about What about Do you feel like go out for a picnic next Sunday? Shall we going out for a picnic next Sunday? Let’s ■ * ^ f o r m a l w ays:______________________________ - It would be great /■wonderful, if you could come to the conference next Saturday?

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- Your presence at our conference wouid fee highly appreciated. - It is our pleasure to invite you to the conference next Saturday1? - It is our pleasure to have your presence at oar conference. Asking for confirmation: Give me a call if you (can) could come. Let me know if you can come. Please let us know if you are planning to come.

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Let me know about your plan as soon as possible. Just let me know when you can come and where we can pick you up. Please reply as soon as possible. * Sample letter of formal letter of invitation______ ____________ Lisa Greene 45 South Racine Avenue, Chicago, ỈL United States -(312) 996-8700 Karen White 4550 Kennedy Drive, East Moline, IL, United States (309) 792-2500 December 20, 2011 Dear Karen, / have got the news that you are coming down to Chicago for the Christmas this year. It is a great opportunity to meet. Ỉ have invited all my friends and acquaintances fo r a party on Christmas Eve. The party is organìzeẩ.at my home arid will begin at 7. 00 pm, ■It is indeed a pleasure to invite your family and you fo r the party. This will be fun and we can enjoy together with all the friends. It has been quite a long time that you have been away from home due to your work. This is the perfect chance to meet after a long gap. We win try to bring back the Christmas memories that M'e shared at our school and college time. . Our children will get to know each other and the relationship that we share will strengthen as it will pass on to next, generation. Ĩ hope you will be able to make it to the party. Ia m looking forward fo r your positive reply. Please let me know in advance so that I can make the necessary1 arrangements. Let's make this Christmas memorable with get together o f friends. Yours sincerely, Lisa Greene

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* Sample letter of informal letter of invitation___________________________ Dear Mai, I ’m having a birthday party next Saturday. Would you like to come. The party starts at 7. 30 p. m and ends at ỈỈ. 00 p. m. I'm going to invite some o f our old classmates, too. You 7/ meet some o f your old friends whom VOÚ haven 7 seen fo r so long. You can also enjoy games, singing and dancing as well as many kinds o f delicious cakes and fruits. Please come and share the happiness with me. Please let me know i f you come. Call me soon. Love, M m________________________ ________________________________________ __ 2, How to write a letter of acceptance or refusal Cũng như bố cục của một lả thư thông thường, lá thư chấp nhận hay từ chối việc gì ằn có ñẫy ñủ ỉời chào và kết thúc của lá thư, nhưng nó cần ñảm bào ñược nội dunu sau: ðoạn ñầu cùa lá thư cần nói rõ mình rất cảm ơn lời mợi haỵ íá thư mời (Saying thanks for the invitation) ðoạn hai của lá thư cần thể hiện rõ sự tiếc nuối cần phải từ choi và lý do hay sir vui lòng chấp nhận lời mời. u

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ðoạn ba, nếu chấp nhận lời mời, mình sẽ nêu thời gian tới, hòi xem có cần yêu cầu mang gì haỵ nói mình tự nguyên mang gì ñến (nếu cần thiết) và nếu từ chối lời mời thì có thể nói lời cảm ơn lại một lần nữa và hẹn một dịp khác. * M ột sô ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng trong ‘a letter of acceptance or refusal’: Acceptance: - Thank you very much for your invitation. I’d love to/ I’d be delighted to. . . . -- Sure!/ Great! That would be fun/ wonderful. - That sounds like fun. - Great. Let’s plan for it. - That’s a good (great) idea! Refusal: - Thank you very much but I ’m afraid I’m busy then. - 1 wish I could but I’m busy. Maybe another time. Thanks/ thanks anyways. / What about next Saturday,. . . . Saying thanks again and suggesting another time: I hope we can get together on other occasions. Maybe some other time. Could we make it another time? Maybe next Sunday or the other after that. What about next Sunday? Sample letter of informal letter of refusal___________________________________ Dear Jack and Betty, Thank you very muchfo r your invitation to have a holiday with you in your hometown. I must first apologize fo r the delay in responding to you so late to which I regret and promise that Ỉ will not ño this to volt again.

