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PH A N T H Ị M IN H C H Â U (C h ủ b iên ) LÊ T H A N H H À (B iê n so ạ n , tu y ể n ch ọ n và giới th iệ u )

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HỌC SINH GIỎI * ■

TIẾNG ANH TRUNG HỌC Cơ sở

Các chuyên đề ngữ âm, ngữ pháp, từ vựng, kỹ năng nói, đọc, viết nâng cao và các bài tập luyện theo cấu trúc đề thi Học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh THCS và đề thi vào trường chuyên. Hướng dẫn làm các dạng bài thi Học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh TH CS. Hướng dẫn chi tiết đáp án. Tuyển tập các đề thi Học sinh giỏi Tỉnh môn Tiếng Anh THCS và đề thi vào trường chuyên

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NHÀ XUẤT BẢN ĐẠI HỌC QUỐC GIA HÀ NỘI


PHAN THỊ MINH CHÂU (Chủ biên) LE THANH HA (Biên soạn, tuyên chọn và giới thiệu)

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HỌCSINH GIỎI TIẾNG ANH TRUNG HỌC Cơ sở • Các chuyên đề ngữ âm, ngữ pháp, từ vựng, kỹ năng nói, đọc, viết nàng cao và các bài tập luyện theo cấu trúc đ ể thi Học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh THCS và đề thi vào trường chuyên. • Hướng dẫn làm các dạng bài thi Học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh THCS • Hướng dần chi tiết đáp án • Tuyển tập các đé thi Học sinh giỏi Tinh m ôn Tiếng Anh THCS và đề thi vào trường chuyên.

N H À X U Ấ T B Ả N Đ Ạ I H Ọ C Q U Ố C G IA H À N Ộ I


Lời giới thiệu Các bài thi Học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh và các bài thi vào Trường chuyên, lớp chọn luôn luôn là các bài thi đầy khó khăn, thử thách nhưng cũng đầy hấp dẫn đổi với các em có niem đam mê học Tiếng Anh và muốn học Tiếng Anh giỏi để có thể sử dụng Tiêng Anh tốt trong công việc tương lai của mình. Một so em cỏ thể chưa đạt được kết quả cao trong các kỳ thi Học sinh giỏi có lẽ vì các em chưa được cung cấp các kiến thức nâng cao cùa chương trinh học một cách đầy đủ, cũng cỏ thể các em chưa có kỹ năng làm bài thi và cũng chưa quen các dạng bài thi. Chính vì thế, cuốn sách “cẩm nang ÔII luyện liọc sinlt giỏi Tiếng Anh Trung học cơ sở” là cuốn sách được biên sọan vợi mục đích giúp các em học sinh có thể tự mình đào sâu kiến thức trên nền tàng kiên thức sách giáo khoa, tự mở rộng kiến thức nẹôn ngữ, tự ôn luyện các dạng bài thi phổ biến của các kỳ thi học sinh giỏi để có the tham gia và đ ạ rk ế t quả cao trong các kỳ thi Học sinh giòi và các kỳ thi vào trường chuyên Anh, lớp chọn. Cuốn sách cũng sẽ giúp các em phô thông cơ sờ tự trang bị cho mình một vốn kiến ngôn ngữ nâng cao, đe sau này có thể tham gia các kỳ thi vào Cao đẳng, Đại học hay tham gia các kỳ thi Tiếng Anh mang tầm quốc tế. Cuốn sácli bao gồm 6 chuyên đề chính được phân chia đúng cấu trúc của các bài thi học sinh giòi mà các Trường, các Thành phố, các Sờ GD (các Tinh) hay sử dụng trong các bài thi: ❖ Chuyên đề 1: PH O N E T IC S (N gữ âm): Phần này giúp các em phân biệt các cặp âm hay nhâm lẫn và cách ghi nhớ một số luật lệ đánh trọng âm. ❖ Chuyện đề 2: VỌCABULARY (Từ vựng): Phần này giúp các em hiẹii được một sổ nét đặc điểm đặc trưng của cấu tạo từ trong Tiếng Anh, một số trưòng từ vựng ngữ nghĩa (các sẳc thái nghĩa khác nhau cua từ được dùng trong các văn cảnh khác nhau), một số ngữ, thành ngữ cổ định.. . . ❖ Chuyên đề 3: COM M I M C A T IVE FUCTIONS (Chức nă.Ịg giao tiếp): Phần này là phần kiểm tra khả nâng giao tiếp qua các tình huống theo dạng viết. Phần này giúp các em có các kiến thức về văn hoá giao tiếp và cỏ thế trà lời gác câu hòi theo tình huống giao tiếp. ❖ Chuyên đề 4: GRAMiMAR pháp): Phần này cung cấp các kiến thức ngữ pháp cơ bản và nàng cao theo tữii;; chuyên mục ❖ Circyỉn đề 5: COMPREHENS1VE READING (Đọc hiểu). Phẩn này giúp các em có thể nâng cao các kỳ năng làm các dạng bài đọc hiểu. ❖ Chuyên đề 6: \V R ITIN G (Viết): Phần này giúp các em hiểu và rèn luyện các cách thức viết thư, viết các bài luận theo chú đe. Ngoài ra, cuốn sách còn có Phẩn Giới thiệu một số đề thi học sinh giòi trong những năm gần đây và Phẩn đáp áM các bài tập ôn luyện và các đề thi. Với kinh nghiệm giàng dạy cùa mình, các tác giả cố gắng biên soạn, tuyên chọn và giới thiệu cuốn sách với hy vọng cuốn sách sẽ là tài liệu tham khào có giá trị cho các em học sinh các bậc phụ huynh và các thây cô giáo. Cuón sách sẽ không tránh khỏi một sổ sai sót và những điẻm cản bỏ sung. Rât mong nhận được nhiêu ý kiên đóng góp cùa các đồng nghiệp và các em học sinh. Các tác giả


Chuyên để 1: PHONETICS (NGỮ ÂM) A. LÝ THUYẾT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO * DẠNG BÀI KIÊM TRA K1ÉN T H Ứ C NGỮ ẨM (PH O N ETIC S) Thông thường, trong các bài thi tiếng Anh dành cho học sinh phố thông cư sớ và phố thòng trụng học. phản thi ngừ ậm chi chiếm 5 -10 càu. Tuy nhiên đây lại là phân thách thức nhất đổi với học sinh vì tiếng Anh. như người ta vẫn nói. “viết một đàng, đọc một néo". Khác với nhiều ngồn ngữ klìác. người họe chi cần liiéu rò cách kôl hợp các nuiiNcn âm, phụ âm là có thè phát ãni dứng, trong tiếng Anh kiến thức Iiiùr ám đ u co thè dirợc cùng cố thông qua việc nắm vững một số kiến thức cơ bàn và thực hành thường xuyên. Trọng khuôn khô quyên sách này, chúng tỏi chi đề cập đến 2 dạng bài tập phô biên nhát trong các k\ thi chọn học sinh liiõi và cố.cẳnu chi ra một số qìĩi tác Iiiiừ âm nhăm giúp các em dề dàng hơn trong việc xác định câu tra lời cho Ioạrhài tập này Các bài tập trong sách cùng được sắp xếp theo các vấn đề lý tluisct được de cập dê thuận tiện cho các em thực hành những qui tắc đã nêu. Tuý nhiên cũng cằn phai lưu ý ràng, các qui tắc này không thê bao quát tất cá các phạm trụ trong phát âm tiêng Anh bới vi trong tiếng Anh cỏ rất nhiều ngoại lệ. Do đó. đê làm tót phân này. ngoài việc năm vững các qui tăc dưới đây, học sinh cùng cần phái chú trọng tích lũy kiên thịrc trong quá trinh học băng cách tập phát ảm các từ theo đúng phiên ảm cùa một cuốn từ điên tiếng Anh. DẠNG 1: Choose the \vord \vhose underlincd part is pronounced iliffcrentlv froni the others. Identitv your ansiver by circling thc corresponđinịí lettcr A, B, c or D. (Chọn từ có phân gạch chân đưọc phát âm vói các từ còn lại). '

Cácli làm: Chú ý xác định một so cách phát âm sau I/ Pronunciation of -ed Khi phát ảm các từ có tận cùng là cd ta phải dựa vào âm cuối của từ trước khi thêm -ed * / id/: sau các ãm / V lái: Eg. visited needcd invited * / Ư: sau các âm / 0/ /k/ p/ /f/ / s/ / 1 / /tí / Eg. looked \vashed laughed * / d/: sau các phụ âm còn lại vả các nguyên âm Eg. cleaned rained studied Nolư: some speciaỉ adỳectives, some adverbs ending in âed' and 'cd ■is pmnouncvd / iíl / (MỘI vùi tinli từ, trụng từ tợn cùng bằng 'ed \ nhimg 'ed ' đưực phút (1111 lù /i(l/.) Adj: naked.crookcd. rugged, \vretched, ruggetỉ, belovcd. uickưd. sacred Adv: deservedly, supposedỉy, nutrkedly. aHegedly 2/ Pronunciation of -s or -es (present simplc/ plural nouns/posscssivc) * /sỉ: sau các âm / 0/ /k/ p/ /f/ Eg. looks steps laughs * í\zl\ sau các âm / t | /. / j / . i y , l á y , !'/]. /s/ Eg. w atchesjudges \vashcs * / zl\ sau các phụ âm còn lại và các nguyên âm Eg. lives cleans needs


3/ Pronunciation of * TH được phát âm là / 0 / hoặc / ỏ /

/ three, ihank. brealh, lenIlì, ■ồ/: //lí.v, thai, these. lliosư. /alhcr, niothcr * CH được phát âm là / 1/ /; / k/; / { / /tí/: phần lớn các từ có chứa nhóm ‘ch" được phát âm là / tỊ / như trong teacher, researcher, chair, achieve. watch, catch, teach, chai etc. /k/; một số từ như ache, backache, earache, headache, toothache anchor arcỉieolog}'. architect, bronchitis chaos, character, chemical, chemistry, choir. chorả choreography, chorus, Christ, Christian, Christmas, chronic, chronological echo mechanic, monarchy, orchestra, orchid. psychiatrist, psychiatry. psychologist, psychoỉogy schedule, scheme, scholar, school, stomâch, technician, technique, tectmoĩogY /ị/: phân lớn các từ này là từ vay mượn từ tiếng Pháp như trong brochure cachet, champagne. chauffer, chef, machine. mustache, părachùíe * c được phát âm là /k/; /s / /k/ car, cat, cake, cook /s/ cell, circle, circus * T được phát âm là /Ư; /tj /, / } 1,1 y M'-

teacher, ten, take, Computer

/tị /(T before U) picíure. (ictuciì, stiituơ M n/ question /// • ' notion, information, caleuỉation, poteiụial. esseutial 4/ Một số phụ âm ‘câm ” (silent letters) II = /hJ hoặc silent: 5/ Một số cặp âm hay nhầm lẫn: long vovvels and short vo>vels: Eg: /i/ & /i:/ (hit # heat); /a:/ & /A/ (far # cup); /e/ & / /ae/ (man # men); /u/ & /u:/ (pull # p o o l),.. . . DẠNG 2. Choose the word with diíTerent stress pattern bv circling the corresponding letter A, B, c or D. (chọn từ có phân nhấn âm khác với từ còn lại) Cách /ậ/n: Theo một sổ chuyên gia ngôn ngữ và giáo viên Tiếng Anh, cẩn chú ý xác định một sô quy luật cơ bàn nhấn trọng âm nlnr sau: •

Luật lệ thông_ thường chạ từ có 2 ảm tiết là trọng âm được đánh ờ âm tiết đâu. nhưng nếu âm tiết đầu là một tiền tố hay âm nhẹ (\veak form), trọng ânì được đánh ờ âm tiết hai.

Ví dự. 'market; ca'nal; •

'commerce; ci'gar;

'baker; 'candy; 'carrot; pol'ice; poss'ess; rom'ance;

'joumey: guit'ar

Nêu từ 2 ậm tiết vừa là danh từ. động từ, thi trọng âm được nhấn ở âm dầu tiên nèII nó là danh từ, âm thứ 2 nếu nó ià độni; từ

Vi dụ 'increase(n) in'crease (v) •

'import (n) 'decrease (n) 'perfect (n) im’port (v)decr’ease (v) Per'fect (v)

'survey(n) sur'vey (v)

Luạt Ịẹ thong thương cho từ có 2 âm tiêt là trọng âm được đánh àm tiết thứ hai nêu âm tiết đầu là mộttrong những tiền tố sau: a, ab,abs, ad, ac, àf, ai,


an,ar,as,at; be; co; coỉ;com; con; cor; de; dis; e, ef, ex, em, en, im, in; ob, op; pre, pro, re, stíb, sup, sur, tran, u n ,.. . Ví dụ: aboard al 1VC abs tract 3ddr'css achi'cvc ad'opt acc'ord affirm all'y appr'oach • Neu động từ có 2 âm tiết, trong đó ảm đầu lả một trong các tiền tổ: for. fore; out, thì trọng âm được nhân vào âm thứ 2, nhưng neu động từ đó chuyển thành danh từ hay tính từ thì chúng ta nhấn troniỉ âm ờ: for. fore- out Vi dụ: for'give (V) 'forgivable (adj) 'íorgiveness (N) fore'see (V) Togettable (adj) •

Nêu từ có 2 hoặc 3 ảm tiết, trong đỏ ảm đấu ticn là các tiền tố với nmiyẽn ảm dài như: /e:/; /o:/; /i:/; /ei/; /au/; /ọu/ và theo sau ảm nà\ là những phụ ảm trọng ảm đirọc đánh ờ âm tiết (ờ tiền tố đó).

Vi dọ: 'absence 'adverb 'colleague 'essay 'concrete • Từ có 3 âm tiết thường có trọng ảm nhấn ờ âm đầu, nếu từ đó có các tiền tố như: a, ab, abs, ad, ac, af, al, an, ar, as, at; be; co; col;com; con; cor; de; dis; e, ef, ex, em, en, im, in; ob, op; pre, pro, re, sub, sup, sur, tran, u n ........ thì trọng âm nhân ờ âm tiết thứ hai hoặc thứ ba. Ví dụ: usually 'capital 'difficult 'tavounte 'govemnient Dec'ember Nov'ember tob'acco aư'angement underst'and • Từ có 4 ậm tiết trờ lên, trọng âm thường được nhấn ở âm thứ 3, tính từ sau trờ về trước. Vi dụ: e'conomv eco'nomical manuTacturc ne'cessary cons'idcrahle Ngoại lệ cho những trường hợp có âm tiết bị giảm đi. không được phát âm. thi trọng âm của các từ có nhiều âm tiết này được nhấn ớ âm đầu tiên. Ví dụ 'business 'inưe/rest 'int/e/resíing 'secreưa/ry 'mis/e/rable • Neu từ tận cùng bằng: ic; ical; icaỉly; ion; ia; ial; ual; al; ian; iar; ular; ience; ience; iency; iance; iunt; ious; eous; uous,. . . thi trọng âm được nhấn ờ âm ngay trước các đuôi này. Ví dụ: EconoYnic atmos'pheric desc'ription comnVercial intcl'lectua] • Từ tận cùng bằng ous, ate, tude, ity, ety, icaỉ, logy, graphy. metry, nom y,.. . , trọng âm thường được nhân ớ ảm thứ 3, tính từ sau trứ về trước. Vi dụ . va'riety cap'tivity ad'vanturous Con'siderate as'trology • Từ tận cùng bang ade, ee; ese; eer; oo; oon; ette; esque, trọng âm thường dược nhấn ờ âm cuối. Vi dụ engin'eer sham'poo cigar'ctte


Từ ghép được kết hợp bời 2 danh từ gốc thì trọng âm nhấn ỡ âm đầu: 'air-raid: 'bookcase; 'coal-mine; 'crossvvord; 'tea-pot; Tootprint;

Từ ghép được kết hợp bời một tính từ vả danh từ, thi trọng ảm nhấn ờ ảm hai: loud'speaker; bad'tempeređ: second'class: B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Dạng bải 1: Choose the word uhose underlined part is pronuunccd (litĩcrcntly froni the others. Idcntiíy your answcr bv circling the corresponding lettcr A, B, or D Excrcisc 1: (-ed /-d ending) 1. A. ansvvered B. cro\vded c .en jo y ed D. fa 11ed 2. A .depended B .added tasted D.crookcd 3. A. prayed B. ìmpressed comprised D. admired 4. A. designed B. ironed pickẹd D. servcd 5. A. opened B. closed contamed D. tìnished 6. A. skied B. helpcd watched D.booked 7. A. offered B. o\vned ruled D. \vashcd 8. A .exchanged B. \vanted controlled D.reduccd 9. A. installed B. prevcntcd persuaded D. polluted 10. A. suggested B. congratulated decorated D. \vicked 11. A. launched B. collapsed ( damaued 1) uorkctl 12. A. occurred B. destroyed c . scparated D. \varncd 13. Ạ. proved B. trustcd pullcd D. claimcd 14. A. markedly B. unidentitìed terrified D. behavcd 15. A. nominated B. cclebrated c . extcndcd D. replaccd A. missed B .reduced covered D. conserved A. trightcned B. organizcd arrived D. relaxcd A. imparted B. moldcd cookcd D. mcndcd A. pleascd B. instructed showed D. killcd 20. A. relaxgd B .reached supposedly D. crosscd Exercisc 2: -S/-CS cnding A. boxes B. classes D. \vatchcs c potatoes 22. A. catches B. phones courses D. places 23. A. plavs B. stavs c .b a v s D. savs 24. A. decks B. boats bears D. stops 25. A. conlcsts B. remarks postcards D. iiallop> 26. A. botlles B. novels c . occusions D. pocts 27. A. describes B. encourages c . judues D. \vashes 28. A. eomposes 13. decorates cxpccts D. drops 29. A. houses B. placcs horscs D. faccs 30. A. \valks B. begins helps D. cuts 31. A. cats B. tapes lives D .cooks 32. A. tells B. talks stays D. steals

c

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

c. c.

16. 17. 18. 19.

c. c. c. c. c.

21.

c.

c. c.

c. c. c. c. c.


33. A. biscuits B. magazines 34. A. leams B. works 35. A. rises B. slices 36. A. transmits B. laughs 37. A. volunteers B. devices 38. A. habits B. applications 39. A. cats B. nfths 40. A. fetches B.ređuces Exercise 3: Pronunciation of “tlT' 41. A. both B. tenth 42. A. tooth B.sunbathe 43. A. this B. thick 44. A. \vithin B. \vithout 45. A. \vealth B. healthy 46. A. mother B. leather 47. A. together B. Thursdav 48. A. think B. author 49. A. though B. thought 50. A. method B. rather Exercise4: Pronunciation o f ‘ch’ 51. A. champagne B. chair 52. A. chaos B. toothache 53. A. childrcn B. charactcr 54. A. check B. bachelor 55. A. technique B. Chnst 56. A. monarchy B. Michael 57. A. machine B. stomach 58. A. butcher B. chemical 59. A. much B. teacher 60. A. cheap B. backache Exercise 5: Pronunciation o f ‘c \ ‘g ’ 61. A. cruel B. cross 62. A. century B. cor.imercial 63. A. City ■ b. racial 64. A. cite B. cruel 65. A. magically B. comment 66. A. official B. ocean 67. A. generous B. giass\vare 68. A. gain B. geology 69. A. manager B. magically 70. A. begin B. eligible

c . newspapers Controls relaxes c . seems appcars victims grapes goes

c. c. c. c.

D. D. D. D. D D. D. D.

c. myth 4 c. these c. maths c. clothing c. birthday c. breath c. theater c. arithmetic c. feather c. rhythm

D. \vith D. lather rX-thin D. strengthen D. with D. breathe D. thirsty D. therefore D. bother D. together

c. c.

c. achieve c. \vatch c. chimney c. Christmas c. headache C .c h e f architecture which coach psychology

c. c. c. c.

c. delicious c. cease c. precious c. commercial c. academic c. convcnient c. gallery c. get c. register c . group

vegatablcs responds sleeps escapes hehaviors waterfalls valleys loses

D. pitchẹr D. archeology D. researcher D. catch D. lunch D. school D .chorus D. chocolate D .echo D. orthestra D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

because ceiling sufficient cooperation cigarette precious sugar goose magmíìcent growing


Exercise 6: (silent letters) 71. A. baggy B. hamburger c . beneíìt 72. A. comb B. debt c . viable 73. A. resign B. microorganism c . grade 74. A. hobby B. honest c . hedge 75. A. householđ B. brotherhood c . exhausted 76. A. rhythm B. ghost c .h a n d le 77. A. Ịạiee B. Ịạiit c . kangaroo 78. A. knife B. talk c . keen 79. A. calm B. compulsory c . careịess 80. A. what B. white c . who 81. A. autumn B. occasion c . column 82. A. gneumoma B. receigt c . gsychology B. rasgberry 83. A. exgerience c . gresent 84. A. island B. campus c . scener>' 85. A. fasten B. hasten c . effective 86. A. Christmas B. chestnut c . ballet B. sword 87. A. answer c . awareness B. wam 88. A. wrink!e c . towards B. vvrap 89. A. well-qualified c . whole B. ultimately 90. A. guitar c . biscuit n' Exercise 7: Pronunciation of ‘s’, ‘g h \ B. mouse c . taste 91. A. display B .sugar c . salt 92. A .see B. exist c . sale 93. A. basic B. aspect c . cousm 94. A. seldom B. dense c . campus 95. A. possession B. though c . tough 96. A. laugh B. through c .c o u g h 97. A. plough B. stop c . culture 98. A. future B. character c . priority 99. A. natural B. jungle c . anchor 100. A. th a n lr Exercise 8. Vowel sounds B. Creative c . creamy D. crease 101. A. creature B .road c . broad D. coat 102. A. boat B. sugar c . put D. push 103. A. butter c . break D. steak B. bread 104. A. great B. height c . eịght D. vein 105. A. weịght B. food D. good c . soon 106. A. too B .about c .ro u n d D. out 107. A. would B. sew D .new 108. A. few c . knew B. íather 109. A .hard c . rather D. sacriíĩce B. vovage 110. A. dosage massage D. carriage

c.

D. subtle D .doubt D. category D. Hinduistn D. hole D hnnour D. knovvledge D. blanket D. honestỊy D. whisper D. solemn D. garagraph D. segarate D cuursc D. listen D. material D. two D. wonderful D. wnst D. build D. dcbign D. sofa D. society D. slim D. assemble D. enough D. bright D. picture D. pastimc D .banana .


Dạng bài 2. Choose the word with diíĩerent stress pattern by circling the corresponding letter A, B, or D. Exercise 9. Word stress B. ability 111. A. adorable impossible D. entertamment difficult D. different 112. A. engineer B. corporate D. positive 113. A. popular B. position horrible purpose D. surface 114. A. selíìsh B. correct D. recovery B. susceptible resistant 115. A. nominate unlimited D sabotage 116. A. eliminate B. dómesticate D. iníìltration B. technological exponential 117. A. sustantial períection D. confident B. pursuit 118. A. immunity D. separate 119. A. accompany B. uníìnished contagion D. comíbrtablé 120. A. continent B. essential industry Exercise 10. W ord stress D. altemative B. completely introduce 121. A. recycle períorm D. include B. miserable 122. A. religious D. believable 123. A. signiíìcant B. quantity committee investment D. exhaust 124. A. ambitious B. constant temperament D. expectation B. decoration 125. A. opportunity D. miracle B. equipment identify 126. A. particular D. community common 127. A. complete B. command D. althouịịh calcium 128. A.joum al B. mouming connect D. upgrade B. compare 129. A. memory D. varicty B. permanent fertilizer 130. A. simulate

c

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

Exercise 11. Word stress 131. A. accelerate 132. A. convenient 133. A. deliberate 134. A. redundancy 135. A.recognize 136. A. intelligent 137. A. relationship 138. A. deíìne 139. A. suppose 140. A. magnetic Exercise 12. VVord stress 141. A. distraction 142. A. probability 143. A. emergency 144. A. natural 145. A. create 146. A. obtain

B. digestive B. previous B. dramatist B. comparison B. stimulate B. direct B. command B. idea B. expect B. radiation

c. disorder c. management c. discovery c. maintenance c. activity c. desire c. vocabulary c. express c. unusual c. unpleasant

D. infantry D. purchase D. ìmprovement D. capacity D. adult D. satisfactory D. ìsland D. figure D. literary D. equipment

B. B. B. B. B. B.

c. recommend c. technological c. shortage c. dynamite c. attitude c. illustrate

D. D. D. D. D. D.

considerable attitude encourage surplus ordinary theory

description entertainment distraction decision scholar điagram


147. A. gravitation B. manuíacture 148. A. messenger B. assistant 149. A. agree B. religion 150. A. passenger B. explorer Exercise 13. Word stress 15 J . A. traveler B. European 152. A. unmanned B. valuable 153. A. leisure B. unnecessary 154. A. alreađy B. complain 155. A. result B. strengthen 156. A. suggest B. relate 157. A. colleague B. available 158. A. discovery B. researcher 159. A. identify B. contihue 160. A. adequate B. reveal Excrcise 14. \Vord stress 161. A. experience B. discomfort 162. A. numerous B. admit 163. A. immediate B.success 164. A. confcrence B. horrible 165. A. politics B. imaginary 166. A .Japan B. astronaut 167. A. consequently B. proíile 168. A. coníerence B. announcement 169. A. argument B. deíĩnite 170. A. Ìgnite B. igloo Exercise 15. Word stress 171. A. innovate B. inevitable 172. A. irritable B. iưelevant 173. A. spectacular B. variety 174. A. estimate B. activate 175: A. admire" B. honor 176. A. describe B. strugglc 177. A. mđependence B. politician 178. A. comtbrt B. nation 179. A. ashamed B. position 180. A. express B. classical Exercise 16. \Vorcl strcss 181. A. atmosphere B. entertain 182. A. popular B. dilTcrcnt 183. A. solemn B. express 184. A. anthem B. lyric 185. A. settle B. distance

c . behavior c . cnable c . suitable c . Italian

D. ỉ). D. D.

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

D. spacecraft D surtace D. repcat D. temperature D. abolish D. effect D. sacrifice D. lable D. consumcr D. together

century comment resuit arrangement forget empty different remain popular construction

recommend rciỊmrc occur continue

c . support c . oceasion c . eagemess c .d e n y c . result c . uníortunate c . inĩtiate c . arrival c . museum c . hollow

D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

D. insect D. irrational D. contribute D. intlatc D. difficult n. Sl)cict> D. dilìerent D. moment D. enemy D. emotion

innocent irreparable psychological migrate title political ìmmortality apply begin occasion

c . industry c . integral c .su cceed c . excite c . distinct

friendship atlcmpi phonetic lanuuage annoyed approximatc projecl reception permanent fellow

D. joyfulness D. expression D. event D. celebrate D. preview


186. A. pleasing B. prccise 187. A. emergency B. comparative 188. A. contìdent B. physical 189. A. practically B. electrify 190. A. inspire B. vvealthy Excrcisc 17. \Vord strcss 191. A. simplicity B. pollution 192. A. mathematics B. statistics 193. A. serious B. mistake 194. A. valley B. mountain 195. A. gallery B. holiday 1%. A. retum B. market 197. A. \vardrobe B. tonight 198. A. opposite B. banana 199. A. expensive B. íòrgotten 200. A. substantial B. apologize Excrcisc 18. NVorđ stress 201. A. apparent B. arrange 202. A. interrupt B. potential 203. A. seasonal B. extinct 204. A. tropical B. incredible 205. A. athletic B. lucrative 206. A. predecease B. competition 207. A. outstanding B. minority 208. A. material B. đisability 209. A. facility B. believe 210. A. accent B. unlike Exercise 19. Word stress 211. A. iníbrmation B. together 212. A. average B. attractive 213. A. audience B. e.xceed 214. A. superior B. repetition 215. A. doctor B. address 216. A. \vonderful B. together 217. A. kilo B. centigrade 218. A. attractive B. balcony 219. A. musical B. headmaster 220. A. extent B. synonymous Excrcise 20. Word stress 221. A. inadequate B. available 222. A. demonstrate B. responsible 223. A.secondary B. expectation

c . jealous c . dimensional c . ethereal c . repetitive c . protect

D. D. D. D. D.

c. c. c. c. ('. c. c. c. c. c.

electricity academv circumstance peninsula intbnnal notebook begin camcra retirement numerous

D. activily D. mechanics D. original D. scencry I). lcctnrcr D. oỉtĩce D .explode D. difficult D. picturesque D. advancement

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

underground argumentative marine uncomíbrtable conservative indestructiblc determined phenomenon ho\vcver cultural

D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D. D.

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

residential gallery convince entertainment birthday restaurant temperature chocolate engineer admit

D. cosmopolitan D. numerous D .assure D. incorrect D. concert D. physicist D. destination D. decorate D. February D. manuscript

c . authority c . simplify c . supervision

active misunderstand regional altemative extinct

display simultaneous fantastic behind distingbish democracy evidence approximale linguist climate

D. purpose D. celehrate D. sociologisl


224. A. instead B. furious 225. A. particular B. impressed 226. A. exceilent B. fertile 227. A .recent B. family 228. A. íorgettable B. impotant 229. A. appreciate B. relationship 230. A. dependable B. assortment Exercise 21. YVord stress 231. A. infrastructure B. convenient 232. A. schedule B. elastic 233. A. comíbrtable B. ílexible 234. A. enthusiasm B. chemistry 235. A. altemative B. energy 236. A. potential B. possess 237. A. burglary B. employment 238. A. comment B. nourish 239. A. obstacle B. govemment 240. A. disaster B. prisoner Exercise 22. W ord stress 241. A. intemational B. lederation 242. A. catastrophe B. emergency 243. A. ặuffering B. president 244. A. involve B. propose 245. A. deposit B. elastic 246. A. permission B. religious 247. A. alphabet B. promise 248. A. persecute B. deíective 249. A. excellent B. deduction 250. A. migrate B. inhabit

c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

campaign knovvledge century interesting penodical business suitable

D. apartment D. immense D. include D. immediate D. remove D. vvithin D. commercial

c . executive c . improvement c . prosperous c . explosive c . process c . survival c . courageous c . marine c . courage c . agency

D. Creative D. equipmcnt D. endeavour D. synthetic D. temperature D. current D. dependent D. landscape D. dismiss D. íamily

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

IV dedication IX vulnerable D. coníerence D. soldier D. wastepaper D. typewriter D. contradict D. iníluence D. pesticide D. diversity

society conveniionul protection improve opinion proficient microphone beneíĩt đecorate character

Chuyên đề 2: VOCABULARY (TỪ VựNG) PHÀN 1: WORD-FORMATION (CÁU TẠO TỪ) A. LÝ THUYẾT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO * Tiền tố và hậu tố (preíixes and suffixes) Một dạng bài tập rất phổ biến đối với các bài thi học sinh giỏi tiếng Anh là loại bài tập câu tạo từ (tạo ra một từ phái sinh từ một từ cho sẵn). Đoi với dạng bài tạp nay người học có thẻ sử dụng kiến thức cùa mình về ngữ pháp đề chọn ra đúng tư loai can ung trong ngữ cảnh cụ thê (danh từ, động từ, tính từ. . ); đồng thời nẳm vững cách câu tạo từ qua việc sử dụng các tiền tố và hậu tố thích hợp để điền đúng từ cần điền. Sau đây là ý nghĩa cùa một số tiền tố và hậu tố thường gặp trong tiếng Anh và nghía cua chúng. Cũng cần lưu ý răng khi nắm được ý nghĩa cùa các tien tố và hậu tố 14


cùa từ, người học có thể sử dụng chúng để đoán nghĩa cùa từ mới trong quá trình làm các bài tập đọc hiêu. 1. Tiền tố (Preíixes) Tiền tố được đặt vào đằu một từ để thay đổi nghĩa hoặc tạo ra một nghĩa mới cho từ đã cho. Sau đây là một số tiền tố thường gặp trong tiếng Anh và nghĩa cùa chúng. Ví dụ Nghĩa Tiền tố Dis, non, il, im, in, un, ir.

chông, phi,

un, dis

chông(hoặc mang nghĩa trái lại)

Re

ại. chồng lại

Anti

Counter Mis

Jất, vỏ

phàn lại, chống lại sai, nhâm

dishonest (không trung thực), illegạl (không hợp pháp, phi pháp), ìmpossible (không thê) irregular (bât quy tắc), non-sense (vô nghĩa), unlucky (không may) unlock (mờ - ừái với lock là khoá), disagree (không đồnẹ ý), disappear (biến mất - trái với appear là xuât hiện) unhappy (không vui) retell (ké lại), rewrite (viểt lại), reprint (in lại) antivvar (chống chiến tranh). antPriuclear bomb. anti-aircraft (phòng không), anti-clockwise (ngược chiều kim đồng hồ) counter-attack (phàn công), counter-argue (phân bác lại lập luận), counter-blo\v (đòn đánh tra) misunderstand (hiéu nhấm), mistake (sai lẩm), misuse (sự dùng sai, sự lạm dụng) superheat (đun quá sỏi), supennarket (siêu thị), superman (siêu nhân) supersensitive (nhạy cam quá độ)

Pre

hơn hãn, siêu, vượt quá trước, tiên

Post

sau, hậu

Fore

trước

Over

quả (nhiêu)

ex

cựu. cũ

Co

cùng, đông

up

nâng cao. lên trên

Sub

tiêu (chia thành subtitle (tiểu đề, phụ đề), subdivision (sự chia nhò phẩn nhỏ hơn), ra), sub-sensible (dưới ngưỡng cảm giác) dưới Transplant (cấy ghép), transatlantic (vượt Đại Tây qua, chuyên Dương), transcontinential (xuyên lục địa) International (thuộc về quốc tế (giữa nhiều quốc Rcaction gia), interrelation (mối quan hệ tương tác) (tương tác bên trong)

Super

Trans Inter

pre-war (trước chiến tranh, tiền chiền), pre-historic (tiền sử) post-vvar (sau chiến tranh, hậu chiến), post-graduation (sau khi tổt nghiệp), post-birth (sau khi sinh) íoresee (dự kiến trước, thấy trước), foretell (nói trước, đoán trước), íòrecast (dự báo trước) overeat (ăn quá nhiều), oversleep (ngũ quá giờ) ovenveight (quá cân), overdrink (uống quá nhiều) ex-manager (cựu giám đốc), ex-president (cựu chu tịch), ex-wife (vợ cũ) coopcrate (hợp tác), eo-autlior (đồng tác giả) coteaching, cùng dạy) co-chaiman (đồng chù tịch) upgrade (nâng cẩp). upstairs (lên tầng trên)


tx tra

extra-lmguistic context activities (ngoai khóa)

Poly

thêm, phụ, ngoại nhiều, đa

Mono

đơn. độc

Under

dưới

Bi

hai, song

monolingual (đơn ngữ), monosymantic (đơn nghĩa) monosyllabic (đơn âm tiết) Undergraduate (chưa tôt niĩhiệp), undercook (clura nâu chín), under-develop (kém phái triền) bilingual (hai ngôn ngữ. song nmì). bicvcle (xe đap 1 = hai bánh)

(ngoại

ngôn),

extra-

polysẹmantic (đa nghĩa), polyglot (người biết nhiều thứ tiếng)

..... Hậu tô (SuỊTixes): Hậu tố được thêm vào phía sau cùa một từ để tạo từ mới VỚI nghĩa mới và loại từ mới. Sau đá) là một vài hâu tổ phố hiến Hâu tô Nghĩa Ví du err, or, câu tạo một teacher (giao vien). actor (nam diên viên), actrcss css. ant. danh từ tử động (nữ diễn viên), assistant(người phụ tá), accountant từ đê chi người (kế toán) làm việc nào đó Ness cảu tạo một danh happiness (niềm vui, hạnh phúc), sadness (nỗi từ từ tính từ để buồn), loneliness (sự cô đơn) chi tình trạng, trạng thái nào đó Ism một chù nghĩa, socialism (chu nghĩa xã hội), Maxism (chù nghĩa một học thuyết, Mác), heroism (chủ nghĩa anh hùng) niềm tin ship, thêm vào một íriendship (tinh bạn), scholarship (học bỏng). 1 hood danh từ dề tạo authorship (nguồn tác gia), championship (chức \ò thành một danh địch), childhood (thời thơ ấu), neiglibourhood (hàng từ mới chi điều xóm. vùng làn cận), niotlierhood (tình mẫu tư) kiện, tình trạng, thời gian, hoặc những người thuộc một nhóm nào đó Less không có. thiếu, useless (vô ích, vỏ dụng), childless (không cỏ con) vô homcless (vô gia cư. không có nhà cửa), fatherless (không có cha, mồ côi cha), liarmless (không có hại. vô hại) Full

có (phẩm chất nào đó)

ly, ous, y, ent, ant, esc

câu tạo một tính lovely (đáng yêu), lively (sinh động, sống động), từ để chi có đặc hearty (nông nhiệt), dangerous (nmiv hiếm), tínli nào đó. thuộc poisonous (có độc). jea!ous (ghen tị), importaiu nhóm nào đó (quan trọng), independent (đọc lập). Vietnamesc ! (người Việt Nam). Cliinese (người Trung quốc. câu tạo một tính socialize (xã hội hoá). modemize (hiện dại hoá) lừ chi hoạt động industnali/c (cônjỉ nnhiệp hoá), privatize (tư liìni hoá)

Ize

hopeful (có hi vọng), useful (có ích. dùng được) successtul (thảnh côníỉ)


en able, ible

được làm từ cái gì dó có thè

Ish

hơi lìơi. có dặc tính này ừ mức ít

Likc Fold

giống, như, tương tự như gấp một số lần

Ward

về hướng

en, ize, fy. ate.

cấu tạo độntỉ từ tử tính từ

\vooden (làm bảng gỗ), \voolen (làm bằng len), golden (làm bãni! vànu) understandable (cỏ thè hiểu dược), visible (có thê nhìn thây dược, hữu liinh). dnnkahlc (có thế uốnjỉ được) cliildish (hơi trc con), foolish (ngốc nghếch), rcddish (hơi đỏ), yellcnvish (hơi vàng), youngish (hơi trê. khá trè). childlikc (nlur tré con. giổng tre con), businesslike (như thương gia) twotold (gấp hai lần), tcntbld (uấp mười lẩn). thousandfold (ịỉấp hàng nịihìn lần) southward (vê lurớng nam), backvvard (lùi lại). north\vard (về lurớiiịi bẳc) \veaken (bị suy yếu), darken (làm tối lại), brighten (làm cho sáng lên), specialize (chuyên môn hoá). horrily (làm hoáng sợ). heatify (làm đẹp), liberate (phóng thích, cho tự do), vaccinate (tiêm vẳc xin)

B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Bài tập cơ hán Dạng bài 1: Complete the scntences >vith the appropríate fomi of the >vnrđs in brackcts. Excrcise 1 1 I (HONRST)___________think that this is the best thing to do. 2. This (OBSEiRVE)____________houses thc largest tclescope in the country. 3. UFO means (IDENT1KY)____________Flying Object. 4. They said my illness was (IMAGINE)_ D on't they realizc I'm in a lot o f pain? 5. They’re selling thcse toys al a very (COMPETE)________ price. 6. A lettcr should ahvays end vvith the (SIGN)___________o f thc vvriter. 7. John hates waiting, he's so (PATIENT)_________ 8. A larize number o f crirnes remain (SO LV E)_________ 9. The elđerly tourists do not find the thouiỉht of climbing the hill (APPEAL) 10. We necd to (CYCLE)____________more of our \vaste and glass. Exercise 2 1. It's not a vcry prclty to\vn, but the (SURROUND)___________are beautilul. 2. Australia is famous lồr its (SCHNr.)_________bcauty. 3. The dentist's (SURGLON)_________ is closcd on Thursday. 4. "This is not a good essay,” said the lccturer, “ I iìnd your arj;uincnts (CONVINCE) 5. I had to (SI ỈO R T )_________ your specch as vve started late. 0. In thc past few years ihis arca has bccomc hcavily (1NDUSTRY)_____________ 7. In some places the vveather chanues so quickly that It's vcry (PRF.DIC'T) 8.

The vvorld of computers is extr{;iwJ>,(VPMií>&:í&)l


9. The proíessor explained his ìdea with great (CLEAR) _ 10. The judge told him it vvas (RESPONSIBLE)____________to drink and dnve. Exercise 3 1. 2. 3.

r » help you (FA M ILIA R)__________ yourself with the City. Despite the star-stufĩed cast, the film was only (PART)___________ successíul I lost my temper because he was being so (HEAD) _________ and was refusing to accept that he was wrong, despite all the evidence. 4. He \vrote the book alone, so he doesrTt have a(n) (A U TH O R )_________ 5. He felt very (COURAGE)__________ when he saw he had failed the exam again 6. Are all those (ADD) _________________ they put in food really necessary? 7. The teacher vvamed the children that if they (BEHAVF) acain. they’d be punished. 8. Librarians spend a lot oi' their time (C LA SS)__________ books. 9. I don t care if you had had too much to drink. Your behavior last nicht was quite (D E FE N Ò )_________ 10. DorTt worry! Our new product will keep your bathroom clean and (O R D O U R )__________ Exercise 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

It was a complete (F A IL )_________ due to poor plannmg. It was very (FRIEND)___________o f you to slam the door in his face. The man cycled (C A R E )_________ and had an accident. Could you (STR A IG H T)________ the picture over the sofa? It’s hard to buy meat on the island but íìsh is (PLEN TY )________ I ve only been to Paris (O N E )_______ before, and that was many years ago. My car is much too (R E L Y )__________ to take on a long joumey. In (C O N C L U D E )_, I d like to thank the people who have helped me while I have been \vorkine here. 9. She was sentenced to forty years (PRISON)____________for manslaughter. 10. There u as a (D IE)__________ silence when he mentioned his ex-wife's namc. Exercise 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

These quantities are (SUFFICIENT)_________ for the number of orders received. I am not saying he is (HONEST)________ , but he is not very good with money. The (PER FO R M )___________she gave last night \vas marvellous. She has One o f the biggest (CO LLECT)_________ in Britain. They managed to find three miners \vho were still (L IV E )_________ three days aíter the underground explosion. 6. Cats arẹ supposed to have nine (LIVE) _ 7. “Look aíter your mother,” were his (D IE )_____________ words. 8. He claimed ửiat his (BRING UP)_________ had causcd him to become a cnminal. 9. It was a difficult (PREG N A N T)__________ and she almost lost the baby. 10. The govemment has promised to deal vvith the problem o f (HMPLOY) among young people.


Exercise 6 1. This screvv needs (TIG H T)_________ 2. 3.

Scientists consider it (BELIEVE)_________ that gods create volcamc eruptions. We brought back several carved (W O O D )______ statues from our holiday in Africa.

4. 5. 6. 7.

The accommodation was (SPA C E )_______ and comfortable. T h e res no easy (SO L V L )________ to this problem. His hands vvere wet and (SLIP) We were lucky enough to gcttickets for the first (PERPORM) thc hit musical.

of

8. 9.

What she did \vas so (SH O C K )_that I can hardly describc it. My aunt is a (P L E A S E )_\voman so everyone vvants come to her when they are in troubles. 10. The palace is closed for (RHSTORIÌ)__________\vork. Exercise 7 1 People often find (HAPPY)___________________ in simple things. 2. This is a very (V A L U E )__________ grandfather clock. 3. Katie’s (IL L )_________has kept her avvay from school for a week. 4. Nouadays most tecnagers ha ve the (FREE)_to do vvhatcver they please. 5. A good (PR IÍÌN D )____________________________________ will last a lifetime. 6. An (IN SPÍICT)________ o f the huilding \vas made and it \vas dcclarcd salc. 7. The children looked unhappy and (MISERY) _ 8. Please send your (A PPL Y )___________________ to 22 Market St. 9. You d be (P A 1IE N T )_________ too if you had been vvaiting for two hours! 10. This outfit is (SUI I ) ________ for thc dance, don't you think? Exercise 8 1. T he(E M P L O Y )____________ at Maxwell’s are all ừained in customer Service. 2. The children’s (IÌX C ITE)_____ was obvious at the birthday part>'. 3. My brother and I had a(n) (A G R E E )_a nd now we đon’t talk to each other. 4. I’ve worked hard all my (L IV E )__________ . 5. The tìlm is a bit depressing as it deals with the (REAL)______ o f homeless people. 6. This knife is (USE) It doesrTt cut at all. 7. We were (HELP) _ None o f us knew any ỉìrst aid. 8. He works with great (EN TH U SE)_________ 9. (NATURE)___________, we are concemed about our son’s progress at school. 10. I can’t find the (SO L V E )________ to the last maths problem. Exercise 9 1 A lot of encourage children's (IM AG INE)__________ . 2. The lactory has provided cheaper (PRO D U CE)_________ lately. 3. According to some scientists the earth is losing its outer atmosphere because o f (PO LLU TE)______ . 4.

(FO R EST)__________has caused many so called man made disasters.


5. 6. 7.

(CRY) ______ oftcn \valk trough the strccts shouting or singing abut somethiniỉ they sell. Gas and oil (CONSUME)_________ alvvays increase in cold water. The police arc interested in the sudden(APPEAR) ________ ot' the valuable painting.

8. Ile claimcd that his (BRING U P )________ had caused him to he a criminal. 9. Travelling in big cities is becoming more(TROUBLE)____________ everyday. 10. Less public transport is now available because of the(SHORT)________ of statĩ. Exercise 10 1. Theretorc thc roads become (JAM )______ with private cars as people drive to work. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Becausc o f thc volume o f traffic local councils arc forccd to UIVC (PF.RMIT) _______ for more roads to be constructed. (P O R T U N E )_______ many housc have to be demolished to make ways tor the road. ITie injury to their kcy player could be a (DiiCIDL)_______ lacior 111 ilic gumc. But travclling hy public transport is very(ATTRACT)_____ as thcrc are long delays. The (PR C Q U E N T )______ oi'th e trains and the buscs cuuscs lrustration and annoyance.

7.

The situation is so(C H A O S)_______ in some cities no\v that it is diHìcult to sce any solution. 8. His behaviour aKvays (EMBARRASS)______ me at parties. 9. The new film is (EXCEPTION) good. 10. She felt a sense o f (L O SE )________ Yvhen her íriend vvent to live abroad. Exercise 11 1. Please give the handicapped some (CONSIDER)_______ when building stairs. 2. Mr. Lim has been having (FIN A N CE)_________ problems for a long time. 3. We need to give our local stars a lot o f (PU B LIC )________ . 4. Money is (SECOND) _ Family comes íìrst. 5. Sheđisplaycđ bcr (WILLING)_________ to hclp him by giving him a chcquc. 6. Morc local (NOVP.L)________ arc getting recognition for thcir \\ork. 7. c an I have an (E X T E N D )________ on the dateline o f my project? 8. It was (COINC1DE)________ that hoth our birthđays fell in the same day. 9. A (N U R SE )__________for childrcn has just opened near my \vorkplace. 10. Angie IS quite (TO LERA TE)_________ o f the screaming o f her children. Exercise 12 1. 2.

Nevv York is the home o f the United Nations and the centre of (GLOBE) íìnance. There are alvvays ìnterestmg (EXHIBIT) ________________ at the big art museums in Nevv York.

3. The cinema changed (CO M PLETE)_______________ at the end o f the 1920s. 4. I was absolutely (EX H A U ST)_______________ aiter such a long joumey. 5. Rivaldo (SCORE)_________ an amazing goal from a free kick in the last minute.


b. Are you (IN TER EST)_______________ in any sports? 7. The rnovie was (DISAPPOINT)________ 8. Please vvrite your name, age, and (O CC U PY )________ on the form 9. I find Ít (1NTEREST)________ talk to Peter's father 10. The river is (D A N G E R )_________ for swimmiers. Exercise 13 1 The boy felt quite (SA TISFY )_________ with his examination results. 2. A (FISH)__________ is someone \vho catches fish. either a joh or as a sport. 3. Our (FLY) vvill arrive at Tan Son Nhat Airport at 6:30. 4. Hamid is a (FR IEN D )__________ person. 5. The (H O T )______________ destroycd all the crops. 6. Our teacher has a prolound (K N O W )______________ o f Moroccan history. 7. Walt Disney is the (C R E A TE)______________ o f Mickey Mouse. 8. We need to join efforts and work together lo fmd a (S O L V E )______________ to the problem o f pollution. 9. Literature is a source ot great (W ISE )_________ 10. At the age of just 14 Lauren Murray was (ADDICT)_____________ to heroin. Exercise 14 1. Edith Piaf was (F A M E )______________ not only for her magniíìcent VOICC but also for her black dress. 2. In this poem, Robert expresses his patriotic (PR O U D )_____ 3. The children were very (N O ISE)______________ \vhen thcir mother \vas out. 4. (C H ILD )____is the period o f time in which \ve leam to become a personality. 5. Try not to becomc a man of (SUCCEF.D)___________but a man o f value. A. Einstein 6. Don't \vorry about (FAIL)_____________ as long as you are ready to try again. 7. A basic premise o f American jurisprudence is that aperson is presumed (IN NO CEN CE)______________ until proven guilty in a court o f lavv. 8. “The situation o f human rights in the Arab \vorld has (INCREASE) ______________ deteriorated in 2008." the CIHRS said. 9. (IG N O R E)___________o f the law cxcuses no man. 10. The school expects students to dress in proper attire and maintain a (RESPECT)_________ level o f deportment throughout the day. Exercise 15 1. There has been an oulbreak o f racial (V IO LA TE)___________in thc South of Spain recently. 2. The soldiers were responsible for the (D IE )_________ o f many civilians in the South o f the country. 3. The company’s dircctor lacks (L E A D )____________skills. 4. Sugar is (H A R M )_________ for your tceth because it sticks to thcm causing plaque and decay.


5.

The fỉrst key to beating drug (A D D IC T )_________ lies in understanding it and identifying its causes.

6. Mounir Alhamdaoui holds joint (CIT1ZEN)________ in Morocco and Holland. 7. My daughter Hajar received many (G IV E )__________ for her birthđay. 8. It is (L A W )___________to drive a car if you don’t have a dnver’s licence. 9. Taha Hussein lost his (S E E )_at an early age. 10. His behaviour is often (C H ILD )_________ and this makes me angry. Excrcise 16. Complete the follo\ving statement by adding the right suffix from the list givcn: -hood, -ship, -th, -ful, -dom ,-en, -ou s, -less 1. Most people reach (A D U LT )______ at 18. All love that has not (FRIEND)_________ for its base is like a manson built upon sand. The longer I live, the more (BEA Ư TY)________ life becomes. Its cold. Why don’t you put a sweater on for extra (W A R M )__________ ? Obama is (H O P E )_______ about the íuture o f American economy. The fire gutted all th "ĩ (W O O D )________ buildings in our neighborhood. A teeage girl died under (MYSTERY) _________ circumstances and the investigation process is now under way. 8. Thousands o f peoplc are still (H O M E )________ two weeks after noods in Sidi Slimane, Morocco. 9. Arrogance is like a (K IN G )______________________________w ithout a crown. 10. Only the unknown (F R IG H T )_______ men. But once a man has faced the unknown that terror becomes the kno\vn. Exercisc 17 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.

Our team \vere (L U C K Y )___________ to lose as they had a lot o f chances but they missed them.

2.

We must not be (PO L IT E )_______ to our teachers. They are our mentors and our greatest resource.

3.

The govemment and the trade unions had a (AGREEMENT) __________ over the wage hikes.

4.

Our association launched a campaign to raise avvareness of (DIVERSITY) and its importance in all our lives. The teacher asked me to (WRITE) ________ my essay as it was full of spelling mistakes.

5. 6. 7.

Hundreds of people joined ửie (WAR)_________protest in Copley Square in Boston. If you think corruption can be solved by punishment alone, you completely (U N D ERSTA N D )_____________ problem. 8. Let's not (JU D G E )___________the situation until we hear more details. 9. (-DEVELOPED) ____________ countries lose their human Capital to the developed countries. 10. I grevv up in a (LINGUAL) ________ family \vho spoke both Berbcr and Arabic at home. Exercise 18 1.

(ST ABLE)___________ could pre vent countries from developing and progressing.


2.

Rạja fans (N U M B ER )___________ those of IZK last Sunday at M ohairunedjy Stadium in Casablanca. 3. In case o f war, it is usually children, the sick, the elderly, and the (ABLE) who get stuck i n the crossíĩre. 4.

During wars civilians may be (ABLE) ___________ to obtam lood, vvater, shelter, and medical care. 5. Deforestation causes the e xtinction o f species which đepend on the íorest for (SƯRVIVE) __ _______ 6. Poverty is (D O U BT)___________ a determmant factor in the use of child labor. 7.

(G R O W )_______________deftciency is prevalent among \vorking children.

8.

Bilal's mother of<ien blames him for his (C A R R )_________

9.

Many people in developing countries are (P O O R )___________ remunerated for all the hard \ vork they do. —

10. The Moroccan a nd Spanish authonties (OPERATE)__________ to íìght terrorism. Exercise 19 1. Be sure to contí ict him if you need advice. He's a very (HELP)___________ person. 2.

It:was a really (EN JO Y )__________ party. Thanks for inviting me.

3.

He has just ta ken out a (M O N TH )____________ subscription to the magazine.

4.

She smiled (1 ,-IAPPY)________ when they offered her the new job.

5.

(H O P E )________ we'll have enough money saved to get married next year.

6.

In order fo r the medicine to correct amc-unt.

work (E F F E C T )____ you must

7.

Although o u r teacher is very you would. expect.

strict in class, she is(F R IE N D )_____ than

8.

What a be.autiíul vase! That's the (L O V E )____________ present I've ever had.

9.

He told her that he (SY M PA TH Y )________ with her problem but couldn't do anything to help.

take the

10. My belt feels a bit tight after that huge lunch. I think ril have to (LOOSE) ita little. Exercise 20 1. She was severely (W E A K )_________________< by the long illness she had. 2.

There are many diíTerent ways to (CLASS)________ areas of English Grammar.

3.

If you're really sorry for what you said you won't mind (APOLOGY)________ .

4. There’s no need to (C R IT IC )_________ my work. I'm trying as hard as I can. 5.

The pain in his back (L E S S )_______ as soon as he took the medication.

6.

Everybody was (H O R R O R )________ by the news o f the earthquake.

7.

When he became a teenager he wanted to be more (D E P E N D )_________ from his parents. 8. It was really (H O N EST)________ of you to take that money without asking. 9.

If you hadn't been so (CARE)___________ witìi that book you’d still have it now.

10. My broken leg means 1*11 be (A B L E )________ to go on holiday with you.


Dạng bài 2: Complete the passage using the correct form of the vvorcls in the Capital letters.

Excrcise 1 To neighbors, Mr Stewart is a dull man who speaks very (1- POLITE) --------------- and whose only form o f (2- ENTERTAIN) is his ,ob And to a certain extern it's true, since Mr Stewart íìnds hisjob very (3- rNTEREST) He is an antique dealer and goes to vvork (4- HAPPY) everv dav He

i H ! ? n  ỉĩr S ','5' EXPEl5sE>

J

(

.

pl^s sômétimes, wK,chTan make z

D A N G E R )---------------as there have recently been quite a few (7- ROB)

77,.; ...a t °."tỊque sh° ps- So not (8- SURPRISE) Mr Stewart decided : \T o ness needed SOme cxtra (Ọ- PROTECT) Aftr having an aiarm System put in. Mr Stevvart doesn-t feel (10- COMPLẼTE) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ secure bút he does s more protected. Exercise 2 T D À n ix íĩS í knOW that Asian' Middle Eastem and Meditcrranean cultures have (1, TT----- T-----X used ?arllc 10 their dishes- What y °u may not know IS that gar c was also thoughl o f a s a (2- V A L U E )___ medicmc bý many anc en civilisa ions Today ( 3 -P R O F E S S I O N )_ ________ in the íieid o f nútnt.on have come up with new (4- FNFORM) __________ which ìs indeed quite sùmrising. Apparently, not only is garlic good for you but it also hclps overcome vanous (5- ILL) R R P iT m (6‘ A? VANTAGE) — ----------- t0 eatms garlic is of coúrse bad (7WATI id c ! ~ CookmS 11 reduces the strong smell and eating parsley, which 1S a (8^ — 7 ------ — ,deod?.riÌer’ also helPs min'mise the smell. So. it’s time we took

Ĩĩvrĩuo? garlic (fdishes! , SER10US)____ — FA V O H R )________

■Whỹ not add « to some óf your (10-

Exercisc 3 Being a ( l- JO U R N A L )---------------- I often have to go on strange assignments. So when my editor told me to do a story on one o f the (2- FAME) hẽalth spas in Switzerland, I \vas only too happy to go and take it easy for a \veek or two í 0wevf ’ n 1 g0t thcr! and saw the programme, I began to pấnic. I had to go òn a diet and participate in a (3- V A R Y )________ o f exercise classes. My (4- ANGRY) ~ ' —-— turT>e<i to rage when they insistcđ I go to bed very early so as to get up at 6:00 a m. and_eat breakfast in a (5- BUILD) _ _ _ _ _ wh.ch looked like a greenhouse. I must adrnit that they ran an excellent (6- ORGANIZE) Anỹ\vay you can imagine hovv happy I was to see niy familiar (7- NEIGHBOUR) when I Hnally am veđ home. A few months later, [ received an (8- ĨNVITF) — —— — from the same cl'nic ior a week’s worth o f free treatment. My iamily thought it rather (9- AMUSE) __________ when they sãw thè (10- FRIGHT) ____________look on my face. Exercise 4 My father was a policc (1- IN SPE C T )_________ , my mother a (2- TEACH) . 1 hctr (3- DEC ID E )-----move----to am.Mi small to\vn \vhcn II \vas --------—------ to ---------\VU5 aa child LI11iu changed my life. Ilvvas a very (4- PEACE) _ placc and o lcoursc l.vmg thê e meant hat I had much morè (5- FREE) _ _ _ _ _ to gõ wherever I pleàsêd. The f7e° P m ! erre (6' I R ll:N D )----------but 1 missed my close friends, my school and the ụ - NU1SL)------------- City I had lived in. As I grew up, I realized that there wasn’t 24


much for a young person to do there. except rush into (8- M A R R Y )________ . When I left, my parents \vere sad, but they realized that staying there \vould only make me (9- MISF.RY)_______ . The big City I live in no\v is not very far away, so I can visit my parents (10- FR EỌ U EN T)________ and have the best o f both worlds. Exercise 5 The economic crisis facing many countries today, has created serious (1EM PLO Y )_________ problems. (2- E N E R G Y )_________ young people. vvilling to \vork, are confronted by many (3- D IFFIC U L T )____________ when trying to find a job. Filling in countless (4- A P P L Y )__________forms and hearing that thcy are (5SUiT) ________ for the job because they don’t have the right (6- QUALIPY) _______ can be disheartcning. Finding a job seems jusl (7- POSSIBL.E) However. their (8- D ISA PPO IN T)___________shouldn't aiTect them nor make them give up. There is no straightforward (9- SOLVE) ________ other than (10- PATIP.NT) _ _ _ _ _ and persistence. Exercisc 6 The (1- EXCITE) _ _ _ _ _ _ gamc benveen the Dragons and the Tigers is over. The Tigers' íailurc to win o f course means that thcy \von't play in thc ilnals. The Dragons played a (2-WONDER) __________ garnc and camcd evcryone's (3ADMIRE) Their (4- COMBINE) ____________ o f tactics and strength definitely helped them win. Duc to the continuous (5- DHVHLOP) ____________ o f ne\v strategies by their coach, this will be the (6- F IV E )___________year in a ro\v that the Dragons will play in the final. Their (7- PO PU LA R)____________ has increased over the years and there is no doubt that Hillbell Stadium vvill be (8- C R O W D )_________ with (9- EN TH U SE)___________fans on the day o f the final. ir they play like today, they are sure to be ( 10- SUCCESS) Exercise 7 ln our (1- L IV E )________ we arc constantly bombardeđ by (2- ADVERTISE) _________ \vhose role is to make Products (3- A TTR A C T)_enough so that people will want to buy thcm (4- IMMEDIATE) There has been a lot o f (5D1SCUSS) on thc powerful effects of advertisine. Arc ads rcally (6- U S D ? Arc they (7- TRUE) ? Do thcy givc us a (8- R liA L )_________ idea of the product? Peoplc are rarely in (9- A G R E E )___________on any o f these questions. but thc fact is ihat ads are ( 10- HELP) _ _ _ _ _ in letting peoplc kno\v thc vvide variety o f goods available. Excrcise 8 There has been a signilìcant (1- RED U CE)___________in police popularity in thc last few years. That’s \vhy this \vcek a public rclation campaign is being launchcd to makc people more (2- SF.NSH)___________ to the rolc o f the police ọfficer. The adds will stress that police do rnore than just give (3- MOTOR) ___________ spceding tickets. They oiten act as unoĩíicial social \vorkers. visit schools and talk to students, familiarising them \vith traíTic signs and \vaming them o f (4- V A R Y )___________ dangers. Being a police otĩicer is (5- R IS K )__________ . consideriniỉ that cvery day thcy dcal with (6- C R IM E )________ such as thieves and cven (7- M U R D E R )__ In (8- CONCLUDE) __________ , the campaign vvants to make thc public realisc that even though in some cases the police’s approach may seem extreme, they cannot ignore the (9- P O S S IB L E )___________of injury or even (10- D I E ) ______________ while on duty.


Exercise 9 My decision to becọme an (1- ACT) was not an easy One. After alL 00 ity vvell isn't ènough. It isn't a stable proĩession. However l f,nd ac ing most (2- E N JO Y )------------ -- and am vvilling to live without job O -SEC U R E)

117

1

Ĩ T PE R FO R m ° n T v seriaí ° r anything I‘k e .ĩh a t o n |y take part in theatre RPAm r t m o strew a rd in S as ỵou_ 8 et the auđience“s immediatc (5KhAC T) _ For example. when doing a (6- HỮMOUR) nlav wẽ nll w , ,n ' , 1 — 7— -------and weh„ave failed Eveí1 thouHh r v c hađ many years of experience I m ahvays (9- TERROR) _ _ _ _ _ and (10- NERVE) before gomg on stage^But once I start períorming, I quickly lose m yself in the play Playing a character completely different from your òwn 1S always a chai len úe Exercise 10 b the £ 5 ? ? r d ^ inter aftern00n' 1 ( I ' NORM AL) ____________rneet my íriends at he local fas food restaurant. It's an (2- ID E A )________ meet.ng placè as there .5 05 0 ^ ARM) _ (4- T A S T E )----------- food (which my mum calls (5- POISON) -------------) is also available. So, it’s a (6- COMPORT) nlacêTn c h J Jn0HUĩ;SK PK e0P u e’ necd 3 place ‘° g0 and talk- We ùsuãlly talk about our imerests and hobbíes mine be ing (7-PHOTO) _ Our behavior >s typiỉal ó f many teenagers ĩ suppose. H cvever, my parents thịnk í go oũt too often LuckHy though, after many (8_ u w —--------------they have begun to accept my (9- EXPLAIN) that ỵoung people need to fínd \vays to relieve their ( 10- BORE) ẽsõẽcĩãilv , ' they live in a small town like I do. Exercise 11 l9.48ù, ỉhf r 0ll^ W0° d; studi0s’ where fl!ms_ for the cinema were produced faced a nevv kind o f competition. The (1- A R R IV E )_______ o f télevision A HolIyWOOd dldn [ Work- After a11’ John Baird’s (2- INVENT)

coulH

A S T Ỏ N ^ m sma" black a1-d twhí , t ! ures' H° r v=r' 0 $ « “ * mistaken. To the (3' —- ------ t*ie Hollyvvood studios, by the early 1950's (4- WEEK) ---------- . attendance at cinemas had dropped by fifty percent. Televisìon today has PLEASR) ° everyday, - Th5se boxcs g.ve (5- END) hours ot'(6 r ------ :------millions o f people. It 1S also an (7- ECONOMY) form o f ẹntertamment However, TV can also be (8- HARM) not onlv tor the eyes. For instance, programmes contạin scenes o f (9- VIOLENT) ràn í!1 ‘ ( ' “ - .Ệ Ê h A v È ) n è g a tiv X Who thought that television would iníluence our lives so much9 Excrcise 12 Sky diving isn’t something nevv, but (1- COURAGE) umpmg out o f planes w.th all the necessặo/(2- EQƯIP) — • The cameramen are not o f course totally (3- EXPERIENCE) T gr l After a lot o f (5- T Ĩ ũ m ' ồ " b L T ,h é 'd“ “ judge them accordingly in (7- COMPETE)

cameramin to film aT r as thev BO yg

'ẫ t r° ? x ' N lf:m 'ld Then lheyf

l0 f 0 . 5 e,! ? pi« “^ « ° " i n ^ c r c e n r J ,hc i í ^ d l b r , h e AMEV /Ii, ds galher d " h (’ ■ CURIOUS) and (10 A M A ZE)---------------at seeing such a đangerous sport in action Exercise 13


Las Vegas has a new (1- A T T R A C T )_________ ; the tallest American building west o f the Mississippi. Its owners have high (2- E X P E C T )_______ o f its success. The design is (3- ORIGĨN) _________ and certainly (4- D1FFER) _______ to anything ever seen beíore. Taller than the Eiffel Tower, the building has something for everyone. The (5- DESCRIBE) ___________ of what the building offers is quite amazing. The building has a casino, for which the State is famous for. Also, there is a (6- FA SH IO N )_________ decorated revolving restaurant, so that clients are able to see the (7- IM PR ESS)__________views through the glass windows. Three chapels are available for anyone who would like to get m aưied and have a (8- RELIGION) _________ ceremony, 800 feet in the air. In (9- A D D )__________ , two o f the highest rides are available for ride lovers. The roller-coaster, 865 tracks in (10- LONG) ________ , and the Space Shot ride, which goes up to the top o f the tovver at approximately 90 km per hour, are not for the faint hearted. Exercise 14 The (1- D ISC O V E R )_________ that a member of your ía m ily is sleepwalking may be (2- A L A R M )__________ , but it is not an uncommon phenomenon. Bolh adults and children sleepwalk, however it is more common in children. Sleepwalkmg is not a psychological (3- ORDER) _________ , as some may think. Nor is there any (4CONNECT) ___________betxveen dreams and sleepwalking. The explanation vvhich experts give for sleepwalking is that it is mainly due to being (5-T ỈR E )________ and under a lot o f stress. (6-A N X IO U S)_________ , (7- P R E S S )___________at vvork or at school or even the loss o f a íavounte (8- PO SSESS)________ could trigger it off. Sleepwalkers mõver easily around Ihe house despite the (9- DARK) ________ . sometimes opening drawers as if searching for something. It is difficult to wake up a sleepvvalker and it is considered (10- W IS E )________ because it can cause great distress. The following moming the sleepwalker doesn’t usually remember anything. Exercise 15 The lion is known as the king of the jungle. Perhaps this is because o f its size, (1STRONG)_________ ' and (2- ABLE)_________ to run up to 35mph. Yet, for tvventy hours a day the lion just lies under the sun doing nothing. Hovvever, when it gets (3HƯNGER)__________ , its manner changes and it becomes (4- THREAT) Its only (5INTEND)________ is to satisíy its enormous appetite. In its natural (6- SURROUND) _________ the lion will eat anything, from rats to animals as large as £ÌrafTes. But 7ebra meat provides the lion with the greatest (7- SATISFY) Lions live in groups callcd pridcs. The lioness is (8- T R U E )_________ amazing. She is quicker than the male. She is so (9CARE)__________ that she will hunt and look after her young for two years before they become ( 10- DEPEND) Exercise 16 People are bccomimi more security conscious these days. Crimes like burglary and (1- T H IE F )_______ are deĩinitely on the increase. One o f thc most (2- PAIN) ________ experiences a home (3- O W N )_______ _ can have is to arrive home and find that his or her (4- V A L U E )________ have disappeared, because a window had (5- ACCIDENT)_______ been left open. What can we do to protect ourselves? The most important piece o f (6- A D V ISE )________ is to make sure that your (7IN SU R E)________ coverage is up to date. Another (8- S E N S E )_________ thmg to do is to go along to your local police station, vvhere they will be more than willing to make (9- SUGGEST) on (10- R E L Y )________ ways o f saíeguarding your property. Exercise 17


It is thought that some people are iust bom (1 - LIJCK)

sáíỆsSĩS ỉ!f

-

<^lecY family to the s

TU

2- EMPLÕỸ)------

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PH À N 2: C O N F U SIN G VVORDS (C Á C T Ừ H AY G Â Y s ự N H À M L Ẳ N ) 1. RENT, HI RE, LET RF,NT: trà tiên Ịhưịriig xuvẽn cho ngirời cluì đé sĩr

dụng cáigìdó trong một thời

gian dài. (danh từ: sô tiên trà de sử dụng một ngôi nhà)

H1RE: (1) tra tiền cho người chù cùa một cái gi đó để dùng nó trong một khoáng thời gian ngăn (2) thuê ai dỏ làm một công việc đặc biệt cho bạn LET: ( I) cho phép ai đó thuê tài sán (nhà cứa. . ) cùa bạn đế đồi lầy tiền hàng tuần hoặc hàng tháng (2) cho phép ai làm gì Excrcise 1: Choose rent, hire, let to fill in each gap. 1. My parents n ev er____ their country house. 2. When she moved to thc city. s h e ______ a bungalcnv to livc. 3. The school_a teachcr to hclp the slow lcamers. 4. T h e y _______ a dozen men to dig a ditch. 5. Interhome has ovcr 20,000 houses t o ______across Europe. 6. N ick's b e e n _______ for five ycars now, and he can't afford to buy. 7. Why don't \v c _______ a boal tor the aftemoon? 8. 1*11 havc t o _______ a suit for the wcdding. 9. I c a n ________ you have a copy o f the rcport. 10. I v c ______ my sparc room to a Japanesc student. 2. JOB, OCCUPATION, PROFESSION, \VORK BUSINESS, DUTY, TASK JOB: công việc một người làm đe được trả lương ' OCCUPATION: nghề nghiệp, việc làm, trang trọng hơn JOB và có thể không mang lại thu nhập đều đận PROPESSION: nghề đòi hòi giáo dục cao và cỏ đào tạo chuyên ngành WORK: (1) nhiệm vụ cụ thể mà ai đó phai làm trong công việc cua họ; (2) nơi một người làm công việc cùa họ BUSINESS: (1) công việc có licn quan đến sản xuất, mua bán hàng hoá, thương mại; (2) tô chức (còng ty, hãng, cửa hàng) thực hiện một công việc như vậy DUTY: nhiệm vụ ai dó làm vì trách nhiệm, bốn phận TASK: thường là một nhiệm vụ ngấn hạn và đòi hòi phái cố găng, và cỏ thể là một phần trong một dự án lớn hơn Exercise 2: Fill in cach gap with only one word írom the list (job, occupation, profcssion, \vork, business, duty, task) 1. Don’t interrrupt me now. I’ve got a lot o f _______ to do. 2. When he applied for the loan, they asked him \vhat h is _________ was. 3. Julic ỉound a g o o d ___________closc lo \vhere shc lives. 4. One of m y _______ as a nurse is to be on time bccause livcs depend on it. 5. Out tcacher gavc us a ĩc w _________ to do duriniỉ the summer holiday. 6. I know I wanl to have a ___________but J*m not sure in \vhich tleld. I might study law. 7. My aunt runs her o w n _________


8.

Please State your name, address a n d ________ .

9. He was given th e _______ o f stacking the chairs in the auditorium. 10. I need a part-tim e________ . 3. RESƯLT, EFFECT, CONSEQƯENCE, SOLƯTION RESULT: kết quả cùa một hoạt động hoặc một tinh huống. EFFECT (o f sth on sth else): sự thay đôi mà một cái gì đó gây ra cho một cái khác CONSEQUENCE: kết quả, hậu quà cùa một cái gì đo (thường là không tốt) SOLUTION: câu trà lời cho một bài toán, cảu đố, giải pháp cho một vấn đề Exercise 3: Fill in cach gap with only one word from the list (result, effect consequence, solution) 1. 2.

Finding th e _______ to this maths problem is very difficult. Pollution has a very harm íul_______ on our health.

3. 4.

If you don’t take our advice, you’11 have to face the Did you get your e x a m ___________?

5.

The election_______ \vere announced at midnight.

6.

High unemployment is a d ire c t______ of the recession.

7.

Inílation is having a disastrous______ on the economy.

8.

He broke the law, and now he must face th e _______ o f his actions

9.

Do you understand the h arm íul______of smoking?

10. The safety procedures had been Ìgnored, with potentially tragic 4. TRAVEL, TRIP, TOƯR, VOYAGE, CRƯISE, FLIGHT, J O l RNEY, R O ITE TRAVEL: chuyến đi từ một nơi này sang nơi khác khá dài. nhất là ra nước ngoài đé vui chơi hoặc vỉ lợi ích; hành động du hành, du lịch TRIP: hành trình ngăn đên một nơi và trớ về lại điểm xuất phát TOUR: chuyên đi du lịch (ngắn hoặc dài) thăm nhiều nơi VOYAGE: chuyến đi dài trên biên hoặc trong không gian CRUISE: chuyến du ngoạn trẽn một con thuyền FLIGHT: chuyển đi bằng máy bay JOURNEY: chuyến đi từ một địa điềm nảy đến một dịa điểm khác ROUTE: tũyến đường, lộ trình, đường đi Exercise 4: Fill in each gap with only one >vord from the list (travel, trip, tour, voyage, cruise, ílight, journey, route) 1.

Our business______ to Brussels was productive and very pleasant.

2.

W hat’s the quickest________ from your house to the City centre?

3.

As soon as they arrived, they went on a _________ o f the City.

4.

At the airport they told us that th e __________ to Rome had been cancelled.

5.

Instead ot going to an island, we decided to go on a lu xury ________ around the Mediterranean.

6.

People say that thc safest and quickest way t o ________ is by aeroplane.

7• T h e __________from Athens to Salokina by car takes around fĩve hours.


8.

The old captain had spent his life m aking_______ to the Far East.

9. I couldn't carry everything at once, so I had :o make several . 10. I have a 25-m inute______________________________ to work. 5. DEBT, LOAN, ALLOWANCE, DON ATI ON, FINE, CHARGE, TIP, CHANGE, CURRENCY, PROFiT, INCOME DEBT. khoàn tiền mà bạn nợ naân hàng hoặc một người nào đó LOAN: số tiền bạn vav (thường là vay ngân hàng) ALLOWANCE: tiền bạn được trợ cấp thường xuyên, đều đận DONATION: tiền đóng góp cho một tô chức từ thiện FINE: tiền phạt phải trả vì đã làm gì sai hoặc phạm luật CHANGE: (1) tiền lẻ, tiền xu (2) tiền thổi lại khi bạn mua cái gì TIP: tiền thường cho một người (lái xe, phục vụ khách sạn, nhà hàng. . ) dể cám ƠI1 h ọ đ ã p h ụ c v ụ m ìn h

CHARGE: số tiền phải trà cho một dịch vụ hoặc để mua cái gi đó CURRENCY: loại tiền sử dụng ở một quốc gia, tiền tệ PROFIT: tiền lãi, tiền lời INCOME: thu nhập, số tiền ai đó kiếm được Exercise 5: Fill in cach gap with only one vvord from the list (debt, loan, allonance, donation, fine, charge, tip, change, currency, protìt, income) 1. The magistrate ìmposed a £ 100_________ on the man for throvving litter ơn the Street.

2. T h e __________Sandra eams allows her to live very comfortably. 3. I li ke to m ak e ________ to worthwhile causes. 4. Do you make a la rg e _________out o f the jewellery you sell? 5. If I don’t get good Service in a restaurant, I never leave a ________ . 6. Come back sir! You forgot y o u r________ . 7. My parents give me a \veekly_________ and I can spend it hovvever I like. 8. The Jones took out a _________to buy a new car. 9. There’s no e x tra________ for delivery. 10. W hat__________is used in Australia? 11. The national ' is alvvays increasing and as a result the cost o f living rises. 6. CREW, STAFF, TEAM, EMPLOYEE, COLLEAGUE, CLIENT CUSTOMER CREw : những người cùng làm việc trên một con thuyền hoặc tàu, thuỳ thú đoàn, phi hành đoàn STAFF: những người làm việc cho một cône ty hoặc tổ chức: nhân viên cùa một công ty TEAM: nhóm người làm việc cùng nhau hoặc cùng chơi một môn thể thao nào đó EMPLOYEE: người được trả lương để làm việc cho một cá nhãn hoặc tổ chức COLLEAGUE: người cùng làm việc; đồng nghiệp CLIENT: người nhận sự giúp đờ hoặc lời khuyên cùa một người làm nghề chuyên môn (như luật sư, kê toán, kiến trúc s ư ..); khách hàng CUSTOMER: người mua một hàng hoá hoặc dịch vụ, đặc biệt là ờ một cửa hàng


Exercise 6: Fill in each gap n ith only one word from the list (CREYV, STAFF, TEAM , EM PLOYEE, COLLEACUE, CLIENT) 1. The hospital_________ are on strike today. 2. I \vork for a law firm which has a lot of business pcople as 3. M y ________ playcd well but we lost thc game. 4. I low m an y ______ docs hc need to sail his yacht? 5. There vveren't many people on the plane; just the tcn o f us and th c ______ . 6. W henever I necd help at \vork, I can ahvays rely on m y _______ . 7. Employers often complain that they can't find reliable________ . 8. There are nine players on a baseball_______ . 9. These planes carry over 300 passengers a n d ________ . 10. He is thc b e s t________ o f our company. 7. GI EST, HOST, VISITOR GUEST: ( 1) người dền thăm ai hoặc có mặt tại một sự kiện vi dược mời (2) khách trọ tại khách sạn HOST: chu nhà. Iigirời tiếp đón khách mời VISITOR: ngườiđến thăm một nơi nào đó hoặc một người khác CUSTOMER: người khách mua hàng cùa một cửa hàng Exercise 7: Choose onc suitablc word above to fill in cach blank to complete the following scntcnccs. 1• A ll_______ entering the tầclory must \vear this card. 2. He is onc o f thc b e s t_______ o f our shop. 3. AVc h a d ____________ staying with 11S for ten days. 4. O u r_______provided us with a delicious meal. 5. T h e ________ complaincd about thc bad Service to the manager. 6. I ahvays buy my groccries 1'rom this shop. I am a re g u la r______ hcre, so I expect good Service. 7. I'd like you to bc m y ________ for dinncr tomght. 8. They were expecting_________ and had clcaned the house. 9. O u r_______brouiỉht in somc more \vine and food. 10. The hotel takes very lĩood care ot' its ________ . 8. HABIT, ROUTINE, I SI AL, XORMAL, COMMON HABIT: cTiều ai dó làm llurừim xuyên, thỏi quen ROỤTINE: một chuỗi những hoạt dộng ai dó làm thường xuyên vào những thời điểm nhất (lịnh USUAL: xảy ra hoặc dược làm, được dùng. . . trong nhiều hoặc da số trirừng hợp. thông thường, thường xuyên NORMAL: bình thường, thông thường, tức là không có gi khác biệt hoặc không bình thườnu COMMON: phố biến, tlurờng thấy ở nhiều nơi Exercise 8: Choose onc suitable \vord above to <111 in cach blank to complete thc follo\ving scntcnccs. 1. When I’m nervous, I’m in th e ______ o f biting my nails. 2. Parts ot our d a ily _______ include a jog beíbre breakfast.


3. 4. 5.

Hann is a very ______ _______German name. Despite his ability, he leads a ______ life Waiter, r i l have m y _____________ drink.

6. 7.

Bad dreams are fairly_________ among children. He seems a perfectly__________little boy.

8. Train services are back t o ________ again after the strike. 9. Mark longed to escape from the old familiar _ _ _ _ _ 10. r il meet you at th e _______ time. 9. SEE, LOOK, WATCH SEE: 1 nhìn thấy một cái gì một cách không chù định, ví dụ "I opened the and .Ví/li' some birds outsùle" - Tôi kéo rèm cửa so và (trông) thấy mấy con chim ở bên ngoài Như vậy có nghĩa là chúng ta không chù định nhin/xem/ngắm những con chim đó, mà chi là do mờ cứa thì trông thấy chúng. 2.hiểm ví du- I sèe

what you mean.

LOOK: nhìn cái gì một cách có chủ định vídụ: "Thismorning I looked at the newspaper" - Sáng nay tôi xem báo, và có nghĩa là tôichủ định đọc bao, xem bao WATCH: theo dõi, xem, tức là chủ động nhìn cái gỉ một cách chăm chứ và quan sát xem có cái gì đang xảy ra, ví dụ '7 Matched the bus go through the trăfjic iiglits" 10, nhìn theo/theo dõi chiếc xe buýt vượt đèn đỏ hay "7 watch the movie " - Toi xem P Ị T ' ,v _ ở diên ra ý cliúng ta chủ định muốn nhìn, xem, theo dõi, và nhìn mọt cach chăm chú. Thông thường là có sự chuyển động trong đó. Exercise 9: Choose onc suitablc word above to nil in eăch blank to complete the follo>ving scntcnces. 1. You can’t _________________ far in this fog. 2. Denny and P h il______ good tonight. 3. Did y o u ____ Coronation Street yesterday evemng? 4. ______ out for pickpockels. 5. Can y o u ___________the blue car on the left? ^ ____ you tomorrovv, if nothing comes in betvveen. 7. I t ______ like rain, doesn’t ít? 8. Oh yes, I _________________ what you mean. 9. Hey, what’s wrong? You really _______ unhappy. 10. I'm afraid, Lmda has t o ______ doctor. 10. MAKE, DO DO: chi các họạt động hàng ngày nhưng những hoạt động này thường là không tạo nen vật gi cụ thê, không sáng tạo nên cái mới. - Một số cách nói phố biến dùng “do”: E. g: do one’s best / do good / do harm / do a favour / do business MAKE: diên tả các hoạt động tạo nên cái gi đó cụ thề mà bạn có thể chạm vào được. Ẹ. g: make food / make a cup o f tea / coffee cr make a mess - Một số cách nói phổ biến dùng “make” : E. g: make plans / make an cxception / make arrangements /make a telephone call rriuke a decision / niake a mistake / make noise / make money / make an excuse make an effort.


Exercise 10: Fill in the gap \vith MAKE or DO. 1. I’m going t o ________ a cake for Toni’s birthday. 2. They are going t o ________ the shopping 3. Tonight you have t o ______ the beds 4. She alw ay s______ fun o f her friends. 5. The teacher asked us t o ______ this exercise. 6. They’r e ______ a documentary about the Civil War. 7. W h o __ those marks on the wall? 8. The decision_______ her very unpopular with the statT. 9. Mary spcnds a g e s _____ ^ her hair in the moming. 10. J a n e __________aerobics three times a week. 11. LIFE, LI VE, LIVES LIVE /llv/ (v) sống Can yon live on £1000 a month in London/ LIFE (n) cuộc song, vi dụ: He \vanted to live his o\vn life \vithout the interíerence from the others. LIVE /laiv/ (adj) trực tiếp a live programme một chương trinh truvển trực tiếp (adv) trực tiếp IVư will be bruudcvsting theprogram live frum Auslin. LIVES /livz/ (v) sốim (ngôi thứ 3 số ít thi hiện tại đơn) Hc lives in Ne\y York. LIVES /laivz/ (n) số nhiều cùa life Many people ỉost their lives in the war. Exercise 11: Choosc onc suitable word above to líll in cach blank to complcte the follo\ving sentcnccs. 1. A n gela__________ in Argentina. 2. ' You must go to t h c ________ concert o f Robbie Williams. 3. Peter s till_w ith his parents. 4. There is n o ______________ on the sun. 5. Do you s till________ in this small house? 6. This is a ________ recording. 7. _______ is short. 8. The body shovved no signs o f 9. He's liveđliere all h is _______ . 10. T h re e___________ vvere lost in the fire. 12. BRINGf-TAKE, FETCH BRING: mang cái gi tới vị trí mà người nói/ nghe đang ờ đó (nơi đến), ví dụ "Briììg your homewark to me" (Hãy mang bài tập về nhà cùa các em đcn chỗ tôi) TAKE: mang cái gì đi khôi vị trí người nói / người nslie. vídụ • Tlicv'rư nni liere. Hi! inust licivcla ken lliơm to the club.He's taken myumbrella too. (Chúng không có ở đây. Chac chấn anh ta đưa chúng đến câu lạc bộ rồi. Anh ta cùng mang ỏ cùa tòi đi nữa). FETCH: đi tìm và mang về. vi dụ: Don’t \vorry. You need some \vooden rods. don’t you? r u fetch them.

Excrcise 12: Fill in each blank with only one word from: BRING, TAKE, FETCH. 1. _____ this book to the library, please. 2. Could y o u _______ me some water, please? 3. He often his sister to her aunt.


4. 5. 67. 8. 9. 10. 11.

When you come to my party, don't íorget t o _______ something to dnnk. Is P eter______ Steve to my party? He i s ______ out the rubbish now. Can y o u ________ the CD to your uncle, please? My husband o ften ________ flowers when he comes home. Would y o u _______ this to the shop for me? Can y o u _________the car to the garage on VVednesday? They live in an isolated village so they have t o _______ water to drink from the mountain.

nccd somc vvaste cans. c an y o u ________ sorne for us now'^ 13. ( OME, GO COME: một chuyển động đến nơi mà người nói hoặc người nghe ỡ đó ví dụ: ' Couhlyou come hereỳorư inimite. please. Diane? " (Cậu đến đây mọt lật đi Diaiie). ~ 77« C o r n in g (Mình đến đây). GO: đe chi một chuyên động rời xa vị trí, địa điểm mà người nói hoặc người nghe đang ơ đo: Areyou going lo the puh tonight? (Tối nay anh có tới quán rượu không?) COME WITH or GO WITH? Khi chung ta muon nói đên việc tham gia một chuyên động cùng với người nói và người nghe thì người ta thường sừ dụng cõm e with (đi cùng) chứ khong dùng go with kê cá khi đó là chuyên động rời khỏi vị trí mà họ đang ờ đó: • I'»I goinẹ to the hospitaỉ this a/ternoon to get the test results. Couỉd you come with me? (Chiêu nay tôi định đến bệnh viện để lấy kết quả xét nghiệm. Bạn co đi cung tôi không?) Exercise 13: Choose COME or GO to fill in each blank to complete the following scntcnces. *■ 2. 3. 4. 56. 7. 8. 9.

Let s ______________ and see Auntie Mary bctbrc the holiday is over. TheyVe_____________ to li ve in Australia and I đon't think theyl! c \c r __back. \Ve v e _______ to ask you ít we can borrow your car for a \veek. IVe got some people________ for a meal tonight. Can you and Henry______ t« ),) L et's______________ and see Auntie Mary before the holiday is over. When did y o u _______ hcreV Shc did not want t o _______ to school today. Stay at home, I vvill_____________to see you tomorro\v. We w ill______________________ to England next month.

10. W e're________ to Eg>T3t for a week at Christmas. Would you like to with us? 14. BORRONV LEND BORROW: mượn cái gì của ai, ví dụ ,ắI'd like lo borrow your umbrella" (Tôi muôn mượn cái ô cùa anh) LEND: chọ ai nurợn cái gi thuộc sờ hữu của mình, ví dụ '7 cun ìend von my umhreUa. " (Tỏi có thê cho anh mượn chiếc ô cùa tôi) Exercise 14: Choose BORROVV or LEND to fill in each blank to complete the following sentcnccs. 1. Could y o u ________ mc some money, please?


2. Some pupils can books from their school. 3. Will you me your umbrella till tomorroxv? 4. Should I him mv ĩootball? 5. You may my bike, but be carelul. 6. Could I your cup? 7. You can your book to Steve. 8. Why do students so much moncy from their parents? 9. Peter won't his car to anyone. 10. Will your mother you some money? 15. BIG, GREAT, TALL, HIGH BIG: lớn về kích cỡ, mức độ, ví dụ a biiỉ stone một hòn đá to GREAT: lớn hơn trung bình rât nhiều, ví dụ a great success một thành công vĩ đại HIuH: khoảng cách từ đáy lên đinh; ví dụ a high mountain range một dãy núi cao. LARGE: lớn vê kích cợ và sộ lượng, ví dụ: a large country một đất nước rộng lớn a large number n f peuple rất nhiều người TALL: cao hơn chiều cao trung binh, ví dụ: a tall man một người đàn ỏng cao lớn Ly.u ý: Chúng ta dùng higli hoặc tall khi nói về các tòa nhà, và dùng tall khi nói về người. Exercise 15: Choose BIG, GREAT, TALL or HIGH to fill in each blank to complete the follo\ving sentences. 1. There is a nice house with a ________ garden. 2. Albert Eintsein was a ________ physicist. 3. , She is a v e ry ___________ child for her age. 4- A _________rate of inílation makes exports uncompetitive. 5. My inother is six l'eet 6. He is making a _______________mistake. 7. Can you see t h e __ trees bchind the lake? 8. The city has a _________ level o f pollution. 9. This pullover isn’t ________ enough. 10. My grandíather lived to a ________ age. 16. RISE, RAISE, ARISE RISE (rose, nsen, rising) trờ nên cao hơn (nội động từ, không có tân ngừ đi kèm) ví dụ: The sũĩĩ rises in the east. Mặt trời mọc ở phía đông. RA1SE (raised, raised, raising) làm cho. . . cao lên, nuôi nấng dạy dỗ (trê con) nuôi (con vật), ví dụ: All those ỉn favour please raise your liands. (tất ca những ai ung hộ hãy giơ tay lên) ARISE (arose, arisẹn, arising) xảy ra, nảy sinh, xuất hiện; ví dụ: Some probleim have arisen recently. Gần đây một sổ vấn đề mới nảy sinh. Exercise 16: Choose RISE, RAISE or ARISE to ílll in cach blank to complete the foIlowing sentences. 1. The govemments a r e _____ VAT (value added tax) to 20% next year. 2. An unxpected problem h a s ______ and so we ha ve had to canccl the meeting 3. Suddenly the mist that had hidden the canyon ________ and we had a most spectacular view.


4. Prices h av e------------- agam due to the recent ìncrease in inílation. 5. Are there any m atters_______ from the minutes (written record) oí thc last meeting? 6. My parents are íarmers a n d ________ chickens and pigs. 7 . 1 was bom a n d ____ oira farm, so I know all about animals 8- S h e ________ from her chair and went over to the window. 9 . 1 woulđ love to work in Africa should the opportunity 10. University entry requirements ha v e _________ sharply over the iast decade 17. SAY, TELL, SPEAK, TALK

n t ? (stỉl ^ sb) (1) nÓÌ cái gì với ai thành lời; thường dùng đề tường thuật lại lời

noi khong có tân ngữ chi người đi cùng, ví dụ: He said that he lived in London ) (2 say hello, say goodbye

TELL: (1) dùng với một bổ ngừ trực tiếp chi người (He tnld me tha! he lived in London) đê tường thuật lại lời nói; (2) tell sb + động từ nguyên thê được dùng cho cac mệnh lệnh (She told him to hurry up)' SPEAK: (1) nói chuyện 1(1 lìke to speak to Mrs. Jones, plea.se? (trang trọng hon TALK) (2) nói một ngôn ngừ nào đó speak Engỉish, Vietnamese TALK: (1) nói chuyện Can I talk to Susan, please? TALK gợi nên ý là hai người đang nói chuyện với nhau: We talked fnr hours C ĩ ° Ut! r ' neaning o f life' cònSPEA K thường hay dùng về một người nói chuyện với mọt nhom ngtrời He spoke to the cỉass about the dangers o f smoking Exercise 17: Choose SAY, TELL, SPEAK or TALK to fiu in each blank to complcte the following sentences. 1■ H e ______ French well but has trouble reading it. 2- W e _______ Helen everything that had happened. 3. Susan decided t o ______ to her father about it. 4. What exactly did h e ______ to you yesterday? 5. Can y o u _me the way to the station, please? 6. He d idn't____________a word 7- S h e_______ her name was Sue. 8. Let m e _______ you something about my hobbies. 9. Forget everything I j u s t _______ . 10. Why didn't y o u __________ him that before? 18. WAIT, LOOK FORWARD TO, EXPECT WAIT: (for sb/sth) hành động chờ đợi ai hoặc điều gì I m waiting for him to arrive (Tôi đang chờ anh ta đến) LOOK FORWARD TO: dự tính điều gì đó sẽ xảy ra và nóng lòng mong ctíờđiều đó l: _

EXPECT: tin tường răi g gì đ? sẽ xảy ra’ monê chờ, trông đợi Pm expecting him to arrive soon. (Tỏi chắc rằng anh ấy sẽ đen)

Exercise 18: Choose VVAIT, LOOK FORWARD TO, EXPECT to iìll ỉn each blank to complete the folIowing sentences. 1. What time do y o u ______ the guests to arrive? 2- I’m __________visiting Japan. 3. Can y o u _____ for me, John? 4. Have you b e e n ____________________ long? I ị


5. You can’t __________to leam a language in a week. 6. We are_______ for the rain to stop. 7. W e’r e s o m u c h ________ seeing you again. 8. You 11 have t o _______ till the end o f the month beíòre I can pay you. 9. I’m sorry to have kept you 10. I ________ that I will be back on Sunday. 19. M ATCH, SUIT, FIT MATCH: hợp. tương xứng, nhất là về màu sắc: The curtains and the carpets match períectly Rèm và thảm hết sức hợp nhau. SUIT: phù hợp về thị hiếu, sờ thích, kiểu tóc, quần áo với ai: Does this skirt suit me? Cái váy này có hợp với tôi không? FIT: vừa vặn, đúng kích cỡ, ăn khớp Her coat fits her exactly. Chiếc áo khoác rất vừa vặn với cỏ ấy. Exercise 19: Choose M ATCH, SUIT or FIT to íĩll in each blank to complete the following sentences. 1. These brown g loves________ with this dress very vvell. 2. You look nice in green. G reen ________ you. 3. These shoes are too small. They d o n 't______ me. 4. The key doesn’t __________ the lock. 5. It doesn’t _______ you to have your hair cut short. 6. C a n y o u _________this wallpaper? 7. That color doesn’t _________ yourage. 8. Very spicy food doesn’t _____________ my stomach. 9. I can never get clothes t o ____________________ me. 10. A pink shirt does n o t_______ a brovvn pair of trousers. 20. ALONE, LONELY, SINGLE, ONLY ALONE: một mình Mr. Jones came tu tlie party alone as liLs wìfe was away un business. Ong Jones đến dự tiệc một mình vì vợ ông đang đi công tác. LONELY: buôn bã cô độc / get really lonely ai Christmas becaiise all m\ỳamiìy live abroad. Vào dịp lê Giáng sinh tôi thực sự thấy buồn vì cả nhà tôi sổng ở nước ngoài. SINGLE: độc thân, chưa lập gia đinh All myfríends are married except Kate, who is still single: Tât-eả bạn bè tôi đêu đã lập gia đình, trừ Kate, cho đến nay vẫn còn độc thân. ONLY: duy nhất, chi có Our only liope is to win tomorrow's match. Hi vọng duy nhất cùa chúng tôi là thắng trong trận đấu ngày mai. Exercise 20: Choose ALONE, LONELY, SINGLE, ONLY to fill in each blank to complcte the follo>ving scntcnces. 1• T h e ________ thing I do not understand in mathematics 1S geometry. 2. After Bob's parents' đeath he feels 3. Do not \vorry! He can do this \vork________ ! 4. Tom does not know anyone in the town. He feels______ . 5. The accused did not say a ________ word during the la\vsuit. 6. The teacher w a s _______ in the classroom before the pupils came. 7. Do not go out at n ig h t_______ .


8. Somc players feel som etim es_______ in their new team. 9 T h eir_______ child died in yesterday’s accident. 10. It is not wise to live in a house ______ .