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win be able to meet up soon to catch up on our /ỉếvrs oil other occasion. You see that Ĩ will be attending a.summer course at that time. Once again please accept my apologizes fo r my tardiness Wiih best regards. J e n n y _______________________________________________________

Sample letter of informal letter of acceptance_______________________________ Dear Jack and Betty,

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hometown. I ’d love to come and that's a great idea to have a relaxing holiday in such peaceful and romantic place as your hometown after a hard working time. I ’ll travel there by train and take some o f your favorite things from the biggest supermarkets. See you then. Love. Jenny Sample letter of formal letter of refusal 543 Pine Valley Great Fails. IL 5999Ỉ Doug Peterson Executive Director Software company 175

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122 Main Street South Town, MO 76890

I April 24, 20ỈỈ

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Dear Thomas, We appreciate that you took the time to apply fo r the position o f sales manager with our company. We received applications from manypeople. After revievAng your ! submitted application materials, we have decided that we will not offer you an interview. We appreciate that you are interested in our company. Please do apply again in the future when you see a jo b postingfor which you qualify. Again, thank you fo r applying. We wish you all the best. Regards, I Doug Peterson___________________________________________ ________ I

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Sample letter of formal letter of acceptance__________________________________ 507 Shore Drive I Hampton, VA 2350! Mr. Jack Krebs. Division Manager I Data International Corporation I Ì212 Corporation Lane Richmond, VA 233Ỉ2 April 24. 20! Ì Dear Mr. Krebs: I write to confirm my acceptance o f your employment offer o f April 20 and to tell you how delighted I am to be joining Data International in Richmond. The work is exactly what I have prepared fo r and hoped to do. I feel confident that Ĩ can make a significant contribution to the corporation, and I am grateful fo r the opportunity you have given me. As we discussed, Ỉ will report 10 work at 8:00 a. ỈỈỈ. on May 22 and will have completed the medical examination and ding testing by (he start date. Ị understand that my starting salary will he $35,000 annually with health ami denial coverage provided. Additionally, / shaỉ! complete aỉỉ employment and insurance forms fo r the

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Ĩ look fonvard to working with you and your ft lie team. confidence in me and am very hcippy to be joining your staff.

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Sincerely, Jack Brown ____________________________________________________ _ 3. How to write a thank-you letter. Cũng như bố cục của một lả thư thông thưÒTig, lả thư càm ơn cần có ñầy ñù lời

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chào và kết thúc của ỉá thư. nhưng nó cần ñàm bảo ñược nội dim Lĩ sau:

Nội dung chính cửa lá thư phải diễn tả ñược sự biết om hay sự.ñánh giá cao của mình về những thứ mình nhận ñưọ'c hay sự giúp ñỡ từ người khác,- . . và diễn-íả ñược mỉĩìh thích thứ ñó như thể nào hay nhờ sự giúp ñõ' ñó mà công việc cùa mình tiến triển như thế nào. ðoạn cuối cùa lá thư nên diễn tả iòng biếí on và cảm ơn của mình một lẩn nữa. * Một số ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng ĩrong ‘a íhank-yon lette r’

176 Giới thiệu trích đoạn bởi GV. Nguyễn Thanh Tú

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Expressing gratitude/ thanks - But for your great help (assistance), - Thank you very much for your help/ helping with my work. we couldn’t have - Many thanks to you for___ finished our work - It was very kind o f to help me with my work. on time. - It was extremely good of you to........... - My work couldn’t - I’m very much obliged to you for......... have been - I’m really grateful to you for........ successful without - We would like to express our thanks/ gratitude ÍO you for your great help. helping... - We are extremely thankful for your special help (assistance) and donation.

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Professor: Van Hung. Pham The Director o f Vietnam national University. Kuan Thuy St, Hanoi September Ỉ 5th, 20Ì Ỉ Dear Mr Hung, Thank you fo r aỉỉ the kelp you have given me with my jo b search. Ĩ especially appreciate the information and advice vou have provided, and tha contacts you have shared with me. Your assistance has been invaluable to me during this process. Again, thank you so much Ĩ greatly appreciate vour generosity’. Best Regards, Yours, Nguyen Minh Hieu__________________________________________________

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4. How to write a letter of complaint Cũng