Chuyên để 3: COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (CHỨC NĂNG GIAO TIẾP CỦA NGỒN NGỮ) M Ộ T SÓ M Â U C Â U T R O N G G IA O T IÉ P C À N C H Ủ Ỷ A. LÝ T H Ư Y É T c o BẢN VÀ N Â N G CAO * Introduction and response to introduction Introduction Rcsponses to introduction - I'd like you to meet my friend, Lan. - It’s nice/ pleased to meet you! I m Nam. - May I introduce myselí? - Nice to to meet you! I m Nam. - Can you introduce yourseip? - I’m happy to meet you! - My name is Lan. It's nice to meet you! - Hovv do you do! - Ho\v do you do! I'm Lan. - It's a pleasure to mect you. - Come and meet Miss Lan. - The pleasure is all mine, Miss Lan. * Saying and rcsponse to a goodbye Saying goodbye Responses to a goodbye - Goodbye! See you soon (again). - Goodbye! See you around. /See you - Bye bye! Let’s get together soon. /Give later. / Keep in touch!/ L et’s have me a call soon. / Give me a call/ a ring lunch/dinner/coffee soon. sometime! - 1 hope vve meet again. - Look at the time! I’ve really got to go. - Stop by and see me sometime! - I’ve enjoyed seeing/meeting you. I - Farewell! hope to see again. Bye bye! - Take care. - Have a good/nice day (week) * Making and respond to suggestions Suggestions Rcsponses to suggestions - Why dorTt you / we go to the movies tonight? Acceptances: - You / we could visit New York while you're / - Sure!/ Great! Super! That is a good idea! we're there.

- Yes/ Ok. I’d love to/ (Ihat) sounds great/ - Let's go to the cinema, tonight. fùn. - What about asking your brother for help? Declines: - How about going to Hawaii for your vacation? - Thank you very much but I’m afraid___ - 1 suggest you / we go out for lunch. - I wish I could b u t.................... * Invitation and response to ỉnvitation Invitations Responses to invitations - I would like/love to invite you to my Acceptanccs: buthday party. - Thank you very much for your invitation.


- Would you like / care to come to my birthday party?

- 1 was wondering if you'd like to join us for a picnic. - Can / Will you come to my birthday party? - What / How about coming to my birthday party? - Why don’t/ not you com e................. * Asking and response to íavors Asking for favors Can/ Could you help me, please? Could you do me a favor? I need a favor. C an/C ould you do st for me?

* Giving offers and response to offers Offering assistance/ Offers May I help you? Do you need any help? Let me help you.

- I’d love to/ I’d be delighted to___ - Sure!/ Great! That would be fun/ wonderfiil. Dedines: - Thank you very much but I’m afraid I’m busy then. - 1 wish I could but I’m busy. May be another time. Thanks/ ihanks anyvvays. / What about next Saturday,— Rcsponses to íavors Acceptances: - Sure. / Certainly. / O f course. / No problem. - What can I do for you? ■- How can I help you? Declines: - I’m sorry. 1’m really busy. Response to assistance Acceptances: Yes/ No. Thank you. Yes. That’s very kind of you. No. Thank you. I’m fine. Response to oííers - Yes, please. - That vvould be nice. - No, thank you.

Offers W ould you like me to close the door? What can I get for you? / Can I get you. . . ? - Shall I ......... Will / W on’t you have a cup of tea. n i make for you? * Making and response to promises Response to promises Promises - 1 hope so. n i study hard. I promise. - Good. I promise-I will/ w o n 't......... - I’m glad / Don’t forget. I promise to study hard. * Expressing thanks and response to thanks Responses to thanks Thanks Oh. it was the least I could do. • It was my pleasure (Formal) - Thank you very You’re vvelcome. (Pormal) much f o r ........... Think nothing o f it. You re very \velcome. Ít vvas nothing. - Thank you very (Kormal) My pleasure. much for your You're more than welcome. Don’t mention it. help/ helping (Any time. /No big deal. Not at all. me! (Iníormal) D on’t mention it My pleasure


* Making requests and response to requests Requests Responses to requests - Do/ Woulđ you mind closing the door"; No, I don’t mind. - I'm sorry, I can’t. - Do you mind if I close the door? No, o f course not I’m sorry, that is not - VVould you mind if I cỉosed the door? Not at all. possible. - Please do. I’d prefer you didn’t. - Please go ahead. I’d rather you didn’t. * Making compliments and response to compliments \IílLrÌll(T nm nlím nntr n M aking pcompliments Responses to compliments -Congratulation! You are too kind. - Congratulation on your íìrst prize! It’s very nice o f you to say so. - 1 love your new hairstyle. Thank you for your compliínent. - Your new hairstyle is very wonderful. Thank you. I’m glađ you like/ enjoy it. You must be kidding/ You havc cot to he kidding. ! thought I vvas ternble (rẹ/using) * Making and response to an apology Making an apology Responses to an apologv - 1 m awfully/ terribly/ very sorry about

- That’s (quite) all right! - Think nothing o f it. - Don’t worry abou it. - That’s ok. - Forget it. - 1 hope you’11 íorg.ve m c ĩ o r ................... N obìg ihing/ No harm đone/ No problcm. breaking your ruller. - 1 m awfully/ terribly/ very sorry that - 1 beg your pardon for......... - Pardon me for...............................

- It’s alright. - It’s fine. - It’s OK this time, but let’s not let it happen again. B.

BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN

Exercise 1: Choose the best response (A, B, c or D) to each o f the folIowing. 1 Nam: Thank you for your gift, Jenny. Long: _______________

2.

A. I’m sorry. B. Very glad. c . No, ot course. D. I’m happy you like it Nga: Would you like something to drink? Mai: ___________

c.

A. Yes, I do. B. No, thanks. I will. D. No, I vvould. 3. Nga: Thanks for the wonderful party. L an:_______ A. No, it’s not good. B.Yes, it’s really great Oh, that’s right. uD.. II’m m gi glad you erýoyed it. Mr. John: Could you bring me a cup o f coffee? Waiter: ____________

c.

A. Certainly, sir

B. Yes, I can

c. I don’t want to

D. No, I can’t


5. Mai: You look very nice in your ne\v dress, Lan. Lan: ____________ A. Thanks. It’s very nice o f you to say so. B. You can say that again c . I’d rather not. D. It’s up to you. 6. Ha: Give my regards to your parents. Hoa: _______ A. Good ìdea, thanks. B. It’s my pleasure. c . Y ou’re vvelcome. D. Thanks, I will. 7. Your close íriend needs to get to the railway station as quickly as possiblc. You have a car. W hat do you say to him: A. I’d like to give you a lift. B. Can you sit in my car? c . Do you mind sitting in my car? D. Do you like my car? 8. Ha: I'm reading a newspaper. Could you tum the TV down, please? M a i:_____ A. Never mind. B. You"rc welcome. c . Yes, o f course D. Really? 9. Hoa: Congratulations! ~ N ga: ___ ■ A. D on’t worry. B. Not at all. c . You’re welcome. D. Thanks. 10. Nám: I’m sorry, I have broken your bicycle. _____. I can fix it. Long: A. Don’t vvorry B. Not at all c . Y ou’re welcome. D. Thanks 11. Hoa: Let’s go to Nhatrang on the vveekend. Nga: _______ A. T hat's a íĩne day. B. That’s a good trip. c . Yes, please. D. That’s a great idea. 12. Mai: Thank you very much. I’ ve had a great time. ~ Lan: _______________ . A. Are ỵou worried? B. Not all. c . Y ou’re welcome. D. Nothing. 13. Nga: W e’re going to have a pinic next S u n d a y .________________ Nam: Thanks, I’d love to. I’m really busy. A. Do you come? B. Could you come? c . Do you feel like going? D. Would you like to come? 14. Nga: Let’s go out for a d in n er.. Hoa: _______________ A. Yes, please. B. Thankyou. c . Certainly. D. Great. 15. Jenny: Ann, ______ _____________ Ann: I’m sorry, but I can’t do it now. A. would you like some coíTee? B. why don’t you make some coffee?


c . would you mind making some coffee? D. will you drink some coffee? 16. Ha: Do you mind if I borrow your laptop a moment? H o a:____ A. 1'm sorry. B. Not at alỉ. c . Yes, I do. D. Yes, I would. 17. Nam: How about gomg svvimming next weekend? Long: _____________ A. Let's do that. B. Why not? c . Sure. D. Oh, there’s no hurry. 18. Nga: Would you like me to go with you?.~ H o a:____________ A. Yes, I like. B Not at all. c . Go ahead. D. No, I wouldn’t. 19. An: I think, we should take a shovver instead o f a bath to save energy. M inh:___________ A. That’s a good ìdea. B. Let’s do that. c . All right. D. A, B and c are coưect. 20. Mai: Well done, Trang. ~ Trang: _______ . A. Thanks. B. It’s nice o f you to say so. c . That’s very kind o f you. D. A, B and c are correct. 21. Mai: It’s vcry stuffy in here. H o a:_______ A. Sure. . B. Really? c . All right. D. Ok. n i open the door. 22. Nga: Would you like a cup of tea? ~ M ai:_______ . A. Yes, I would. B. Just a little, thanks. c . Yes, I do. D. You’re vvelcome. 23. Mai: Do you mind closing the door? - H o a :_________________ A. No, I don’t mind. B. No, o f course not. c . Not at all. D. A, B and c are correct. 24. Nga: Remember to retum that book to my mother. ~ Lan: _______ A. Yes, I will. B. Why not? c . I w on’t. D. O f Course. 25. Hoa: Do you mind if I sit here? ~ Mai: ________________ A. N o ta ta ll. B. Yes, I do. c . 1’m sorry. D. Yes, I would. 26. Lan: Novv, please bottom up to give best vvishes to all o f us. . Others: (in chorus ) :______ A. Thanks B. Have a good day c . Cheer up D. Great 27. Nam: Would you mind giving me a hand with this bag? ~ Minh: . A. Yes, n i do it now. B. No, not at all. c . Well, I’d love to. D. Yes, I am. 28. Shop assisstant: Can I help you? ~ A custom er:____ A. Yes, please. B. That would be nice. c . Yes, you can. D. A notebook and some pens please. 29. Hoa: It’s a beautiíul day, isn’t it? ~ Lan: _______ . A. No B. Oh, why not Yes, it’s lovely D. I’m not sure

c.


30. Mai: What shall we do this weekend?

~ Hoa:

_______

A. I went out for dinner.

B. Oh, that’s good.

c. Let’s go out for dmner.

D. No problem.

31. Mai: Y ou’ve got a lovely singing voice. ~ Ha: ___________ A. D on't mention it.

B. Congratulations!

c . Thank you. I’m happy you like it

D. It’s all right.

32. Lan: I suggest we go on a picnic on the hill near the waterfall. Nga: _____________ A. It’s a nice day!

B. Have a good trip.

c . Great idea!

D. Congratulations!

33. Lan: I vvish I could visit your village again some day, Ba. Ba: ____________________ A. Too true!

B. Yes, let’s.

c . What a day!

D. You’re alvvays welcome!

34. Lan: So long no see! ~ Mai: Y e s,______ . A. Yes, I have.

B. Uhm, how are you getting on?

c . No, let’s not.

D. No, I don't.

35. Long: I think we should use less paper so that we can save trees in the íorests. Mai: _______________________ A. Why not? B. Yes, I’d love to. c . I totally agree with you. D. It’s nice of you to say so. 36. Nam: But for your help, I couldn’t have íìnished my essay on time. I highly appreciate it. Judy: ____ A. With all my heart

B. Never remind me

c . It’s my pleasure

D. W ishyou

37. Hoa: Oh dear, I’m too hungry now. ~ M ai:______________ A. I' 11 bring you something to eat.

B. Really?

c . Yes. Here Ít is.

D. I see.

38. L an :_____________ detective stories? Hoa: In my opinion, they are very good for teenagers. They can sharpen our mind. A. What do you think about

B. Are you fond of

c . How about

D. What do people feel about

39. Jenny:__________________________ ? Tom: “H e’s tall and thin with blue eyes. ” A. How is Jack getting

B. What is Jack like

c . What does Jack look like

D. How does Jack appear

th

40.

Lan: “Today’s my 16 birthday. ” ~ Long: ______ A. Many happy retums!

B. I don’t understand.


C .Takecare!

D.

Havc a goođ time!

41. Hao: Would you like beer or wine? ~ H a :_________________ A. Yes, I'd love to.

B.

c. No. I've no choice. 42. Nam: Is it all right if I use your bike?

I couldn’t agree more.

D. I'đ prefer beer. please. ~ N g a:____________________________

A. Sure, go ahead. B. Id o n t care. c . I accept it. 43. Passer-by: Is there a post olĩice ncar here? Linh: _______

D. Oh, torget It.

A. Yes, there is B. Tum left and take the íìrst Street on the left. It's on the right. c. No, really? D. No, there isn’t. 44. Hoa: Bye, bye!

~ N g a :_____________

A. See you later. B. Meet you again. c . Thank you. D. See you 45. Nga: How do you do? ~ Hoa: _______________________ A. Yeah, OK.

B. How do you do?

c. N o ttoobad. 46. Hoa: Can you do the cooking today? A. No, thank you.

lately.

D. I’m well. Thank you. ~ L an:______

B. Oh, all nght.

c . Yes, please.

D. I know that.

47. Nam: In my opimon, Computer 1S the most wonderful invention. Lan:___________________ A. Yes. Congratulations!

B. Pardon?

c . You shouldrTt have said that. 48. Pupil: May I go out for just a \vhile?

D. There’s no doubt about it. - T e a c h e r:____________________

A. Why so?

B. That’s great!

c Go ahead!

D. Yes, you may.

49. Jack: Katie, I’d like you to meet a friend o f mine. Her name is Anne. K atie:______________________ A. Why not? c . I meet her, don’t I. 50. An old laddy: I need your favor. A. Pardon? c . What for? 51. Mai: Let's get together soon.

B. Yes, r d love D. I’m happy to meet you, Anne. ~ A young m a n :_________________ B. What can I do for D. Really? - H o a:_______

A. Ok. B. Great. c . Keep in touch. 52. Son: r i l study. I promise. ~ M om :_____ A. Forget it.

you?

D. \ \ ’hy not?

B. Don’t íbrget it.

c I hope so. D. A and B are correct. 53. Lan: Your hair style 1S wonderful. - M a i : _____


A. You’re kidding. I thought it’s terrible. B. Why so? B. Reaily?

D. Oh, no. D on't say so.

54. Hoa: I beg your pardon for breaking that flower vase. ~

Ha: _

A. Never mind.

B. No problem

c . All right. 55. Lan: I’ve passed my driving test.

D. A, B and c are correct ~ N am :______

A. Do you?

B. That’s a good idea.

c . Congratulations!

D. It’s nice o fyou to say so.

56. Shop-keeper: Which hat do you like better?

- Mai: ____

A. Which one do you like?

B. Yes, I’d like it best.

c . No. I haven’t tried any.

D. The one I tried on íìrst.

57. Hoa: I can’t speak English well enough to apply lor that job. A. Me either

B. Me too

c . Me also

58. Long: Our team hasjust vvon the last íòotball match. A. Yes, it’s our pleasure. c . Well-done! that’s very surprising. 59. Hoa: I’ve enjoyed meeting you. ~ A. Take care!

B. I’d love.

Mai: D. Me neither

-

Hung: _

B. Good ìdea. Thanks for the news. D. Yes, I guess. Nga: c . I ’m happy.

D. My pleasure

60. Nga: Would you mind if I closed the door. It’s too cold outside. L an:_____________________________ A. No, I don’t like. c . No, never mind.

B. I’d rather you didn’t. It’s stuffy. D. Why not do it?

Chuyên đề: GRAMMAR (NGỮ PHÁP) P H Ầ N 1: C Á C TH Ì T R O N G T IÊ N G ANH - E N G L ISH T E N SE S A. 1.

LÝ T H U Y Ế T c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO The Simple Present (Thì hiện tại đon giản) • Cấu trúc: s + V (s/ es) + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng: - Diễn tả một chân lý hay một sự thật hiên nhiên. Eg. The Earth goes around the Sun. - Diễn tả những thói quen, tập quán hay đặc tính tồn tại một thời gian dài ờ hiện tại. Eg. she usually reads nevvspapers beíore her bedtime. - Diễn tà những sự việc xảy ra và đúng trong một thời gian dài ở hiện tại. Eg. She works in a hospital. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì hiện tại đon giàn: thì hiện tại thường được dùng với một số các phó từ chi thời gian như: today, preseitt day, Itoìvadays every + thòi gian. . . ;


everyday —daiỉy; every H'eek= weekty; every month = monthỉy; every year = yearly, . . . ; now and then; from time to time,v . . và với các phó từ chỉ tân suât (ahvays, usuaỉly, often,freqiiently, occasioitally, sometimes, seldom, rarely, Itever) hay một sổ cụm từ chỉ tan suất như (oitce a day/tìvice a day/three times a day..........) • Ghi chú cách thêm ‘s, es’ vào ngôi thứ 3 (ba) số ít (He, she, it) - Những động từ (Verbs) tận cùne bẳne nhĩrne chữ (s. X. z. ch. sh. o) thì phài thêm "es". (Eg: misses, mixes, vvashes, does, goes,. . .. - Những động từ (Verbs) tận cùng bàng "y" thì phải xét hai (2) trường hợp sau đây. Nếu trirớc y là nguyên âm (vowel) thi dể nguycn ‘y \ chi thêm ‘s ’ (plavs. pays) Nếu trước y là phụ âm (consonant) thì chuyên y ihành 1 và thêm es (y -ỳ ics: carry -ỳcarries; burỵ -^hitries) Các động lừ có âm két thúc với đuôi Cách dục /iz/ ch, X, sh, s /s/ f . p. k. t Không thuộc hai loại trên /z/ 2. The Prcsent Progressive (Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn) • Cấu trúc: s + Be (am/ is/ are) + V-ing + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng: - Diễn tà một hành động, một sự việc đang xảy ra tạithời điẽm nói. Eg. My mother is cooking n o w .) - Diễn tả một sự thay đổi, và thường đi với các động từ 'get/ become/ turn' và theo sau các động từ này là cấp so sánh hơn. Eg. Our examination 1S getting more and niore diffĩcult. - Diễn tã một hành động đang xảy ra XIIIIIỈ quanh thời điểm nói.

Eg. I am reading a novel but I haven t lìmshed Ít yet. - Diễn tà một kế hoạch tương lai được lên kế hoạch từ trước và sấp xảy ra. Eg. She is going to Hanoi tomorrovv. Chủ y: - Nếu sử dụng thì Hiện tại tiếp diễn cho hành động tương lai thì người nói muôn nhàn mạnh rằng kế hoạch cho hành động đó đã cỏ sự chuân bị, sắp xếp kỹ lưỡng. - VỚI các động từ chuyển động như: come, go, arrive, return, leave, . . . người Anh có khuynh hướng dùng thì hiện tại.tiếp diễn cho hành động tương lai thay cho thì tương lai gần ‘ be going to’. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn: thi hiện tại tiếp diễn thường được dùng với một số các phó từ chi thời gian như: now, rightnow, at this moment, ai presení và thường được dùng sau các câu mệnh Ịệnh. (Look! She is crying. / Keep silent! She is sleeping.) • Cácli tliẽm duỗi ‘ -iu g ’ vào sau động lừ - Nếu động từ có ‘e ’ câm à cuối, ta bỏ ‘e ’ đi rồimớithêm ING: give - giving / drink - drinking - Nếu động từ ở cuối có phụ ảm. và trước phụ âm mà cỏ một nguyên âm, ta phai gấp đôi phụ âm rồi mới thêm ING: cut

- cutting

run

- running


- Nếu động từ có ie ở cuối, ta đồi ie thành Y rồi mới thêm ING ỉie , die ' dying lie - lying âm » ’ ì í n .ê i . í 1 ? , ! ậncùng một phụ àm (từ h“ • r). đi trước là một nuuycn âm, ta gâp đôi phụ àm trước khi thêm ‘ing’ stop- stopping gct- getting fix-fíxm g play- playing (vì động từ tận cùng bằng ‘x, y ’ greet- greeting (trước ‘t ’ lả 2 nguyên âm) working- working (tận cùng bẳng 2 phụ âm) Quy luật này thường được áp dụng cho động từ 2 vần miền Ịà trọng âm nàm trên vẩn cuối cùng. ^ suffer - suffenng (trọng âm rai vào âm đâu) Nhưng

s ũ/ .Ch? í Cảc„ đ.ộng từ ịrạn3 thái (stative verb) như: knovv/ believé/ hear/ see/ smell/ wish/ undcrstand/ hate/Iove/liLAvanƯsòund/have/need/appear/sMm/t^te/oWn khôntĩ thT cảm h ì ( ‘ CF - ^ o ) khi chúnglà nhưng động từ t ĩ ả d t đat trang (hái cảm giác cùa hoạt động tinh thần hoặc tính chất của sự vạt, sự viẹc. Nhưng khi chung h a ? aTót ofƯ^ \

iw

11

Đ a n g T ìg h ĩT T

í f 'c h u n g lạ. được phép dùng ơ thê tiep diễn. Eg He i s hạvịng dinner now. (Động tư hành đong: an toi)/ I think # I n ư bmki s

y

"om° ™ w (Đọng Từ hành đọng

vể .hn,CnhÚ ý: J rf nf líừ " ă"? diễn always đi với hiện tại tiếp diễn diễn tả sư phàn nàn vẽ thói quen xấu/ vê hành động gây ra sự bực dọc cua ai do Eg: Teacher to her students: You are always making noise in the class 3- The Prcsent perfect fThì hiên tai hoàn thành] • •

Cấu trúc: Cách sử dụng:

s + have/ has + p2 + (O)

nh.rna", ẻí quả tả m.ột ^ ng tại. xảy ra Ờ một thời điểm khÔng xác đ inh tr°"g quá khứ nlnrng có? ikẻt lưuh,ản,l lại ờ?hiện Eg: I have watched this film three times. / She has been to many countries. ttiẽp - ,!•* Diên hành động bắt đầu tronẽ quá khứ’ kéo dài đến hiẹn tai và cỏ thế diên ờ tưorng lai. Eg. she has lived in Vinh City for 20 years. /

!"ột sự việc ^ hoàn thành ờ tươn8 lai và được dùng trong các mệnh đề

sau các liên từ như: if/ when/ before/ after/ until/ tui/ as soon as . . . . Eg. W e’!I go out after we have finished our \vork tomorro\v evening.

, • ,,D ấ u h Ìệu n h f n biết Th} hiện tại hoàn thành: Thi hiện tại hoàn thành thường đưạc dùng với các phó từ chi thời gian như: FO R + khoảng thời gian (fòr three daýs for ten mmutes for twentỵ ỵears); SIN C E + thài điểm bắt đâu (since 1982 sincè ỉ? 1™ ? ’ since we were ten/ already (vừa mới) và yet (vẫn chưa)/ now tììa t . . (giơ đay A} ,m ị: ; •} ' Ịl " ° w’ untìtì ,ww' fo fa r /u p to nôw (cho đến giơ)/ recentìy, ỉateiy (ưan v£ . !!g l ĩ ef° re đứng ờ cuối câu (l have seen him betoreV- Dung va iỉu st vừa mới); ever Ịâầ từng), never (chưa bao giờ), in the past + tịm e (in the past iive yeàr-

: " T , qUa)/' DÚnS sau cấu trúc_cáu so sánh hơ" nhất: This is theÀ rsừsecond/ ! never , seen(zsuch erl 4one: ; ^ • •girl. • Eg: ™ s « * * ũrs' tinie 1 have been to E n g ĩa n ĩ / ‘1 íhave a beautiful U h e p r e sen t p c f c ct c o n tin o u s (T hì hiền tai hoàn rhành f,Ảr dẫềnỊ •

Câu trúc:

s + has/ have + been + V-ing+ (O) + A


Cách sử dụng:

- Diễn tả một một hành động bẳt đầu trong quá khứ, kéo dài đến hiện tại và có thề tiếp diễn ờ tương lai. Eg. I have been living in Hanoi since I was bom. - Diễn tà một hành động kéo dài trong quá khứ và mới vừa chấm dứt ở hjện tại, còn lưu lại dâu vêt cùa hành động còn mới nguyên. Eg. His hands are dirty with sonte paint. He has been painting the walỉ. •

5.

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn: xem vế trước nỏ có chứa đựng dấu vết của hành động còn mới nguyên, hay dấu hiệu rằng hành động còn tiếp tục tiếp diễn ờ tương lai. The past Simple (Thì quá khứ thường)

Cấu trúc:

Cách sử dụng:

s + V (ed) + (O) + A

Diễn tá một xày ra và hoàn thành ờ một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ. Eg. He bought this car 2 years ago. ) Diễn tả một chuỗi các hành động quá khứ xảy ra liên tiếp nhau. Eg. She vvent to the shop, bought a new shirt and gave him. •

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ đơn: Thì này thường đưọc dùng với các phó từ chỉ thời gian như: yesterday, at tliaí moment, last week/ ỉast m onth/

time+ ago (5 years ago)/ at thai tim e/al that moment. • Cách hình thành động từ quá khứ: - Những động từ lập thành thời quá khứ và quá khử phân lừ bằng cách thêm ed vào sau động từ gốc (gọi là Động từ cỏ Quy tác) Ví dụ: I \vork - worked/ I washed -washed / I visit - visited - Chú ý: Nếu động từ tận cùng bầng “y” và có một phụ âm di trước "y" thì phái đôi “y” thành “i rồi mới thêm “ed” (y - ied)

Ví dụ: I study - studied - Nhưng khi trước V là nguyên àm thì: y+ed Ví dụ: I play - played - Nếu động từ tận cùng bằng ke ’, thi chi thêm ‘đ ’ Ví dụ: I live- lived - Nếu một động từ (Verb) có một hay nhiều âm tiết/vần mà khi đọc nhấn mạnh vào cuối, và tân cùng bằng một phụ âm (trừ ‘h, w, X, y ’ và đi trước phụ âm đỏ có một

nguyên âm, thì hãy gấp đôi phụ âm rồi mới thêm ED Ví dụ: F it-F itte d Stop - stopped D ro p -D ro p p ed Nhưng: Visit - Visited (Vì visit khi đọc. nhấn mạnh vào vần thứ nhất) Prefer - Preferred (Vì prefer khi đọc, nhan mạnh vào vằn thứ hai) Ngoài ra ngữ pháp tiếng Anh còn quy định một loại động từ "bất qui tắc", người , học phải học thuộc lòng ba (3) thê động từ: Gốc. Quá khứ (PI) và Quá khứ phản từ (PII). Cỏ thê tru ớ Bang đụng lừ bat qui tắc

• Cách đọc đuôi động từ quá khứ có /ed/ - Nếu động từ tận cùng bàng âm kết thúc với đuôi /t; d/ thì /ed/ đuợc phát âm là /id/


Ví dụ: wanted needed invited - Nếu động tìr tận cùng bằng những âm kết thúc với đuôi /s/: /sh/: / ch/: /k/: /f/: /p/ thì /ed/ được plìát âm là /t/. - Còn lại các động từ không thuộc hai loại trên thì /ed/ được phát âm là /Ư Ghi chú: Có một số tính từ ngoại lộ có đuôi ‘cd' đọc theo cách riêng (xem kỹ ỡ phần Phonetics (Ngữ Ảm) 6. The past continuous (Thì tiuá khử tiền diễn) • Cấu trúc: s + w as/w ere + V-ing + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng: Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra tại một thời điếm xác định trong quá khứ. Eg Mai \vas watchini> TV at seven o ’clock last night. Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra trong quá khứ thì bị một hành động khác “chen ngang" (khi đang. . . thì bông. . . ): Eg. He was vvatching TV when I came home. Diễn tà hai hành động cùng đồng thời xảy ra trong quá khứ. Eg. Lan was \vatching television \vhile Nam was readirm a book. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn: Câu cỏ dấu hiệu về thời gian khi hành động quá khứ đang xảy ra như: ai tliat

moment, at that time; at 7 o 'clock yesterday. - Câu cỏ 2 vế, mỗi vế chửa một hàhh dộng quá khử, chủng ta chia theo công thức: Clause 1 (QKTD-The past continuous) + when + Clausc 2 (ỌKĐG- The past simple)___________________________________________________________ Clause 1 (QKTD-The past continuous) + >vhile + Clause 2 (QKTD-The past continuous)

______________________________________________ __

7. The Past Períect (Thì quá khứ hoàn thành): • Cấu trúc: s + had + p2 + (O) + A • C ách sử dụng: Dien tả một hành động xảy ra và hoàn thành trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ. Eg. \vhen I came home last night, my parents had gone to bed. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ hoàn thành: Thời quá khứ hoàn thành được dùng với 3 phó từ chi thời gian là: after, before và when. 8. T h e S im p lc F u tu r e (T h ì tư ơ n g lai th ư ờ n g) • C ấu trú c: s + >vill (S h a ll) + V (b a r e in íin itiv e ) + 0 + A • Cách sử dụng: Diễn tả một hành động sẽ xảy ra ờ tương lai (I will huy a new car). • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì tương lai đon giản: Thường dùng thì này với một số phó từ chi thời gian như tomorrow, next + time, in the future, in future,from IIOH’ OIÍ, ÌII 2 m ontlis/ in three years. 9. The Near future (Thi tương lai gần) • Cấu trúc: s + bc + going to-V + (O) + A • C ách sử dụng: Diễn ta một hành dộng sẽ chấc chẩn xay ra trơng tưưiig lai gân. Eg. I am gomg to buy a new car, so I am saving now. • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì tương lai gần: thường dùng thì này với các phó từ dưới dạng: In a moment (một lát nữa), at 2 o ’c!ock this afternoon. Note: Chúng ta cần phân biệt 2 thi The Simple Future và The Near ĩuture


N ear F u tu re (to be going to do st) - Hành động cliăc chãn xảy ra trong tương lai -Diên tả sự suy luận, tiên đoán dựa trên chứng cứ hiện tại: Look at those black clouds, it is going to rain. / He is very lazy, and he is going to fail in his exams. - Diễn tả hành động được lên kế hoạch trước thời điểm nói: I have saved money for many years because I am íĩoing to buy a car.

Sim plc F u tu re (will do st) - Hành động không cliấc chấn xảy ra trong tương lai - Diên tã sự suy đoán cá nhản: I think/

expect/ promise/ hope/ beỉieve + tliat a clause (will do st) - Diễn tà hành động được quyết định ngay thời điềm nói: Nam: It is so hot here. / Mai: ril tum on the fans.

MỘT SÒ THÌ TIÊNG A N H NGOÀI CHƯƠNG TRÌNH PTCS 10. Puture Progressive (Thì (ương lai tiếp diễn): • Cấu trúc: s + will be + V-ing + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng: - Dùng đê diễn đạt một hành động sẽ xảy ra vào một thời điểm nhất định trong tương lai. Eg. At 8:00 am tomorrovv moming we will be havịng M ark's vvedding party Have a nice tnp to America! We WỈU be thinking o f you. Dùng kết hợp với present Progressive khác đề diễn đạt hai hành động đang song song xảy ra. Một ờ hiện tại, còn một ở tương lai. Eg: Now we are enioving our party here, but bv this tim e tom orrow we wỊỊỊ be working hard for a new project at the oftìce. Được dùng để đề cập đến các sự kiện tương lai đã được xác định hoặc quyết định (không mang ý nghĩa tiếp diễn). Eg: I wỊỊỊ be givinii another lecture on environment pollution at the same time next week. - Được dùng đẻ diễn tả những sự kiện dược mong đợi là sẽ xay ra theo một tiền trình thường lệ (nhưng không diễn đạt ý định của cá nhân người nói). Eg. I wịỊj be seeintì you one o f these days. - Được dùng đẽ dự đoán cho tương lai. Eg. Don’t phone ncrvv, they Wì11 be sleeppinu. - Dược dùng đe diễn đạt lời đề nghị nhà nhặn muốn biết về kế hoạch cùa người khác.

Eg. Will you be havinii dinner with us this evening? (ông có dự định ăn tối với chúng tôi tối nay chứ ạ) • Dấu hiệu nhận biết Thì tương lai tiếp diễn: câu có hành động tiếp diễn vớ thời điẻm thời gian cụ thẻ ờ tương lai: at 7:00 am tomorroH’/ by this time next week. 11. Future Pcrícct (thì tưong lai hoàn thành) • Cấu trúc: s + \vill have + V (pp2) + (O) + A • Cách sử dụng và Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì tương lai hoàn thành: - Dùng đe chi một hành động sẽ phái được hoàn tất ờ vào một thờiđiểm nhất định trong tương lai. Nó thường được dùng với trạng từ chi thời gian dưới dạng: bv the end o f .___ _ by the time + sentence (will have done)


Eg. We will have finished our prọịect bv the end o f next week. Bv the time my parents retire, I won’t ha ve graduated vet. 12. Future Períect Continuous (Thì tưotig lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn)

s + will have been + V-ing + (O) + A

Cấu trúc:

Cách sử dụng và Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn:

Dùng để chi một hành động sẽ xảy ra và kéo dài cho đến một thời điếm nào đó ừong tương lai và còn tiêp tục điên ra nữa. Nỏ thường được dùng với trạng từ chi thời gian dưới dạng: bv the end o f .. . . . , by the time + sentencc (will have bccn doing). Eg. By 2020, we will have been living in Vinh city for 20 years. * S ự phù ìụrp về thì giữa hai vế của một câu Trong một câu tiếng Anh có 2 vế (hai mệnh đề) thì thời của động từ ở hai thành phân đó phải phù hợp với nhau. Thời cùa động từ ở mệnh đề chính sẽ quyết định thời cùa động từ ở mệnh đề phụ.__________ MỆNH ĐÈ CHÍNH

MỆNH ĐẺ PHỤ

Simple present

Present Progressive Hành động cùa mệnh đẻ phụ xảy ra cùng lúc với hành động cùa mệnh đề chính I see that Mai is writing a letter. Do you know who is watchinfi the film?_______ Simple Future________________ Simple presetit (or Present Perfect) Động từ trong các mệnh đề sau các liên từ chi thời gian như (niten, untiỉ, tìll, as SOOII ơSị before, after, by the tirne. . . ) thường được chia ở HTĐG (Simple Tense) hay HTHT (Present Perfect) cho dù hành động sẽ xảy ra ỡ tuơne lai. I will lend you this book when I have finished It. _________________She will continue Wĩiting to him until he accepts her love._______ Simplepresent___________

IVill/Can/Aỉay + Verb (hoặc Near/utiire)

Hành động của mệnh đề phụ xảy ra sau hành động cùa mệnh đề chính trong một tương lai không được xác định hoặc tương lai gần. My brother savs that he will buv a new house. I know that she is going to win that prize. She savs-lhat she can plav the piano very well._____________________________ __________ Simple present___________ ______________ Simple past_____________ Hành động cùa mệnh đề phụ xảy ra trước hành động của mệnh đề chính trong một nquá n á Ikhứ r h i r rtirnrr* v á r /định l i n h r»n h  *về /£ »r»õt h r v i gian. n io n được xác cụ tthể mặt tthời

I hope he arrived safely. Jenny thinks Tommy was here last night. __________ Simple present___________________ Present perfect (Progressive)_____ Hành động của mệnh đề phụ xảy ra trước hành động của mệnh dề chính tronu một quá khứ không được xác định cụ thế về mặt thời gian. John tells us that he has been to Hanoi beíore. We know that you ha ve won a prize.


Hành động của mệnh đề phụ xảy ra cùng lúc với liành động cúa mệnh dỏ chinh trong quá khứ. I Ịent my sister $ 2000 when she visited us last Sunday. Jack visited us vvhile he was staving in Ho Chi Minh City.___________________ Simple past_____________I_______ Would/ Could/ Might + Verb Hành động của mệnh đề phụ xảy ra sau hành động cùa mệnh đề chính trong một tương lai trong quá khứ. He said that he would look for a job. Mary said that she could plav the piano.___________________________________ Simple past_____________ ______________ Past perfect Hành động của mệnh đề phụ xảy ra trước hành động cùa mệnh đề chính, lùi sâu về trong quá khứ. I hoped he had aưived saíely. Thev thought he had been here last night. Chú ý: Sự phù hợp thì còn đi với các câu điều kiện và các câu gia định với các từ như /tvish, i f onlỵ, as if, suggest,. . . . ) và cậc câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp (chúng ta sẽ xem kỹ han ớ phần cảu điêu kiện, cảu gián tiẻp, cầu già định cách Lưu ỷ: Những nguyên tắc trên đày chi được áp dụng khi các mệnh đề trong cảu có liên hệ với nhau vê mặt thời gian nhưng nếu các mệnh đề trong cảu cỏ thời gian

riêng biệt thì động từ phài tuân theo thời gian cùa chính mệnh đề đó. Eg: He promised to vvrite to me, till now I haven't received any letter from him. . B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1. Put the vcrbs in the following sentences in the correct verb íorms. 1. At last you’re here! I (w ait)_______________ here for more than half an hour! 2. My father (w ork)___________________ in Canada for the last year, so by the time he (retu m )______________ the month after next I (not s e e ) ________________ him for íburteen months. 3. When you (see) him again you ( b e ) ___________ surprised to see that his health (im prove)_____________________ since he (go)_______________ to Switzerland. 4. Why (you not te ll) _______________ me you (c a n )________________ lend me ihe money? I (not need )________________ to borrow it from the bank. 5. It’s time we (leave)_________________ now. 6. The manager (ta lk )____________to an important customer at the moment but he ( b e )_____________ free to see you presently. Would you like to take a seal for a few minutes? 7. When I last ( s e e ) ______________ him, he (liv e )_______________ in London. He (te ll)_________________ me that he (think)____________ o f moving to Australia, and he may well have done so by now. 8. Not until we (arrive) ______________ at his house (we discover) ________________ that he (be) ____________ on holiday, and that we (waste) _________________our time in calling on him. 9. I’m tưed of working in an office. I (think)________________o f changing my job. 10.1 just (smell)____________________________ your roses. Do you think they (smell)___ wo


11. How long (you leam )___________________ English? 12. When the children (am ve) ________ home it was clear that they (play) ______________ in mud. Their clothes were covered with it. 13. I will never forget it. It was the íĩrst time I ever ( g o ) _________________ to a fancy

dress party. 14. Michael (w a it)_____________ in the queue to buy a ticket for the train when he (h ear)__________an announcement saying that there was going to be a delay. 15. By 1995 Susan (lecture)________________ at the academy for ten years. 16. In my youth I (tra v el)____________the vvorld and I often (sleep) ________under the stars. 17. Roger (m e e t)________ his wife in the early 70s. She ( a c t) ____________ in the theater then. 18. The thieves (break into) _______________ houses for 2 years before they (be íìnally caught)______ 19. I (com plete)_______________ my university degree by 2014 20. By the time you (amve)_____________ here next month, I (study)__________ in London. Exercise 2: Choose the correct answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the following sentences. 1. “Hurry up! W e’re waiting for you. W hat's taking you so long?" “I _______ for an important phone call. Go ahead and leave without me. ” A. wait B. will wait c .a m w a itin g D. have waited 2. Ròbert is going to be famous some day. H e ___________in three movies already. ~ I’m sure he’ll be a star. A. has been appearing B. had appeared c . has appeared D. appeared 3. W here's Polly? - S h e ________ . A. is in her room studying B. in her room IS studying c . studies in her room D. has in her room studied 4. Hello? Alice? This is JefT. How are you? ~ Jeff? What a coincidence! 1 _______ about you when the phone rang. A. was just thinking B. just thought c . have just been thinking D. w asjust thought 5. W hat________ about the new simplified tax? ~ It’s more conhising than the old one. A. are you thinking B. do you think c . have you thought D. have you been thinking 6. When is Mr. Fields planning to retire? - Soon, I think. H e ___________here for a long time. H e’ll probably retire next year or the year aíter that. A. vvorked B. had been working c . has been working D. is working 7. Why did you buy all this sugar and chocolate? ~ I _________ a delicious dessert for dinner tonight. A. make B. will make c . am going to make D. will have made


8.

9.

10.

11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

Let’s go! W hat’s taking you so long? ~ r u be there as soon as I ______________ my keys. A. found B. will tìnd c . fìnd D. am fmđing Next week when th e re _______ a full moon. the occan tides will he higher. A. is being B. is c . will be D. will have been While ỉ _______ TV lasl night, a mousc ran across the íloor. A. watch B. \vatched c . was vvatching D. am \vatching Fish were among the earliest forms of life. Fish__________ on earth for ages and ages. A. existed B. are existing c . exist D. havé existed The phone ___________ constantly since Jack announced hiS“ candidacy for president this moming. A. has been ringing B. rang c . had rung D. had been ringing The earth________ on the sun for its heat and light. A .is depend B. depending c . has depended D. depends I don’t íeel good. I ________ home from work tomorrow. A. am staying B. stay c . will have stayed D. stayed Today there are \veather satellites that beam down infonnation about the earth’s atmosphere.

In the last two decades, space exploration _________

great

_

contributions to weather forecasting. A. is making B. has made c . made D. makes 16. On July 20ư', 1969, Astronaut Neil A rm strong________ down onto the moon, the fưst person ever to set foot on another celestial body. A. vvas stepping B. stepped c . has stepped D. was step 17. The plane's departure was delayed because o f mechanical diữìculties. When the weary passengers finally boarded the aircraít, many were annoyed and irritable because th e y in the airport for three and a half hours. A. are waitmg B. were waitmg c . have been waiting D. had been waiting 18 .

If Coastal erosion continues to take place at the present rate. in another fìftv years

this b each _______________________ anymore. A. doesn’t exist B. isn’t going to exist c . isn’t existing D. won’t be existing 19. Homestead High School’s 1'ootball team __________a championship until last season, when the new coach led them to take íìrst place in their league. A. has never won B. is never winning c . had never been winning D. had never won


20. To be able to qualify as an interpreter, many years o f intensive language study are required for non-native speakers. By the end o f this year, Chen Ẽnglish for three years, but he will still need more training and experience before he masters the language. A. will be studying B. has stuđied c . will have been studying D. has been studying Exercise 3: Give the right form of the verbs in brackets in the following paragraph into the correct tenses. to 1 ( 1 - b e ) ........................................... Swiss. I (2- c o m e )......................... London six months ago to leam Engish. I (3- not m ee t)....................... many English people yet, only my teachers. I (4- stărt). . .................... .. leaming Ẻnglish at school in Switzerland when I was 11, so I 4- íe a m ).......... .....................ít f°r nearly 10 years. At íìrst in London, I (5- not understand) .......................................anything, but now my English (6- im prove). . . ' • • ................. * j ust^ ta k e ) ......................................................................an exam If I (8Pass) ................................. 1 <9- move) ................................................ into Ihe next class. I’m excited today because my parents (10- c o m e ). . . . tomorrovv to stay with me for a few days and 1(11- not s e e ) .............. . . them for a long time. They (13- nevếr/ b e ) ~ . to England and they (14- not sp eak )................................................................English Exercisc 4: Give the right form of the verbs in brackets in the following letter into the correct tenses.

D earA nn, 1 ( l ị r e c e i v e ) ............................................................................................your letter about two

weeks ago and (2- try)............................................... to find time to write you back ever since. I (3- be)................................................................................................ ... ỊjUSy ỊateỊy In the past two weeks, I (4- have)........................................................... four tests and I ha ve another test next week. In addition, a íriend (5- stay)...................

................................ with ™ since last Thursday. She wanted to see the city so vve (6- spend)............................... ......................................... a lot o f time visiting some o f the interesting places here. We (7- be).......................................................... to the zoo, the art museum. and the botanical gardcns. Yesterday we (8- go). .............................................................to the park and (9- vvatch).......... ........... • • •-..............— • a balloon race. Between showing her the City and studying for my exams, 1(10- have).............................................................................. barely enough time to breathe. Right novv it (11- be)............................................. 3a m and 1(12- s i t ) ..........................................................................at my desk. 1(13- sit).............. ..................................................................................here five hours doing my studying. My friend’s plane (14- leave)....................................... .................................... .. . . . at 6:05 so I (15- đecide)........................................................ not to go to bed. That’s why 1(16- vvrite). .............. ................................................................to you at such an early hour in the day. ỉ ( 17. get).......................................................................... little sleepy, but I vvould rather stay up. I (18- take)............................................................ ... nap after 1(19- get)............................ ... ............................. back from taking her to the airport. How (20- you, g e t) ........................................................ along? Please \vrite soon.


Exercise 5: Revvrite the fol!owing sentences, beginning as given, so that the meaning stays the same. 1. He began playing íootball ten years ago. He has 2. He has been investigating the case for a vveek. He started

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3. When is Peter and Sarah’s vvedding? When are 4. I have never read such a romantic story. This is 5. We started cooking for the party four hours ago. We have 6. He íorgot about the gun until he got home. Not until 7 .1 haven’t been to an Indian restaurant for ages. It’s ages 8. The last time Nancy came here was in 1986. Nancy hasn’t ________________________ 9. This is my íĩrst visit to Japan. This is the first time _____________________________________________________ . 10. How long have Helen and Robert been m am ed? When 11. It’s along time since our last conversation.

We ___________________________________________________________________ . 12. Thanks, but I had something to eat earlier. Thanks, but I’v e ________________________________________________________ . 13. This is the most interesting book I’ve ever read. I’ve n e v e r_____________________________________________________________ . . 14. This is my íìrst game o f water-polo.

I ___________________________________________________________________

.

15. When she heard the results, Mary began to feel more confident. Since hearing the results _________________________________________________. Exercise 6: Using the word given and other words,complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the íirst sentcnce: 1. John never stops criticizing my friends.

ahvays Jo h n ______________________________________ my íriends. 2. W e’ve arranged to meet at 8. 00 p. m. tomorrow. are W e ____________________________________ at 8. 00 p. m. tomorrow. 3. Helen rarely goes to the theater. not

H elen __________________________________ the theater very often.


thinkÌHỊỉ I mv cousin in Canada next snmmpr 5. What time is you plane scheduled to arrive at Heathro\v? land W hat time at Heathrcnv? 6. I have aưanged to have dinner with Jerry tomght. am I vvith Jerry tonight. 7. The older he gets, the more eccentric he becomes. is As time goes by. eccentric. 8. They don't like spicy food, so they avoid eating it. never They as they don't like it 9. Jane has found a job at a supermarket for the summer. is Jane at a suDermarket this summer. 10. How much is that greenjacket, Sừ? cost How much , Sir? Excrcisc 7. Rewrite the sentences, using the word in brackets, so that the mcaning stays the same: 1. ỉ put on ten tólos and then I decided to go on a diet. (by tlte t i m e ) _________________________________________________ 2. First. they \vashed the car and then they vvaxed it. (aft) _____________________________

3. Lisa made a sandwich and then sat on the soíầ to vvatch TV.

(before) 4. We packed our suitcases and then left for the airport. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(as soon as) The lecture started. Then I entcred the lecture hall. (ìvheit) I hadn't tasted Chinese food before. ơìrst) ______________________ _________________________________ That was the only science-fiction book he had read. (never) Norman took that package. Then he realized it was the wrong one. (after) _________________________________________________ _

9. Mark \vas parking his car when he noticed the wing-mirror was broken. ( IVhile) 10. Judy was walking down the Street when she saw an accident.

(As) 11. I m sorry I can't talk to you now. I’m going to work in a minute.

(about to ) _______________ _______________________________ 12. The Council is going to close the old svvimming pool. (intends)_______________________________


13. They are going to have a big wedding in the summer.

(planning t o ) _________ 14. The economy will collapse in the very near future, it will happen at any time now. (oii the point o fi ____________ ______________________________________________ 15. My grandfather is going to đie soon. (about t o ) _______________________________________________________________ 16. You will arrive at the hotel at 7. 30 in the evening.

(due to)_ ___________________________ _____________________________________ PHÀN 2: SỤ HÒA HỢP GIỮA CHỦ NGỬ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ (SUBJECT AND VERB CONCORD) A. LÝ THUYẾT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Trong một câu tiếng Anh, chù ngữ và động từ phái phù hợp với nhau về ngôi và số (số it hay số nhiều) The bov speaks English very well. số ít

số ít

The boys speak English very well. số nhiều số nhiều Sau đây là các trường hợp về sự phù hợp giữa chù ngữ và động từ mà chúng ta cần lưu ý: 1. Khi chủ ngữ đứng tách khỏi động từ Trong câu tiếng Anh. có nhiều trường hợp rất khó xác định dirợc đâu là chù ngừ của câu do, chù ngữ và động từ không đi liền với nhau. The studens in the class are readirm books. / The danner o f water pollulion ịs killinu marine lifc. Thông thường trong các trường hợp đó, một ngữ giới từ (một giới từ mơ dầu và các danh từ theo sau - ÌII tlie cỉuss (hay) of water population tlurờiig năm giữa chú ngừ

và động từ. Các ngữ giới từ này không ảnh hưởng đên việc chia dộng tứ. The studv of cultures ỊS very interesting. / Serverịil iheories on the moon life havc been believed. Chú ý rẳnẹ trong các ví dụ trên các đanh từ nằm trong ngữ giới từ dều trái ngược với chù ngữ ve sổ ít / sổ nhiêu nhưng động từ luôn được chia theo chủ ngừ chính. 2. Các cụm từ sau cùng với các danh từ đi theo sau nó tạo nên hiện tưòng đông chủ ngữ. * Đó là các danh từ đi sau một clnì ngữ nôi vớ các từ như: accompanied bv (được đông hành along with (đi cùng Togethcr with cùng với) với) (cùnịỉ với); Like (nlur) No less than (not less than): as well as (cìirm không ít hơn là như); As »1-11 as (cũng lìlur) Besides (bên cạnh) In addition to (thcm vào);


phầnC đó bời dậu phây. Chúng trẻn cũng đứng S ừa chủ động gi từ' đen Phânviẹc táchchkhòi 2 ‘hành phàn đó không có ngữ anh và hương a đonè dộng từ được chia với chù ngữ chinh, đứng đâu. ộ 8 ' i p n ỵ , a lo n g vvith her m oth er and so m e fn c n d s, is g o in u to a party tonight.

ML ÌỊy n g , accompanied by her wife and children, is am ving tonight. * Nêu 2 danh từ riêng biệt làm chú ngữ nổi với nhau bàng ‘a n d ’ thi động từ nhả chia ơ ngôi thứ 3 sô nhiều (tương đương với they) Mary and her manager are going to a party tonight. You and 1 are close friends. ^ a" h t ừ .làm chủ n8ữ nối với nhau bầng ‘a n d ’ và hai danh từ đó đều Ồ

he)

hay ■"*

thì độnê từ p Z i ^

ờ ^

** 3 * *

The singer and the actor (Mr. Quang Dung) is intervievved on TV tonight (Ngưòi ca sĩ kiêm diễn viên) Bread and milk is my íavounte breakfast. (Bánh mì và sữa chi một món ăn) 1 , . ’!rng nêu 2 chủ ngữ nối với nhau bằng o r thi động tư phái chia theo danh từ đứng sau or. Nêu danh từ đó là sổ ít hì động từ phải chia số ít và ngược lại.

Maọ^ o r her m anager js gom g to answ er the press intêrview.

3. Các từ luôn đi vói danh từ hoặc đại từ phiếm chỉ làm chủ ngử thì động từ chia Đó là các danh từ ờ bảng sau (còn gọi là các đại từ phiếm chi): any + singular noun

no + singular noun

some + singular noun Some time (một thời gian nào đó) Some student (một sinh viên nào đó)

Anybody

Nobody

somebody

anyo“ e _

no one

soĩnẽone

anything

nothing

som ẽthing

every + singular noun everybody each + singular noun each o f plural noun

either *

everyone

everything

Neither *

* Either và neừ herìà số ít nếu chúng không đi với or hoặc nor. E ith er (có nghĩa 1 trong 2) chi dùng cho 2 người hoặc 2 vật. Nếu 3 người (vạt) trờ len phải dùng « 11V Íín dùng

* hai)

60 2

2 ’ *'• ^ ếu 3 "8“ *! (v ậ ỏ iro

- Everybody whọ wạnts to get scholarship has to pass this examination

- aom eone has called you. - Anybody who cpmmits the crime has to be put into prison. - Nẹither o f his close íriends ịs kind to him. - If eứher o f you goes o ut. now, we will not be able to íìnish the work - No soHution ịs good for this problem. - Nobody studies harder than Minh does. 4. Danh từ đi vói None và No làm chủ ngữ trong câu. - None và No đêu dùng được với cả danh từ số ít và số nhiều


- Nếu sau None o f the là một danh từ không đếm được thì động từ phải ở ngòi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì động từ phải chia ờ ngôi thứ 3 sổ nhiều. None of the + non-count noun + singular verb None o f the + plural count noun + plural verb - None o f the lost cars have been found. - None o f money has been invested in the local primary schools yet. - Neu sau No là một danh từ đếm được số ít hoặc không đếm được thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 sổ nhiều

No + {singular noun / non-count noun} + singular verb No + plural noun + plural verb - No actor ịs suitable 1'or this role. / No bread is left in the cupboard. - No actors are suitable for this role. . 5. Cách sứ dụng cấu trúc e ith e r .. . or (h o ặ c.. . hoặc) và n eith er.. . nor (k h ô n g .. . mà cũng không) Khi sử dụng cấu trúc này, chún£ ta lưu ý rằng động từ phải chia thẹo danh từ đ sau or hoặc nor. Nêu danh từ đó là sô ít thì động từ chia ờ ngôi thứ 3 sổ ít và ngược lại. Nêu o r hoặc nor xuất hiện một mình (không có either hoặc neither) thì cũng áp dụng quy tăc tương tự (như đã c ê cập ờ phân trên) neither + noun + nor + plural noun + plural verb either + or + noun neither + nor + singular noun + singular vcrb either + or : - Neither Minh nor his íriends have to go to school today. - Either Minh or his ỉriends have to go to school today. - Neither his friends nor Minh has never seen any UFOs. - Either his ữiends or Minh has never seen any UFOs. 6. V-ing làm chủ ngữ - Khi V-ing dùng làm chú ngữ thì động từ cũng phải chia ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. - Knovving English enables him to get promotion in his work. - Not studving hard has made him fail in his examination. 7. Động từ nguyên thể (To- iníĩnitive) làm chủ ngữ. - Động từ nguyên thể (To- iníìnitive) cũng có thế dùng làm chủ neĩr và động từ sau nó sẽ chia ờ ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Nhưng người ta thường dùng chù ngữ già it để mờ đầu câu. To leam English well ịs necessary for him. = It is necessary for him to leam English well. To solve environment pollution isn’t easy for us = It isn’t easy for us to solve environment pollution. 8. Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh vói mệnh đề quan hệ - Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh với mệnh đề quan hệ có động từ được chia số ít hav số nhiều tuỳ thuộc vào danh từ nó thay thế. It is Lwho am a teacher here. / It is he who ịs a student here. It is vou who don~t believe me. / It is the dou \vho often barks at night. \


9. Câu hỏi vói ‘Who* và ‘W hat’ thiròng dùng vói động từ số ít. Who wants milk no\v? - \vc all do. pleasc. What has happend? 10. Các danh từ tập thể - Đó là các danh từ ờ bàng sau dùng đề chi 1 nhóm người hoặc I tổ chức nhưng trên thực tê chúng lậ những danh từ số ít. do vậy các đại từ và động từ theo sau chúng

cũng ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Congress (Đại hội/ Quốc hội) Organization (Tổ chức) Government (Chinh phú) family (Giạ đình) team (Đội) ju rv (Hội thẩm đoàn) group (nhóm) arm y (quân đội) m ạịority* (đa số) committee (Uỷ ban) Club (câu lạc bộ) minority (tiều số) dass(lớ p) crowd (đám đông) public (công cộng/dân chúng - The committee has met, and it has agreed on the sollutions. - The íamilv is important for everyone. - The crovvd was cxcited about the íbotball match. - Our team ịs going to win this match. . Note. Tuy nhiên nếu các thành viên trong nhóm đang hoạt động riêng rẽ, động từ sẽ chia ờ ngôi thử 3 số nhiều: - Our 1'amily arc having dinncr. (Gồm các thành viên gia đinh) - The team are searching for the murder. (Gôm các canh sát viên hoạt dộng riêng rè) 11. Danh từ majority đưọc dùng tuỳ theo thành phần sau nó đế chia động từ The majoritỵ + singular verb The niajority of the + plural noun + plural verb v - The maioritv believes in that rumour. - The maiorìtv o f the students studv under the pressure. 12. The police/the sheep/thefìsh + plural verb. - The shccp are lying gently on the meadow. - The police are trvine to tìnd out the murder. 13. A conpỉe + singular vcrb/ The couple + plural verb - A couple is walking hand in hand in the park. - The couple are smiling happily. 14. Các cụm từ ỡ nhóm sau chi một nhóm động vật hoặc gia súc. C ho dù sau giới từ o/ là danh từ sô nhiêu thi động từ vân chia theo ngôi chú ngữ chính - ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Ịìock o f binỉs (một đàn chim)/ flock o f slteep (một dàn àni), scliool o f fisli (một đùn'củ), herđ~of catlle (một hãy ịỉia SÍIC), prìde o f lions (mọt đùn sư lư), pack o f doỊỊS (mọi bây chỏ):; a bunch ofJlowers í moi há hoa).............. - The llock ol~ birds is singing in the trecs. - The hcrd o f casttle is breakiny avvay. - A bunch o f roses ịs verv nice. 15. Danh từ tập thê chỉ thòi gian, tiên bạc, số đ o ,.. . làm chủ ngữ. - Tát ca cậc danh từ tập thê chi thời gian, tiền bạc, số do,. . . khi được đề cập đén như một thể thống nhẩt thi đều được xem lủ một danh từ số ít. Do đó các động tìr và đại từ theo sau chúng phải ờ ngòi thứ 3 số ít. - Twentv-íìve dollars is too much for the mcal. - Fiftv minuies isn't enough time lo finish this test - Two miles is too much lo run in one day


16. Cách sử dụng a number of, the numbcr of: - A num ber of = “ M ột số n h ữ n g .. . đi với danh từ sổ nhiều, độim từ chia ờ số nhiều. A number of + plural noun + plural verb - A number ordoctors are goine on holiday (Một số bác sĩ đang đi nghi. ) - A number o f vvorkers have alreadv been interviexved. - The n uinber of = “ Số lưọng những. . . ”, đi với danh từ sổ nhiều, động từ vẫn ở neôi thứ 3 số ít. The number of + plural noun + singular v e r b .. . - The number o í months in a week ịs twelve. (Số lượng nuàv trong tuần là 7) - The number o f students is unemployed now. 17. Số th ập phân làm chú ngữ * Dccimal nuniber of plural Noun + plural verb Eg. About two third o f students are unemployed now. *“ * Decimal number of uncoutable Noun + singular verb Eg. Three fourth o f \vater ịs salty water. 18. Phần trăm và ti lệ phần trăm làm chú ngữ * Percentage of Noun + singular vcrb Eg. What ịs the percentaue o f water on the Earth? * Percent of plural noun + plural verb. Eg. 20 % o f Enụlish people are very poor. * Pcrcent of uncountable noun + singular verb. Eg. 75% o f \vater on the Earth is salty \vater. 19. Many a + singular Noun + Many a + singular Noun + Singular Verb (Biết bao nhicu.........) Eg: Many a strong man has left the village because o f such a hard life. Biết bao chàng trai đã rời làng vì cuộc sống khó khăn như thể. Many a teacher and many a student has taken part in the campaiun. Biết bao nhiêu gaío viên và sinh viên đã tham dự vào chiến dịch 20. Các cum từ đi vói các đại từ chi đại lưọng làm chú ngừ A lot of Much of Much too much of A large amount of A great deal of Plenty of + singular verb + uncountable noun Littlc of Most of Almost all of None of H alfof The maioritv of Eg. Half o f bread has been ealen. A large arnount o f money is going to be mvested in our education.


Many so many A lot of / lots of Plenty of Almost all of AU of Most of Few of H a lfo f The m aịority of

+ Plural noun

+ Plural verb

Eg. H alf o f the students have disagreed with this policy A lot o f students are looking for a job aíter graduating now 21. Các danh từ luôn ở sổ nhiều làm chủ ngữ Bảng sau là những danh từ bao giờ cũng ờ hình thái số nhiều vì chúng bao gồm 2 thực thê nên các đại từ và động từ đi cùng vớichúng cũng phải ờ số nhiều. Scissors jeans eyeglasses shorts tongs pliers pạnts trousers tweezers Neu muốn chúng thành ngôi số ít phải dùng a pair of. .. The trousers are in the washing basket. A pair of trousers ịs in the \vashing haskct. These scissors arẹ Sharp. (Cái kéo này săc. Chú ý chi có 1 cái kéo nhưng cũng dùng với these) 22. Cách dùng there is, there are - Được dùng để chi sự tồn tại cùa người hoặc vật tại một nơi nào đó. Chủ ngừ thật cùa câu là là danh từ đi sau động từ. Nếụ nộ lả danh từ sổ ít thì động từ to be chia ờ ngôi thư 3 so ít và n^ươc lai Moi hipn rlni UP thrvi \ỉầ ti-1^ íiồM rv tr\ Usy lìAn # - _—'-nguyên — ------------------------------------------------------ :...... ......b There is Thcrc \vas + singular subject (or non-count) There has been - There has been an increase in population. There-are There were There have been -

+ plural subject

I here have been a large numbcr of unemployed peoplc today. There were too many people at the \vedding. Lưu y: - Cac C3U truc; tliere IS certain/ sure/ likely/ bound to bc = chắc chắn là sẽ có Eg. - There is sure to be a trouble when she leaves her home. (Chắc chắn là sẽ có rắc rối khi cô ấy rời khỏi nhà) - Do you think therc 1S hkely to be storm. (Anh cho ràng chắc chấn sẽ có bão chứ) Trong dạng tiếng Anh quy chuẩn hoặc văn chương một số các động từ khác ngoài to be cũng được sử dụng với tliere:


Đọng tư trạng thái: stoitd/lie/reinaiii/txìsưlive Động từ chi sự đến: enter/go/com e/foỉìow /dèvelop Eg. There exists nothing between them / There follows a sudden bang. There you are. / There he comes. B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Give the right form of the verb in brackets to complete the following 1. Either the physicians in this hosp.tal or the chieí (be) going to have to make a decision. ----------6 2. (B e)---------- my boss or my sisters in the Union going to win this grievance? 3. Some o f the v o tes________ (seem) to have been miscounted. 4. The tomadoes that tear through this area every spring (be) more than just a nuisance. J 5. Everyone selected to serve on this j u r y _____________(have) to be \villmg to give up a 6. Kara_ together w,th her team m ates,__________ (present) a tbrmidable opponent on the basketball court. 7.

He seems to íòrget that there _______ (be) things to be done beíore he can graduate.

8. There (have)----------- to be some people !eft in that tovvn after yesterday's nood. 9. Some o f thc g rain _____________(appear) to bc contaminated. 10. Threc-quarters of the students_______ (be) against the tuition hikc. 11. Three-quarters ot the student b o d y ___________________ (b e) a gain st ih e tuition hike.

12. 13. 14. 15.

A high percentage o f the population_________ (vote) for the new schoõl. A high percentage ol the people_________ (vote) for the new schoõl now. Politics (be)_________ sometimes a dirty business. Not only the studcnts but also their instructor________ (have) bcen called to the pnncipal s office.

16. Each and every student and instructor in this building lacility by next year.

(hopc) for a ne\v “

17. The students and instructors c a c h _________(hopc) tbr a new racility by next year. 18. I he chairman, along with his two assistanls. (plan) to attend the annũal convention. 19. The lìshing boat that has been tied up for three days \vay this moming.

(be) íìnallv on Itsi

20. When th e re --------(be) thunderstorms approaching, we are alvvays reminded o f the threat o f tomadoes. Exercisc 2: Choosc the best answer (A, B, c or D) to compleíe each sentences belo>v. 1. Jenny \vith two d o g s__________ walking in thc park now. 1S ^ are c . was 2. Mai as \vell as her írien d s_________ having a picnic now. A- >s

B. are

c . was

D. were D. \vere


3. My close friend and colleague, M ark,________ married. A. have just got B. hasjust got C .ju sth a sg o t D. just have got 4. The singer and actor________ going to have a live show in our city next month. A. was B. were c . is D. are 5. The singer and the actor_________ donated a large amount o f money to the local orphanage. A. has B. have c . is D. are 6. My 1'amily_________ ahvays the most ìmportant for me. A. is B. are c . 1S D. are 7. Tvvo hundred th o u san d s________ not enough tor us to have a good meal in thc restaurant now. A. \vas B. were c . is D. are H. Three years______ like a longtime for her to live apart from her beloved parcnts. A. is seeming B. are seeing c . seems D. seemed 9. The te a m ________ playing very well and they makc their fans shout and yell. A. is B. arc c . was D. were 10. Cattle______ allovvcd lo graze on this meadow. A. w asn't B. \veren’t c . isn't D. arcn t 11. Nonc o f his money___________eamcd by his working. A. 1S B. are c . was D. were 12. Nonc o f studcnts________ failed in this examination. A. has B. have c . \vas D. were 13. Every stu d en t______ xvilliniỉ to takc part in thc environment month. A . is

B. are

c . \vas

D. \\c r c

14. The number o f students______ looking ior a job now. A. arc B. was c . were D. 1S 15. A numbcr ofstudents_________ \vomed about their employment after graduating. D. is 1'eeling lelt B. feels A. feel my tầvorite suiýect. 16. Physics D. ha ve been was B. is A. are

c.

c.

17. The boy, along with his t\vo classm ates_______ climbing on the rool now. A. h as— B. have 1S D. are 18. Ncither the mother nor the children______ avvare oi the danger. D. has been is B. vvas A. \vere for me. 19. None sorry for what they B. vvas (celing/ had done A. is feeling/ did D. has iclư has been going teel/ have done

c.

c.

c.

ru

20. If anvone . tell him be back later. c call B. called A. was calling to \vrite his cuưiculum vitae now. 21. Each of the boys had B. has A. have full offood. 22. Under the tree are a basket B. \vas a basket A. a basket was

D. eall.N

c.

D. are havinc

c.

D. were a basl


23.

Tvvo-thirds o f the lottery money____ donated for the poor. A, 1S

^ are

c . was

D werc

A bout 60% o f stu d en ts in this c l a s s _______ from the co u n try sid e

A' was

B were

c . are

D is

25. A flock o f sheep______ grazing grass now. ^ are

‘s

c . was

D were

26. The number of books in this library______ written in English *■“ :

..

.

B lS________

..

C w as

D. were

you or I -----here to clean the class before the teacher comes in A am t B .is c .a r e D vverè 28. Neither her trousers nor her sh irt______ vvith this hat. A. is going B. are going c . goes D. go 29. The hom eless_______ our help lo settlc their ovvn life. A. isneeding B. are needing c . need D. needs 30. Several o f the students______ absent yesterday A. has been B. had hcen c . were D was !l M n c a ^ x r w eeakc c ' mpank'd " " " h,s SOnS and '" * ■ _______ »

visit

c.

,0

,, ., * B. pays paid D. is going to pay 32. The m ajority-------- ---------------------------------------------- ,n the rumor a n d ______him in isol A. believes/ has left B. belicve/ leave c bclicve/ have lett D. believes/ havc lelt 33. Ihs patience______ him a lot in his work. A- he|p B. helping c . help 34. Anybody vvho______ this question vvill be given an award.

D helps

_

K Tv,anm " cr B. answcrs c . is ansNvering D. are answering 35. The B lairs______ _ in London since 1950. A. are living B. have Iived c . have been living D. has bcen living 36. Long, as \vell as I , a student in Vietnam National Univcrsity „ t r , B were c am 37. Not only Jack but also his parcnts_______ also in debt

D ha« been

, A; 1S . 5 ha võ Cua, D. vverc 38. The majority o f the TOEFL te s ts ______ dittĩcult for us to pass. are B IS c . be 39. Nevvs on sports_______ on TV every night at 8:30 A. were B. was c . 1S

D being D are

40- A hakIif of men m th,s C1*y.______ d'ed trom a lung cancer vvhich is resulted fmm A have B has c . is D. are 41. Therẹ-a vailable íor us to choose in my hometo\vn. A. isn•t a lot o f job B. aren'1 many jobs c . isn-t a lot o f jobs D. aren't a lot o f job


42. The Chincse___________________ strong and old traditions and customs. A. has many B. have much c . have many D. has much 43. The percentage o f Vietnamese people who moved to other countries to eam living very high. A. is B. are c . have D. has 44. Natural disasters, in addition to pollution,________ this area poor and dirty. A. has made B. have made c . make D. making 45. Half an hour_______ not enough for me to make an important decision. . A. are B. is c . being D. were 46. Miss Lan. accompanied by her fnends on the p ia n o .______ highly evaluated by the ịudges. A. \vas B. were c . have been D. has been 47. My nevv pair o f p a n ts ______fit me. A. isn‘t B. doesn't c . aren't D. don't 48. I'm happy that everythmg______ better now. A. are B. becn c . is D. have 49. Statistics_____ a dilTicult course for many studcnts to understand. A. is B. are c . were D. being 50. I think every man and w o m an ______ the right to have the íreedom of speech. A. have B. has c . are D. is PHÀN 3. CÂU CHỦ ĐỘNG VÀ BỊ ĐỘNG TRONG TIÉNG ANH (ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH) A. LÝ T H U Y Ế T c o BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Trong tiếng Anh. người ta rất hay dùng câu bị động. Khác với ờ câu chu động chú ngừ tlụrc hiện hành động, trong câu hị độnu chù ngữ nhận tác động cua hành động. C àu bị dộng dưực dùng khi muốn nhân mạnh dẽn dôi tượng chịu lae dộng cua hanh động han là bàn thản hành động đó. Chính vi thê. câu bị dộng trong Tiêng Anh thường đirợc dùng trong các văn phong trang trọng, thè hiện tinh khách quan cua hành dộng. Cấu trúc câu bị dộng: s + be + past partiCiple + (by)................

Các cấu trúc câu bị động ứ cức í/lì cư bán 5. Thì ỌKTD: s + was; werev+ being + Vtti V-3 1. Thì HTĐGTS + Ain/is / arc + Ved/V-3 Eịi' Mai was beina intervievved at 3. p. in yesterday. Eg: Cars are produccd in Japan. 2. Thì 11TTD: s + Am/is / are + beiniỉ + Ved/3 6. Thi QKHT: s 1- had 1- been - Ved/V-3 Eg: All food had been eaten hetore vve caine there. Eg: A new buildin" is beiniỉ built here. 7. Thì TLĐG: s + will + be + Ved/V-3 3. Thi HTHT: s + Have/has been + Ved3 Eg: They hopc that the nevv bridue will be built soon. Eg: This report lias just becn finished. 8. Thi TLDD: s + Am/is / are- going to be + Ved 3 4. Tliì ỌKEXj : s + was/ were+ VcdV-3 Eị>: A íestival is uoiníỉ to be held in our city, next week. Eg: My house was built 5 years aạo. Cácli chuyển từ câu chu (1ỘHỊỊ saiiỊỊ câu bị động Xác định tân ngữ cùa cảu chù động, dira nó lên lảm chù ngữ cùa cảu bị dộng. Xác định động từ chính cùa câu chù độnti. chuyển nó tliành dạnc phàn từ quá khứ. dộng từ 'to be' ơ câu bị dộim dược chia theo thi cua dộnsi lừ chinh cua câu chu dộng.


- Xác định chù ngữ của câu bị động chuyển nó thành tác nhân gây ra hành động sau giới từ ‘b y \ & • Nếu chủ ngữ đó là những đại từ bất định (nobody, anybody, everyone hoặc they, people thi không nhất thiết phải có ‘by . . .

)

• Néu động từ có 2 tân ngữ. muốn nhấn mạnh tân ngữ nào. ta đưa tân ngừ dỏ lên làm chú ngữ. Eg:

I gave him a book -ỳ

1 gave a book to him.

He was given a book (by me). * Một số câu phải chuyến theo cách riêng, theo cấu truc riêng * To liave someone do something -ỳ to have something done (Nhờ ai làm gỉ) EX. Yesterday, I had them repaint my house. -» Yesterday, I had my house repainted Nọte: Eg: Peter had his car stolen / My brother had his leg broken while plaving football (Diên tà sự không may bị gì) * To make sbd do st -ỳ to be made to do st Eg: They made David work hard -> David was made to work hard. Sbd Iieeds to do st = To Iieed to be do ne = to nead doiitg. Eg: The house is a mess. I need to tidy it It needs to be tidied = it needs tidying. ậ To let sbd do st -ỳ to be aỉỉoyved to do st. Eg: My father lets me to go out at night.

I am allowed to go out at night *

* Like/ love/ rementber/ hate/ dislike (doing sư 1 d a u s e /sbíì doiiiíỉ st) ^ U ke/ìo ve/ remember/ hate/dislike beùiỊỊ dotte. Eg: - I remember that someone gave me that book on my birthday = I remember being given that book on my birthday. * Bị động với Modal verb: s + can/may/shouỉd/mighưmust + be +Ved/l'-3 Eg: Your homework must be done at home. * B! dộnỉỉ với cẩu trúc: s + have/lias to (lo st -> s + liave/ltas to be + done (VetưV-3) Eg: Umform has to be vvom at this school. * Bị động với cấu trúc: s + used to do st -ỳ s + used to be + (ỉone (Ved/V-3) Eg: He used to be taken to school when he was a little boy. * Bị động với các cẩu trúc động tù đi với động từ nguyên thề: s + v + to be + V-ed/ V-3 Eg: He wants to be given the íĩrst prize) * Bị động với các cấu trúc động từ đi với danh động từ: S + V + beitì" + Ved/ V-3 Eg: I dislike being told what to do. * Bị động với các động từ: say; report; think; beỉieve, undersland; know; expect s + say (report/ think/ believe/ understand/ know/ cxpect) + that + 1 clause -> It + be + said (reported/ thought/ believed/ understood/ kno\vn/ expccíed) + that + 1 clause •> s + be + said (reported/ thought/ believed/ understood/ known/ expected) + toinf/ to bc V-ing/ to have + V-ed/3/ to have been + V-ing)/ to have beẽn v+ èd Xem các ví dụ ở bảng sa u: Active voi<ce Subject say (said) (that) + 1 clausc (people; report (repơrted) John lives in NewJork. someone;


r they; everyone: nobody)

John will live in Australia in two years. John is traveling in Aírica. John has been to Germany. John went to Japan last year. John has been writing a good book. John is going to build a new villa in London.

think (thought) believe (believed) understand (understood) know (knew) expect (expected)

Passive voice (cách chuyên 1)

It is/ was

said (that) reported thought believed understood known expected

(that) + 1 clause John lives in NewJork. / John vvill live in Australia in two years. John is traveling in Africa. John has been to Germany. John vvent to Japan last year. John has been writing a good book tor 1 year. John is going to build a ne\v villa in London.

Passive voicc (cách chuycn 2) said (that) John is/ was reported thought believed \ understood kno\vn expected

to live in NewJork to live in Australia in two years. to be traveling in Africa. to have been to Getmany. to have gone to Japan last year. to have been vvriting a good book for 1 year. to be going to build a new villa in London.

Active Voice: Pcople said that John was traveling to Aírica. Pasive voice: ->It \vas said thai John was traveling to Aírica. -> John was said to have been traveling to Africa. Activc Voicc: They expect that thc govcmment \vill huild a ne\\ liiuhuay hcrc Pasive voicc: ->lt IS expected that the govemment \vill builđ a nc\\ lnghua) hcre. -ỳ A new highvvay is expected to be huilt here by the govemment. The govemment is cxpectcd to build a nc\v highxvay hcrc. Một số cấu trúc câu bị động - to bc m adc of. Được làm bàng (Đề cập đến chất liệu làm nên vật): This ring is made o f gold and diamond - to be madc from: Được làm ra từ (đề cập đến việc nguyên vật liệu bị biến đòi khỏi trạng thái ban đầu để làm nên vật): Wine 1S made from rice. - to bc m adc out of: Được làm bàng (đề cập đến quá trình làm ra vật) These biscuits were made out o f llour, butter. sugar. eggs and milk. - to bc made with: Được làm với (đề cập đến chì một trong số nhiều chất liệu làmnên vật) This soup tastes good because it was made with a lot of spices. - to be m ade by sbd: được làm bời ai This blouse was made for me by my rnother


-to be made in soiĩiewhere: được sàn xuất ờ đâu. These laptops were made in Japan. B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the bcst answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the foDowing sentences 1. I still can’t believe it! My wallet________ last night. A. vvas stolen B. vvas stealing c . stolen D. stole 2. The current Computerproblem i s _______ by some cxperts in the country. A. studying B. being studying c . being studied D. been studied 3. Something funny_______ in class vesterdav. A. happened B. \vas happened c . happcns D. is happcned 4. The child's arm was svvollen because h e ________ by a bee. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

A-stung B. hadstung c . hađ beén stung D. had bcing stung Today, many senous childhood diseases________ by early immunii^tion A. are preventing B. can prevent c . prevent D. can be prevented I ______ with you on that subject. A. am agree B. am agreed c . agreeing D. aỵree Many u . s. autom obiles_______ in Detroit, Michigan. A. manufacture B. have manufactured c . are manuiactured D. are manuíacturing Let s go ahead and do Ít no\v. Nothing by waiting A. accomplishes B. accomplished c. has accomplished D \vill hc accomplished "W hcn____ "In 1928. " A. penicillin was discovered B. did penicillin discovercd c. \vas penicillin discovered D. did penicillin discover

10. In recent years, the govcmment has ìmposed pollution Controls on automobile manufacturers. Both dom estic and ìmported autom obiles must antipollution deviccs. A. equip vvith B. be equipped with c . equip by D be equipped by 11. A shortage o f water is a problcm in many parts o f the \vorld. ỉn some areas vvater fr°m the ground faster than nature can replenish the supply. A. is being taken B. has been taking c . is taking D. has taken 12. Vitamin c ______ by the hunian body. It gets into the blood stream quickly. A. absorbs easily B. is easily absorbing c . is easily absorbed D. absorbéd easily 13. "VVhen can I have my car back?" "I think it’l l ______ late this aftemoon. " A f'nish B. bc íìnished c . have lìmshed D. be tìmsh 14. I didn't think my intervie\v went well, but ỉ guess it must have. Despite all my anxiety. ỉ ---------------for thc job I vvantcd. I'm really going to work hard to justify their confidence. A. was hiring B. hired c . got hiring D. got hired


15. My country '_____ the pursuit o f world peace. A. is dedicating to B. is dedicated to c . is dedicating by D. is dedicated by 16. About 15,000 years ago. northem W isconsin_________ under ice a mile deep. A. buried B. was burying c . was buried D. had buried 17. Ed was new on the job, but he quickly fit him selí into t h e _________ routine of the office. A. established B. establishing c . establishes D. establish 18. The Mayan In d ia n s_________ an accurate and sophisticated calendar more than seven centuries ago. A. were developed B. developed c . are developed D. have been developed 19. George i s ___________Lisa. A. marry with B. marry to c . married with D. married to 20. The rescuers __________ for theừ bravery and íortitude in locating the lost mountain climbers. A. \vere praised B. praised c . \vere praising D. praising Exercise 2; Revvrite the following sentences into the passive voice 1. People often take him for his brother. 2.

Someone seems to have made a teưible mistake.

3.

He recommends íìtting new tires. He suggested allovving tenants to buy their houses.

4.

It is your duty to make tea at eleven o'clock.

5.

People kno\v that he is armed.

6.

Someone has seen him pick up the gun.

7.

We know that you were in tovvn on the »!ght of the crime.

8.

They think that your fathcr was a spy in the World War II.

9.

We believe that he has special kno\vledge \vhich may be useful to the police.

10. You needn't have done this. 11. He likes people to call him “Sir”. 12. Don’t touch this switch.


13. You have to see it to believe it. 14. He doesn’t like people laughing at him. 15. You don't need to wind this vvatch. 16. They shoulđn't have tolđ him. 17. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 18. It is impossible to do this. 19. He hates people making fun o f him. 20. Everyone thought that the Government had ignored their opinions 21. They gave him artiíìcial respiration. 22. Before they invented printing people had to vvrite everything by hanđ. Exercise 3. Rewrite the sentences, using but not altering the bold word ỉn brackets, so that the meanỉng stays the same. 1. People say he is a good doctor. (It) 2. Nobody told me about it. (not) 3. I don’t like pupils asking stupid questions. (being) 4. She doesn’t like the others laughing at her. (laughed) 5. The boss had his secretary type all these letters. (typed) 6. They employed the workers to repair their house. (had) 7. They say that elephants never forget. (forget) 8.

I don’t want the others think o f me as a burden. (thought)

9. People thought that he killed his wife. (becn) 10. People believe that 13 is unlucky number. (be) 11. People expect that the strike wi 11 begin tomorrovv. (begin)


13.

He recommended using secondhand clothes. (shoul(l)

14. John made me leave soon. (I) 15. It is your duty to do your home\vork before class-time. (You) Exercise 4: Both sentences in each pair have the sarae mcaning. Complete the second sentences: 1. The crovvd was slovvly íìlling the huge stadium. The huge stad iu m __________________________ ______________ by crowd.

2.

The ìnvention of the Computer simplified the work of accountants. Since the Computer _________________________ the work of accountants _____________________ simplified. 3. T d take out some travel Insurance if I were you, Mr. Smith. Mr S m ith ____________________________ _ tàke out some travel Insurance. 4. Someone used a knife to open this wmdow. This w in d o w _______ _______________________ a knife. 5. You will hear from us when we have íìnished dealing with your complaint. After your com plaint____ _____________________ • y °u W'N hear lrom us6. An announcement o f their engagement appeared in the local paper. Their engagement ___________________ ___________________________________ ___ 7. Nobody ever heard anything of David agam. N othing_____________________________________________________David again8. They paid Sheila $1000 as a special bonus. $ 1000________________________ Sheila as a special bonus. PHÀN 4: CÂU TRỰC TIÉP VÀ GIẢN TIÉP TRONG TIÉNG ANH (DIRECT AND IN DI RE CT SPEECH IN ENGLISH) À. LÝ THTYÉT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Để biến đổi một câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp cần: 1 Đổi chù ngừ và các đại từ nhân xưng khác trong cảu trực tiep theo chu ngư cua thành phần thứ nhất. 2. Lùi động từ ờ vế thứ 2 xuống một cấp so với lúc ban đâu. 3. Biến đổi các đại từ chi thị, phó từ chi thời gian và địa điêm theo bảng qui định. ------ - t o — ------------------------------------Direct speech Simple present Present propressive Present períect (Progressive) Simple past

Indirect speech Simple past Past Progressive Past períect (Progressive) Past períect


Will/Shall Should Can May Must

Would Should Could Might Had to

Bàng đôi các đại từ chi thi, phó từ chi địa điêm và thòi gian Today That day Yesterdaỵ The day before The day betbre yesterday Two days beibre Tomorrovv The next/ the following day The day after tomorrmv in two days' time Next + Time (next week/ month/ year)

The following + Time (thẹ following week/ month/ year)

I-ast + Time (last \veek/ month/ year)

The previous + Time (The previous week/ month/ year) Time + before (2 months beíòre) That, those There Qverthere

Time + ago (2 months ago) This, these Here Overhere % A. A . T A . . «__U -

. . .

. *Căn cir vào thì cùa động từ trong câu hỏi trực tiếp, chúng ta dùng thì của mệnh đé phụ chính xác theo phần đổi từ đã nếu trên: Bộ dâu chấm hỏi và bỏ đảo ngữ (inversion) trong câu hòi trực tiếp, nghĩa là chủ từ vân năm trước động từ. - Dùng đại từ nhân xưng, sở hữu tính từ cho phù hợp tình huống. - Mệnh đẻ phụ khởi đầu bàng if hoặc w hether. - Các động từ thường dùng trong mệnh đề chính là: + asked (hòi), có thể có túc từ kem theo; + wondered (tự hòi, thăc măc);+ wanted to knovv (muốn biết);-*- didn't kncnv (không biết) Cau trúc câu tường thuật một câu hỏi dạng “cỏ không” asked wondered vvanted knou (O) + If / \vhether didn’t know

s

+

s +V ........

“Did you watch TV last night?” Jenny askcd me. -> Jenny asked me if/whether I had \vatched TV the mght before. * Câu tưòng thuật một câu hỏi dạng “YVH question” Ghi chú: - Chúng ta vẫn áp dụng mọi hướng dẫn ờ phần trên: + cách đội thì cùa động từ khi đã biết thi của động từ trong câu hỏi trực tiếp + thay đổi đại từ nhân xưng, sở hữu tính từ + bỏ dâu châm hỏi, bó ngoặc kép và bỏ đào ntiữ. + động từ mệnh đề chính vẫn giống như phần trên.


- Chúng ta đã biết câu hỏi dạng Wh-question là những câu hỏi khơi đầu bầng vvho, which, vvhat, when, where, why, how. Và các mệnh đề phụ trong câu tường thuật loại này khởi đầu bằng từ để hỏi, ta dùng ký hiệu là Wh. Chúng ta có cấu trúc ìư sau: asked (O) + WH-Question + + V............... vvondered \vanted to know didiTt know Eg: “What vvere you doing at 5 p. m yesterday?” Marry asked me. -> Marry asked me what I was doing at 5 p. m the day before; “Who are you?” Marry asked me. Marry asked me who I was.

s

s

+

s

+

asked (O/ sbd) to do st told ' Don't walk in rain", said his mother. His mother asked him not to walk in rain. ‘Keep silent in class’ said his teacher. ->His teacher asked him to keep silent in class * MỘT SÓ CÂU GIÁN TIÉP ĐI VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ TƯỜNG THUẬT (REPORTING VERBS) PHẢI CHUYẾN THEO CÁU TRÚC RIÊNG CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ TƯỜNG THUẬT ĐÓ. * deny doing st: từ chối làm gì Direct speech: ‘No, it’s not true, I didn’t steal the money.' said Jean Indirect speech: Jean denied stealing (having stolen) the money. * suggest doing st: đề nghị làm gì Direct speech: ' Why don’t we go to the cinema this evening,’ Peter told us. Indirect speech : Peter suggested (us) going to the cinema. * suggest that + 1 clause (should): đề nghị rằng ai đó nên làm gì. Direct speech : • “It’s very hot in this room, isn't it?” said the guest. Indirect speech : The guest suggested that the room should he opened/ aired. * agree to do st: đồng ý làm gì Direct speech: “Yes, o f course. r u give you a lift, Helen" said Jenny. Indirect speech: Jenny agreed to give Hellen a lift. * apologize to sbd for doing st: xin lỗi ai vì đà iàm gì. Direct speech: “ I have broken your pen. I am awfully sorry, Jack” said David. Indirect speech: David apologized to Jack for brcaking (having broken) Jack's pen. * rem ind sbd to do st: Nhắc nhờ ai làm gì Direct speech: “D on’t íbrget to post my letter, will you, Sue,” said Diana Indirect speech: Diana reminded Sue to post the her letter. * offer to do st: đề nghị làm gì Direct speech: “Let me carry your suitcase, John," said Harry. Indirect speech: Hạrry offered to carry John’s suitcase. * offer sbd st: mời chào ai cái gì. Direct speech : “A cup o f tea?” said Mai ~ “No, thanks,” said I Indirect speech: Mai offered me a cup o f tea but I refused.


* adniit that + 1 clause: thú nhận rằng Direcl speech: “Áll right, it is true, I was nervous,” said the leading actor. Indirect speech: The leading actor admitted that he had been nervous. * doubt whether......... (or not).............: nghi ngờ có hay không................. Direct speech: “ I don’t think Liverpool will win,”said Jack. Indirect speech: -lack doubted vvhether Liverpool would win (or not). * advise sbd to do st: khuyên ai làm gì Direct speecìv. “I were you, Bill. I’d buy a mountain car," Stephen told Bill. ỉndừect speech : Stephen advised Bill to buy a mountain car. * prom ise to do st: hứa làm gì Direct speecìv. “D on't \vorry, Martin, r u bring your book back.” said Lilly. Indirect speech: Lilly promised to briniĩ M artin’s book back. * accuse abđ of doing st (having done st): buộc tội ai là đã làm gì. Direct speecli: “You murdered Lord, didn't you, Collin,” said the" inspector. Indirect speech : The inspcctor accused Collin o f murdering Lord. * blame sbđ for st/ doing st: đổ lỗi cho ai vì cái gì/ đã làm gì Direct speech: ‘i t ’s you who broke my glasses,” Hoa said to me. lndirect speecìv. Hoa blamed me for breaking/ having broken her glasses. * insist on st/ doing at/ having done st: nài nì cái gì, làm gì, đã lảm gì. Direct speech: “No, no, you really must have another drink!” Dick told me. Indirect speech : Dick ìnsisted on my having another drink. * coníess to doing st/ liaving done: thú nhận đã làm gì Direct speech: “It was me who has stole the money,” said Jim. ỉndirecl speech : Jim coníessed to stealing the money. * decide to do st: quyết định làm gì Direct speech: “Right, r i l take the bro\vn pair," said Andrew. Indirect speech'. Andrew decided to the brown pair. * rclìisc to do st: tìr chối làm gì Direct speedv. “No, sorry, I don’t want to lend you my camera. " AlEg told me. Indirect speech : AlEg reíused to lend me his camera. * threaten to do st: đe doạ làm gì Direct speech: ‘T ll kill you if you don’t give me your money," the robber saiđ to the old lady. Iudirect speech: The robber threatened to kill the old Iady if she didn't give him her money. * request sbd to do st: ycu cầu ai làm gì Direct speech: "Please wnte your full name under your signature,” said the clerk. Indirect speech: The clerk requested me to write my full name under my signature. * urge sbd to do st: thúc giục ai làm gì Direcl speech: “Hurry up,” said my mother. Indirect speecìv. My mother urged me to hurry up. * beg sbd (not) to do st: van xin ai (không) làm gì Direct speech: “Please, please, don’t leave me now,’’ the gưl said to the boy. Indỉrect speectv. The girl begged the boy not to leave her then.


* encouragc sbd to do st: khuyến khích, động vicn ai làm gì Direct speech: “Go on. Try your best. Don’t give your hope. You'll win your pnze. ” said Jen. Indirect speech : Jen encouraged me to try my best, not to give my hope and assured that I would win the prize. * warn sbd (not) to do st: cánh báo ai không làm gì. Direct speeclv. “D on’t eat these íruits, will you? They’re very poisonous,” said my mother. Indirect speech: My mother wamed me not to eat these fruits because they were very poisonous. * check vvhether.. . . (or not): kiểm tra lại rằng Direct speech: ‘‘You are a teacher, areirt you?” my old ỉriend said. Indirect speech : My old íriend checked whether I was a teacher. * invite sbd to do st: m òi ai làm gì Direcí speecìr. “Would you like to jom in our picnic next Sunday,” Mai said to Lan. Indirect speech : Mai invited Lan to join in their picnic the following Sunday. * refuse to do st: từ chối làm gì Directspeech: ‘T m sorry. I can’t go with you now. I'm busy with my home\vork” Lan said. Indirect speecìv. Lan reíused to go with me then and explained that she \vas busy with her homevvork. * reply that/ answer that + 1 clausc: đáp lại ràng/ trả lời rằng Direct speech: “Do you like your job?” I asked him ~ “No,” he replied. Indirect speech: I asked if he like his job and he replied he didn’t. * assurc sbd that: bào đảm vói ai rằng Direct speecìr. “You can have a refund if the product has any faults,” Mr. Brown assured me. Indirect speech: Mr. Brown assured me that I could have a reíund if the product had any lầults. * objcct that + 1 clause: phản đối rằng. . . / object to doing st: phản đổi làm

Direct speech:

"No, I don’t want to sit here in order to wait íor his pity,” said the girl. Indirect speech: The girl objected to sitting there in order to wait for his pity. * argue that + 1 clause: tranh cãi rang Direct speech: “But using our own motorbikes will caiise air pollution.’’ said Mai. Indirect speech: Mai argucd that using their own motorbikes \vould cause air pollution. * claim th a t + 1 clause: tuyên bố r à n g .. . Direct speech: “ Right. I’ve written that letter to the boss,” said Jack. Indirect speech: Jack claimed that he had written that letter to the boss. * complain that + 1 clause: phàn nàn rằng...........................


Direct speech:

“Oh, you have never complimented me on mv work.” Lan told her father. Indirect speech: Lan complained that her father had never complimcnted her on her work. * cxclaiin that + 1 clause: thốt lên rằng Direcí speech : “Hey. hey. My team has won!” said the boys. ỉmỉirect speecìv. The boys exclaimed (withjoy/joyfully) that his team had won. * Shout/ vell/ screani at (to) sbd (that + 1 clause): la hét, thét lên vói ai. Direct speeclr. “Go away!" he told his wife angrily. ỉiưlirect speech : He shouted at his wife and asked her to go away. Direct speecìv. “ỉ lclp. help,” said the young girl. huiìrecí speech : The young girl yelled for help. * complinicnt sbd on st/ (loing st: khen ai về cái gì Direct spccch: “Welldone!It's a greal eiTort. You played ihc guilar skilllully," Mai told me. Iiulirect speech: Mai complemented me on playing the guitar skilltully. * reproach sbd for st/ doing st: chỉ trích, trách mắng ai vì cái gì, đã làm gì. Direct speech: “You should have locked the door opcn this m oming.’’ my lather told me. ỉiicỉirect speecli: My father rcproached me for not having locked the door that moming. * remark that + 1 clause: nhận \é í rằng.................... Direct speech: “I think that you're making progress,” said my English tcacher. Indirect speeclt: My English teacher remarked that I vvere making progress. B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Complete the second sentence in each pairs so that the mcaning stays the same: 1. i t ’s pouring with rain do\vn here. ’ She told m e _____________________________________________________ 2. TU come and scc you on Friday if that's all right. ' She said th a t___________________________________________________ 3. The club lost quite a lot o f money last month’ The treasurer told the m eeting____________________________________ _ TU have íìnished writing the report by the time you get here,' She promiseđ m e _______________________________________ 5. 'I enjoyed m yselflast night' Clare said that 6. "What are the most interesting sights?" A young man wanted to k n o w _______ 7. "Have you got a tovvn plan?" A German studcnt ask ed ____________ 8. "Where can we stay?" A French couple w ondered__________


9. "How long does the film last?" Carol asked. Carol a sk e d ________________________________________________________ 10. "Are there guided tours?" A Japanese man a sk e d _______________________________________________ 11. " Which way is the castle?" A tourist wanted to k n o w ___________________________________________ 12. Peter to Nick: Would you like to stay for lunch? Peter in vited________________________________________________________ 13. Tim to Martin: You ought to see a doctor. Tim advised________________________________________________________ 14. Louise: I'm sorry I caused so much trouble. Louise apologized___________________________________________________ 15.' Andy: ' Why don't we go out for the day? Andy suggested_____________________________________________________ 16. Tracy: 1'H do the washing up. Tracy offered_______________________________________ 17. Pat to Jane: You're going to post the letter, don't forget. Pat reminded J a n e ___________________________________________________ 18. Travel agent: Yes, we made a mistake. The travel agent adm itted____________________________________________ 19. Steve to Mike: Don't touch the electric wires. Steve vvamed_______________________________________________________ 20. Are you taking much money with you to Prance? My bank manager wanted to k n o w ___________________________________ Exercise 2: Change the following sentences into reported speeches. llse onc of the reporting verbs given below: advise, promise, suggest, inquire, warn, agree, 1.

threaten, apologize, compáť&#x2030;ain, refuse " Why don't we invite Jane to dinner tonight?" Mrs. Stone said.

2.

"Where is Mount Everest?" asked a student.

3.

"If you-scream, ril shoot," said the robber to the girl.

4.

"I have been standing in this queue for two hours!" said the man.

5.

"You should stay in the shade and wear a hat, Mrs. Bent," said the doctor

6.

"You'll bum yourself. Tom. if you keep playing with matches." said his sister.

7.

T m really sorry that I woke you up this moming, Harry," said Chris

8.

I think you are right, Tracey. We ought to iet the others know," said Kerry


9.

'Tll deíìnitely pay you back by the end o f the week, Mum," said Sue

10. I will not let you borrow my car tomorrow, Graham," said Michael Exercise 3: Changc the following sentences into rcported speech. Use the verbs given in the box. Use each word once only.

suggesí agree

claini boast

yvhisper admit

shout protest

1.

“I can speak six languages íluently," he said.

2.

“Let’s go to the cinema this evening,” he said.

3.

“Stop that noise in the classroom," said the teacher.

4.

“That car you are driving is my property,” the man said.

5.

“Yes, I broke the windows with my catapults,” the boy said.

6.

“You can’t take me to prison. I know my rights,” the man said.

7.

“I shall ahvays love you,” said his fiancée.

8.

“Well, yes, if the vveather is bad, we can't go,”

Exercise 4: Continuc reporting cach sentence, using only the number of vvords stated in brackets. 1. “Do you think you could possibly tell me what the time is?” David asked m e _________________________________ ựìve \vords) 2. “Excuse me, but I vvonder if you’d mind operiing the window. ” The man sitting next to me asked m e __________________________ ựour words) 3. “You go down this Street, tum left, then take the second tuming on the right. The cinema isju st down the Street on the left. ” A passer-by told me hovv____________________________________ ựive words) 4. “I want to know how much this bike cost. Can you tell me?” John asked h o w _______________________________________ ựour words) 5. “Look, don’t worry, I’H help you if you like. ” Sue said s h e __________ •______________________ (three words) 6. “All right, I tell you vvhat, the car’s yours for, let’s say $ 500. ” The salesman said I c o u ld _____________________________________ ựìve wonis) 7. ‘i hope you don’t mind my saying this, but you’re being a bit silly, aren t you?” Peter told me I _________________________________ ựìve words) 8. “It doesn't look as if r i l be arriving until after eight, I’m afraid. ” Jane said she probably__________________________________________(six words)


PHÀN 5: CÂU ĐIÈU K IỆN - C O N D ITIO N A L SEN TEN CES A. LÝ TH U Y Ế T c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO *• J}'Pe l i Điều kiện cỏ thế thực hiện dưọc ó hiện tại (điều kiện dạng 1): if + + simple present tense + simple ĩuturc (will do st) + should/ may/ might/ can + do st Eg: If he trịes much morc, he vvill improve his English. / If I hạỵẹ enough time I cạn finish mv work.

s

-

s

Câu điều kiện diễn tà thói quen hay sự thật hiển nhiên (H A B IT T A L / F 4 C T IA I A C TIO N )___________________________ _________________

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Eg: -

I Ị f j j T + simple present tcnsc I + simple present ten se .. . I usually walk to school ií I have enough tiine. II you heat the ice, it melts. / If summers come, it is hot and sunny Cảu diều kiện diễn ta M ỆNH LỆNH (COM M AND)

s

if + + sim plc prcscnt tensc + command form of verb + . . . Hg: If you go to the Post OITice. maii this letter for me. Please cal] me if you hear anything from Jane. 2- Jype

Điều kiện không the thưc hiện được ờ hiện tại_________________

+s

s

I if + sim ple past tcnse Ị + >vould + V (bare-infinitive) Eg: 11 I had enough money now, I \vould buv a tounst trip to the moon. (I don’t have money now and I can’t buy a .........) Chú Ỷ: Động từ to be phải cliia lả were ờ tất cả các ngôi! Eg: If I \vere rich, I would travcl around the world. (I am not rich) (I m not going to travel around the \vorld) 3. Type ■?: Điêu kiện không thế thực hiện được ở quá khứ______________

I

I if + s + past pcríect tcnse I s + would + V (perfect infinitive- have done) 1__ ì 1__ J r .1 .J . . 77! ! ----Eg: II'he had studied hardcr for that test, he vvould have passed it. (he diđn't study harder and he đidn't pass the test) If I hadn t bccn in a hurry, I wouldn’t have had an accident (I vvas in a hurry) (I had an accident) ... i r

Câu giá định với wish / i f only Trái với hiện tại (mong ước một sự thay đổi tình trạng ờ hiện tai) s + >vish + s + Verb (Past simple)______ Eg: I wish 1 ìvere rích /Iw is h I had a c a r /I wish ỉ couỉd speak English well. •

Trái với quá kh ứ (mong ước một sự thay đổi tinh trạng ơ quá khứ, thề hiện sự hôi tiếc về điều đã xảy ra trong quá khử)_______

s + wish + s + V erb (Past Períect)

I

Eg: I wish I hadn 7 lost my bike lasl night. / I wish 1 had studied harder last year. • Trái với tương lai (mong muốn một việc gì xảy ra hoặc ai đó làm việc gi ờ tương lai)________________

s +vvish +s + ttould / could + V erb (ìníìnive)


Eg: I \\'ish slìtí would conie / / wish it yvould stop raining. Câu trúc trên còn diên ta sự phàn nàn về thói quen xấu cùa ui đó Eg: / wish you wouỉ(ỉn 't nuike so mucli lĩoise in the cỉass. * Câu trúc: VVish + To-Inf. (wish = want = expect) diễn tả sự mong muốn làm việc gì Eg: I \\'ish to pass the exam. NOTE: lt only = I vvish Eg: // onlv I were rích. lf only I hadpassed my exants Chủ ỳ: Lược bo 'if' trong câu điều kiện, chủng la theo cấu trúc sau: Typc 1: Shoulđ you go out. please buy mc some stamps. = if you go out, please buy me some stamps Type 2: Were I the president o f America, I \vouldn't have the war on Iraq. = If I \vere the President. I \vouldn't ha ve the vvar on Iraq Type 3: Had she studied hard, she would have passed thc examination, last year. = If she had studied hard, she \vould have passed the examination, last year. ♦> Mixcd conditional scntcnccs: Câu điều kiện hỗn Họp Cảu điệu kiện hỗn hợp lả loại cảu mà có thời gian ờ hai vế (vế đièu kiện - if clause và vê kẽt quà - result clause) không cùng một thời gian với nhau. C ác cấu trúc cua câu điều kiện liộn họp: * IF- CLAIISE (PAST PERFECT) + RESƯLT CLAUSE (Would bc/ Verb (inf)) Đây là câu điều kiện kết họp giừa loại 2 và loại 3, dùng đê diễn dạt một diều kiện không có thật ờ quá khứ và kêt quá tương ứng không có thật cùa nó ở hiện tại: Examples: - If I had » 0 1 1 the lottery, I \vould bc rich. ( B l I T I D Ỉ D N 'T H IN THE t.O TTE R >

/.V

THE 1’A S T .ÍN D I A M N O T RK II x o n . )

- If I had taken Prench in high school. I n o u ld liavc more job opportunities. ( B U T I D ID N 'T TA KE FRF.NCII i n /IICill SCIIOOL A N D I Ỉ X ) N ’T HAVF. KỈANY JOH OPPORTUNITir.S.)

- If she had bcen born in ữie United States, she >vouldn't nccd a Visa to \vork here. ( B ú t SIIE WASN’T BORN i n t h e UNITF.D ST A T ES a n d SHF. D O E S N E E l) A VISA N O W TO WORK UERE. )

* IF- CLAƯSE (PAST PERFECT) + RESHLT CLAƯSE (VVould be + V-ing) Đây là câu điều kiện dùng đc diễn đạt một điều kiện không có thật ờ quá khứ và kêt quà tưong ứng không có thật cùa nó sẽ xảy ra ớ tương lai. Examples: - If she had sỈ2 ned up for the sk] tnp last week, she \vould be joining us tomorrovv. (B U T S H E D ID N 'T S IG N UP r ơ K THE SK I TRIP LA ST WEEK AN D SH E ISN 'T Ơ O IN C TU JOIN VSTO M O RRO W . )

- Ií Mark had gottcn the job instead o f Joe, he \vould be m oving to Shanghai. ( B l ' T M a RK D ID N 'T G E T TIIEJO tì AND M a RK IS N U T O O I N C t o M O I E TU S llA N C H .il. )

- If Darrcn ha(ln't lost his money in that gamble, he vvould go to Mexico vvith us next month. ( B ú t D á R R E S l.O ST IIIS M O N EY IN TIIA T GAMBLE A ND H E W O N 'T GO TO M e x i c o

m u USNEXT MONTH. ) * ỈF- CLAUSE (PAST SIMPLE) + RESULT CLAUSE (VVould have done)


Dây là câu điều kiện dùng de diễn đạt một điều kiện không có thật ớ hiện tại và kẻt qua tương ứng không có thật của nó ờ quá khứ. Examples: - lf I \vere rich, I w ould have bought that Ford car we savv yesterday. (fìi 'T I AM N o t Ci'RRENTLy Ri( II AND That Is W m

/ D id n 't

Ri ')■ The F o rp Car

í

Yesterpay. ) - irsa in spoke Russian. he would have translated the letter for you. ( B i t S a m ỉ k ĩ e s n T s p e a k R i 'SS/ANAND t i i a t i s WHYHE DIDN'TmiNSLATF. THRLETTER. )

- If I cíidn’t have to work so much, I wou]d havc gonc to the party last night. (B l T l l l A V E TO WtìRKA L O T A S D TIIATIS m n íl ) l l ) N 'T ( , ( ) TO THEÍ‘ART) U S T N K illT . )

* IF CLAUSE (PAST SIMPLE) + RESULT CLAI SE (Would be / V(inO) Đây là câu điều kiện dùng đề diễn đạt một điều kiện không có thật ờ liiộn tại \à kẽt q u á tư ơ n g ứ n g k h ô n g c ó thật cù a I1Ó ớ tư ơ n iỉ lai.

Examples: - If I di(ln't have so much vacation timc. í w ou!dn't RO \vith vou on the cruise to Alaska next wcek. {tìl 'T ỉ IX) IIA VE A LOTOr VACA TION TIME AND / \VÌU. c o ON Tlir. TKH‘ sr.XT WEF.K. ) - If Cindy \vcre more Creative, the company woul(l send her to Nevv York to work on the new advertising campaign. ( B U T C l N D Y I S N O T C R E A T I V E AND TIIE COMPANY \V O S'T S E N D l/ER T O N r . n Y o r k t o \VORK ON TIIE NF.W CAMPAKiN. )

:

- If Dan >veren't so nicc, hc >vouldn't be tutoring you in math tonight. ( B U T D A N I S M C E A N D H E IS

G O /A O

TO m T O R YOU TONịCIIT. )

* IF- CLAUSE (PAST CONSTIIIOUS) + RESULT CLAUSE (Would have đone) Đây là câu điều kiện dùng để diễn đạt một điều kiện không có thật ở tương lai và kêt quả tương ứng không có thật của nó ở quá khứ. Examples: - ir I w e re n 't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work.

(B ú t I AM COINC, TOCOONA IÌHSINESS TRÌP NEXT WF.F.K, AND TII.iTIS u m ỉ PUW'T I A C C E P T TUATNF.\V A S S K i N M E N T A T WORK. ) -

l f m y p a r e n t s > v e r c n 't C o r n in g t h is \v e e k e n d , I \ v o u l d h a v c n l a n n c d a n i c e t n p

just for the two o f us to Napa Valley. ( B i ’T M ) P AREN TS ARR GUING t o COME TIIIS iVF.EKF.Nt). AND T II À T I S WHY 1 DIDN'T 1‘L.tN A TRIP r O R TÌÌE TWO o r l ' S TO N a p a V.íU.r.y. )

- If Donna w e rc n 't m aking us a big dinner tonight, I \vould liave suggcxted that we go to that nice Italian restaurant. ( B U T S H E IS G O/NƠ TO MA KE u s A fí/G DINNr.R TONKillT, A \ 'l ) T l l . t r IS H ll) ỉ 1)11),\ ' r

SƯGGEST THAT WE c o TO THATNICEITAUAN RESTAURANT.

)

* IF- CLAIISE (PẠST CONSTH OUS) + RESIỈLT CLAƯSE (Would have done) Đảy là câu điều kiện dùng đế diễn đạt một điều kiện không có thật ở tương lai vả kêt quả tương ứng không có thật cùa nó ờ hiện tại. Examples: - If I w ere going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited.


( B V T l A M NOT(iOIN Ci TO a o TO THAT C O N C E R T T O NIG H TAN D T IIA T IS W H Y I A M N O T EXCITED. )

- If Sandy w ere giving a speech tomorrow, she \vould be very nervous. { B ú t S A N D Y !S N O T (iOING TO CilVE A S P E F .cn TOMURROW AND THA T IS IVIIY Slir. IS N OTNERVO US.)

- If Seb d id n 't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed. (BlTSER hiu . COME ttlTIIl 'S TO THF. DESERTAND rilATIS WHYEVERYONEỈSSO lùm : ) * Một số m ẫu câu diễn tả câu điều kiện * Unless + positive = i f . . . not: Trừ phi, nếu không. Eg: You will be late unless vou start at once. * But fo r that + unrcal condition: Nếu không thì Mệnh dề sau nỏ phai lùi một thời. + Hiện tại: My father pays my l'ee, but for that 1 couldrTt be here. + Quá khứ: My car broke down. but for that we would havc been herc in time. * Othenvise + real condition: Kéo, nếu không thì. We must be back before midnight othenvise I will be locked out. * Othenvise + unrcal condition: Kèo, nếu không thi. Sau nó phái là điều kiện không thề thực hiện được, mệnh đề sau nó lùi một thời. + Hiện tại: Her father supports her tìnance othervvise she couldrTt conduct these experiments. (But she can with her father's support). + Quá khứ: I used a Computer, othenvise 1 would have taken longer with these calculations x (But he didn't rake any longer). * Lưu ý: Trong tiếng Anh thông tục (colloquial English) người ta dùng or else đê thay thế cho otlienvise. * Provided/Providing tliat: Với điều kiện là, miễn là (= as long as) You can camp here providinii that you leave no mess. * Suppose/Supposing = ịVhat.. . if: Giả s ử .. . . thì sao, Nếu......... thi sao. Suppose the plane is late? = What (will happen) ịf the plane is late? * as if / as though - Trái với hiện tại: A SIF / AS THOUGH + s + Verb (Past Simple/Past continuous) - Trái với quá khứ: AS IF / AS THOUGH + s + Verb (Pasl Perfect) II. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Give the right form of the \ erb in brackets to complete the foUoning sentences. 1. We'll go to the beach if it................................... (be) fine tomorrow. 2. Had it not becn fof the goalkecper, the team....................................(lose) the match. 3. Supposed that I........................(drop) in his house last night, I..................................... (tell) him the news. 4. If you aren't going to live in the house, why don't you sell it? If I............................. . . (have) a house I couldiVt use I................................... (sell) Ít at once. 5. He'll come and help you if he................................... ( íĩnish) his work before 5 p. m. 6. I í l s e e h i m l ....................................(give) him a lift. 7. They................................... (play) íootball if it..................................... (not rain) now.


8. 9.

The police....................................(arrest) him if they catch him. He must tell the truth, othenvise nob o d y ....................... (believe) a word he says. 10. Mr Black vvill buy a new house if he................................... (have) enough money. 11. Provided that I have free time, I................................... (come) to visit you 12. It's very noisy next door. It sounds as if they........................................(have) a party 13. That house is shaking. It looks as if it............................................................ (fall) dovvn 14. Ann coughs a lot. She sounds as though she........................................(have) a cođ I don t 11ke Noriìiâ. Shc ỉslks us lí shc................................. (know) cvcrything 16. Providmg that you kindly sit down I................................... (make) enquiries foryou. 17. Unless you....................................(be) more careíul you '11 have an accident. 18. She (take, not)........................................................................ ... o f the children for us next weekend if her business trip (be, not)................................................ canceled 19. Tom is not going to come to dinner tomomnv because you insulted him yesterdav But, he (comc). ................................................!f you (insult).. . . . . . . . . . . him.

20. M ane (be)..........................happy now if she (give. not)...................................up her career vvhen she got maiTied.

21. Dr. Mercer (accept)...................................................... the research grant at Harvard if he (take, not) ....................................................................... 6 months off to spend more time with his famtly. 22. Protessor Schmitz (talk, not)...............................................................so much about the Maasai tribe in the last conference if she (be, not)............................ an experl on Aírican tribal groups. 2 3 .1 (be, not)..............................................................unemployed novv if I (have, not). . . ................................................. disagreement with my boss and I (be, not).................... ...........................................red. 24. Nicole (speak, not)............................................................Chinese fluently if she (live, not)................................................... in China for ten years. 25. Ok. I (help)....................................................................... yOU stuđy for your test if you (spend, not)................................................... the last two weeks partying and \vasting time. 26. But. Eleanor and Ben (go)....................... ................................skiing with us this year if Eleanọr (have, not, ju st).................................................................... ... baby 27. If I (be, not).................................................................completely exhausted now, I (go). .............................................with you to the movies tonight. 28. She (be). ...................................................................... vvorried about the conference tomoưo\v if she (g iv e )............................................ a speech 29. Frank (go)..........................................................to the graduation ceremony tomorrovv if he (break )....................................................... his leg sncnvboarding last week. 30. But for my teacher’s help, I (not win)................................................. that competition. Excrcise 2: Re\vrite cach sentencc, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stavs the same. 1. I didn’t have an umbrclla vvith me and so I got wet. I wouldn't


2.

ru call the police if you don't leave me alone!

3.

U n l e s s ___________________ _ in the snowy weather we don’t go to school.

I 4.

f

________________________

Without Jack’s help, I w ouldn't have been able to move the table.

6.

If ___________ __________________________________________ You drink too much colĩee, that’s why you can't sleep. If you You press this button to stop the machine.

7.

lf ____________________________________________ -___ Make me some cotTee, and ru give you one ol my biscuits.

5.

If If you hadn’t told me about Sue’s hair, I wouldn’t have noticed. U nless_______________________________________________ ___________ 9. If you see Peter. tell him he should be here at 8. 00. If you should ______________________________________________ ________ 10. I wouldn’t accept if you asked me to marry you! If you w e re _______________________________________________ ________ Exercise 3: Complete thc second sentencc in each pair, using the word given, so that the mcaning stays the same. 1. I didn’t know his address in London, so I didn t visit him. visitcd If 1 had k n cn v n ________________________________________ __ him. 2. If you don‘t speak clearly. the audience w on’t understand you. clse You have t o ______________________________________ understand you. 3. Angela. you’re not old cnough othenvise you would be able to get a motorbike. were A ngela.______________________________________________________ _____

8.

4.

I \vouldn't m ind bein g transferred to another City it they offered m e a higher salary.

condition I wouldn’t m in d ____________________________ me a higher salary. If he decides to go shopping, there’s a chance that I will go with him. might If h e ________________ __________________________________ with him. 6. We can have dinner here unless you want to go to a restaurant. w ant I f ___________________________________ dinner here. 7. Fortunately, they were vvearing seat belts, so nobody vvas seriously injured. not I f _________________________________ been seriously injured.

5.

8.

I’d like to travel all over the world but I don’t have enough money. \vould I aN over lhe vvorld if I had enough money Exercise 4: Rovrite the sentence given, using the word given so that the meaning stays the same. 1. We won’t go away if the weather is bad. ƯNLESS _______________________ ______ ____________________________ _— 2. I didn't have moncy so I didn’t buy a new shirt. W O U L D _________________________________ _______________________—----


3.

If they offered you the job, would you accept? WERE you are in London by any chance, come and see me SHOULD

5.

If you do have any free time, could you give me a ring? HAPPEN

'

6.

Without you, I would ha ve gi ven up years ago BEEN

7.

If Pauline hadn’t been interested, the prọject would have been abandoned BUT FOR

8.

What would you do if you íòund some buried treasure? WERE

9.

Dick is in prison now because a detective recognized him IF

10. The fire was brought under control thanks to the mght-watchman IT H A D N T Exercise 5: Revvrite the sentences, using the word given, so that the meaniniỉ stays the same. 1.

Jeremy regrets not having accepted the job he was offered WISHES

2.

If you had heard the politician speak, you’d think he had won the election THOUGH I think you should get a haircut. ABOUT

3. 4.

I can’t stand Betty borrowing my clothes without asking me íìrst RATHER

5.

It’s a pity govemments spend so much money on nuclear weapons W OULDN’T

6.

I advise you to see the dentist today; othenvise your toothache will get worse BETTER

7.

Jim woụỊd really like to participate in the debate, but he can’t COULD

8.

Susan doesn’t like watching TV in the evenings, she’d rather read magazines TO You should have waitcd for us. BETTER

9.

10. He should start studying hard.

1 ° * — _____________ - ____________ ___________________ ;_____________ It’s 11. We didn’t want to leave the party so early. LEFT 12. It wou!d have been better to have hired a car dunng the holiday ONLY


13. W e’d prefer to go shopping rather than stay at home. RATHER 14. 1 would like to know how to play the piano. KNEW 15. Mr. Smith wanted me to íìnish the reports yesterday but I couldn’t. SOONER_______________________________________________________________ Exercise 6: Correct the following sentences if necessary by taking out the unnecessary word. 1. Christine would rather not to work overtime this week. 2. Suppose you hadn’t found your car keys, what would you have done? 3. It’s high time he had tidied up his room. 4. It’s time for the children \vent to bed. 5. I would rather not Tom didn't li ve so far away. 6. I’d rather we have visited a museum. 7. I wish we had lived in a bigger house because then r d have a room o f my o\vn. 8. He acted as if he knew everything. 9. W e'd better to fix the leaking tap tomorrovv. 10. If only I hadn’t broken my leg while playing football. PHÀN 6: CÂU GIẢ ĐỊNH (SU B JU N C TIV E) A.

LÝ T H llY É T c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAỌ Câu gia định hay còn gọi là câu cầu khiến là loại câu đối tượng thứ nhất muốn đối tượng thứ hai làm một việc gì. Câu giả định có tính chất cầu khiển chứ khổng manj> tính ép buộc như câu mệnh lệnh. Trong câu giả định, người ta dùng dạng nguyên the không có to cùa các động từ sau một số động từ chỉnh mang tính cầu khiến. Thường có tluỉt trong câu giả định trừ một số trường hợp đặc biệt. * \vould rather (that) + s + V (bare iníinitive)............. - Ngữ pháp hiện đại ngày nay đặc biệt là ngữ pháp Mỹ cho phép dùng uoiild rather mà không cần dùng thai trong loại câu này. Eg: We would rather (tbat) hc not move to Hanoi. - Ngoài ra. chúng ta còn dùng cấu trúc: s + would ra th c r sbd did st: thà ràng ai đó làm gì thì hơn Eg: We vvould rather he \vasn't going to move to Hanoi. ỉ would rather you didn't talk loudly. - Phản biệt các cấu trúc trên với: s + \vould ra th e r do st: thà rằng làm gì hơn. s + w ould ra th e r do st than do st: thà ràng làm gi hơn làm gì. Eg: I vvould rather stay at home. I would rather stay at home than go ou with you tonight. * * Một số động từ trong bảng sau đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau nó phái có ‘that’ và động từ động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ó' (lạng nguyên thê bỏ to. Advise: khuyên Ask: ycu câu C om m and: ra lệnh Decrec: ra sãc lệnh demand: yêu cầu insist: nài ni move: kích động ord cr: ra lệnh Prefer: thích hơn Proposc: đề nghị recom m end: giới Rcquest: yêu cầu Require: đòi hói Stipulate: đặt điều thiệu l'rg e : thúc giục kiện Suggest: đề nghị


. Đ(-i nỵ tir sau chũ ngữ 2 ờ dạng nguyên thc không chia bỏ to. Nếu muốn thành lập thê phu dịnh dật IIO! sau chu n^ử 2 tnrcrc Ii»uyén thế bo lo.________ Subjcct + verb + that + suhịect + Ịverb ỉn simple form | +. . . 4' __ A. do J Eg: The doctor syggggtgd that his____ palient moming exercises. / The doctor sygggstgd that his patient not do momirm exerciscs. Nêụ bo thai di thì chũ ngữ 2 sẽ trở về dạng tân ngữ và động từ sau nó trở \ề dạng nguyên thê có to. cảu mất tính chất giả định, trơ thành một dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tièp. Eg: The doctor sugggstgd his paticnt to do mominu exercises. The doctor suggestgd his patient not to do momint; exercises. <Ịhý_ỵi Trong ngữ pháp Anh-Anh trước động từ ờ mệnh đề 2 thường có sltnuld. người Anh chi bỏ should khi sau nó là động từ to be nhưng ngừ pháp Anh-Mỹ kliong dùng shouỉd cho toàn bộ động từ ò mệnh đề 2. * Một so tính từ trong bàng sau đòi hỏi mệnh đề sau nó phái có ‘that’ và động từ động từ sau chủ ngữ 2 ò' dạng nguvên thể bỏ to. Advised: khuyên Im p o rtan t: qụan trọng Necessary: cần obligatory: bẩt buộc, thièt cưỡng bách suggested: gợi ý

M andatory: có tính bắt buộc proposed: đề nghị urgent: khẩn cấp

Recommended: giới thiệu Required: đòi hói Impcrative: mệnh lệnh

Chú ý rang trong bâng này có một số tính từ là phân từ 2 cấu tạo từ các động từ ư bảng trên. Neu muốn cấu tạo phủ định đặt not sau chù ngữ 2 trước nguyên thề bò to. It + be + adj + thai + s + ịvcrb in simple form| EG: I-t is necessary that he leam English. / Ịt is necessarv that he not leam English. tG : It has bcen proproscd that \vc raise moncy for that campaign. It has been proproscd that we not raise money for that campaign. Nêu bò that di thi chu ngữ 2 sẽ biến thành tân ngữ sau giới từ for. động từ trở về dạng nguyên thể có to và câu mất tính chất giả định trờ thanh dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp. EG: It is necessary lor him leam English. / lt is necessarv for him not to leam lĩnglish. EG: ll has bcen proprosed for us to raise money for that campaign. It has becn proproscd for us not to rai se money for that campaign. Câu gia định dùng với 2 loại trên thường được dùng trong các văn bán hoặc thư giao dịch diễn đạt lời đề nghị từ phía A -> B mà khõng co tính bẳt buộc. Không chi có động tứ và tính từ mới được dùng theo dạng này. tất cả các danh từ xuất phát từ những động tir và tinh tir trẽn đồu buộc mệnh đề sau nó phái ớ dạng gia định nên nlur nó diễn đạt các yếu tố trên. There IS suuuoslion from the boss that John vvork hard. !t is rccommcndation that his vvite be present at the court. * Thê giá định trong một số trưòng họp khác . - Dùng đê diễn dạt một ước muốn hoặc một lời nguyền rua. thường bao hàm các thể lực siêu nhiên.


God be with you = Good bye. : Tạm biệt, chúa sẽ đi theo bạn. Curse this toad: Chết tiệt cái con cóc này. - Dùng với động từ May trong một số trường hợp đặc biệt sau: • Come what may. : Dù thế nào chảng nữa. dù bất cứ truyện gì. • Come \vhat may we will stand by you. : Dù thế nào đi chăng nữa. chúne tôi luôn bên bạn. • May as well not do s th .. . . i f . . = Có thể đừng.........nếu. . . . không. You may as well not come if you can't be on time. : Bạn có thể đừng đến, nếu bạn không thể đúng giờ. • May/Might (just) as well do smt - Chẳng mất gì mà lại không, mất gì của bọ. Since nobođy vvants that job. \ve might (just) as well let him have it. Vì không ai thích việc này, mình chẳng mất gì mà lại không cho hẳn ta làm nó • May diễn đạt một lời đề nghị mà người nói cho ràng clura clrảc nó đã được thực hiện: The sign on the la\vn says clearly that people may not walk on the grass. (không dùng shouỉd trong trường hợp này). • May + s + link verb + adj hoặc May + s + verb + compỉemení (Cầu chúc cho). May you both very happy: Chúc các bạn bách niên giai lão. May the conterence be successful: Chúc bội nghị thành công rực rỡ. Long may our parents live to help us: Chúc cho .bố mẹ sống lâu dê giúp chúng ta. * If need be = If necessary = Nếu cần: If nced be. we can take another road. - Dùng với động từ to be, bỏ to sau if đẻ chi một sự gia định chưa được phân định rõ ràng là đủng hay sai. - If that be right, then it \vould be no defence for this man to say he’s innocent. - Let it be me: Già sừ đó là tôi, giá phải tay tôi. - Be that as it m ay.. . = \vhether that is true or no t... = Cho dù là phai the hay không. EG: Bc that as it may, you ha ve to accept it. - Then so be it: Cứ phái vậy thỏi. If we have to pay 52,000, then so be it (thì cứ phài trà thôi) * Câu giá định dùng vói it + to be + time lt's time (fơr sb) to do smt đã đến lúc ai phái làm gì (Thời gian vừa vặn. không mang tính giá định). It's úme for me to get to the airport: Dã đến lúc tôi phải ra sản bay. - It’s time (hiỵlitinie/abuiil tỉme) (for sb) did smt: đã dcn lúc mà (thời gian đã trề. mang tính giá định) It's time I got to thc airport / It's hightime thc City govemment duỊ smt to slop the traffic jam. B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the bcst ansucr (A, B, c or D) to completc the follo\ving sentences. 1. I suggest that he_____ up his mind quickly or clse he \vould lose his opportunity. A. makes B. niake c . niadc D. IS to make 2. His ữiends suggest that th e _____ for that job. A. applies B. apply c . applying D. will apply .


3. It's high time we_ A. did

.

_ about our environment.

B do

c.

should do 4. It 1S necessary that children_____ o f their old parents.

D. to do

A to tak e care B. takes care c . took care D. take are t is essential that ai! students-----------best use o f leaming iacilities in the unívcreity. A. make B. makes p mađe r \ ___ 1 • D. making 6. The clients demanded that the post oíĩìce earlier. A. opening B. opened open D. to open 7. It is necessary that he a certiíìcate in English? A. will get B. gcts get D. woulđ get 8. I demand that I_____ to retake the exam. A. be allowed B. am alloYved will be allowed D. were allowed 9. The teacher ordered that all pupils_______ inside their classroom A- stay B. stays will stay D. would stay 10. It is essential that Mai_____ speak English A. is able to B. was able to c . bc able to D. must be able to 11 He suggested that I______ kind to others. A. am B. was be D. would be 12. My doctor insisted_____ A. that I diet B. me to diet c . for me dieting D. for me to diet 13. Evetyone urged that Bill his education. A. continue B. continuing to continue D. continued 14. The director requests that all packages_____ at the Central office 5.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

A .to m a il B. be mailed 15. Long may the Ọ u e e n _______ .

c. to be mailed c.

A J iv e B. lives living 16. It is important that y o u ________ to our meeting on time. A. to come B. should come vvould come 17. It IS imperative that you_____ carelul on construction site A. to be _ B. were 18. It is advisable that she___ _ care o f her ill mother. A. to take B. takes 19. The teacher ordered that the students_____ talking.

c.

D. mailing D. would live. D. come

c

D. be

are

c

take D. took

c.

1 (\ cL,St° P . . B. should stop stopped D.AorB 20. She insisted that we ___ our summer vacation in the countryside

c. should D. Aspend or c

A spend B spent 21. May you_____ happy all your life!

A' arc

B were

c.

be D to be 22. "Should I begin typing these Ietters?" "I suggest_____ bookkeeping first" A you finished R you to nnìĩh C y o u fin is h

D. you

wiii rmish


23. It is suggestion that my brother_______ when our family are on holiday. A. not be working B. be working c . shouldn t work D. not vvork 24. "Have you received the gift sent from London yet?". "No, but It's possible that it_____ in a few days"

A. will come B. comes c . come D. has comc 25.1’d rather y o u _______ that present. A. not give B. \vouldn’d give c . diđn't give D. gi ve ExercLse 2: Give thc riglư lorm of the verbs in brackets to conipletc the ỉolkro ing sentences. 1. It’s Iinportant that she (rem em b er)___________to take her m edicine tvvice a day.

2. I suggest that Hrank (re a d )_______ the directions carefully beẾbre assemblmg the bicycle. He doesrTt want the \vheels to fall off while he is riding down a hill 3. Mrs. Finkelstein demandcd that the heater (re p a ir)_________ immediately. Her apartment was freezing. 4. It’s vital that the United States (focus)_________ on ìmproving Ìts public education system. What we do novv will aíĩect our country for generations to come. 5. The monk insisted that the tourists (e n te r)__________the temple unúl thcy had removed their shoes. 6. I am not going to sit hcrc and let her insult me. I dcmand that she immediately (apologize)_______ for \vhat she just said. 7. Judy asked that we (attcnd)____________hcr graduation ceremonv next vveek. 8. Was it really necessary that (sit) I _________ there \vatching you the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boriny watching you rcpeat the scenes over and over again. 9. It is important to rcmcmbcr ihat Janinc (th in k )_________ very dilĩcrcntly from you. She may not agrec to the changes you have made in the organization o f the company. 10. Ifs a little đitlìcult to íìnd the rcstaurant. I propose that \ve all (d riv c )_________ togethcr so that nobody gels lost along the \vay. 11. The \voman insisled that the lost child (ta k c )___________to stores inlbrmation desk so his parents could be paged. 12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce)____________ her daily fat intake. 13. The environmental leader felt it vvas extremely important that thc people o f the City (allo w )________ to voice their concems over the ncw hotcl bcing built on the bay. 14. She told me that the govemment (rcgulatc)_________ the airlinc industry. ! don’l knovv if that is true. 15. The sign at the pool recommended that you (sw im )___________ after eating a large meal. 16. It is necessary that a life guarđ (m onitor)____________the summing pool while the children are taking their s\vimmmg lcssons. 17. The sun 1S scorching today. I suggcst you (put) __________ on sunblock ìmmediately before you gct a sun bum. 18. John insists that Sarah (invite)________ to the wedding: othenvise he will not attend.


19. It is the recommendation that we (send)_______ our old clothes to poor people in the remote area. 20. It is ìmperative that the wotid (work) ________ tovvards a solution to global warming before the weather pattems of the world are disrrupted irreparably. PHÀN 7: MỆNH ĐÈ QUAN HỆ (RELATIVE CLAUSE) A. LÝ THUYẾT c o BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Tiếng Anh có 2 loại câu: - Câu đơn giàn: là câu có 1 thành phần và chi cần như vậy câu cũng đã đù nghĩa. - Cậu plìirc hợp: là loại cảu có 2 thành phần (2 mệnh đề) chính/phụ nối với nhau băng một từ gọi lặ đại từ quan hệ và mệnh đề quan hệ chính là mệnh đề phụ làm rõ nghĩa cho mệnh đề chính. 1. Đại từ quan hệ và mệnh đề quan hệ (relative pronouns and relative elauses) VVho, \ \ hom , w hich, \vhose, th at dùng đẻ thay thế cho danh từ dứng trước nó và nối kết hai mệnh dề vái nhau. Đại từ Q H / C hi C'hi vật Ví dụ C hức năng ngưòi Chú ngữ

Who, that

Which, that

Tân ngữ

' Who, \vhom, that

Which, that

Yestcrday I met the man u/id/ilhil sold mo that painting. The bag which/that is green is mine. The woman wlio(in)/that you talked yesterđay is my aunt. The film which/that interesting.

I watchcd

yesterday

is

The boy wlio.se /atlier died o f Lì lung ccmcer looks very miserable. Sờ hữu Whose I rcad a novcl ihe conleiit of \\hich /\vhtíS(i content is very magic. * Chú ý: Những trường họp dùng ‘that’ mà không đùng ‘w h ich \ Dùng ‘that’ khi câu mang ý Iihấn mạnh hon. Người ta dùng that chứ không dùntỉ uhic/i khi: + Dửng trước 11Ó là một tính lừ so sánh bậc nhất + danh từ He is the~bcst student that has got that prize. + khi đãng trước nó là một sô các dại tứ phiẽm chi Iilur (ill, soine, any, (Iiiylliinỵ everythinụ, muc/i, litlle, notỉiiiiỊỊ hay một số tính từ như: only; unique; niere,. . . hoạc sau một so danh từ liệt kẻ. Of \vhich/ whose

Eg: 1 met many pcople. their cattle and vehicles that went to the fair. - I want to see a]| thai hc dro\v ycstcrday. - AỊỊ the students' best paintirms that \\ UI be exhibited. 2. Trạng lừ quan hệ và mệnh đề quan hệ (Rclativc adverbs and rclativc clauscs)

* Trạng từ quan hệ ‘\vhere’ dùng để mờ dầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ, thay thế cho danh từ chi nơi chốn đứng trước nỏ. F.g 1: 1 ahvays miss thc small viliage vvhere 1 \vas bom and grew up.


- I ahvays miss ihe small village in which I vvas bom and grcw up. Eg 2: She stíll rcmcmbcr the airport \vhere she tìrst arrived. = She still remcmbcr thc airport at vvhich she first am vcd. tg 3: Hc angrily broke thc table \vhere she put hcr cx-husband's letters. = He angrily broke the table on which shc put her ex-husband's letters. Note: \Vhere = in ulùch; \vhere = on >vhich; \vherc = at \vhich. * Trạng từ quan hệ *whcn’ dùng dề mớ đẩu cho mệnh đề quan hệ. thay thế cho danh từ chi thời gian đírnu trước nó. Eg 1: She can’t forget the day when they íìrst met each other. = She can’t forget the day on \vhich they íìrst met each other. Eg 2: 7. 00 \vas remarkable time when we signed our contract. = 7. 00 \vas remarkable time at which we signed our contract. Eg 3: Decembcr is an important month when vve have a lot o f íẹstivals. = December is an ìmportant month in which we have a lot o f festivãls. Note: VVhen = in \vhicli; nhen = on uliich; when = at \vhich * Trạng từ quan hệ ‘w hy’ dùnu đè mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ. thay thế cho danh từ 'tlie reason' dửim trước nỏ. Eg. 1 didn’t know the reason why you left me. 3. Mệnh dề quan hệ xác định (DePming relative clauscs) và mệnh đồ quan hệ không xác định (Non-detĩning rclative clauses) * M ệnh đề quan hệ xác định (DcPining relativc clauses) - Là loại mệnh để bat buộc pliài có mặt ỡ trong câu, nếu bo đi câu sẽ mất ý nghĩa ban đâu. Nên đùng tììiít làm chù ngữ cho loại câu này mặc dù uhiih vần chrọc chấp nhặn. Câu phụ thường dửng xen vào giữa cảu chinh hoặc nôi liên với cảu chinh và không tách rời khỏi nó bới bất cứ dầu phay nào. Trong vi dụ sau nếu bó đi mệnh dc phụ dược gạch chân thì càu sẽ mang ý nghĩa hoàn toàn khác: EG: - The man vvho sits ncxt me in my English class is a manager o f a big company. - The girl \vho loved him very much killed hcrscll last night. * Mệnli đề quan hệ không xác định (Non-đefinin« relative clauses) - Là loại mệnh đề mang thông tin phụ và có tinh chất bồ sung thêm thông tin. chu không có dùng đê mô ta, xác định và nhận diện danh từ đứng trước nó. vi thế trong cảu, nếu bo nó di câu không mất nghĩa ban dầu. Câu phụ tlnrờng đứnu chen vào giữa câu chinh vả băt buộc phai tách khoi câu chinh bằng 2 dấu phẩy. Xem hai vi dụ sau: t g 1: His best ữiertds, \vhom he belivcs most. has leít him. Eg 2: I v e gi ven his address to Mrs Hoa. vvho was his old classmate. C’hú ý: Mệnh đỏ quan hệ không xác định tluròng được dùng khi danh từ nó thay thế ơ trong những trường hợp cụ thể như sau: i- Đi kèm với các từ sờ hữư và dược xem là duy nhát, có thể xác định dễ dàniĩ. Eg: Thís is my tầthcr, who is very strict to me. i- Đi kèm với các danh từ chi tên riêng. Eg: Kim I.ien village, which alvvays reminds me o f my sweet childhood. has become a tourist place now. i- Đi kèm với các đại từ chi định ‘this, tliat. these, th o se,.. . ’

l


Eg: These computers, which our school are using, were the íĩrst generation of Computer. 4- Khi danh từ được miêu tá rõ ràng. Eg: The 8 o ’clock news is always very brief. * Tầm quan trọng của việc sử dụng dấu phẩy đổi vói mệnh đề phụ • - ơ những mệnh đệ phụ băt buộc, khi không dùng dấu phẩy tức là mệnh đề phụ xác định một giới hạn đối với danh từ đàng trirớc trong mệnh đề chính. Eg: - The travelers who knew about the construction took another road. - The students \vho have passed this test will take an intervievv. Đối với những mệnh đề phụ không bẩt buộc, khi có dấu phây ngăn cách thì nó không xác định giới hạn đôi với danh từ đứng trước nỏ. Eg: - The travelers,who knew about the flood. look another road. - The studcnts who have passed this test vvill take an interview. 4. Mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn 4. 1. Relative clauses thay thế bỏi present participlc phrasc Eg 1. Those people who are taking pììuios over thcre come from London. ■=> Those people takingphotos over tlìere come from London. Eg 2: The teachers who teach in mountainou areas should be paid higher salary. ^ The teachers teaching in mountainou areas should be paid hiịiher salary. - Mệnh đề này thường mang nghĩa chú động. 4. 2. Rclative clauses thay thế bỏi past participlc phrase. Eg 1 The boy who was given II present is my son. V ^ T h e boy given u present is my son. Eg 2. The motorbikcs nhich \verc made in Japan are better oncs. ■=> The motorbikes made in Japan are better ones. - Mệnh đề nảy thường mang nghĩa bị động

(Chú ỷ: Có thê bo đại từ (/nan hệ khi nó lùm lân ngữ trong câu) Eg: ! enjoy the book uhicli /tha! you lent me yesterday. <^1 enjoy the book you lcnt mc yesterday. 4. 3. Rclative clauscs thay thế bói lo- iniìnitve: trong các câu có sử (lụng: thefìrst the second, the ỉast, . . . Eg 1. Neil Amstrong \vas tlic Ịìrst person who landed on the moon. ■=> Nẽil Amstrong was theJìrstperson to land on the moon. Eg 2. Mai \vas the lìrst girl in my school who got that scholarship. o Mai was the lìrst girl in my school to get that scholarship. 5. C ách sử (lụng All, Bưtlt, Some, Several, Most, Few + O f+ ÌVhom/ ÌVhich Xem các vi dụ sau: Eg 1. Iler sons. both o f \vhom arc studying abroad, call her every week. (khòng đưựe nói both ọf thcni) ỉ:g 2. riic buscs, some ol \vhich \vere ovcrload luggagc. vvere stopped by the policc. I uyệt đỏi không được dùng đại từ nhãn xưng tân IIgừ: ilicni. U.S trong trường liợp này.

6. \Vliat (tlie things that) có thc làm tân ngữ cho m ệnh đề phụ cùng lúc làm chù ngữ cho mệnh đê chính/ hoặc làm chú ngữ cùa cả 2 mệnh đề chính, phụ


What happened to him vesterdav might happen to us tomorrovv. 7. “That’ đứng đâu càu làm chủ ngữ và đi sau nó là một mênh đề bổ ngữ. Eg: - That I passed my examination made my parents happy. - That he refused to marry him broke his heart. - That he became famous surprised everyone in my village - That she got scholarship was understandable. 8. Which thay thế cho một mệnh đề. Eg: Sai ly lost her job. That w asn’t surprising. Sally lost her job, which wasn’t surprising) She usually comes to class late. That upsets her teachers. o She usually comes to class late, which upsets her teachers B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the best answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the foIiowing sentences. 1. That book is by a famous anthropologist. It’s about the people in Samoa for two years. A. that she lived B. that she lived among them c . among whom she lived D. where she lived among them 2. The missing man s family is desperately seeking anyone ________ information about his activities or vvhereabouts. A has

B. having

c . who have

D. have

3 The publishers expect tliat the new biography o f Simon Bolivar will be brought

people_________ in Latin American history. A. \vho they are interested B. are interested c . interested D. they are interesteđ 4. I ha ve ahvays wanted to visit P aris,_________ o f France. A. 1S the Capital

B. vvhich the Capital 1S

c . that is the Capital D. the Capital 5. The chemistry b o o k ________ was a little expensive. A. that I bought it B. I bought that c . what I bought D. I bought 6. Have you ever met a m a n ________ over there? - Yes I do. A. stands B. standing c. 1S standmg [) who he is standing 7. Do you have the b o o k _____ the teacher? - Yes, I do. A. that it belongs to B. to \vhich belongs to c . to vvhich belongs D. that belongs to 8. The voters were ovenvhelmingly against the candidate________ proposals called for higher taxes. A. vvho his B. whose c . whom he had D. that his 9. Do you remember Mr. Goddard. _________ taught us English composition? ~ I certainly do. A. who B. whom c . that 10.1 have three brothers,____are businessmen. A. that all o f them c. all of whom

D. which B. who they all D. who aĩl o f them


11. Were you able to locate the perso n _______ vvallet you found? ~ Luckily yes. A. which B. that his vvhose D. that’s 12. Some fish is frozen, b u t_______ is best. A. fish is fresh B. fresh fĩsh c . fish fresh D. fresh físh is caught 13. Why do you get up at 4 A. M. today? ~ Because it’s the only time ____ without being interrupted. A. when I can work on my book B. vvhen I can work on my book at c . when I can work on my book then D. at when I can work on my book 14. You seem so happy today. ~ I am. You are looking at a p e rso n _______ has just been accepted into medical school. A. who B. who she c . vvhom she D. whom 15. The m ovie________ last night was terriíic. ~ W hat's it about? A. I went B. 1 went to it c . I went to D. that I vvent 16. Many people lost their homes in the earthquake. The govemment necds to establish more shelters to care fbr th o se_________ have homes. A. who doesn"t B. who don’t c . vvhich doesn’t D. which don’t 17. The problem _______ never occurs. A. I had expected it B. vvho I had expected c . I had expected D. that I had expected it 18 . 1 had to drive to the factory to pick up my brother.___________car \vouldn't start. A\ vvho his B. who c . \vho s D. whose 1 9 .1 read a book about P icasso,________ . A. is a Spanish painter B. a Spanish painter c . vvho a Spanish painter is D. that is a Spamsh painter 20. The p e o p le ________ the acrobat tum circles in the air \vere hom tìed when he missed the outstretched hands o f his partner and fell to his death. A. watched B. watch c . vvatchinii D. were \vatchine 21. My writing has improved a lot in this class. - Mine has. too. All the students____ do well in writing. A. whom Mr. David teaches them B. vvhich Mr. David teaches c . that~Mr. David teaches them D. Mr. David teaches 22. Have you seen the p la c e ___________ the graduation ceremony will be held? ' Yes. It’s big enough to hold 5,000 people. A. in that B. where c . is vvhere that D. which 23. How’s your class this term? ~ Great. I have seventeen students, most o f ________ speak English very well. A. who B. those c . whom D. which 24. Will everyone like the book? - No. Only people_____ interested in anthropology. A. are B. vvho are c . in whom are D. that is 25. How did you enjoy your dinner vvith Mr. Jackson? ~ It was boring. He talked only about him self,________ almost put us to sleep. A. \vhich B. that c . who D. that he

c.


26. My grandíather,------------ a wise man, has greatly iníluenceđ my life

n u ỉ l n u B ' th atis C .w h o is D .w h o h e .s . Is Dr. Brown the perso n ---------------you wish to speak? ~ Yes, please .

B- Wh° m

C t o t h "t

------- to pursue; singing 29 F , r ntS A T í716’

e

D to whom

me- r—

: ... c . wanting D. vvho vvant something about immediately. ~ Certainly

r l í r T,e! k ! ° yOU B- whlch 1 must * * * toyou abciut it UI , ; ĩ a , must sp t0 y0Uab0Ut D th a t 1 must speak to you ____ in 1868, is my sister’s favorite book 30. Little Women, A. is a novel published B. a noveĩ pubiished un? nOV K T publi,shed D. 31. Who is eligible for the scholarship? - Anyone _ average can apply for the scholarship.

was a novel published scholastĩc recnrH «

A. whọ has a B. has a c . w ho’s a Dr. Sales is a person _ A. in whom I don’t have much confidence B. in that I don’t have much coníĩdence c . whom I don t have much coníìdence in him D. I don't have much coníidence

D. whose

33' !? Apn-,!wenty' f:rst the d a y _________ ? - No, the tvventy-second. r u ' a.rn.VM,th! n B ỳou-ll arrive ' £, 0n that y° u 11 arr,ve D. vvhẽn y o u ll am ve on . The severe drought------------- occurred last summer ruined the com crop B .vvhichit c .ĩt D thát 35. Florida,---------------the Sunshine State, attracts many tourists every year. Vi Thí»s u : J B know nas c . isk n o w n a s D. that is known as 36. The new shopping mall is gigantic. It’s as a p lac e _______ you can find ust about anything you might \vant to buy „ f , í ere „ B ' which .. C.ÍỊỊ where D. in .ha, 37. Lola s m am age has been arranged by her family. She is marrying a m a n _______ . she hard'y knows him B. whom she hardly knovvs him c . she hardly knows D. she hardly knows him 38. People who exercise ửequently have greater physical endurance than those A. who doesn’t B. that doesn’t c . which don’t D. who dõĩTt ’ 39. Is this the address t o ________ you want the package sem'* A w here, B that C .w hich D. whom 40. Ann quit her job at the advertising agency,________ surprised everyone A which B .that c . vvho D .th a tit Exercise 2:. Find and correct the mistake in the íolkm ing sentences. 1. Last Saturdaỵ I attended a party giving by One of my friends. My friend. who his apartment is in another town, \vas very glad that I coúlđ come. 2. Dr. Damell was the only person to whom I wanted to see


3. There are eighty students, are ữom all over the world, study English at this school. 4. The people vvho vve met thern on oar trip lasl May are goinu to visit us on October. 5. Dianne Jones that used to teach Spanish has organized a tour o f Central America for senior citizens. 6. There is an old legend telling among people in my country about a man lived in the seventeenth century saved a village from destruction. 7. I’ve met many people since I came here vvho somc o f them are from my country. 8. An old man was fishing next to me on the pier was muttering to himself. 9. Pcople can speak English can be understood in many countries. 10. When I was a child. I was alvvays afraid o f the beggars whom they went from house to house in my neighborhood. 11. One o f the people which I admire most is my uncle. 12. Baseball is the only sport in which I am interested in it. 13. My favorite teacher, Mr. Peterson, he was always vviling to help me after class. 14. There are some people in the govemment who is trying to improve the lives of poor people. 15. I have some nood advice for anyone \vho he \vants to leam a lbreign language. Exercise 3. Make one sentcncc from each group of scntcnccs, beginning as shown. 1. The hotel was full of guesĩs. The hotel vvas miles from anyvvhere. The guests had gone there to admire the scenery. The hotel ______________________________________________________________ 2. I lent you a book. It was vvritten by a íriend of mine. She lives in France. The book ______________________________________________________________ 3. A w om an's je\vels were stolcn. A police officer was staying in the same hotel. The vvoman was interviewed by him. The w o m a n _______________________________ 4. A goal \vas scored by a teenager. He had come on as a substitute. This goal won I the match. The goal ________________________________________________________________ 5. ỉ was sitting next to a boy in the cxams. He told me the ansvvers. The b o y _________________________________________________________________ 6. My vvallet contained $ 100. It \vas iound in the Street by a boy. He retumeđ it. My walĩẽt _______________________________________________________________ 7. My fnend Albert has decided to buy a motorbike. His car was stolen last week. My friend A lb e rt_________________________________________________________ 8. Carol is a vegetarian. I cooked a meal for hcr last week. She enjoycd Ít. C a r o l___________________________________________________________________ 9. I got on a train. I vvanted to go to a station. The train didn’t stop there. The tra in ________ __ ____________________________________________________ 1 0 .1 read a book. You recommended a book to me. This was the book. The b o o k ________________________________________________________________ 11. The ship hit an iceberg and sank. Waming messages had been sent to it. The ship ignored these. The ship


12. The postman realized I was on holiday. You had sent me a parcel. The postman left it next door. The postman ___________________________ 13.1 used to own a dog. People came to the door. The dog never barked at them The dog 14.1bought my car from a vvoman. She lives in a house. You can see the house over there The woman 15. We \vent to a bcach on the íìrst day ol our holiday. It was covered in seavveed This smelled a lot. The beach 16. My neighbors have three small children. The children make a lot o f noise. My neighbors never apologize. My n c ig h b o rs______________________________ 17.1 lost my \vallet last week. It was found by a man. He was digging a hole in the Street o u t s iđ e o u r h o u s e .

The \vallet ___________________________ 18. Carol slammeđ the door behind her. Her íather had gi ven a car as a present She drove off in it. S lam m ing____________________________

19. At thc cnd ot thc Street \vas a building. The Street was crowded with shoppors Tom had not noticed the building beíbre. At the end o f the Street ________________________________

20. Some people have just moved in next door. Ih e y have the same sumame as some other people. Those other pcople have just moved out. The people 21. The joum alist will interview the old man. His house was broken into last night. The joum alist___________________ 22. I listened to George patiently until he started ìnsulting me. At that point I told him a few home truths. He didn't like it. George Exercise 4ĩ Put one suitablc relative pronoun in each spact, or leavc the space blank if possihlc. Murdcr at the station (by Loraine Small. Episode 5) The story so far: Jane Platt ( 1 ) ______________ is travelmg to London because o f 3 mystenous letter, 1S the only person (2) ________________ \vitness a mui>!er at

Victona Station. The detective to (3) _____________she gives her statements then disappears. Jane goes to an ottìce in Soho to ansvver the letter ( 4 ) __________shc has received. There she discovers that her uncle Gordon, (5) lives in South America, has sent her a box (6) she is only to open if in trouble. Jane, ( 7 ) ______________ parents have never mentioned an Uncle Gordon, is suspicious o f the box, (8) •______ she gives to her friend Tony. They go to Scotland Yard and see inspector Groves, (9) _____________ has not heard o f the Victoria murder, (10) _____________ was not reported to the police. Jane givês Inspector Groves the murdered m an’s ticket (1 1 )_______________ she found besides his body. Then Jane and Tony decide to go to Redhill, (1 2 ) _______ was the


town ( 1 3 ) ----------------- the murdered man had come from. On the train they met a savs he

man’ ( 14) -____________ face is somehovv familiar to Jane, (15) knows her Uncle Gordon. Now read on. Sherlock Homes

Sherlock Homes, ( 1 ) _______________ name is well-known, didn’t really exist However, for many ( 2 ) -------------------- --- have read his adventures, he might as well ha ve been a real person. The man ( 3 ) _____________ created Holmes was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, bom in Edinburgh in 1859. He trained as a doctor, but found he could eam more money by vvriting than practicing medicine. He wrote not only stories about Holmes bút many other books (4) ____________ _ people also liked. However, it is for the detectives stories ( 5 ) ______ _ he wrote that he is most remembered. The placẽ ----------- --------- _ the Holmes mysteries are set is Victorian England. Holmes (7) ----------is a brilliant detective, uses his intelligence and scientiíĩc knovvledge to solve the mysteries. Even though Doyle wrote many Holmes mysteries we 11 never know the reason (8) ___________ he gave us so little information about Holmes’ private life. All the books were written in the íìrst person, not by Holnĩes, bút by his assistant, Dr. W atson, ( 9 ) ______________ knowledge o f his m aster’s private life was limited. Exercise 5. Rewrite each sentence so that the meaning stays the same. 1. I like Brenda, she is my kind oíperson. (THAT) 2.

The whole summer was sunny and warm for a change. (which)

3.

Jean was the first person I asked for advice. (WHOSE)

4.

Not a single house in the Street had escaped undamaged. (WHICH)

5.

Then I realized that I had left my vvallet at home. (WHEN)

6.

I don’t really approve o f his proposal. (WHAT)

7.

It is an'ẽvent I would rather forget. (WMICH)

8.

I ha ve read all of her books but one. (WHICH)

PHÀN 8: MODAL VERBS (ĐỘNG TỪ KHƯYÉT THIÉU) A.

LÝ THUYÉT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Muiìal verbs : will/ shall (would)/ can (could)/ may (might)/ must/ have to (had to)/ should/ ought to; had better + Verb (bare infinitive) / semi-modal verb: need/ needn’ư used to.

-


Đọng tư khuyêt thiêu được dùng với các chức năng ngôn ngữ sau1- Diễn tà khả năng làm gì

I

Can: được dùng đê chi khả năng làm gì chung chung ờ hiện tại Eg: I can use Computer. / She can speak English well. Could: được dùng đẻ chi khả năng làm gi chung chung ờ quá khứ. Ẹg: I could read and wnte when I was 4 years old. / She could drive when she was 18.

Ngoài ra một số cấu trúc câu cũng dùng để chi khả năng làm gì: l Was/ were able to do st: chi khả năng xoay sớ một cách thành công để làm gi trong quá khứ. Their house was on fire but they were ahlc to escape from it i- l o be able to do SƯ to be capable o f doing st: có khả năng làm gì (chia theo

các thì khác nhau) Eg: He vvill able to speak English well after this course. They ha ve been capable o f solving their own problems for many years 2. Diên tá sự suy diễn, tiên đoán * Pu" sự !"y đoán khôns cIỉ®c cỉ*ắn về cái gì, chúng ta sử dụng ‘could/ may/ might theo các công thức sau. - Could /may/míght + Verb (bare inílnitive): có lẽ làm gì Eg: It might rain tomonrow. /It may rain tomorrow. ...

11 ^ tomorrovv. tomorrovv.

wịỊỊ rain

/ It wịH possibly ram tomorrow. = Maybe Ít

Chú ý: maybe là sự kết hợp của cả may và be nhưng nó là một từ và khôngphài là trợ động từ. Nó là một phó từ, có nghĩa như perhap (có - Could/m ay/m ight + be Verb-ing: có lẽ đang làm gi Eg: ỉt might be raining at 5 p. m tomorrow. Lan may be studying now. -

Mai sister cpuld be playing Computer game at 5 p. m tomorrow. Could/ m ay/ m ight + have + Pj = có lẽ đã làm gì. Eg: It may have rained last mght, but I'm not sure. He could have forgotten the ticket for the concert last night. I didn t hear the telephone ring, I might have been sleepinp at that time The cause of death could have bcen bacteria

* Diễn tả sự suy đoán chắc chắn về cái gì, chúng ta sử dụng ‘must/ can’t / couldn t theo các công thức sau. '

^ ust t V erb (b a re *nfinitive): chắc là.............(chi một kết luận logic dựa trên

những hiện tượng đã xảy ra. )

Eg: The lights in his room are out. He must be asleep. She drives a luxirious car. She must be rich. - Must + be + V-ing: Chắc là đang làm gì Eg: The grass is wet. It must be rainmg. Our children s room is quiet. They must be sleeping. - M ust + have + p 2 = chắc là đã, hẳn là đă làm gì: Eg: The grass is wet. It must have rained last mght. /(It probably rained last night)


Jane did very well on the exam. She must have studied hard - C a n ’t + be + a d j/ + V (inf)- • . •: Không thể như thế nào/ không thể làm gì Eg: M ai’s parents died when she was 4. She can't come from a rich family. Shc can’t be a rich student in our class. C aiT t / couldiTt + be V erb-ing: không thể đang làm gì Eg: Minh can’t be playing íootball in the park now. He must be talang his examination now. (because the speaker knows exactly that it is time for the examination). Can’t / couldn’t + havc + p2: không thể đã làm gì Eg: Minh can'ty couldn’t have stolen your money yesterday because we went out together all yesterday. Mai couldn’t have gotten the scholarship because she was too lazy. 3. Diễn tả lời khuyên, sự mong đợi. * ‘Should’ được sử dụng trong những trường họp sau: - Đề diễn đạt một lời khuyên, sự gợi ý, sự bẳt buộc (nhưng không mạnh). Eg: He should study tonight. - Diễn đạt người nói mong muốn điều gì sẽ xảy ra. (Expectation) Eg: It should rain tomorrow. (I expect it to rain tomorrovv) My check should am ve next week. (1 expect !t to am ve next week). - Các cụm từ had better, ought to, be supposed to do st đều có nghĩa tương đương và cách dùng tương tự với shoìíld trong cà hai trường hợp trên (với điều kiện động từ be trong be supposed to phải chia ở thời hiện tại). 'Eg: John ouuht to studv tomght. / John is supposed to studv tonight. /John had better studv tonight. 4. Diễn tả các nghĩa vụ, sự bắt buộc ai đó làm gì * Cách sử dụng ‘M ust’ và ‘have to’ * Must " có nghĩa “phải”: mang nghĩa hoàn toàn bẩt buộc (mạnh hon should). Với should (nên), nhan .vật có thể lựa chọn có thực hiện hành động hay không nhưng với imisi (phải), họ không cỏ quyền lựa chọn. Eg: George must ca]] his Insurance agent today. A car must have gasoline to run. Ngoài ra ‘must’ còn diễn tà lời khuyên mạnh, xuất phát từ suy nghĩ của người nói. Eg: Teacher to her students: You must study hard. * “/|ave to " thay cho must với nghĩa bát buộc, nhưng ‘huve lo ' chi sự bất buộc mang

yếu tố khách quan, từ yếu tố bèn ngoài) Eg: We wịìì ha ve to take an exam next week. You have to vvear uniform on Monday because it’s our school’s rlile. * ‘had to' được dùng để Đe diễn dạt một nghĩa vụ trong quá khứ. phái dùng had to chứ không đtrợc dùng ‘m ust’. Eg: Mr Hung had to pass an examinatiori belore practicing law. You had to do your homework before going to class today. Chú ý: - Trong câu hỏi, have to thườnệ được dùng thay cho m ust để hòi xem bàn thán người hỏi bất buộc phải làm gì hoặc đê diễn đạt sự băt buộc do khách quan đem lại.


Eg: Guest: Do I h a v ẹ jo leỊỵe a deposit? ~ Receptiomst: No, you n e e d n t But you haỵ ẹ to lẹave your I. D card. I'm sorry but that’s the way it 1S. Trong văn nói, người ta dùng have got to, cũng có nghĩa như have to Eg: He has got to go to the office tonight. 5. Dien tà sư cấm đoán làm gì m ustiT t’ và ‘c a n ’t ’ được dùng để diễn tả sự cấm đoán làm gì l í r V Can’* do st = not be allovved to do st = it is necessary not to do st (không được phép làm gi) Eg: You mustn t take photos in the museum. / You mustn’t make noise in the class You can'l drive on the left in Vietnam. * Phân biệt MustiTt với don’t/ didiTt have to do st -don t/ didn t have to do st= don t /didn’t need to do st = needn't do SƯ needn t have done

st - Ít + not be necessary to do st (không cần thiết làm gi, hành động làm là-vô ích) Eg: You needrTt apply for a Visa to visit France if you hold a EU passport. You don’t have to go to school and wear uniíòrm on Sunday 6. Diễn tả sự hối tiếc làm gì. Needn t + ha ve + P2 : Lẽ ra không cần phải phải làm gì: Eg: You needn't have come so early - only vvaste your time. '

íih0u! d hLaXe í Pỉ = Lẽ ra đă Phài làm gì’ lẽ ra nên Phải đã làm gì- (Chỉ một việc lè ra đã phải xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng vì lí do nào đó lại không xảy ra ) Es : You shouldn’t have called me last night. (She did call him). My mother should ha ve gone to her office this moming. The policeman should have made a report about the accident

ta cũng CÓ dùng cụm từ was/were supposed to + [verb in simple form] đẽ thay cho should + perfective. Chi được dùng had to hoặc should + pèĩective hoặc be supposed to khi diên tả một trách nhiệm bắt buộc ờ quá khứ Eg: My mother was supposed to gọ to her office this moming. The policeman was supposed to make a report about the accident * Cách dùng should trong một số trường hợp cụ thể khác - Diễn đạt kết quả của một yếu tố tưởng tượng:(sể làm gi) Eg: If I was asked to marry him, I should resign. Dùng trong mệnh đề có that sau những tính tư chi trạng thái như anxious (sổt ruị>t)/ sorry (tiêc rang)/ concerned (lo lang, lo ủu) / happy (vui vẻ)/ deliehted Lây làm .. . rang/ lấy là m .. . vi: Eg: rm anxious that she should be safe on that train. (Tôi lo lắng ràng liệu cô ấy có được an toàn trên chuyến tàu ấy không/ We are sorry that you should feel uncomíortable here. Dùng với if/in case để chi một điều khó có thể xảy ra, người ta đưa ra ỷ kiến chi đê phòng ngừa.

-

Eg: If you should make another decision, please let me know. In case he should have left you alone, I vvill stand by you. Dùng sau so that/ in order that để chi mục đích (Thay cho would/ could). Eg: I put away my diary so that noone should be able to read it. My teacher speaks slovvly in order that we should understanđ.


- Dùng trong lời yêu cầu lịch sự: I should like to have a talk to you, if possible - Dùng với imagine/ say/think. . . để đưa ra lời đề nghị: Thiết tường, cho là Eg: I should imagine our celebration will be successful. (Tôi cho là sự tổ chức của chúng ta sẽ thành công. ) - Dùng trong câu hỏi để diễn tả sự nghi ngờ, thiếu chắc chấn Eg: How should I know7(Làm sao tôi biết được kia chứ) Why should he thinks that? (sao nó lại nghĩ như vậy), - Dùng với các đại từ nghi vấn như what/ where/ who đề diễn tà sự ngạc nhiên, thường dùng với "But". Eg: I was thinking o f going to see John when who should appear but John himself. * C ách sử dụng VYould + like: Để diễn đạt một cách lịch sự lời mời hoặc ý muốn gì. (Không nên dùng do you want khi mời người khác. ) Eg: Would vou like to go to the cinema with me tonight. Chú ý\ (nếu để diễn đạt sở thích thì sau like là một V-ing). / He likes listening to music. Nhưng để diễn đạt sự lựa chọn hoặc sờ thích ờ một thời điềm cụ thể ta dùng (like + V-ing). Eg: I’m hungry now, I like to eat some beef noodle now. Wouldn't like = không ưa # don't want = không muốn. Eg: I wouldn't like any orange juice now. Lưu ý rằng khi like được dùng với nghĩa "cho là đúng" hoặc "cho là hay/ khôn ngoan^-ihì bao giờ theo sau cũng là một nguyên thè có to (intìnitive).

■Eg: She likes the children to leam to plav the guitar. * (W ould like = w ould care /love/ hate/ p re íe r + to + verb: khi diễn đạt điều kiện cho một hành động cụ thể ở tương lai: Eg: Mai: W ould you (like/care) to come with me? ~ Hoa: I'd love to Would like/ would care for/ would enjoy + Verb-ing khi diễn đạt khẩu vị, ý thích nói chung cùa chù ngữ. Eg: She would like/ would eniov dancing if she could dance better. I vvonder if Tom would care for/ would eniov dining out tonight. * D are (dám ): Dùng như một nội động từ:Không dùng ở thể khẳng định, chi dùng ờ thể nghi vấn và phủ định. Eg: Dld they dare (to) do such a thing? = Dared they do such a thing? (Họ dám làm như vậy sao?) - Dare không được dùng ở thể khẳng định ngoại trừ thành ngữ I dare say/ I dare say với 2 nghĩa sau: Eg: Tôi cho ràng: I dare say there is a restaurant at the end o f the train. Tôi thừa nhận là: 1 dare say you are right. How d are/ d a re d + s + V erb in simple form : Sao. . . dám (tò sự giận giữ) Eg: How dared you read my diary: Sao mày dám đọc nhật ký cùa tao. - D are sb to do sm t = Thách ai làm gì Eg: They dare the boy to drive fast on that dangerous road.


B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the correct completion (A, B, c or D) for each sentence below. 1. AI painted his bedroom black. It looks dark and dreary. He a different colour. A. had to choose B. should have chosen c. must have chosen D. could have been choosing 2. Tom is sitting at his desk. He is reading his chemistry text because he has a test tomorrovv. He________ . A. could study B. should be studying c . will study D. must be studying 3. When Mr. Lee was younger, h e ________ work in the garden for hours, but now he has to take írequent rest because he has emphysema. A. has got to B. could c. should be able to D. must be studying 4. Whenever my parents went out in the evening, I ______ the job o f taking care of my younger brother. A. would get B. should get c . must have gotten D. had better get 5- Peter________rather sleep on a mattress than on the floor. A. shall B. could c . would D. must 6. Jimmy and Maria were mĩschievous children. They__________ tricks on their teachers. A. could play B. used to play c. could have played D. may have piayed 7. Robert has a new car. H e ______ it for a very good price. He paid 30 % less than the regular retail cost.

A. could buy B. had to buy c . was supposed to buy D. was able to buy 8. “ Did you enjoy a picnic?” / “ It was o . K, but I ‘d rath e r__________to a movie. ” A- go B. be going c . have gone D. went 9. “Why are you so sure that Ann didn’t corrưnit the crime she’s been accused o f committing. “S h e _________ that crime because I was with her, and we was out of town on that day. ” A. committed B. may not have committed c . wasn t supposed to commit D. couldn’t have committed 10. “Since we have to be there in a hurry, \v e ________ take a taxi. ” / “I agree. ” A. had better B. may c . have been used to D. are able to 11. “I t _________ rain this evening. Why don’t you take an umbrella?”/ “That’s a good ìdea!” A. had better B. could be c . must D. might 12. “____________you hand me that pair o f scissors, please?” / “Certainly. ” A. May B. Shall c . Will D. Should 13. “Larry drove all night to get here for his sister’s wedding. He_____ exhausted by the time he arriveđ. ”


A. ought to be B. could be must have been D. will have been 14. “What are you doing here now? Y o u ____ be here for another three hours. ” “I know. We got an early start and it took less time than we expected I hope you don't mind. ” A. couldn’t B. might not had better not D. aren’t supposeđ to 15. “_________ taking me downtown on your way to work this moming?” / “Not at all. ” A. Can you B. Why don’t you c . Would you mind D. Could you please 16. “ I locked m yself out o f my apartment. I didn’t know what to do. ” / “ You your roommate. ” A. could have called B. may have called c . wou!d have called D. must have called 17. You haven’t eaten anything since yesterday aftemoon. You _______ be really hungry!” / “I am. ” A. might B. will c . can D. must 18. “How long have been m arried?’ / “W e ________ have been married for tvventy three years on your next anniversary. ’ A. must B. should c . will D. could 19. “I there at 6 p. M for the meeting, but my car w on't start. Could you please give me a lift in your car?” ~ “Sure. Are you ready to go now?” A'. vvill be B. may be c . supposed to be D. have got to be 20. “I left a cookie on the table,but novv it’s gone. What happened to it?” ~ “I don’t know. One o f children_____________ it. ” A. may have eaten B. could eat c . had to eat D. should have eaten 21. “My boss is always looking over my shoulder whenever I do anything. ” ~ “That________ bother you. "/ “But Ít does. ” A. shouldn’t B. might not c . m aynot D. w on’t 22. “This movie is boring and too violent. ” / “ I agree._________ leave?” A. WilLwe B. Why don't we c . Must we D. Would we 23. “Chris, y o u ___________ the fish in the reírigerator before it spoils. ” ~ “You are right. I didn’t know it was still in the bag. A. hadbetter put. B. had to put c . would rather put D. may put 24. “What does Mr. Griffin do for a living?” ~ “Nothing. He is very rich. H e _work for a living. ” A. must not B. shouldn’t c . doesn’t have to D. had better 25. “Why are you so late?” ~ “I ____ my aunt to their airport. The traffìc was terrible!” A. could take B. must have taken c . should take D. had to take

c.

_

c.


26. “I heard that Laura was offered a job at a top Computer firm in Chicago. ” ~ “Oh? That’s wonderful! S h e ___________very pleased. ” A. is supposed to be B. might be c . must be D. is 27. “The hot weather doesn't seem to bother you. ” - “ When I had my farm. I _________work in the hot íìelds for hours. ” A. used to B. ought to c . must D. had better 28. “They towed my car away from the executive parking lot yesterday. ” - “Y o u ______ ha ve parked there. ” A. may not B. should not c . must not D. might not 29. “Are you going to have a big party for your father?” ~ “Not this year, but next year. H e _________________ 50 years old then. ” A. should be B. must be c . will be D. has to be 30. “I need some help with this table.________ you lift the other end, please?" ~ “Sure, just a second. ” A. May B. Shoulđ c . Could D. Shall 31. “Barbara just told me that she can’t go to the meeting tonight. ” ~ “She_________ go! We need her there for the financial report. ” A. has got to B. has gotten to c . have to D. must be 32. “_________ Ietting me use your bicycle for a little vvhile?” ~ “Not at all. ” A. Please to B. vvould you mind c . Will you D. Could you please 33. “W e _____ be here. That sign says “No trespassing. ” ~ “ Ít is too late now. We ‘re already been here. ” A. cou!dn't B. don't have to c . might not D. aren’t supposed to 34. "Harry's new jackẹt doesn't seem to fit him very well. ” ~ “H e _______ it on beíòre he bought it” A. must have tried B. was able to try c . should have tried D. may have tned 35. “Do you like to play tennis?” ~ “Yes. When I work at the embassy, 1 _____ meet a friend at 5 every aĩtemoon for a game. ” A. wou!d B. should c . had better D. would rather 36. Thank goodness w e _______ eat fish again tonight. Dad didn’t catch any today. A. must B. ha ve to c . must not D. don't ha ve to 37. The pen won’t vvrite; it______ out o f ink. A. must run B. must be running c . must have run D. must have ran 38. The line is busy; someone______ the telephone now. A. must be using B. must have used c . must use D. must have been using 39. Bob is absent, he______ sick gain now. A. must have been B. must be c . must be bemg D. must being

/


40- He______ his j ob because he seems very happy. A. would like B. can like c will like D. must like Exercise 2: Complete the second sentence in each pair, using the vvord given so that the meaning stays the satne. 1. There is a possibility that they won’t visit us at the vveekend. m ight T h e y --------------------------------------------------------------at the Weekend. 2. Karen, I d like you to help me with the washing up. 3.

will K aren ,----------------------------------------------------- with the washing up? I m sure it w asn’t Tim who called you because I saw him outside been

4. 5.

11-------Ti m who you called because 1 saw him outside. I suppose Bruce has gone to the dentist since he has a terrible toothache. have B ru ce______________ to the dentist since he has a terrible toothache. May I borrow your tape recorder this aỉìemoon?

m ind W o u ld____________ __________ your tape recorder this aftemoon? You can't \valk your dog in the park. are Y o u _________ _____________ your dog in the park 7. Perhaps you didn’t buy that watch from this shop. could Y o u _____ ___________________ that watch from another shop. 8. Garry couldn’t remember where he had put his vvallet. was G a rry ________________________where he had put his wallet. 9. You were wrong to drive through the red light. should Y o u ____________ __________through the red light. 10. Our children were never in the habit o f telling lies. used Our children _____________________ lies 6.

Exercise 3: Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the >vords in parentheses. Add ìiot 1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

if necessarv for a sentence to make sense: A: Why w asn’t Pamela at the meeting last night? B: She (may + a tten d ) _________________________ the lecture at Shaw Mali. I know she very much wanted to hear the speaker. AlEg has a test tomorrovv that he needs to study for. He (shouhi + xvatch) ________________________ TV nght now. A: Why didn’t Diane come to the phone? Iknow she was home \vhcn I called. Bi I don t know. Shc (ìtĩight + \1 'Qsh) hcr h 3 Ĩr vvhcn you called. Who knows? There’s Tom. H e’s standing at the bus stop. He (must + ____________________for the two o ’clock bus. Kathy lost her way while driving to River City. She (should + ____________________ _ her road map at home. A: W here’s Ann?

wait) leave)

B: I don t know. She (couỉd + visìt) _______________________her aunt and uncle right now. She usually visits them every Friday evening.


You (should +watch) _______________________ the movie on TV tonight. I highly recommend it. It's a classic. 8. I heard a loud crash in the next room. When I vvalked in, I found a brick on the íloor, and the window was broken. Someone (must + throw) the brick through the window. 9. Jack is in the employee lounge drinking coffee. He ịshould + work) ___________________ on his report right now. It’s due at 3:00 this aữem oon. He (stìould + waste) _____________________ his time in the employee lounge. 10. A: Where"s Jane? I haven’t seen her for a week. B: I'm not sure. She (might + travel) ____________ in Europe. Ithink I heard her mentioning something about spending a few weeks inEurope this spring. 11. My tweed jacket isn't in my closet. I think my roommate (might + borrcnv) _____________ __ it. He oíten borrows my things without asking mẹ. 12. Do you hear that guitar music? Carla (must + p la y ) _________________________ her guitar. 13. A: When I arrived, Dennis looked surprised. B: He (must + expect) __ __________________ you. 14. A: I couldn’t reach Peter on the phone. I vvonder where he was. B: He told me he was going to wash his car and then go to dinner at the Bistro Cafe. He (might + w ash) ___________________________ his car vvhen you called, or he (may + leave + already) _____________________________ for the restaurant by then. 7.

Exercise 4: Re\vrite each sentence so that it contains the word given in capitals, and so that the meaning stays the same: 1. I think you should gi ve up smoking immediately. (HAD) 2. I expect we will get there by 5:00. if there isn’t too much traỉTic. (SHOULD) 3. Is it necessary for me to bring my passport? (HAVE) __________________________________ . ________________________ 4. I am sure that the cat is in the house somev/here. (MUST) 5. An aerial is not required vvith this radio. (HAVE) 6. It is very ìnconvenient if you can’t drive. (ABLE) 7. I am sure that John is not the thief. (CAN’T)

8. I am certain that Norman will be late. (BOUND) 9. All students should report to the main hall at 9:00. (ARE) 10. I thought that you would know better! (O U G H T)____________________


Exercise 5. R cnritc each sentence so that it contains can, could, must, liave to or should. Include not if necessary. 1. I’m sure that Helen feels rather lonely. 2. You are not allowed to park here. 3.

It would be a good idea if Harry took a holiday.

4. I’m sure that Brenda isn’t over thirty. 5. Do I need a diíĩerent driving license for a motorbike? 6. What would you advise me to do? 7. Mary knows how to stand on her head. 8. You needn’t come with me if you don’t want to. 9. It's possible for anyone to break into this house! 10. The dentist will see you soon. I don’t think he’ll be long.

PHÀN 9: ỊNVERSION AND EMPHASIS IN ENGLISH (ĐẢO NG Ữ VÀ S ự NHẨN MẠNH TRONG TIÉNG ANH) A. LÝ T H U Y É T c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Trong Tiếng Anh, người ta thường sử dụng đảo ngữ trong các trường hợp sau: * Khi một câu chứa đựng một từ hay ngữ diễn đạt mang hàm nghĩa phủ định hay bán phủ định và từ, ngữ đó đứng ỡ đầu câu trong Tiếng Anh viet đế có thể có ánh hường kịch tính hơn, nhấn mạnh hơn, thì trật tự từ của câu đó giổng như trật tự cùa câu hỏi, có nghĩa là có hiện tượng đảo trợ động từ lẽn trước chù ngữ của câu. Hãy xem các ví dụ sau: Examples: —

No-one should enter this room under/in any circumstances. ■=> Under/In no circumstances should anvone enter thừ room.

- She aí no time toỉd me who she was/She didn 't tell me who she was at any time. ^ At no time did she teỉl me who she was. - I have rarely seen such a beautiful butterfly. ■=> Rarely have I seen such a beautiful butterfly. - / have never heard such a stupid thing. ^ Never have I heard sitch a stupid thing. - I did not witness the robberỵ, either. <=> Neither/Nor (less formal) did I witness the robbery. Trong câu có các từ hay ngừ diễn đạt mang hàm nghĩa phù định hay bán phủ định sau thường cỏ hiện tượng đảo ngừ:


Never: chưạ bao giờ No sooner............. t h a n .. . . : Không sớm h ơ n .. . . thì. Seldom: hiếm khi O n no account: Dù bất cứ lý do gì cũng không Hardly: Khó lòng mà. . lín d e r no circum stance: Dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không. Neither: cũng không O nlv in this way: Chi bằne cách này At no time: chưa khi nào In no way: Không sao có thề Nor: cũng không By no means: Hoàn toàn không Rarely: ít khi Not only.............b u t............. as well: Không những............. mà còn Novvhere: không noi nào.. Not often: không thường xuyên___ Not until: không đến khi S c a rc e ly .. . . when: Chắc chắn không khi nào khi Not once: Không một lúc H ardly ever: Chưa từ n g .. khó mà Only when: chi khi Barely: hoàn toàn không Only later: chi sau đó Onlv then/ onlv after: chi sau khi

Examples: On no accout must this switch be touched. Only in this way could the problem be solved In no way could I agree with you. By no means does he intend to criticize your idea. Negative. . . , nor + auxiliary + s + V He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow. __ Chú ý: Đảo ngữ chi được thực hiện ngay phần đầu của câu chứa đựng những sự diên đạt này. Xem các vi dụ sau: - We had hardly/scarcely/barely started to watch the film when the light went off.

Hardly/Scarcely/Barely had we started to watch the fìlm when the ỉight went ojỵ. - Ifelt inuch better after I took a sachet o f this medicine/ = I had no sooner taken a sachet o f this medicine than I felt much better. ^ No sooner had I take/ì a sachet o f this medicine than Ị felt much better. ■ They had no sooner started the engine than the car exploded. = Immediately they started the engine, the car exploded. o No sooner had thev started the engỉne than the car exploded. - / was no sooner inỊormed o f the facts than I took legal actio. = As soon as I was informed o f the facts, I took legaỉ action. ° No sooner was I informed o f the facts than I took ỉegal action. As soon as he sees a pretty girl, he asks her to go out with him. = He no sooner sees a pretty girl than he asks her to go out with him. ° No sooner does he sge a pretty girl than he asks her to go out with him. - They not only took care o f me, but (they) also treated me as i f l were their own daughter. ° Not only did thev take care o f me, but (they) also treated me as i f I were their own daughter. * Khi chúng ta đặt một số từ và cụm từ ờ đầu câu để câu mang hàm ý nhấn mạnh, câu đó cỏ hiện tượng đảo ngữ. Hãy xem các ví dụ sau.


Examples: - It was only when my children arrived home safely thai I fe lt relieved. <=> Only when my children arrived home safely did I feel relieved.

- We did not know anything about what was going to happen to us next. ^ Littỉe did we know about what was going to happen to us next.

- 1 well remember when I saxv her fo r the first time. ■=> Weỉl do I remember when I saw her fo r thefìrst time. - I waited fo r y o u to come back many times/many a time. ■=> Many is the time (that) I waited fo r y o u to come back/Many a time did I wait íor

you to come back. * Đảo ngữ tro n g câu điều kiện (xem thêm phần câu điều kiện) Examples: - Ifyou sììould need a sun protectioiì cream, please tell me. ==> Shouldyou need a sun protection creum, please tell me. - I f l wereyou, I would try to/ascinate her. ■=> Were I you, I would tr)’ to /ascinate her. - I f they had confessed everything, they would have been expelled from school. ■=> Had they confessed everything, they would have beeti expelled from school. * Khi một mệnh đề m ở đầu bằng các thành ngữ chỉ noi chốn hoặc trật tự thì động từ chính có thể đảo lên chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử dụng trợ động từ trong trường hợp này. Clause o f place/ order + main verb + s (no auxilỉary) In íront o f the house is a big g ard en .. First came the teacher, then came the headmaster. (Thoạt đầu là giáo viên đến, tiếp sau là thầy hiệu trư ờ ng.) * Khi một ngữ giới từ làm phó từ chỉ địa điểm hoặc phương hưóìig đứng ờ đầu câu, các nội động từ đặt lên trước chủ ngữ nhưng tuvệt đéi không đưọc sử dụng trọ' động từ tro n g loại câu này. Nó rât phô biên trong văn mô tà khi muôn diễn đạt một chủ ngữ khòng xác định: Under the table was lying a big dog. Directly behind the mountain stood a great temple. . On the table sat a black c a t.. * Tính từ cũn^ có thể đảo lên trên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh và sau đó là liên từ nhirng tuyệt đoi không đưạc sử dụng trợ động từ. / was so happy that 1 arranged a big party/My happines was such thai I arratiged a big party. So happy was I that I arranged a big party/Such was mv happines that I arranged a big paríy. * Các phó từ awaỵ (= off), dovvn, in, off, out, over, round, u p . . . cỏ thể theo sau là một động từ chuyên động và sau đó là một danh từ làm chủ ngữ Away/downAii/off/ouưover/round/up... +motion verb + noun/nounphrase as a subỳect. Examples: - Away went the football hooligans/ Down fell the snow. - Peter goes up again. <=> Up goes Peter again. (B ut ư p he goes again . )


- The beautiful scenery I had been told about lay/was below me. ° B^ ° w ™e ỉm ’/was the beautiM scenerv I had been toỉd abnut. + Nhưng nếu một đại từ nhân xưng làm chủ ngữ thì động từ phải để sau chú ngữ: tg : Away they went/ Round and round it flew.

Chủ ỷ: Trong tiếng Anh viết (written English) các ngữ giới từ mở đầu bằng các giới từ down, írom, in, on, over, out of, round, u p . .. có thể được theo sau ngay bai đọng tư ch vị tri (croucli (nẻ mình, cúi mình), hang (treo), lie (nằm), sit (ngồi), stand (đìmg). . . ) hoặc các dạng động từ chi chuyển động, các động từ như be born/ die/ live và một sô dạng động từ khác. Eg: - In the doorway stood a man with a gun. - On the wall hung a nice picture. - Over the wall came a strange man. Chú ý: Có thê diên đạt băng một VERB-ING mở đầu cho câu và động từ BE đảo lên trên chủ ngữ: Eg:

-

Standing in the doonvay was a man with a gun. Sitting on a armchair next to me was a black cat.

‘ Có hiện tưọng đảo ngữ khi chủ ngữ sau các phó từ so sánh as/than quá dài Eg:

- She was very selíìsh, as were most of her family members.

- Smokers have a higher death rate than do non-smoking people. * Tân ngữ mang tính nhấn mạnh cũng có thể đảo lên đầu câu Eg: - Not a single word did he say. - Nothing but a full apology would satisfy him. ‘ Here/There hoặc một số các phó từ đi kết hợp với động từ đứng đầu câu cũng phải đảo động từ lên trên chủ ngữ là một (lanh từ, nhưng nếu chủ ngữ là một đại từ thì không đirơc đảo động từ Eg:

- Here comes Mr John. - O ff we go - There goes your teacher.

ựncorrect: Here comes h e .) ựncorrect: O ff go w e .)

- He stopped the car, and up walked a robber. *Emphasis in English Theo sau là một sô cách để diễn tả thêm vào sự nhấn mạnh cho câu nói(viết) trong Tiêng Anh khi mà chúng ta muốn diễn tà quan điềm, sự không đồng ý hay làm những lời đề nghị mạnh mẽ, sự tức giận. * lJse of the Passive (sử dụng câu bị động) Câu bị động được sử dụng để nhấn mạnh việc gì đã xảy ra, hơn làai/ cái gì đã làm gì, nó nhấn mạnh con người hay cái gi bị tác động bời hành động. Examples:

Reports are expected by the end o f the week. Mr John was killed in his livingroom yesterday. * Usc of Inversion (Sử dụng câu đảo ngữ - xem phần trên)


Exam ples:

- At no time did I say you cou!dn't come. - Hardìy had I arrived when he started complaining. - Little did I understaĩid vvhat was happening. - Seìdom have I fc ìt so aỉorte. (Note that the auxiliary verb is placed before the subịect which is follo\ved hy the main verb. ) * llse the continuous form m odilìed by 'ahvays', 'forever' (sừ dụng dạng tiếp diễn với ‘alvvays/ íorever) Chúng ta sử dụng dạng tiếp diễn với ‘always/ ío re v e r’ để diễn tả sự tức giận hay phàn nàn về một thói quen xấu nào hay xày ra như thường lệ cùa ai đó. Examples:

Martha is alwa\s getting into trouble. Peter is /orever asking tricky questions. George was always being reprimanded by his teachers. (Note that this form is generally used with the present or past contmuous (he is alxvays doing, they were always doing). * llse of cleft sentenccs (sử dụng câu chẻ) Câu chè là là câu nhấn mạnh chủ ngừ hay tân ngữ và được hình thành theo công thức (It is/ was + Subjective pronoun / Noun/ Nounphrase + 1 clause relative) or C âu có m ệnh đề ‘w h a t’ làm chủ ngữ. Examples: - It was I who received the promotion. - It is the awful weather that drives him crazy. - IVhat we need is a good long shower. - ]Vhat he thinks isn't necessariìy true. * Exceptional Use of 'D o' o r 'D id' (sử dụng thêm ượ động từ (do. Does/ did) Exam ples:

- No that's not true. Jofm did speak to Mary.

- 1 do believe that you shouỉd think twice about this situation, B. BÀI TẬ P ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Rewrite each of the sentences below, using the words given in the brackets, so that the meaning of each one has an emphasis. 1. My brother went o ff vvithout saying a word. (Off. . . ) 2. He went off without saying a word. ( O f f.. . ) 3. Her toys were along the corridor. (Along the corridor.. . )


4. The castle stands on a hill. (On a hill.. . ) 5. Your chance to speak out is now. ( N o w . . . ) 6. We have seldom íìshed so much here. (Sel dom. . . ) 7. They are in no way responsible for what occurred last night. (In no w a y . . . ) 8. You should not on any account take these pills vvhen you drink alcohol. (On no account. . .) 9.

She not once oíĩered us her help. (Not o nc c . . . )

10. I did not became aware of what was going on until I saw her weeping. (Not until.. . ) 11. We little realised the dangers that were awaiting us. (Little . . . ) 12. He was so tired that he slept for íourteen hours. (So tired . . .) 13. My delight was such that I bought everybody a drink. (Such. . . ) 14. I love him to such an extent that I would even give my life for him. (To such an extent. . . ) 15. They not only supply us with food, but also with drinks. (Not o n ly .. . ) 16. We had no sooner eaten it than vve had a terrible stomach-ache. (No sooner. . . ) 17. I had hardly gone to bed when the telephone rang. (Hardly. . . ) 18. She took him to the zoo and to the cinema as well. (Not only .

)

19. The cock crows as soon as the day breaks. (No sooner) 20. She agreed to go out with him only when he bought hcr some flowers. (Onlv when. . . ) 21. If you should need a good make-up remover, please let meknovv. (Should. . . )


22. If I were to win the fưst pnze in the national lottery, I would no longer work. (Were. . . ) 23. If you hadn't ílooded the engine, it would have started at once. (Had y o u . . . ) 24. If my parents should need me, I will never let them down. ( Shoul d. . . ) 25. If I were in your place, I vvould try to be more assertive. (W e re .. . ) Exercise 2: Finish the second scntence so that the meaning has a similar meaning with an emphasis. 1.

You shouldn’t in any way consider him as your worst enemy. In no way

2.

You must on no account upset your parents. On no account________________ _______

3.

Mr and Mrs Adam live across the bridge. Across the bridge_____________________________________ ______ ________

4.

I was so scared that I could not even scream. So scared__________ _____________________________________________

5.

The horriíìc view o f the massacre vvas in front of us. In front o f u s _______________________________________________________

6.

The canyon lies behind those mountains. Behind those m ountains_________________________________________________

7. He only then became aware of the dangers of the jungle. Only th e n _____ 8. She had scarcely begun to study vvhến her boyíriend rang the bell. Scarcely 9.

I w on’t go trekking with him. No way --______________

10. My terror was such that I couldn’t move. Such 11. I had no sooner svvitched on the dishvvasher than it broke down. No s o o n e r____________________________________________________ ________ 12. As soon as he saw her, he fell in love with her. No sooner_______________ 13. If we had known that you were interested in buying the block o f tlats, we would have sold it to you. Had


14. Your mother went down the road. Down the road 15. She went down the road. Down the road _______________________ 16. This disease is common only in hot countries. Only in hot co u n tries__________ ____________ 17. You will never again have such an opportunity. Never again 18. We not only wrote to her many times, but telephone her twice too. Not only __ ___________________________ 19. Immediately he leamt about his m other's incurable disease, he cried his eyes out No sooner 20. We have both put aside some money and stocked up with a lot of groceries from the.shop next door. Not only _______________________________ 21. I did not use suntan lotion, either. Neither 22. The wood pigeon flew up. U p __________________________________________ 23. If you should increase our wages, we will work overtime. Should 24. She had hardly taken everything out o f the picnic basket when it began to rain. Hardly 25. If you were to buy a new car, which of these would you choose? Were 26. You should not press both button at once under any circumstances. Under no circum stances_____________ ________________ 27. Jean not once offered her boss a word ò apology. Not once 28. I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t realize who he was until later. Only la te r ______________ 29. He never suspected that the money had been stolen. At no time ________________ _______________________ 30. He insisted on a refund. Nothing


PHÀN 10: CONECTIVES: CÁC TỪ NỐI A. LÝ THUYẾT c ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO 1. Các từ nổi diễn đạt các ý tương phản. * Despite/Inspite of / Though/ Even Though/ Although: bất chấp, mặc dầu. cho dù. Despite/Inspite o f + Noun Pltrase/ V-ing. + the fa c t that + Ị clause # Tliouglt/ Even tliougli/ Altliouglt + 1 cỉause A lthough (dùng với ý trung tính- neutral): even though (dùng với ý nhấn mạnh - more emphasis); though (dùng trong văn phong ít trang trọng hơn- less formal) Eg 1:. Allhough lEven thougli /Tliough he had a sprained ankle (or he had sprained his ànkle/his ankle was sprained), he went out for a walk. Eg 2. In spite of/Despite having a sprained ankle/having sprained his ankle, he went out for a walk. Eg 3: //; spite of/Despite his sprained ankle. he went out for a walk. Eg 4: In spite of/Despite his ankle being sprained, he went out for a walk. * But: Nhưng + 1 clause Eg: He had a sprained ankle, but he went out for a walk. - But + adj/ adv Eg: He is intelligent but lazy. / He works hard but unsuccessfully. * H ow ever/ N evcrtheless/ All the sam e/ Yet/ Still/ Even so + 1 clause: Tuy nhiên, tuy vậy. - However (dùng với ý trung tính); Nevertheless (dùng trong văn phong trang trọng); All the same/ Yet/ Still/ Even so (dùng trong văn pliong ít trang trụng hơn) Eg 1: He had a sprained ankle/He had sprained his ankle/His ankle was sprained.

However Nevertheless INonetlieless/Aỉl the same/Yet IStilll Even so, he went out for a walk. Eg 2: He had a sprained ankle/He had sprained his ankle/His ankle was sprained. He went out for a vvalk, though (uiformaiy/ío\vm?/‘/ nevertheless/all tlìe sanie/nonetheless. * However/ No matter how + adj / adv+ s + linking verb/ verb = dù có. • . . đi chăng nữa th ì___ - No m atter1iow (dùng trong văn phong trang trọng hơn) Eg l : However strong vou are. vou can’t move this rock. Eg 2: However hard/No matter ho\v hard (more formal) you try, you will never be able to do it. Eg 3: Even though/Even i f you try harđ, you will never be able to do it. Eg 4; It does not matter how'hard you try, you will never be able to do it. Eg 5. Although you try hard, you will never be able to do it. Eg 6: Mu ch (cidverh) as/though I loved him, I had to leave him. = Although I Ioved him a lot, I had to leave him. Eg 7: Angry (adịective) as/thougli I was, 1 did not tell them anything. = Alíhough I \vas angry, I did not tell them anything.


Eg 8. Some pcople vvho are not happy with what thcy posscss firmly bclicvc ihc American dream. as it evokes the things thẽy would like to have. Fnr all thai, it is just a dream. 2. Các từ nối diễn tả sự thêm vào, ý thêm vào * And (và); Also (cũng vậy); Furthermore (Hơn nữa là) = In addition = Additionallỵ = Moreover = \Vhat’s more/ Besides (Ngoài ra)+ 1 clausc * And (và)/ In addition to (thêm vào) + Noun/ Noun Phrase/ V-ing * not only............................b ut also....................(as well): không những............................. m à c ò n ..........................................................

* On top of that: hơn thế nữa * On the one h a n d .................. / O n the other (hand): Một mặt thì........... Mặt khác thì Eg 1: I don’t feel like dancing, and I’m aìso very exhausted. Eg2: I don’t feel like dancing. Also, I’m very exhausted. Eg 3: I don’t feel like dancing. Besicỉes, I’m very exhausted. Eg4: I don't feel Iike dancmg. ỉn uddition, I'm very exhausted. Hg 5: I don't feel like dancing, and what 's ntore I’m very exhaustcd. (informai) Eg 6: She \vorks at the bank around the comer. Besidcs, she does the household chorcs. Eg 7: /lì addừion to worfdng at the bank around the comer. she does the household chores Eg 8: They Iiot only tìned him. but (ilso withdrew his driving licence. Eg 9: They íìned him and. on top o f that, they withdrew his driving licence. Eg 10: On the one hand , we must bear in mind the costs. On the other (han(ì), the benefits we can obtain t'rom them. 3. T ừ nổi diễn tà kết q uả, hậu quả của cái gì. * As a result (nlur một kết quả thu được)= As a consequencc = Consequently= In consequence; Hence (vì thê. vì lý do đó cho nên: do vậy)= T hus = T herefore = So / For this rcason (vì lý do này) Eg 1: The management o f the company have been raising funds illegally during thc last few years; Tlwrefore/ Conse(]uently/For this reasott/ As a result/As a consequence/In consequence, they will be taken to court. Eg 2: The management o f thc company have been raising funds illegally durinu the lasl fe\v years. Thcy will, tlierefore, bc takcn to court. Eg3: The management o f the company have been raising funds illegally during the last few years. Tlins (very form aỉ)/ Su (ìess formal)/Hencc ÍVCIT fonnal) thcv will be taken to court. Eg4: The managemcnt o l'th e company havc been raising 1'unds illcgall> dunng the last fe\v years, u ith llic rc.su/i/conscynenie iliai thcy vv ìll bc lakcn to court. 4. T ừ nối diễn tà nguycn nhân hay lý do * Becausc / Becausc o f = On account of: hơi vì Because + í clausc (S-V) # bccausc of + Noun Phrase Eg: We am ved late becau.se there was a tratTic jam . /We arrived late bưcause ọ/ a traffic jam. Có thê dùng because ()f thay cho OI1 aecount o f và (iue t o /ouinự lo \à 11mrọc lại

Nhưng thường dùng due to sau độntĩ từ to be. Eg: The accident was due lu the heavy rain.


Dùng as a result o f để nhấn mạnh hậu quả cùa hành động hoặc sự vật, sự việc. Eg: He was blinded as a resuỉt o f a terrible accident. She couldn’t walk properly because of/on account o f ựormal)/o\ving la (loniuil) her injured leg * Becausc = As = Since = F o r (vì) Eg: Ba is tired because/ as/ since/fo r he stayed up late watching TV Eg:

* TheJ ' cason w h> 1 th a t + í clause: Lý do tai sao/ rằng Eg 1: Tlw reason (why/that) we left a message for you vvas thạt we couldn l conuict you. Eg 2: We couldn t contact you. This is (the reason) why we left a message for you. 5. T ừ nôi diễn tầ quan điểm / suy nghĩ Eg 1:

I think (that) the govemment should do something about inílation. ỉn my npininn/To my mind/ỉn nív vic\v'Tn me (inf'nniiíil)'To m\ \\m nf

thịnking/As fu r ưs 1 am cuncenm l/Ify,n, ci.sk me (iiựòrmab/ /■rom my pouu ul \’iew/From my viewpoint/As I see it/The way / see it. thc govemment should do somctning about environment. ỉ£g 2: Personally/For my part, Ị think (that) the govemment should do something about environment. Eg 3: As fa r as I know/As fa r as I am aware/To (the best ọf) mv knowle(lẹe/Fnr all I know, the unemployment rate has falien. 6. Từ nối diễn tá sự kết luận, tóm tắt lại ý * To conclude = In conciusion = In j h o r t = In brief = BrieAy =(To put it) in a nuíshcll/Summarising/Sumniing up/To sum up/ All in all1 After allỳ Taking evcn into account/ consideration........ (nói tôm lụi rằng/đế tủm tát lụi, iỉê cò đọng lại,.. . Eg l : If we consider eveiythmg, this business is proiìtable. Eg 2: Taking everything in to account/consideration , this business is proỉìtable. Eg 3: Taking account n f everythiiig, this business is profitable. t g 4: All in all. the business is proíitable. Eg 5: BrieJ1y/In briẹf/ỉn am dusion/In shun/(To put it) in a Iiuishell/ Summuming/ Sunmiing up/To sum up. this busincss is proiìlahle. 7 7. Từ nối diễn tả sự xảy ra theo thứ tự của các ý, các hành độno. * First (o f alỉ)/In the firstplace/Firstlỳ„ ì claiise: Trirớctien là. thứ nhất là.. * In the second place/Secondịly ) , . . . + / clause: Thứ hai là * In the third place/Thirdịly),. . . + 1 clause: Thứ ba là * Then/NexƯAfter tliat,----- + I cỉause: Tiếp theo đỏ là. . * FinaIỊy/Lasứy/In the end/Last o f aỉỉ,. . . Cuối cùng lù * To begin wit/i/To start witìi/For a start,.. . + 1 clause. Đẽ bắt đầu với. . . * To end w itìưTofìnish with/To conclude w ith,.. : Đê kết íhúc với. * In summary = To sum Itp = To conclude = In concỉusion = In short = In bríef +

lcỉause. . (nói tóm lại rằng/đế tõm tắt lại, đê cô đọng lạ i. Eg: First, we must consider the fact that this year’s income is lower than last yearV th e n , thai vve are vvorking harder than last year.

8. Từ nối đc đira các ví dụ, (lẫn chứng * For example = For instance (ví dụ như là); in particular = particulariy (cụ thế là ) * such as (như là, theo sau là một loạt danh từ liệt kê'


* that is/ that is to say/ namely (đó chính là) * so on; so íòrth: nhiều nhiều nữa, vân vân = etc (et cetera) * As a case ỉn point: Trường hợp cụ thể là Eg 1: In this school, you can beneíìt a lot o f things such as goođ leaming condition, good teaching eondition. good fnendship. safety. etc. (ỷull ịnrm: et cetera) Eg 2: Working as a lamous actor, he can get money, íame, troubles and so un. Eg 3: Some snakes in this region are poisonous. For exampỉe/For instance cobras and vipers. Eg 4: Some snakes in this region are poisonous, such as/Uke (less íormal) cobras and vipers. Eg 5: Some snakes in this region are poisonous. As a case in point, we can mention cobras and vipersAVe can mention cobras and vipers, as a case in point. Eg 6: Some snakes in this region are poisonous. The cobra is a case in poiut/A case in point is the cobra. 9. Từ nối để diễn tã một ý ngoại trừ hay một điều gì đó hiển nhiên.

*Apart from + NP tách ra khói *Exceptfor + NP ngoại trừ * Needỉess to say: không cằn phai nói

* Nothing to say/ to mention: Chẳng có gì đè nói, dé ilề cập đểu.

*Let alone: đè riêng, chi riêng Eg 1: Apart from a couple o f incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was marvellous, aparl/rom a couple o f incidents/A couple o f incidents apart. our trip was marvellous. \

F.g 2: Except fo r a couple o f incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip \vas marvellous, except fo r a couple o f mcidents. Eg 3: You were the only person to arrive on time. / Nobody but /except you arrived on time. Eg 4: I do not think it necessary to say that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons.

Needless to say, you vvill have to bring your own forks and spoons. Eg 5: It goes withouisaying that you will have to bnng your o\vn forks and spoons. Eg 6: We don t have enough money to buy food; and as you can imaeine it is ìmpossible for us to pay the rent. = We don’t have enough money to buy tooil lct alone pay the rcnt. =

Eg 7: Last night’s hailstonn ruined our fruit crop. But this is nnt all. it also caused a lot ol damage to the trees. = Last’s night hailstorm ruined our fruit crop, lo say nothing o p n o t to m e n tio n the d a m a g e c a u se d to the trees.

10. Restating (từ nối diễn tả sự giải thích lại, diễn đạt lại ý)

* In other w ords (nói một cách khúc); th a t is (to say) (điều Hi) nói rung. . ) to put it simply (đê nói một cách dưiĩ gián rằng. . . ); \V hat we \vant to say is that. (những gì chủng ta cần nói rằHỊỊ. . . ); to put it in an o th er way (ílicn lĩụt ciicii khúc răng.. ); I m ean (tôi ỷ nói rang. . ) Eg 1: Expenence 1S a necessity to apply for this job. Whut we want to say is that those who have no experience should not apply for it.


Eg 2: Experience is a necessity to apply for this job. To put il another waỵ, those who have no experience should not apply for it. Eg 3: Experience is a necessity to apply for this job, that is (lu say) those who have no experience should not apply for it. Eg 4: Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. What I wani lu say 1 S that I love him deeply. Eg 5: Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. / mean, I iove him deeply. 14. Từ noi để đưa quan điểm chung và nhấn mạnh tầm quan trọng của một cái gì đó khác. * On the whole/By and large (informal)/Broadly spcaking/Gcncrally speaking/In general (nói chung) * but, abovc all (else)/first and torem ost (ntìinig. trẽn tiu cư VII (tiiu I1CII va

Inrớc hốt) Eg 1: Everybody came to my party and eryoyed themselves very much. If we consider everything in general terms, it vvas a great success. Everybody came to my party and erýoyed themselves very much. On the whỏìe/By and large (hựbnnal)/ Broudìy speaking/Generaliy speaking/ln gưnerưl, Ít \vas a great success. Eg 2: My sister is very intelligent, but her bưst attribute is thai she is a hardworking girl. Eg 3: My sister is very intelligent; but, above all (else)/fìrst and/oremosi, she is a hard-working girl. 15. Từ noi đê đê đưa thông tin chi tiết về cái gì đó hay không đồng V vói cái gì dã được đề cập trirớc đó. * I.n (actual) fact/In point of fact/As a mattcr of fact/Actually (spoken): thực sự là, sự thật là, vàn iỉê cua sự thật là........... to be prcci.se (chinlì xác là); Eg 1: The vveather was bad. It rained all the time to he precise. Eg 2: The wcathcr was bad. In (cutuul) fact/In point <>f fact/As a nuiitcr ọf fact/Actually (spoken). it rnined all the tinie. F.g V She told me that hc \vas a littlc bit retarded, vvhich was not exactly true. as he \vas very retarded. = Shc told me liiai lie was a little hit retarded; but, in (actiiíil) fact/in poinl <>f fuct/as a Iiuiller ufjiici/actually, he vvas very retarded. 13. Từ nối đc giói thiệu một chủ điếm. * In connection with (nối két với)/ As rẹgards/Regarding/ỉn reỊỊard to/ÌVỈth regard to (xem xót tơi)/As for/Apropos (oJ) (về vấn đề liên quan lơi) * In this regard/In this connection/Ọn this score/In this respect/O n this matter/Ọn this subject/As rcgards this, (về mặt này, về khía cạnh này, về điếm này, về chu điém này)

Eg 1: Something must be done about the drop in sales. ~ In connection witìì the drop in sales, something must be done about it. Eg 2: As regơrds/Regarding/In regard to/With regard to/As fnr/ Apropos (oj) the drop in sales, something must be done about it. Eg 3: As far as the drop in sales is concemed, something must be done about it. Eg 4: I have something to say about this. - In this regard In this conncction ()n this score/In this respect/O n this niatter/On this subjecƯAs rcuards this. ctc. . I have something to say.


Một sổ từ nối khác * Or/ Else/ O thenvise (keo không thì) + I clause Eg: We have to vvork hard. or/clse/other\vise \ve \vill fail the exam. * \Vhereas (Trong khi- chi sự tưong phán) + 1 clausc Eg: He leams hard vvhereas his írienđs don't. * \Vhile (trong khi- chỉ sự việc xảy ra đồng thòi) + 1 clausc Eg: Don’t sing vvhile you vvork. / 1 \vas studying while he was listenứig to music. * Một số liên từ chi thòi gian: After (sau khi): as = when (khi): assoon as (nuay khi); bcforc (trước khi); till/ until (cho đến khi) Eg: The ship vvas checked carefully after she had been built. I will phonc you as soon as I come homc * Proved that/ providing that + 1 clausc: miễn lá Eg: I will iend you my laptop provided (providtng) that you use it-earefully. B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Exercise 1: Choose the bcst ansncr (A, B, c or D) to complete the sentcnccs belo\v. 1. I can't ride my bicycle______ there isn't any air in one o f the tires. A. despite B. because c . although D. but 2. I got to class on time_______ 1 had missed by bus. A. even though B. nevertheless c . hecause n . despite 3. Brian used to been activc person, but no\v he has to limit his actn Itics_______ problem with his health. A. nevertheless B .b e c a u seo f c . although D. in s p ite o f '

4. It should be easy for Bod to tìnd more time to spend with his children_______ he no longer has to work in the evenings and on \veekends. A. evcn though B. no\v thai c . due to D. but 5. Jake is a very uood student o f languages. His brother M i c h a e l . ________has never been able to master another language. A. therefore B. even though c . \vhereas D. on the other hnnd 6. The ancient Aztecs o f Mexico had no technology for making lools 1'rom mclal. , they had sharp knives and spears made from a stone called obsidian. A. Whereas B. Although c . Nevertheless D. Despite 7. Roberts missed the mecting Nvithout a good reason. Shc had heen told that it vvas critical that she be there. I couldrTt want to be in hcr shoes at work tomorrovv. A. despite B. despite the fact that c . even

D. hoxvever

8.

I usually erỹoy attending amateur productions in smal! communit) thcatcrv The play we attended last night. ______ vvas so bad that 1 \vanted to leave aiìer ihc íìrst act. A. t,herefore B. hovvever whereas D. cven though . 9. Some snakes are poisonous,_______ other are harmless. A. but B. so c . for D. despite 10. Most 15th century Europeans believed that the world was Hat and thạt a ship could conceivably sail off the end o f the earth___________many sailors o f the time refused to venture forth with explorers into unknown waters.

c.


A. due to the fact that Thereíore

B. Nevertheless D. Whereas

c.

the salary meets my expectations, I will accept the job offer. A. D u eto B. Even if c . Provide that D. Unless 12. To power thẹir Ịnventions, people have made use o f natural energy sources, coal, oil, vvater, and steam. A. in addition to B as c . and they use D. such as 13- ---------------excellent art museums, Moscow has a world-famous ballẽt company í Be^ SCOf B In sPlte o f c . In case o f D. In addìt.on to 14. It s still a good idea to know how to ty p e .________ the manỹ technological advances m typevvriters and word processors, a skiliẽđ operator rèma.ns A. Because o f B. In spite o f c . In case o f D. In addition to 15. Even though a duck may live on water, it stays dry__________ the oil on its

íeathers. The 0 , 1 prevents the water from soaking through the íeathcrs and reaching its skin. A. đue to B. besides c . in spite o f D. in event of 16. AlEg cannot express him self clearly and correctly in writing. He vvill ncver advance in his job________ he ìmproves his language skills A. otherwise B. if c .o n ly i í D. unless 17- ----------- there was no electricity, I was able to read because I had a candle. A. Unless B. Even though c . Even D. Onlỹ if 18. A fire must have a readily available supply o f oxygen Ít will ston

y

buming

A. Consequently B. Furthermore c . Othenvise D. Hovvever 19. I studied Spanish for your years in high sc h o o l_____ , I had trouble taking with people when I was traveling in Spain. A. Thereíore B. On the other hand c . Moreóver D. Nevertheless 20. ỉ'm sorry you’ve decided not to go with us on thc river trip, but vou change your mind, there will still be enough room on the boat lor ỹòũ. even B. nevcrtheless c . m the even that £) provided that 2 1 .1 iike to'1<eep the windows open at night no matter how cold itgets. My wife ----------- prelers a warm bedroom with all \vindows tightly shut A. nevertheless B. consequently c . on the other hanđ D moreover 22. Some fish can survive only in salt w a te r,______ other spec.es can live only ,n tresh vvater. A. vvhereas

B. unless

c . if

D. since

23- — -----Jason bccamc lamous, he has Ìgnored his old ihends. He shouldn't do thai. A- if B- E versince c . Even though D. Due to 24. We're going to lose this game________ the team doesn't start playmg better soon.

^í'

unless

c . although

D. vvhereas


25. My two children are cooking dinner for the family for the íĩrst time tomght ---------the food is terrible, I'm going to enjoy this meal very much. It will be tun to have them cook for me a change. A. Only if B. if c . Even if D. Provided that 26. Jack insisted that he didn't need any h elp ,_______ I helped him anyvvay. A- and B. so c . besides D. but 27. Florida is famous for its tourist attractions. Its coastline offers excellent vvhite sand beaches_________ it has warm, sunny weather. A. Othenvise B. Furthermore c . Nevertheless D. On the other hand 28. The flowers will soon start to bloom_______ winter is gone and the vveather is beginning to get warmer. A. event if B. agree I c . I agree D. I vvill agree 29. Only if you promise to study hard_________ to tutor you. A. will I agree B. agrée I c . I agrẽe D. I wiĩl agree 30. Camels have either one hump or two humps, the Arabian camel has one hump. A. nevertheless B. however c . furthermore D. othervvise Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentenccs below with the connectors given in brackets 1. He is too short to be a basketball player. (because) 2. Although I approve o f parties. I can’t let you give one tonight. (m uch as) 3. As you have not períòrmed your duties, you will be expelled from the club (consequently) 4.

Hovvever fast I ran, I was alwavs in the same place,’ she dreamt. (although)

5. His íather has died, so he is crying his heart out. (ovving to) 6. These are the rules, but there are exceptions. (nevertheless) 7. I neither love you nor I want to see you again. (w h at’s m ore) 8. Majorca is a paradise for tourists; this is the consequence o f its popularity (hence) 9. The cause o f his death was a heart attack. (due to) 10. As our business 1S going trom bad to worse, we will have to closc down. (as a rcsult) 11. Many people are dying from lack o f food evéryday in the Third World. (on account of) 12. We will have to work hard at it because time is pressing on. (so)


13. No matter how much you hate them, you will have to li ve with them. (even if) 14. We will have to take strict measures, since the unemployment rate has increased. (thus) 15. You have íailed all your exams, so we will not buy you the bike we promised. (since) 16. The lack o f discipline was the reason they lost the battle. (through) 17. Even though he was happy, he felt lonely at times. (happy though) 18. In spite o f being clever with his hands, he couldn’t fix it. (dever as) 19. The padlock I bought was not big enough for the gate. (but) 20. He could not live without her, so he consented to all her wishes. (for) 21. We have considered your proposal thouroughly, but we are afraid to tell you that we cannot assent to it. (however) 22. We were in a hurry, so we didn’t wait for them. (the reason) 23. Nobody dared to dissent from the decision o f the prime minister. but she did. (all the same) 24. If it hadn't been for her, I would have drowned. (thanks to) 25. Although she had told him that she would always be true to him. she wasn’t. (in spỉte of) 26, It vvas snovving heavily, but they went on climbing. (despite) 27. Dcspite being caught driving dangerously, he was not fmed. (all the same) 28. I know you don’t love me; but, even so, n i marry you. (even though) 29. As well as being vvell-trained for the post, she is beautiful. (in addition to) 30. These fairy cakes are not only homemade, but they also have the best-quality ìngredients. (besidcs)


Exercise 3: R ovritc the sentcnces belon with the connectors given in brackets I. You will have to carry. for cxample. a hundred pounđs. (Ie fs say) 2. If we don't take mto account the people next door, evetybody in the neighbourhood is lovely. (except for) 3. You should attend to your guests. Don t íorget you’re the hostess. (after all) 4' Co" Seq“e? tly’ we c,a n reach thc conclus.on that something must be donc to put an to violence on the streets and drug tralTickmg. (summning up)

*

5. As well as being a very good guitarist, hc also sings beautifu]|y. (apart from) 6' ThCy,l0LSt their moncy in a shady bus'ness. But this is not all. thcv took a loan out ol thc bank and lost Ít as \vell (not to nicntion) 7. 1reckon you should put your cards on the table. (thc way I sec it)

k She l.kẹs many romantic poets. For mstance. Colcndge. Wordsworth. Byron and kpntc

l

l i L í»\

9. You re the only person that can makc me happv. (excepí) 10. They had little confidence in him. so they abandoned him to his fate. (for) 11. They couldn t reach the peak because it had snovved heavily. (as a result of)

l2' T hf.1C0Untry s economy is becoming stabilisiniỊ no\v. (a casc in point)

bctter and bctter. For example, inAation is

13. There IS no necessity to mention that all applicants must idenũĩy themseives betorc thc interview. (needless to say) 14. For my part, I found his rcmarks unnecessary. (pcrsonally) 15. Time is short, so vvc’]| have to hurry. (since) 16. We’ll grant you a favour because your days are numbered. (which is whỹ) 17. 1 heretore, we can draw thc following conclusion: we made a substantial profit last year. (in conclusion) 18. 1think you shouldn t argue with them about politics. (to my >vay of tliinkin«)


20. Money is what makes the world go round. What I want to say is that the more money you have, the more powerful you become. (that is to saý) 21. Hatred creates even more hatred. What I \vant to say is that the more you hate somebody, the more they will hate you. (to put it another wav) 22. He is the most important person in this company. What I want to say is that he is the boss. (that is) 23. If we consider military Service in general terms, it is a vvaste ot' time and money. (on the whole) 24. I don’t mind what time you arrive home. The most ìmportant thing is that you arrive safe and sound. (above all) 25. He has presented several television shows; but, most importantly, hc is a joum alist. (íĩrst and íbremost) 26. If we speak in general terms, this play may be divided into four mam parts. (broadly speaking) 27. If we talk generally, Eivissa is one of the best holiday spots in the world. (by and large) 28. She told me that the grammar exercises \vere as easy as falling oiTa log; but it was untrue, since I found thcm very difficult. (as a matter of fact) 29. The weather forecaster said that today \vould be quite hot, but it is quite chilly. (in fact) 30. I don't want to see them any more. The truth is that I hate them. (in actual ĩact) 31. They said that they had done all the work, but the truth o fth e matter is that tbey had done nothing. (in point of fact) 32. She told me that she was as poor as a church mouse, vvhich vvas not true, as she vvas loaded. (actuallv) 33. With reterence to your application for the job as a sales representative, \ve are glad to inform you that it will be offered to you. (rcgarding) 34. Conceming your brother, he is the most qualiíied person for the post. (in regard to)


35. In connection with air pollution, the govemment should take stronger measures to combat it. (as for) 36. In connection to what he stated yesterday, we consider it the most appropriate altemative. (apropos) 37. The govemment should act at once about the decline in the country’s exports (as far as) 38. Taking everything into account, we must do something to stop burglars. (in a nutshell) 39. We want you to vvrite to us regularly; but. most importanlly. don t Ibrgcl lo telephone us. (above all else) — 40. Fưstly, Ít rained heavily that weekend. Secondly, I felt unwell most o f thc time. (on the one hand, on the other)

PHẦN 11: TÍNH TỪ (ẠDJECTIVE), TRẠNG TỪ (ADVERB) VÀ CÁC CÁCH S ỏ SÁNH. A. KIÉN THỬC C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO 1. Tính từ và vị trí của tính từ trong câu: - Tính từ là từ chi tính chất, mức độ, phạm vi,. . . cùa một người hoặc vật. Nó bố nghĩa cho danh từ, đại từ hoặc liên từ (linking verb). - Tính từ luôn đứng trước dạnh từ được bồ nghĩa: That 1S her old brown hat. -Tính từ đứng sau các đại từ phiếm chi (sometliing, anything, anybody. . . ) That’s someone strange to me/ I’d like to eat something spicv •Tính từ đứng sau linking verb như: be remain stay feel look appcar sound taste tu rn smell Eg: Jack appears tired. / This food tastes salty. Nếu trong một cụm từ có nhiều tinh từ cùng bồ nghĩa cho một các tính từ sẽ như sau: tính từ sở hữu hoặc mạo từ, opinion, size, origin, m aterial, purpose. Eg: - a tallyoung blonde Italian lady - a shorí fa t old man - a big square dining room Cliú ý :

become seem danh từ thi thứ tự s-hape, age, color,

* Danh từ (lùng làm tính lừ Trong tiếng Anh có nhiều trường hợp một danlì từ đứng trước một danh từ khác làm nhiệm vụ của một tính từ (a wool coat, a gold watch, a histoty teacher). Các liên kêt số đếm - danh từ (number-noun) luôn được ngăn cách bới dau gạch nổi: F.g:We had a five-week holidav. / These are ten kilo bags.


* P hân từ được dùng n h ư tính từ: Chúng ta có hai loại phân từ (Participles): - Hiện tại phân từ (present participles): V-ing mang ý chù động, tích cực. - Quá khử phân từ (past participlcs) V-ed/ v 3 thướng mang ý bị động. EG: - írightening news (tin tức đáng sợ, tin gây sợ hãi) # írightened people: những n gư ờ i bị sợ hãi

- boiling vvater (nước đang sôi) # boiled \vater (nước đã đun sỏi) - polluting waste (chát thải cây ô nhiễm) # polluted vvater (nước bị ô nhiễm) 2. Trạng từ (Phó từ) và vị trí cùa trạng từ - Trạng từ (Phó từ) bồ nghĩa cho động từ, cho một tính từ hoặc cho một phó từ khác. - Thông thường, các tính từ mô ta có thể biến đôi thành phó từ bẳng cách thêm đuôi -ly vào tinh từ: He IS a c a r c t u l d n v c r . 1le a l u u y s d n v c s c a r c l u t l \ . * Một số tính từ chuyến sang trạng từ theo cách ricng: good =>well; hard =>hard; fast => fast; late =>late (soon/ early/fair/high) * M ột số tính từ cũng có tận cùng là đuôi ly (lovely. friendly/livelv) nên đề thay thế cho phó từ cua các tính từ này. người ta dùng: in a + Adj + way/ manner He is a íriendly m an. He behaved me in a friendlv wav. * Một số trạng từ có đuôi ‘ly’ nhưng nghĩa khác hẳn: - Hanlly = luirdly any time/ahnơsí IIO time/ never. Eg: She hardly passed her examinations. - Fairly. Eg: Fairiy, she doesn’t love him but she loves his money. - Lately. Eg: She hasn’t seen him lately # she often comes to class late. - Nearly = almost. Eg: She nearly dropped all plates # the truck came quite near mc. - Highly = very. Eg: I highly appreciate your help. # The ballon didn’t go vcry high - Mostly =mainly/usually. Eg: we mostly travel hy train # What I hate most is tellinii lies 3. Các cách so sánh 3. 1. So sánh ngang bang________________________ ____ s + V + as + {adj/ adv} + as + {noun/ pronoun]/ (S + Auxilỉarv vcrh) 1 Eg: She is as intellment as her mother. / Hc \vorks as jasỊ as liia tathcr docs. 3. 2. So sánh không ngang bầng____________________________________________ s + V + not so/as + {adj/ adv} + as + {noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Au\iliar> verh)____ Ị

Eg: Lan is not as fat as her mother. /He didn't come as late as \vc (do) 3. 3. So sánh kem hon_________________ _____________________ s + V + Iess + {atlj/ adv} + than + noun/ prnnouu}/ (S + Auxiliary verb)______ Eg: She is less careful! than her brother. / She drives less carefully than her husband(does) 3. 4. So sánh hon / s + V + { short- adj/ adv} + er + than + noun/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliarv verb) s + V + more { long- adj/ adv} + than + noua/ pronoun}/ (S + Auxiliarỵ vcrb) ___ Eg: Today is vvarmer than yesterday. /This apartment is more expensive than others. Her brother studies harder than she (does) / He speaks English more lluentlv than 1 (do). C hú ý: S h o rt adjcctive/ advcrbs là nhữim từ một âm tiết lioặc từ tận cùniỉ bang: v/ow/ le (pretty/ easy/ early/ ưcntlc' slou . . ); Long adỊcctivc / advcrhs lá nhừnu nì hai âm tiết trư lên hoặc từ tận cúng băng: ing/ ed


! " 5 " h. sự s° sánh; chúng ta thêm : far/ m uch/ a l o t / (nhiều); a (một it) t r ư ớ c t í n h t ừ v à t r ạ n g t ừ s o s á n h EG: She 1S getting much latter. / ĩt is becoming darker and darker 3- 5. So sánh bậc nhất (lừ 3 đối tirong trơ lên) s + V + thc { short- adj/ adv} + est {in + N(singu!ar count Iioun)} s + V + the most { long- ad j/ adv {of + N (plural count noun)} s + V + the least + ad j/ adv} + little/ s l i g h t l y

b it/ a

J. í n ,IS^ he tallest boy m the famil>/' These sh? es are the least expgnsịve ọ_f từ ° " e o f the + 50 sánh bậc nhất + noun (số nhiều), và đọng từ phai chia ơsò '*• ES-‘ Q_ne o f the ụreatest tennis p la y e rs in the world ịs Johnson. / II

c á n h í 'i ì ‘1

tínli

m .x

' 4'

«<>

■ •*.

Tính từ So sánh So sánh nhất Tính từ So sánh Hoặc trạng từ hon/ kéni hoặc trạng từ hon/ kém much more Most Far farther many further good bctter Best Old older well cldcr bad \vorsc Worst little lcss badly fe\v fewer Lưu ý: -/artlier dùng cho khoang cách: Ịurtìier dùng c ho thòng tin hoặi lợp trừu tượng khác.

So sánh nhất larthest íiirthest oldest clclcst least fewest các trướng

Elder dùng cho anh em trong gia/ older dùng cho các trường hợp khác. 3.6. Phép so sánh không họp lý - Sớ hữu cách: HỊs drauings are as perfect as his instnictorV / (instructor's = instructor's drawings) • Dùng that of thay thể cho danh từ sổ ít: The life o f a rich man is more comfortabIe than that o f a poor man. / (that o f = the liie of) •Dùng those of thay cho các danh từ số nhiều: The books of Mr. Natn s bookshop are cheaper than those o f Mrs ĩ ĩirTs / (thosc of =thebooksoO 3. — IS o

s á n0 h sánh b ộ i sốb9'lảs° so lsánh: bằng bằng nữa (haiọ, gắp đỏi ụấn ba (three times).. ■. i so sánh: nữa (haiọ, gắp(twice). dôi (Uvice), ụấp ba (three tiines)..

s _ + v + n u m b e r m u l t i p l e + a s + m u c h / m a n v + ( n o u n ) 4- a s + n o u n / n r o n o u n

im has hạl£ ha 11 aass many CDs now no\v as 1 had last vear. / Minh atc ilir.... .......... Nam lasl ycar. thrcc I,,,,... timcs as m,u h lood as Lan. 3.8. So sánh kcp:Là loại so sánh với cấu trúc: Càng. . . càng. The + comparative +

s + V + the + comparative + s + V

The hotter it is, thc more miserable I feel. / The bịgggr they are, the faster they fall The morc +

s + V + the + comparative + s + V

The moreyou study. the smarter you will become. /(Càng học. anh càne thông minh hơn) 3. 9. So sánh hon kém không dùng than (giữa 2 đối tượng): Trong câu thường có cụm lưof the two + noun, nó có thê đúng đầu hoặc cuối câu.


Harvey is the smarter o f the two bovs. /O f the two shirts. this one is the prettier. pẹalse give me the smaller o f the two cakes. /O f the two books. this one is the more interesting. Một sổ cấu trúc so sánh khác * Khi so sánh bằng danh từ, sử dụng cấu trúc sau:

s + V + the same + (noun) + as + {noun/ pronoun}

* to be sim ilar to {noun/ pronoun} Eg: Their ideas are similar to mine (my ìdeas). * Ểo be like/ to look like/ to sound like/ to taste like + noun/. . . Eg: This sounds like a ureat success. * tia be alike: Eg: Their ideas are alike B. BÀI TẬ P ÔN LUYỆN Exe^cise 1: Put the ajectives in the brakets into the correct order to have a , !meaningful noun phrases. 1. a (rectangular, cream, m odem )______________________ bathroom 2. (silken, pretty, lo n g )______________________ hair 3. a (dreadíul, pink, o ld )_______________________ chinavvear 4.

a ( P r o c e s s i n g , n e w , C e n t r a l, t i n y ) _________________________________ u n it

5. a (tired, local, cam era)_______________________ crew 6. (vast, green, beautiful)______________________plams 7. a (vegetable, large, G reek)_______________________ trailer 8. a (middle-aged, good-looking, black, p o p )_______________________ star 9. a (tratĩic. tw o-hour)_______________________jam 10. a (dangerous, Ne\v York, gloom y)_____________________ allcy\vay 11. a(n) (brand-new, sports, mustard, A m erican)_____________________ car 12. a (íantastic, delightful)_______________________ evening 13. You look very (pretty, elegant)_____________________ on that dress. 14. a (tortet, horrible, lilac)_____________________ bag. 15. a(n) (enormous, sky-blue, round)______________________spaceship 16. the (wonderful, co louríul)_______________________ scenery 17. a(n) (old, breakdown, red, w hite)_______________________ truck 18. a (leather, brown, pretty, turquoise)_______________________handbag 19. a(n) (long-distance, obstacle)______________________course 20. a (country, m agnifìcent)______________________house 21. a (tangerine, silk. lime, dreadful)__________________________shirt 22. a pair o f (Catalan, expensive)_____________________ mocassins 23. a(n) (ice, peach, m odem )_____________________ bucket 24. a(n) (Chinese. blue. đining. o v a l)_____________________ table 25. a pair o f (cheap. football. black. yellow )_____________________ boots


Exercise 2: Choose the correct form o f the participles used as adjectives in the foIIowing sentences 1. 2.

Compassionate friends tried to console the (crying/ cried) victims o f the accident. When James noticed the (buming / burnt) building he notiiied the fire department immediately.

3.

The (exciting/ excited) passengers jumped into the lifeboats \vhen *otitied thai the sliip was sinking.

4. 5.

The (smiling/smiled) Mona Lisa is on display in the Louvre in Paris The wind made such ựrightening / /rightened) noises that the chiỉdren ran to their parents room.

6. 7. 8.

The ựrighíening /ýrightened) hostages only vvanted to be left alone. We saw the (advancing / advanced) army from across the tovvn. Mrs Harris’s (approving / approved) smile let us knovv that our spẽẽches were well done.

9. Our representative presented the (approving/ approved) plan to the public 10. The (bIowing/bhwn) wind o f the hurricane damaged the waterfront property. 11. We vvere going to see the movie at the Theater, but our friends told us it vvas a (boring/ bored) movie. 12. Mary's (cleaning / cleaned) Service comes every Wednesday. 13. The (cleaning / clecmed) shoes were placed in the sun to dry. 14. We found it diíĩìcuit to get through the (cỉosmg / cĩosed) dốor vvithout a key. 15. As vve entered the (crowding/cnnvdeiỉ) room. I noticed m> cousin. 16. Dr. Jameson told my brother to elevate his (achbìg/ acheữ) foot. 17. I was (disuppoiniing/ (iisuppuinted) vvith the film. I had expected it to bc better 18. The (breaking / broken) dishes lay on the floor. 19. The ự rem bling/trembled) children were given a blanket for vvarmth. 20. The Ụnteresíing / interested) tennis match caused a great deal o f excitement. Exercise 3: Choose the right word, adjective or adverb. The íloor looks clean/ cleanly. The plane landed safe/safeỉy on the runway. 3. The man looked honest/honestly, but he vvasrTt. 4. Jane looked at her book thought/uư thoughtýuỉỉy before she answered the teaclìer's question. 5. A rose smells good/ we!ỉ. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Beth spoke confident/confideìUỈy vvhen she delivered her speech Most o f the students did good/ welì on their tests. He spoke angry/ angrily He seenied very angry/ angrily. The teacher taught us very careful/care/ully.

beauti/ully hard

early late

fu s t peace/uUy

fluently sensitively

I. If we don t w a lk _______ ±_________ , vve'll never arrive on time.


_

L. She sin g s_________________ than any one else I've ever heard. 3. Andy's the most intelligent, but Sue w orks_______ 4. Eight is late - could you possibly get here a n y _______ 5. O f all the children, Helen w rites____________ ' 6. I would sle e p _________________ if I weren't worried about Tom. 7. For the 10. 20 tra in ,________________ we can leave home is 10. 8. Mark speaks F rench o f all the boys in his class. Exercỉse 5: Make sentences like the one in the example Exantple. He drives fast, he gets nervous. ~ The faster he drives, the more nervous he gets; and the more nervous he gets, the faster he drives. 1. He eats ice-cream; he gets fat. (The more ice cream ............. ) 2. He reads. he forj:ets. 3. She ignores him: he loves her. 4. She buys shoes; she wants shoes. 5. We spend money; we ha ve frienđs. 6. I sleep; I'm tired. Exercise 6: Complete each sentence by choosing the most suitable word or phrasc 1. I really think that apologizing i s ___________you can do. A .n o a s m u c h a s B. a little c . the least D. a s fa ra s 2. I can’t stand this vveather. It’s getting_____ A. more and more B. vvorse and vvorse c . coldest and coldest D. íurther and further 3. Although Brenda came last, everyone agrccd slic hud____________hci IvM. A. done B. made c . had D. gol 4. I wish Charles \vorked as hard as M ary____ A. did B. can c . will D. does 5. ĩh e more you \vater this plant, th e _______________ it will grow. A. best B. tall c . \vetter D. iầster 6. From now on, we w on’t be able to go out as much as \v e ____ A. were B. hađ c . used lo D. will 7. I’ve never owned __ ___________ independent cat as this one. A. a more than B. such an c . a so D. as much an 8. Brian has been w orking____________ since he was promoted. A. much harder B. as harder c . just as hardly D. more hardly 9. I’ve becn fceling__________tired lately, doctor. A. such a B. the most c . more and more D. much


lO.This exercise will give you A. farther c. as better

_ practice. B. much more D. a lot [ercise 7: Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stavs the same. ■1. That’s the best meal I’ve ever eaten. I've never eaten _________________ ■2. Fish and meat are the same price in some countries Fish costs ■3. I’ve never enjoyed m yself so much. I I’ve never h a d __________________ |4 . If you run a lot; you will get íìtter. ; The more __________ ________ l.v

The doctor can't see you earlier than Wednesday I’m afraid. Wednesday i s ____ ■6. I must have a rest. I can't walk any more. 1 must have a rest. I can’t g o ___________ ■7. Home computers used to be much more expensive I Home computers aren’t ________________ l ỉ . I don’t know as much Italian as Sue does. Sue knows _ _________________ ■9.

I thought that leaming to dnve would be difficult, but it isn’t. Leaming to drive is __________________ lio. Barbara can skate just as well as John can. John isn’t ____________ ________ 11. Jill can run faster than Peter. Peter 12. I thought this joum ey would last longer than it did. This joum ey didn’t __ ___________________ 13. I didn’t am ve as early as I expected. Iarrived ________ ______________ 14. You are working too slovvly. You’ll have t o ___________________ 15. I have a brother who is older than me. I have an 16. Martin thought the second part o f the fĩlm was more interesting. Martin didn’t think the íirst 17. Paula's work is less careíul than Peter’s. Paula has been workmg 18. There aren’t any trains earlier than this one. This is 19. All other pubs are íurther away. This p u b _____________________


20. Is this the best price you can offer? C an’t you _____________________ Exercise 8. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word given in capitals. 1, Your car was cheaper than mine. COST 1’m not as good at maths as you are. 2. BETTER Keith is slightly taller than Nigel. 3. LITTI.E Bill was growing angrier all the time. 4. AND Sally tried as hard as she could. 5. BEST I thought this íĩlm would be better. 6. Ãs This is the bumpiest road I’ve ever driven along. 7. SUCH W hen you eat a lot, you get fat. 8. MORE George said he couldn’t do any better. 9. COULD 10. This year’s exam and last year’s exam were equally diíĩicult. JƯST PHẦN 12: CẤU TRÚC ĐỘNG TỪ: VERB STRUCTURES A. KIÊN THỨC C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Trong Tiếng Anh, động từ đi với động từ phải theo một công thức nào đó. hay nố cách khác động từ theo sau động từ chính sẽ ờ dạng nguyên thê có ‘to' (to-infinitive) nguyên thể khong ‘to ’ (bare iníìnitive) nguyên thề tiếp diễn (to be V-ing), nguyên thi hoàn thành (to have done) hay dạng hiện tại phân từ (V-ing), quá khứ phân từ (havinị done). Satrđây là một số cấu trúc động từ. L Form ỉ : _________________________________ s + VI + V2 (Bare Infinitive)________ VI = can / could / will / would / shall / should / may / might / must / need (aux) ■had better / vvould rather.................. Eg: You should stop smoking/ I can use Computer very well/ I w ould rather/1’ rather stay at home. * let / have (have got)/ makc............... + Object + Verb (Bare Iníinitive) Eg: My father doesn’t let me ride motorbike. / He has someone clean his car.

2. Form 2:

________________________ s + VI + V2 (To-Infinitive)_________


VI = decide/want / hope / promise / agree / plan / manage / refuse / threaten / learn / fail / tend / intend / arrange / aim / attempí / afford / offer / would likè / would love / muld prefer / desire / expect/prepare / sêem,. .............. Eg: We have decided to take this exam. / We promise to study well. ĩ. Form 3: s + VI + Obịect + V2 (To-lnfinitive)________ I VI = want / get / ask / invite / advise / expect / teỉl / remind / force / enable / encourage / wurn / persuade / allow / pennit / teudi / inslrũct / forbuì / recummend y order / urge / prepare ........ Eg: She invited me to go to her party. / She asked me to give this dictionary to you. í Form 4: s + VI + Adịective + V (To-Infinitive)__________ Adjs - anxious / boring / eager / easy / pleased / usual / prepared / common / dangerous / good / ready / difficuỉt / hard / strange / able / possible / unable ỷ impossible........................................ Eg: It s boring to stay at home all day/ he is eager to leam English/ It is dangerous to drive too fast. 5. Form S: s + V + to / in oder to/ so as to/-Infinitive (dùng diễn tà mục đicli lảm gì)________________ Eg: I go to school to learn / in o rd er to leani / so as to learit.

í Form 6: s + VI + V2 (V-ing) Vl= enịoy / mind / fìnish / hate / give up / quit / practice / risk / dclay / pui u jf/ kcep / keep on / carry on / imagine / avoid / consider / aìlo\v / permit / advise / fancy / postpone / detest / forbid / encourage / suggest / recommend / deny / (KỈmil / niiss / report / appreciate / recall / , . . . Eg: Do you eryoy playing soccer?/ He admitted having stolen money from his íriends * Một số động từ mà ngữ nghĩa của chúng sẽ đổi khác hoàn toàn khi tân ngữ sau nó là một động từ nguvên thể hoặc verb-ing. * Stop to do smt: dừng lại để làm gì Eg: He stoped to talk to me = Anh ta dừng lại để nói chuyện với tôi. * Stop doing sm t: dừng làm việc gì Eg: He stoped talking to me and went out = Anh ta ngừng nói với tỏi và bo ra ngoài. *Rcmember to do smt: Nhớ sẽ phái làm gi Eg: Remember to lock the door betore gomg out. = Hây nhó' klioá cưa trước khi đi ra ngoài nhé! #Remember doing smt: Nhớ là đã làm gi Eg: I remember locking the door beiòre leavMng, but novv 1 can't lìnd the key. Đặc biệt nó tlnrcnig được dùng với mẫu câu: s + stiĩl rem em ber + V-ing: v ần con nhớ là đ ã .. . Eg: I still remember meeting him at Jenny’s house. * Forget to do smt: quên sẽ phải làm gi


Eg: I forgot to buy some butter so we don't have any butter now. = TÔI quên không mua ít bơ. # Forget doing smt: (quên là đã làm gì). Đặc biệt nó thường được dùng với mẫu cảu s vvill never forget + V-ing: sẽ không bao giờ quên được là đã. . . Eg: She will never forget meeting her boyĩnend at the íĩrst time. Cô ấy sẽ không bao giờ quên lần đầu tiên gặp bạn trai của mình. * R egret to do smt: Lấy làm tiếc vì phải làm gì (thường dùng khi báo tin xấu) Eg: We regret to iníorm the passengers that the flight for Hanoi \vas canceled because o f the bad weather. # R egret doing smt: Lấy làm tiếc vi đã làm gi Eg: He regrets getting married at very young age. It’s the biggest mistake in his life. ❖ M ột số các động từ đặc biệt khác: Đó là những động từ ó tro n ” các mẫu tâu khác nhau sẽ có ý nghĩa khác nhau. * agree to do smt: đồng ý làm gi: Eg: He agreed to leave early tomorrovv moming. # agree to one's doing smt: đồng ý với việc ai làm gì. : Eg: He agreed to my leaving early tomorrovv moming. * M ean to do smt: có ý định làm gì. : Eg: I mean to get to the top of the hill beíore sunrise. # If it + m ean + verb-ing: cho dù cả việc, bao hàm cà việc làm gì. Eg: I was determined to study overseas if Ít meant leaming English w e ll.. * Prọpose to do smt: có ý định làm gì. : Eg: I propose to work for that company. # Propose doing smt: Đề nghị làm gì: Eg: I propose \vaiting till the boss comes back. * Go on doing sm t/sm t: tiếp tục làm gì, cái gì (một việc đang bị bỏ dờ): Eg: He went on writing after a break # Go on to do smt: Quay sang tiếp tục làm gì (vẫn về cùng một vắn dồ nhưng diu)ã) sang khía cạnh khác) Eg: He shovved the picture o f his tầmily then went on to tell about his lamily. * T ry to do smt: cố gắng làm gi: Egr He tried to solve his own fmancial problems. # T ry doing smt: Thừ làm gì: Eg: I try eating this strange kinđ oi' 1'ood. V Động từ đứ ng sau giói từ: Tất cả các động từ đứng ngay sau giới từ đều phải ó dạng V-ing. Sau đây là bảng các động từ có giới từ theo sau, vì vậy các động từ khác đi sau động từ nảy phải dùng ở dạng verb-ing.________________________________________ V erb + prepositỉons + V-ing

approve o f be better o f COUIIt OII depend on accustomed to afraid o f

give up insist on keep on p u io jỵ intent on interested in

rely on succeed in íhink about think o f capable o f fo n d o f

worry abount object to look forward to confess to successful in tired o f


\ Bc busy with

have diffìculty (in)

spend (time/money) O/I sư st (ỈO ÌH ỊỊ

waste tinie/money doillỊỊ sl

I ha ve some difficulities (in) working here. / She spends a lot o f money on clothes/ buying clothcs My father tia ve un smoking hecause o f his doctor's advice. My sister is thinkirm o f goịng to France next year. ❖ Noun + preposition + vcrb-ing Noun + prepositions + V-ing

ehoice o f excuse ỷor

intention o f metliod fo r

possibility o f reason fố r

(niethod of)

Eg; Ịliẹrẹ is no reason !òr slaying here. /Lạn has no ìntention o f breakingỹour camera. ❖ Động từ đi sau tính từ: Nói chung, nếu động từ đi ngay sau tính từ (không có giói lừ) thi đưọc dùng ở dạng nguyên tliê. Những tính từ đó bao gồm.

anxious boring dangerous hard

eager easy goõd strange

plcased prepared ready able

Iisual com/non dìflìcult

Eg: It is dangerous to drive so fast in this busy Street. / Minh is anxious to see his boss We are leadv to uo no\v. / It is difficult to pass this test. Chú ý: ahle và capabìe có nghĩa như nhau nhưng cách dùng khác nhau: (able/ unablc) to do smt = (capablc/ incapable) of doing smt. ❖ T rưòng họp tân ngữ là V-ing Trong trường hợp tân ngữ là một V- ing thi đại từ/danh từ phái ơ dạng sờ hữu. Subject + verb + {pronoun/ noun}(possessivc form ) + verb-ing. . Eg: We undcrstand your not beịng ab!e to come to my party. / We obiect to their pickiniĩ up Howers in thc park. ❖ Một số cấu trúc động từ theo sau nó ià nguyên thế hoàn thành và phân tư hoàn thành. * Dùng với một so động từ: to appear, to seeni, to happen, to pretend • Nên nhớ răng hành động cùa nguyên mâu hoàn thành xảy ra trước hành động cùa mệnh đề chính. Eg: He seems to have passed the exam = It seems that he has passed the exam. She pretended to have read the material = She pretended that she had read the matenal. * Dùng vói sorry, to be sorry + to have + P2 : I lành dộng cua ngu)cn mầu lioũn ilúnh xảy ra trước trạng tliái sorry. Eg: The girls were sorrv to have tr.issed the Rock Conccrt (The girls were sorry that they had missed the Rock Concert. ) * Dùng vói một số các động tìr sau đây ỡ thể bị động: to ackowledỊ>e. bclieve, consider, fìnd, knotv, report, say, suppose, think, understand. Hành động cua nguyên màu hoàn thành xảy ra trước hành động cùa mệnh đề chính.


> Eg: He was believed to have gQQg out of the country. (It was believed that he had gone out o f the country. ) * Dủnẹ với một số các động từ khác như to cỉaim, expect, Itope, promise. Đặc biệt lưu ý răng hành động cùa nguyên mâu hoàn thành sẽ ở future perfect so với thời cùa động từ ở mệnh đề chính. Eg: He expects to have graduated by June. (He expects that he will have graduated by June. ) He promised to have told me the secret by the end o f this week. (He promised that he would have told me the secret by the end o f this w eek.) * Cách sử dụng to get trong một sổ trường hợp * T o get + P2: get washed/ dressed/prepared/ losư drownecU engaged/ married/ divorced. Chi việc chù ngữ tự làm lấy một việc gì hoặc tình huống mà chù ngữ đang gặp phải. (Chú ý: không được lẫn trường hợp này với dạng bị động.) Eg: She is very sad because she has just got divorced. My son got lost in the markct ycsterday. * G et + V-ing = S ta rt + V-ing: Bắt đầu làm gì Eg: We'd bettcr get moving. it's late. * G et sb/sm t +V-ing: Làm cho ai/ cái gì bắt đầu. Eg: Please get him talking about his aim of doing that. 4. 4. Get + to + verb * G et to do st: Tìm được cách làm gì Eg: We should get to know about English culture. * G et to do st: Có cơ may làm gi. Eg: W hen đo I get to have a better job. * G et to do st: Được phép làm gì Eg: At last we got to meet the headmaster. * G et + to + V erb (về hành động) = Com e + to + V erb (về nhận tliửc) = Gradually = dần dần Eg: We will get to speak English more easily as time goes by. He comes to understand that his situation is not too bad. * Cách sử dụng ‘to be’ trong một số trường họp * To be of + noun = to have: có (dùng dề chI tịnh chắt hoặc tinh cam ) Eg: M arỹ is o f a gentle nature = Mary có một bàn chất tử tế. * To be of + noun: Nhan mạnh cho danh từ dứng dàng sau Eg: Hoa Hong restaurant is o f (ở ngay) the center o f the city. * To be + to + verb: là dạng cấu tạo đặc biệt, sử dụng trong trường hợp: - Đẻ truyền đạt các mệnh lệnh hoặc các chi dẫn từ ngôi thứ nhất qua naôi thứ hai đến ngôi thứ ba. Eg: No one ịs to leave this building without the permission o f the police. - Dùng với mệnh đề //k h i mệnh đề chính diễn đạt một câu điều kiện: Một điều phải xảy ra trước nếu muốn một điều khác xảy ra. (Nếu m u ố n .. . thì p h á i..) Eg: If we are to get there by lunch timc \vc had better hurry. Something musl be done quickly if the environment are to be proteeted perfectlv. - Được dùng để thông báo những yêu cầu xin chi dẫn:


Eg: He asked the guide where he was to gọ next. -Được dùng khá phổ biến để truyền đạt một dự định, một sự sẳp đặt, đặc biệt khi nó là chính thức. Eg: She is to get m am ed next month. / I am to go to London next month. * was/ w e r? + s + to + verb = if + s + w ere + to + verb = thế nếu (một giã thuyết) Eg: Were I to tglỊ you that he won the ílrst prize, would you believe me. * was/ w ere + to + verb: Để diễn đạt ý tường về một số mệnh đã địnli sẵn Eg: They said goodbye without knovving that thcy vvere ncvcr to mccl ayain. * to be about to + verb = near íuture (sẳp sưa)/ Eg: They an; aboui to Ịeavg. * Một số cấu trúc cầu khiến (causative) * To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = Sai ai, khién ai, bao ai làm gi Eg: r u have him £ịx my car. / r u get him to fix my car. #To have/to gct sth done = làm một việc gì bàng cách thuê người khác Eg: I have my hair cut. (Tôi di cắt tóc - chứ không pliáĩ tôi tự cẳl) I have my car washed. (Tôi mang xe đi rửa ngoài dịch vụ - không phải tự rừa) *To m ake sb do sth = to íòrce sb to do sth = Bắt buộc ai phải làm gi Eg: The robbers made the shop kepper give them all the money. -Đăng sau tân ngữ cùa make còn có thể dùng 1 tính từ: To make sb/sth + adj Eg: Wearing a necklace made her more beautiful. * To m ake sb + P2 = làm cho ai bị làm sao:Working all night on Friday made me tired on Saturday. = To cause sth + P2 = làm cho cái gì bị làm sao Eg: The big thunder flood caused manv houses damaged. Chủ ý: Neu tân ngữ cùa make là một động từ nmi\ên thể thì phái đật /7 ụiừa Iiiakc và tinh từ, đặt động từ ra phía đẩng sau: inake it + adj + V as ohịect. Eg: The \virc semce madc it possiblc to collect and distribiite ne\\ s faster and chcaper. Tuy nhiên nêu tân ngừ của muke là 1 danh từ hay I ngữ danh từ thì không được đặt it giữa nuike và tính từ: Make + adj + Iioun/ noun phrase. Eg: The wire Service made possible much sneedier collection and distribution of news. * To let sb do sth = to p erm it/alkm sb to do sth = để cho ai. cho phép ai làm gì Eg: He ]et me go. /At íirst, she didn't allo\v me to 1>Q out alone at nmht. * To help sb to do sth/do sth = Giúp ai làm gì Eg: Please help me to thro\v this tablc a\vay. /She helps me open the door. Chú ý: Nếu tân ngữ của Itelp là một đại từ vô nhân xưng mang nghĩa người ta thi không cẩn phải nhấc đến tân ngữ đó và bỏ luôn cả to cùa động từ đàng sau. Eg: Modem machines help (people to) save labour íòrce. - Neu tân ngữ của help vả tân ngữ của động từ sau nó trùng hợp với nhau, người ta sẽ bò tân ngữ sau help và bỏ luôn cả to cùa động từ đẳng sau. Eg: The fur o f the birds helps (them to) keep warm. * To see/to watch/ to hcar sb/sth do sth (hành động đirợc clúmu kiến từ đầu đếncuối) Eg: I heard the telephone rinu and then John ansvvercd 11. * To see/to w atch/ to hear sb/sth doing sth (hành độnu không được chứng kiến trọn vẹn mà chi ờ một thời điềm) Eg: I heard her singing at the time I came home.


* M ột số cấu trú c câu: * s + V + cnough + Noun + to - V .. . có đủ cái gì đẻ làm gì Eg: He does not have cnoimh monev lo attend thc conccrt. * s + v + Adj/ ADV + enough + to-V......... Eg:She is tall enough to rcach the ceiling /c L s c * ^

+

+

c

s + v + such + (a/an) + NoUn < « s> +

(đen noi mà). Eg: The film was so boring that nobody watched it until the end = It was such a boring film that nobody vvatched Ít until the end. * s + y + so much/ little + Noun (uncountable) + that + 1 clause. : Cò qua nhiều (quá ít). . . . đẻn nôi mà Eg: He has so much money that he doesn t knovv hovv to spend /* s r y , + m a" y/ fcw + Noun (c°ũ n tab le, plural) + th a t + 1 clause. Có quá nhiều (quá ít). . đên nói mà Eg: Theỵ have so m anychildren that they form their ovvn íootball team. * s + V + so + adjective + a + singular count noun + that +1 clause. Fg: It was so hot a day that \ve decidcd to stav indoors * s + V + too + adj + (for sbd) + to-V ----- quá (dổi với ai) dến nồi không lam dưọc EG: He is too short to reach thc ceiling. / l g: Hnglish IS toi) diỉlìcull li)r us to siudy ucll +„ad j + (f0r sbd) + ‘°*v + ° bj study Iĩnglishu°°well.

• p 8; 11 is to° dĩm cuĩt for us to

Cách sử dụng một số cấu trúc đi vói Present Participle (V-ing) * Havè sb/sth + doiiiỊỊ. làm cho ai làm gi. John had us lautihinu all through the meal. * s + won't have sb + (Iưi/IỊỈ = s + non 't allow sb to do stlr. khong cho phép ai làm m I won't have him tellinL’ me \vhat to do. Các cụm phân từ: addinỊỊ, pointing out, reminding, warning, reasoning that đều có thê mờ đâu cho một mệnh đề phụ gián tiếp. He told me to start early, remindirm me that the road would be crowded. Reasoning that he coulđ only get tp the lake, vve foIlowed that way. * To catch sb doing sth: bất gặp ai đang lảm gì (hàm ý bị phật lòng). Iísh e catches vou readinạ her diarv. she vvill be íurious. * T ofind sb/Kíh (ỈOÌIIỊỊ sth Thấ> ai/ cái lii daim làm <>ì I found him standing at thc dooruay He found a tree lying across the road. * To leave sb doiiiỊỊ sth: Dẻ ai làm gi I leít Bob talking to the dircctor after thc ìntroduction. * Go/co me doinỵ sth (dùng cho thề thao và mua sắm) Go skiing/ go svvimming/ go shupping/ comc dancing * To have a liard time/troubỉe doiiiỊỊ sth: Gặp khó khăn khi làm gi He has trouble listening to English. I had a hard time doing my homevvork. * To be worth doing sth. đáng đè làm gi This project is vvorth spending time and money on. * To be busy doing sometliing: bận làm gì


She is busy packing now. * Hai hành động xảy ra song song cùng một lúc thì hành động thứ hai ỏ' dạng Ving, hai hành động không tách ròi khỏi nhau bỏi bất kì dấu phảy nào. Eg: She was walking home singing a love song, (cô ấy vừa đi về nhà vừa hát một bài hát tình yêu) - Khi hành động thứ hai hoặc các hành động tiếp sau theo nỏ lá một phần trong qụá trình diên biên cùa hành động thứ nhất thi hành động thứ hai lioặc các hành dộng tiêp theo sau nó ỡ dạng V-ing. Giữa hai hành độne có ngăn cách nhau bời dấu phẩy. Eg: She went out and boimht some stamps = She went out, buyinti some stamps. - Khi hành động thứ 2 hoặc các hành dộnii sau nó là kết quả cùa hành dộnii thứ nhát thì hành động tliír 2 và các hành động tiếp theo sẽ ớ dạim V-ing. Nó sẽ Iiuãn cách với hành động chính băng một dầu phây. Eg: He fired tvvo shots. killlinu a robber and \voundinu the other. * Một số ngữ động từ go + gerund: đẻ chi một hoạt động nào đó Do + V-ing: đế chi một hoạt độnu nào đó: • go tìshing di cảu cá - do (the) vvashing giặt giũ -go shopping đi mua sắm - do washing up rửa chén -go sxvimming đi bơi - do cleaning lau chùi ■go hiking đi bộ dã ngoại - do gardcning làm vườn -go wa!king đi bộ - do shopping mua sám -go sightseeing đi ngắm cành - do ironing: ú quần áo gerund -can't hclp doing st: không thế nhịn dược làm gì: We c a n ’t help lautĩhinu -can'tbcar doing st: không chịu được làm gì: ĩ caiTt b e a r hearirm his lies không chịu được làm gi: -can't stand doing st: I caiTt stan d seeing him herc Vỏ ích làm gi - It's no use doing st: It’s no use nhonirm him at this time Excrcise 1. Completc thc follo>ving text, putting the verbs into the gerund or the to- i n t l n i t i v e I like (g o )____________to the zoo. The play w asn't very good. The audicnce starlcd (le a v e )____________ bclbrc it was over. After a brief interruption, the proĩessor continued (lecture) _ The’ children love (sw im )______________ in the ocean. I hate (se e )_____________ any living bemg sutĩer. I can’t bear it. I’m afraid o f Hying. When a plane begins (move) ;_________ dovvn the runway, my heart starts (race) __________ Oh - oh! The plane is beginning (m ove)____________and my heart’s starting (race)_________ 7. When I travel, I prefer ( d n v e ) _______________ to ( ta k e ) __________________ a plane. 8. I prefer (drive)_________ rather than (take) ______________a planc. 9. I always remember (tum) off all the liiĩhts before I leave my house. 10.1can remember (be) very proud and happy when 1 graduated.


Jack my message? with dolls vvhen I was a child. ___________ when you werc a child? ___________ bctbrc you lcft Ibr class this

13. What do you remember (d o )_ 14. What do you remember (do) moming? 15. What did you forget (do) __ betbre you leave for class every day? 16. r i l never forget (c a rry )_____ my wife over the threshold \vhen we moved into our first home. 1 7 .1 can’t ever forget (w atch )_ our team score the vvinning goal in ■\nol /championship. •nnm niA ncliin the last seconds o f the game to capture the national 18. D on’t forget (d o )___________________ your homework tonight! 19.1 regret (inform) ____________________ you that your loan application has not been approved. 2 0 .1 regret (not listen )___________________ to my father's advice. He was right. Exercise 2. Supply an appropriate preposition and verb forms 1. Alice isn’t interested (look) for a ne\v job. 2 . Henry is e x cited ____ (leave) _____ for India. 3. You are capable____ (do) bcllcr \\ork. 4. I have no excuse (be) late. 5 I’m accustomed (have) a big breaklast. 6 . The rain prevented u s _____ (complete) ihe work. 7. Fred is alvvays complaming _ (have)_ a headache. 8 . In ste a d ________ (study) _ Margaret went to a ball gamc \\iih some o f her friends. 9. Thank y o u ______________ (Help) ______me carry the package to the post office. 10. Mrs. Grant insisted (know) the wholc truth. 11. He shovved us how to get ío his house (dravv) a map. 12. You should take advantage (live) here. 13. Laura had a good reason _________ (not go) to class yesterday. 14. Everyone m the neighborhood participated _______ (search) for the lost child. 1 5 .1 apo1ogized to D ian e______ ________(m ak e) her vvait for me. 16. The vveather is tem ble tonight. I đon't blamc you __________ (nol uanl) ______________ to go to the meeting. 17. Who is responsible (wash) and (dry) the đishes aíter dinner? 18. In addition ___________ (g o ) _____ to schoo! full-time, Sam has a parttime job. 19. The angry look on his face stopped me _____ _ (speak)________ my mind. 20. Where should we go for dinner tonight? Would you object _ _ _ (g o ) to an Italian restaurant?


21. The mayor made another public statement for the purpose _________ (clariíy)______________ the nevv tax proposal. 22. The thief was accused (steal)______________ a w om an's pursc. 23. The jury found Mr. Adams guilty (take) money from the company he worked for and (keep) it for himself. 24. Bill ìsn t u se d ____________(w ear)_____________ a suit and tie everyday. 25.1 m going to visit my íamily dunng the school vacation. I'm looking forward _________ (eat) _____________ my mother’s cooking and (sleep) in my own bed. Exercise 3. Supply an appropriate form, gerund or inimitive, of the vcrbs in brackets. 1. Mary reminded me (not b e )________________ late for ihe meeting. 2. We went for a walk after we fmished (clean)______________ up the kitchen. 3. I forgot (take)________________ a book back to the library, so I had to pay a tìne. 4. When do you expect (leave) on your trip? The baby started (talk) when she was about eighteen months old. I don’t mind (wait) _ tor you. Go aheađ and lìnish (do) your work. 7. I’ve decided (stay) here over vacation and (paint) my room. We discussed (quit) our jobs and (opcn) our ou n business. 9. I’m getting tired. I need (take)_____________ a break. 10. Sometimes students avoid (lo o k )__________ _____ at the teacher if they don’t want (answ er)_______________a question.

11. The club members discussed (postpone)_____ _______ the meeting until March. 12. Most children prefer (vvatch)______________ television to (liste n )__ to the radio. 13. My grandĩather prefers (read)_____ 14. Did Carol agrec (g o )_____________ (camp) _ vvith you? 15. As the storm approached, the birds quít (sing) 16. The taxi driver refused (ta k e )______________ a check. He wanted the passengers (pay)___________in cash. 17. The soldiers were ordercd (stanđ)__________ at attention. 18. The travel agent advised us (not w ait)_______ _____ until August. 19. \Vhen a student asks a question, the teacher always tries (explain) the problcms as ciearly as possible. 20.1 tried everything, but the baby wouldn’t stop crying. I tried (hold) _______________ him. I tried (feed) _________________ him. I tried (chanye) his diapcrs. Nothing worked. Excrcise 4: R enrite each sentcnce, beginning as sho\vn, so that the meaning stays the same. 1. I vvas made to study hard when I was at school. Thcy


2 3. 4. 5. 6. . 7. 8. 9. 10.

11' I takc thc job, I' 11 have to move to Paris. Taking the j o b ____________________________________ It’s vcry kind o f you to give me a lift. I appreciate________________________ It might bc good idea to use honey instcad ol'sugar. Why don't you tr y _______________ ____________________ Pm quite happy to look after the baby for you. I don’t m in d ____________ I must see the manager! I dem and ______________ _________ ____________ “Go on, Jack, apply for the jo b ,” said Sally. Sally encouraged___________________________________________ You w ouldn't know where the Hilton is, would you? Do you happen Parking is not permitted here. You a r e ________ _________________ “Shall I carry that bag 1'or you, John?” said Pauline. Paulinc offcred____________________________________________

Exercise 5: Complete each sentence with thc suỉtable form of One of the verbs given 1. Mary was so angry that s h e _____________to see the manaeer. A. demanded B. hoped c . risked D. stopped 2. The weather is so awful that I don t ____________going out this evcning. A. fancy B. like c . try D. want 3. The children could hardly____________to leave their pets behind. A. bear B. forget c . regret D. seem 4. You don’t ______________ looking after the baby. do you? A. agree B. stand c . mind D. notice 5. Do y o u ______________ to know when this castle was built? A. ask B. happen c . imagine D. like 6. J o h n ___________to let his children go to the concert. A. aiTorded B. avoided c . reíused D. stopped 7. If I give you the iníormation. I __________ losing my joh! A. expect B. mean c . prepare D. risk 8. What do y o u __________to he doing in tcn years’ timc? A. begin B. expect c . remember D simeest 9. Do y o u _____________ to tell the police ahout the missing money? A. admit B. confess c . denv D ìntenđ 10.Why does B a sil_______________ looking at his watch? A. appear B. attempt c . kcep D. mean Exercise 6: Rewrite each sentcncc so that it contains the word in capitals, and so that the meaning stays thc samc. 1. Jack said that he hadn’t cheated in the exam. CHEATING


2. It was difficult for me not to laugh at W endy’s letter. HELP 3. I’m sorry but you have not been appointed to the post. REGRET 4. 1 needed a drink o f water and so I stopped running TO 5. Luckily Peter didn't pay a fine. PAYING 6. I think it vvould be a good idea to take the train. SƯGGEST_________________________ _______________________________ 7. Don't lorget the lights when you leave. 0FF 8. I can hear voices upstairs. SOMEONE 9. I think Derek has íorgotten the meeting. APPEARS 10.My neighbor said he vvould call the police. THREATENED 11.1’m sorry I didn’t go to university. (REGRET) 12.Winmng the football pools meant we could buy a new car. (ENABLED) O.There is a risk that he will miss the plane if he vvaits. (RISKS) 14.1 believe you were the murderer because of this clue. (LED) 15.Does using the hotel svvimming pool cost exừa? (PAY) 16.1 think that this is the right

Street.

(APPEARS)

17.Jean succeeded in íĩnishing all her work on time. (MANAGED) 18.They said they would like me to stay with them in Florida. (INVITED) 19.Callmg Jim is pointless, because his phone is out of order. (USE) 20.lt is compulsory for all students to leave a cash deposit. (REQUIRED)


PHẢN 13: M ỘT SỐ THÀNH NGỮ VÀ NGỮ ĐI VỚI GIỚI TỪ A. KIÉN THỨC C ơ BẢN VÀ NÂNG CAO Một sổ thành ngữ đi vói giới từ thường gặp trong các bài thi học sinh giỏi 1. M ột số thành ngữ vối “IN” - In time for = In good time for = Đúng giờ (thường kịp làm gì, hơi sớm hơn ẹiờ đã định một chút) / Eg: She arrived at the theater in good time fo r a coffee. (Cô ay đến nhà hát vẫn còn đủ thời gian để uổng một tách cà p h e .) - In íuture = from now on = từ nay trờ đi - Once in a while = đôi khi, thinh thoảng Eg: Once in a whiìe I enjoy fìshing : (Đôi khi tôi cũng thích đi câu cá. ) - In no time at all / in less than no time = trong nháy mắt, mọt thoáng. Eg: The írain will be here in no time at all. (Tàu sắp đến đây rồi. ) - In the middle o f = ở giữa, ở trong. Eg: In the middỉe o f dịfficulty lies opportunity. (Trong khó khăn mới có cơ hội.) - In the arm y/ airíòrce/ navy: trong quân đội, trong lực lực lượng không quân,.. .. Eg: He has been in the army fo r thirty years. (Ông ấy đã phục vụ trong quân neũ 30 năm. ) - In the event = trong trường hợp mà Eẹ: ỉn the evetit o f a power failure we '11 have to change our plan. (Trong trường hợp mât điện chủng tôi sẽ phải thay đôi kê hoạch.) - In case = để phòng khi, ngộ nhỡ. Eg: Bringyour umbrellar in case it rains (Đưa theo cái ô phòng khi trời mưa.) - In the com er = ờ góc trong # At the comer = ờ góc ngoài/ tại góc phố Eg: The student is sitting in the comer. (Cậu sinh viên đang ngồi ờ góc phòng) - in favour o f = có thiện cảm với, ùng hộ Eg: We are in favour o f his decision to ỉeave the City. (Chúng tôi ùng hộ quyết định đi khỏi thành phổ của anh ấ y .) - in common with sb = có cái gì chung với ai Eg: She has nothing in common with her sister. (Cô ấy chẳng có gì chung với chị mình cà. ) - in other words= nói cách khác Eg: / have no rnore money, in other words, I am now broke. (Tỏi không còn tiền nữa, hay nói cách khác, tôi đang cháy tú i.) - in tears-= đang khóc Eg: She was in tears over the death o f herpuppy. (Cô bé đang khóc cái chết của con chó nhỏ cùa m ìn h .) - in private = riêng, không ai khác có mặt Eg: She wanted to see me in private. (Bà ấy muốn gặp riêng tôi. ) # in public công khai, ở giữa công chúng - in bed = đang ngũ # on the bed = ờ trên cái giường. Eg: I t ’s already ten o'clock, but she's still in bed. (Đã 10 giờ rồi, vậy mà cô ta vẫn đang n g ù .) - in all = cả thảy, tổng cộng. Eg: Tỉtere were ten o f IIS iu alỉ. (Chúng tôi có cả thảy mười Iigười.) - in general = nói chung. Eg: In general I don 't like her. (Nói chung là tôi không thích cô t a . )


- in particular —nói riêng, nói cụ thể. Eg: The whole meat was good but the wine in partiadar was excellent. (Toàn bộ bữa ăn là ngon, riêng món rượu thì thật tuyệt h áo .) - in the way = chặn lối, chắn đường. Eg: I'm afraidyour car is in the way. (Tôi c rãng ô tô của anh đang gây cản trờ .) - in a way = ờ một mức độ nào đó, theo cách nào đó. Eg: In a way, you are right. Ở một mức độ nào đó thì anh đúng. - in a hurry = vội vàng. Eg: She seems to be in a hurry. (Cô ấy dường như đang v ộ i.) - in secret = bí mật Eg: They lefí the country in secret. (Họ rời khỏi đất nước một cách bí m ậ t.) - in advance = trước / Eg: Thankyou in advance. (Cám ơn anh trước n h é .) - in tum = lần lượt. / Eg: The students called out their names in turn. (Các học sinh lần lượt xướng tên mình) - in one’s opinion = theo ý kiến ai. Eg: In my opinion, he is right. (Theo ý tôi thì anh ta đúng) - in writing = dưới dạng viết, bằng văn bản. Eg: You must get his agreement in writing. (Anh phải được anh ấy đồng ý bằng văn b ả n .) - in cash = bằng tiền mật / Eg: Can I pay in cash? (Tôi có thể trả bằng tiền mặt được không?) - in charge (of sb/st) = phụ trách, đảm trách/ Eg: Who 's in charge o f this class? (Ai phụ trách lớp này?) - in addition (to) = thêm vào/ Eg: In addition to the names on the list there are six other appỉicants. (Thêm vào tên trong đanh sách còn có sáu người nữa. ) - in comparison with = so sánh với / Eg: The tallest buildings in London are small in comparison with those in New York. (Những tòa nhà cao nhất ờ London -thật nhò khi sánh với những tòa nhà ờ New Y o rk .) - in conclusion = kết luận, cuối cùng là. / Eg: In conclusion V d like to say that I don 't agree withyou. (Cuôi cùng tôi muôn nói rằng tôi không đồng ý với các b ạ n .) - in control o f = chi đạo, quán xuyến, cai quản / Eg: Who 's in controỉ o f this project? (Ai chi đạo dự án này?) - in danger = gặp nguy hiểm, bị đe dọa. Eg: His life was in danger. (Cuộc sống cùa ông ta đang gặp nguy h iêm .) X out of danger. - in detail = một cách đầy đủ, chi tiết. Eg: He explained everything to us in detail. (Anh ta giải thích mọi thứ với chúng tôi một cách rất chi tiế t.) - in fact = trên thực tế, thật ra. Eg: ỉn fact, she has been lying to him for ten vears. (Thực tế là cô ta đã lừa dổi anh trong suốt mười năm trờ i.) - in good / bad condition = trong tình trạng tốt / xấu. Eg: The house is still in good condhion. (ngôi nhà vẫn còn rất tố t.) - in one’s free time = trong thời gian rảnh. Eg: What do you usually do in your free time? (Anh thường làm gì trong thời gian rảnh?) - in love with = đem lòng yêu mến ai/ cái gì, phải lòng ai. Eg:She is in love with one o f my/riends. (Cô ây đã phải lòng một người bạn của tô i.) - in a good / bad mood = cỏ tâm trạng vui vè / khó chịu. Eg: Today sh e ’s in a good mood. (Hôm nay tâm ứạng cô ấy vui v ẻ .) - in order = ngăn nắp, trật tự X in a mess: lộn xộn, bừa bộn, hồn loạn. Eg: My life is in a real mess! (Cuộc sống cùa tôi thật sự là một mớ bòng bong)


- in pieces = vỡ tan, thành từng mảnh. Eg: The boat was smashed to pieces on the rocks. (Chiếc thuyền đă bị va vào đá vã tan thành nhiêu mảnh. ) - in practice / in theory = trên thực tế/ trên lý thuyết Eg: In theory, three íhings could happen. (về lý thuyết, có ba khả năng xẩy r a .) - in reality - trên thực tê, thực ra. Eg: The house looks very old, bui in realitv it 's quite new. fNgôi nhà trông có vé cũ, nhirng thực ra nó còn m ớ i.) - in touch vvith = giữ liên lạc với. Eg: Please keep in touch witheach other when we are away. (Xin hãy giữ liên lạc khi chúng ta xa n h au .) - in uniform = mặc đỏng phục, thuộc các lực lượng vũ trang. Eg: How long was he in uniform? (Anh ta đã ở trong quân ngũbao lâu rồi?) - in a loud / low voice = (nói) to / thì thầm. 1.

-

Eg: / m in love, he said in a ỉow voice. (Tỏi đang yêu, anh ta thì th ầm .) M ột số th àn h ngữ vói “ A T” at all costs = bằng mọi giá. bằng bất cứ giá nào. Eg: We must ẹet there at all costs. (Chúng ta phải đên đỏ bàng mọi g iá .) at times = luôn luôn. Eg: I ’m at your Service at all times. /Tôi luôn luôn sẵn sàng phục vụ các ông. ) at present - hiện nay, hiện tại, lúc này. Eg: / can 't helpyou at present. (Lúc này tôi không thê giúp anh đ ư ợ c .)

-

at ạ proíit = có lãi. Eg: The company is operating ul a profư. (Công ty đan* hoạt động có lã i.)

- at íịrst = thoạt tiên. Eg: Atỹirst I think he is our new teacher. (Thoạt tiên tôi nghĩ răng đó lả thây giáo mới cùa chúng tô i.) - at last = cuối cùng, rốt cuộc. Eg: Aí last the bụs arríved. We V/ been waiiingfor nearly an hour. (Cuối cùng thì xe buýt cũng đến. Chúng tôi đà đơi gằn mot tiêng đông hô. ) muộn nhất (một thời điểm cụ thể nào đó). Eg: I'm in a hurry beeause I must have these reports ready by six o 'clock at the lẵtest. (Tôi đang VỘI bởi vi tôi phải làm xong những bản báo cáo này muộn nhất là 6 g iờ .) At least = ít nhât. Eg: You could at least clean upyour room. (ít nhất thi anh cũng dọn lây plìòng của mình đi c h ứ .) - At most = nhiều nhất, tối đa. . At most I mỉght earn $250 a week. (TÔI có thể kiếm được tối đa là 250 đô la môi tu ấ n .) -

at the latest.

-

At the same time = đồng thời. Eg: You shouldn 7 eat and talk at the sarne time (Các cháu không nên vừa ăn vừa n ó i.) At peace with = ờ trong tình trạng thân ái hoặc hòa thuận với ai. Eg: In order to be happy, you should ahvays be at peace with yourseỉ/. (Để được hạnh phúc ban phải luôn thanh thản với chính bàn thân m ìn h .) X at wàr with

-

at war vvith = trong tình trạng xung đột. chiến tranh. Eg: The countiy has beeti at \vur with its neighbor fo r two years. (Đất nirớc đã ơ trong tình trạng xung đột với nước láng giềng đã hai năm r ồ i.)


2. Một số thành ngữ vói “ OUT O F ” out ọ f reach = ngoài tâm tay. Eg: Keep those medicines out o f reach o f children (Không được để những thứ thuốc này trong tầm tay trè c o n .) - out of doors = ờ ngoài trời. Eg: He likes to stay out o f doors. fAnh tathích ờ ngoài trời. ) -

out o f breath = hụt hơi, thở dồn. Eg: Ạfterfìveỳlight o f stairs l'm out ofbreatlì. ('Chi sau năm bậc thang là tôi đã thờ dốc r ồ i.)

- out o f sight = ngoài tạm mắt. Eg: Out o f sight, out ofmind. - out o f mind = ngoài tằm suy nghĩ, không còn nhớ tới nữa

Xa mặt cách lòng

- out of work = thất nghiệp. Eg: He ừ now out o f work (Hiện nay anh ta đang thất nghiệp.) - out o f date = lạc hậu, lỗi thời X up to date: cập nhật, hiện đại - out of practice = không luyện tập. Eg: It's imporíant to keep in prcictice. (Điều quan trọng là phải duy tri luyện tập) X in practice -

out o f control = không kiểm soát được, mất quyền kiểm soát. Eẹ: The economy is now seriously out oJ control. (Nền kinh tế hiện nay đang mât kiểm soát trầm trọng. ) >< in control: trong vòng kiểm soát.

-

out o f danger = hết Iiguy hiểm. Eg: She was very ill, but is now OUI uj danger. (Cô ây đang ôm, nlurng đà qua cơn nguy k ịc h .) >< in danger: trong nguy hiểm out of debt = trà hêt nợ nân. Ep: We ạre poor, but we have been out o f debt. (Chúng tôi nghèo nhưng đã trả hêt nợ nân r ồ i.) X in debt: trong nợ nần out of fashion / style = lỗi mốt. Eg: Long skirts are now out offashion. (Váy dài hiện nay đã lỗi mốt rồ i.)

-

-

3.

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out o f place = không phù hợp, khônạ đúng chỗ. Eg: Her critÌLÍsms \\vre quittí out o f place. (Các lời chi trích của cô ây hoàn toàn không đúng chỗ. ) out of the question = không bàn cãi, không thể được. Eg: Teỉling him the truth now is out o f the question. (NÓI cho anh ta biết sự thật vào lúc này là không thể đư ợ c.) out o f stock = hêt hàng, không còn hàng để bán. Eg: I'm Sony nur shop is now out ofslock. (Xin lôi, cửa hàng chúng tôi tạm thời hết hàng. ) out of the ordinary = khác thường, không binh thường. Eg: Hcr behciviur is out o f the ordinary. ("Cách cư xử cùa cô ấy thật không binh thường. ) nothing out o f the ordinary = không có gi đặc biệt. Eg: It was an interesting lecture, bui nothing out o f the ordinarỵ. (Đó là một bài giàng hay. nhưng khõnii có gì đặc biệt lắ m .) out o f trouble = hết rắc rối >< in trouble = đang gặp rắc rối M ột số thành ngữ với “ O N ” on bchall o f —nhản danh, thay mặt. Eg: 0/1 beha ự o f the whole class ỉ tlì(ink vou fo r your help. (Thay mặt cả lớp em xin cám ơn thay đã giúp đữ chúng em. ) on business = đang làm việc, đang đi công tác. Eg: My father is inHanoi on business this \veek. (Tuần này bố tôi đi công tác Hà n ộ i.) on strike = đình công. Eg: The workers are on strike fo r a pay rise./"Công nhân đang đình công đòi tăng lương. ) on a diet = ăn kiêng. Eg: I f you are on a diet you slìould avoid eating ịatty foods and sugar. (Néu cậu đang ăn kiêng thì nên tránh ăn những thức ăn chửa nhiều chất béo và đường.)


on average — trung bình. Eg: We fa il one student per year ort average. (Tính trung bình môi năm chúng tôi bị trượt một sinh v iê n .) on duty = đang làm việc, đang có ca trực. Eg: The doctor is onduty now. (Hiện nay bác sĩ đang trực >< off duty hết phiên ừ ự c .) on the whole = tóm lại, xét toàn bộ. Eg: On the whole, I ’m in Ịovour o f the proposal. (Tóm lại, tôi ủng hộ đề nghị đ ó .) on holiday = đi nghi. Eg: Where areyou going on holiday this summer? (Hè này cậu định đi nghi ở đâu?) on sale = a) có bán, sẵn để bán. Eg: The new model ừ not on sale in the shops. (Mâu mới không có bán tại các cửa hiệu); b) bán với giá hạ. Eg-.These books are on sale. (T^hững quyên sách này đang được bán hạ giá) >< for sale để bán. Eg: / 'm sorrỵ this painting is not fo r sale. (Xin lỗi, bức tranh này không bán. ) on a trip / an excursion / a tour = đi một chuyến đi / tham quan/ du lịch. Eg: We are pỊanning to go on a trip to Delphi next weekend. (Chúng tôi dự định đi một chuyên tới Delphi vào cuôi tuần tớ i.) on the phone = có dùng điện thoại. Eg: Are you on the phone? (Nhà cậu cỏ dùng điện thoại không?) on purpose = một cách cố ý. Eg: He took my bag on purpose. (HÍn ta cố ý lấy chiẽc túi của tôi) X by accident: vô tình, do nhầm lẫn. Eg: I opened his brieícase by accident. on TV/ radio = chiếu / phát qua ti vi, đài. Eg: Wĩiat is on TV tonight? (Tối nay TV có gì?) on the market = đưa ra bán, đang bán. Eg: These computers are noí yet on the market. (Các máy tính này chưa thấy b á n .) Ọn fọot = đi bộ. Eg: His house is nexi to school, so he get there on foot. (Nhà cậu ây gân trường nên cậu ấy đi bộ tới trư ờ ng.) On fire = đang cháy. Eg: Call thefìre brigade. The neighbor 's house is on fìre. (Gọi cứu hỏa đi. Nhà người hàng xóm đang ch áy .) On one hand / on the other hand: Một mặt. . . mặt khác. . . Eg: On one hand Vd like more money, but on the other hand, I ’m not prepared to work the extra hours in order to get it. (Một mặt tôi vẫn muốn có thêm tiền, nhưng mặt khác tôi lại chưa sẵn sàng làm thêm giờ để kiếm tiề n .) On time = đúng giờ (không sớm, không muộn). Eg: Don 't worry, she usually arrives at meetings on time. ^Đừng lo, cô ấy luôn đến họp đúng giờ) X in time/ in good time for: đúng giờ, hơi sớm một chút. M ột số th àn h ngữ với “ BY” bỵ meạns o f = bằng cách. Eg: Lift the load by means o f a crane. (Nàng tải trọng bàng cần trục) by no means / not by any means = không tí nào. Eg: She 's by no means poor, in fact, she 's quite rích. (Bà ta không nghèo tí nào, thực ra, bà ta rất g ià u .) by chance = tình cờ, ngẫu nhiên, không cổ ý. Eg: / meí her by chance. (TÔI gặp cô ấy rất tình c ờ .) by oneselí = một mình. Eg: / did it by m yseự (tôi tự mình làm điều đ ó .) (know )by sight = nhận ra khuôn mặt ai, nhưng không biết tên. Eg: I knew him by sight. (Tôi nhận ra anh ta, nhưng tôi không biết tên anh ta)


by heart thuộc lòng. Eg: We have to ìearn this poeiti by heart: (Chúng tôi phải học thuộc lòng bài thơ n à y .) by mistake = do nhầm lẫn. Eg: They took our case by mistake. (Họ xách nhầm va 11 cùa chúng tô i.) -

by cheqụe/ credit card = (trả) bằng séc/ thè tín dụng. Eg: Can I pay by cheque? (TÔI có thê trả bàng séc được không?)

by accident = by chạnce: tình cờ. ngẫu nhiên. F.g: / ran iiiit) un 1)1,1 Oicnt/ h\ accident. (Tôi tình cờ gặp một người bạn c ũ .) 5. Một số thành ngữ với “UNDER” -

under the impression = có cảm tường rằng, có ý nghĩ rằng. Eg: / Itm undcr the

impression that you were Corning tomorrow. (Tôi có cảm tưởng ràng neày mai anh mới tớ i.) -

-

-

-

. -

-

under consideration / discussion = đang được xem xét / thảo luận Eg: Your request is under consideration aí the meeting. (Đề nghị của anh dâng được xem xét tại cuộc h ọ p .) under arrest = bị bắt giữ. Eg: The tliree men were under urrest fo r rubbing u bank. (Ba người đàn ông đang bị bắt giữ vì tội cướp ngân h à n g .) under certain conditions = trong hoan cảnh nào đó. Eg: The mountciin rnad is closed under certain condiíions. (Con đường núi bị chặn do hoàn cảnh nào dỏ. ) under control = trong tầm kiểm soát. Eg: The fire was under contrnl ofter the fire department arrived. (Đám cháy đã được kiểm soát sau khi đội cứu hỏa đến. ) >< out of control: ngoài tầm kiểm soát under one’s breath = thì thầm. Eg: The man was talking under his breath in the movie theater. (Ngirời đàn ông thì thầm trong rạp chiếu phim. ) Under one’s nose = dê thây, ngay trước mật ai. Eg: / puí the bill riglu uncler his nose so that he couldn t miss it. (Tôi đẻ tờ hóa đơn ngay trước măt anh ta đẻ cho anh ta không thê nào lờ đi đ ư ợ c .) Under the sun = khắp mọi nơi. Eg: We ỉooked fo r the vvallei cvcn u hcrc under the sun. (Chúng tôi tỉm cái ví khẳp mọi n ơ i.) Under the weather = khó ở, hơi mệt. Eg: / am/eeling under thơ uvathcr so ỉ 'm gniiiỊỉ to bedearỉy tonight. (Tôi cám thấy hơi mệt vì vậy tối nay tôi sẽ đi ngủ sớ m .) Ưnder the wire = vừa kịp lúc. Eg: We sent in our payment for schooì fees ịust under the wire. (Chúng tôi đóng tiền học phí vừa kịp lú c .) Under the circumstances = trong hoàn cảnh Một số thành ngữ vói “ F O R " for good = lâu đài, vĩnh viền, dứt khoát. Eg: Slìe says that sh e ’s leaving tlie country fo r good (Cộ ây nói răng cỏ ấy sẽ rời khỏi đất nước vĩnh viễn. ) for a living = để kiếm sống. Eg: ỈVhat does he do fo r a living? (ATih ta làm gì để kiếm sống?) for sale = để bán. Eg: She hasput her house upfo r sale. (Bà ấy xây nhà để bán. ) for sure = chăc chăn. Eg: / think he livẹs there hnt I couldn 'r say Jor sure. n ỏi nghĩ bà ta sống ở đó nhưng tôi không thể nói chắc chắn được. ) for a while = trong một khoảng thời gian. Eg: She worked in a bank fo r a whiìe be/ore síudying la\v. (Cô ây đã làm việc ở ngân hàng môt thời gian (rước khi học lu ậ t.)


7.

8.

9.

10.

for no\v / for the time being = hiện tại, tạm thời. Ẹg: That 's enougìí fo r no\v, let 's cọntinue our conversation tomorrow. (Hiện tại thể là đù rồi. chúng ta hãy tiếp tục đổi thoại vào ngày mai. ) for a change = dể thay đồi. Eg: We usually drive to work, but tnday \ve took a ta.xi fo r (I chíinge. (Chúng tôi thường tự lái xe đi làm. nhưng hôm nay đê thay đỏi chúng tỏi đi tăc xi. ) lor example / instance = ví dụ như, chẳng hạn như. Eg: hì íhix class there ure Iiiaiiy goodstudents - Joh n fo r exampíe. (Lớp này có nhiều học sinh gioi, chẳng hạn nlur em John. ) ior the sake o f = vi lợi ích của ai đó. Eg: / 'II helpyou fo r your/amily 's sake. (Tòi sẽ giúp đõ anh vì lợi ích cùa cà íiia đình anh. ) M ột số th àn h ngữ vói “ O F F ” olt duty = hết phiên làm việc / trực. Eg: Thepoliceimin wa.\ o ff (luty iliíit evening. (Viên canh sát này dã hêt ca trực tối hôm đó. ) off school / vvork = nghi học/ làm việc. Eg: May / tuke II duy ()jf work? (TÔI có thê nghi làm một ngày không ạ?) otl and on = thinh llioàng. Eg: / rau! hìs hltìỊỊ ()fj and DU. (Tliinli thoang tôi có đọc blog cùa anh ta. ) o ff thc track = sao nhãng khỏi dòng suy nghĩ, mục tiêu. Eg: Your lỊUiỉstion hưs put me ufj the track. (Cảu hỏi cùa anh căt ngang dòng suy nghĩ cũa tói. ) Một số thành ngữ vói “FROM” from time to time = thinh thoànu. F.g: From lime to time MV play cartls u ith Ưticli otlier. (Thinh thoáng chúng tỏi cũng chơi bái cùng nhau. ) lrọm scratch = từ ban đầu. Eg: Aftcr tlie husiness fuiỉecỉ, thưv decided to reorgạnizc and hegin frọm scratch. (Sau khi việc kinh doanh tliất bại. họ qu>ct định tô chức lại và bát dầu lại từ đầu. ) from head to toe /Toot / heels = từ đầu đến chân. Eg: He m is dressed ÍII hỉack /rom licad to toe. (Anh ta mặc dồ đen từ dằn dcn chăn. ) From the bottom ol onc's heart: từ thâm sâu dá> long. Lg: l roni ihc bottom ot my heart, I am gratclul to him for \vhat hc hasjust helpcd me. M ột sổ th àn h ngữ vói “ W IT H " with regard to = về việc gì. Eg: / ha ve nothing to say with regard to vour comphùnts. /TÔI chăng có gì dê nói vê nhìnm phàn nàn cua anh ca. ) with respect to = về, đối với. lig: Tliis i.v true with respect to English but no/ to French. (Diều này đúng với tiếng Anh chứ không đúng với tiếng Pháp. ) vvith ditĩiculty = một cách khó khăn. Eg: He opened his mouth with dijjìculty fAnh ta mớ miệng một cách rất khó khăn. ) M ột số th àn h ngư vói “ W IT H O U T vvithout delay = không tri hoãn, (làm) ngay. Kg: Plca.se do ilic.sc Itisks uiilioiti (leUiy. ('Xin hãy làm những việc này ngay. ) Withóut exccption = không ngoại lệ. Eg: The rule applies to everyone withuut exception. (Quy tăc này áp dụng cho tắt cà mọi người không có ngoại lệ. ) VVithout (a) doubt = chắc chắn. Eg: He is uitluntl doubt the cỉeverest sludent ỉ '\ v cver luiiglit. (C ậ u ấy chắc chắn là Iigirời thônu minh Iihất mà tôi tìm ti dạ\ )


Without fail - nhất định. Eg: /'// he ihere ai two oclo ck Mithout fail (Tôi nhất định sẽ có mặt ớ đây dũng 2 giờ. ) B. BÀI TẬP ÔN LUYỆN Excrcisc 1. Complete cach sentencc with one \voril or phrasc from the box-

accoriỉing lo íipart from ưs for I.

bưcausơ <)f bv mecms <)f ÍII cii.sc <)f

in common W'ith in ỳàvor oJ in 1rom o f

I t h i n k l cl r a t h e r l i a v e c o f f e e __________________________________

insletii/ of 0/1 hehulf ọ f reỊỊurdless <>t te a

“• ------------------------ danger, Paul ran back into the burning house. ------------------- fire. smash the glass and push the button. 4. Personally, I a m ______________ banning cigarette smoking complctely! 5. I vvould likc to thank y o u , ___ everyone u lio \vas rescued. k ________________you. 110 one elso knows that I liave escaped. 7- ______________Steve, he believes that \ve should slay \\ hcrc wc arc. 8. Jim managed to cliinb into the liouse_________________ a laddcr he found ^ ___ ____________________ the rain the matcli vvas postponed. --------------------- timetable. the next train isn't Ibr t\vo hours. II. Julie has nothing_______________________Bill. I hey are quilc diHcrcnl. 12. A large black car suddenl} dre\v u p ______________ the liousc Exercisc 2. Complcte each sentcncc bỵ using a suitablc word from the list '

hreatli fa il imprcssion secret strikc costs hurrv ret IIrII stock nonh 1. This is important. You must catch the tvvo men at all 2. He says he s ill. Or in o th cr__________ , he doesn'( \vantto come. 3. I was tinder th e _________ _ that you eiỹoyed \vorking here. 4. Sorry. I can't stop l'm in a __________ 5. Please hand your work in on Tuesday, without 6. We can t go b> train. The train-drivers are o n __________ 7. Martin is supposed to liave given up smoking. but he smokes in 8. I m afraid \vc don't liavc your size, \ve are out ol'_________ 9. If I give you the information. \vhat \vili you give me i n __________ ? 10. I ran for the bus. and no\v l*m out of Exercisc 3. Choosc Ihc niost suitable phrasc 1. I can't disturb John I10W. He*s al hcii / /// hec/. 2. Tony ahvays arrives cxactly ÍII linie / nn tinic for liis lcsson. 3. Tow poimds for each licket, tliat makcs $ 12 in all / with ull. 4. I can't pick tliat last apple. It*s om (ìf ÌÌUÌUỈ/ out ọfreach. 5. Joe and I mct 011 the plane completely hy cliancc / bv surpri.se. 6. The children spcnd most o f tlicir time ont <>fitaors / OKI a/placc. 7. I m sorr> but Jane isn't here al prưsent/al a time.


8. How can Sam love Lucy? They have nothing in common/ in general. 9. They should be here soon. They are in the wav / onthe way. 10. Terry isn’t here. H e’s always in bed /o n busincss. Excrcise 4. Complete each sentence with a suitable word from the list. Use each word once only. averageforce particuỉar profìt sight detail h im seự practice pubỉic yvhole 1. Harry managed to sell his house at a _ 2. What was he doing here all b y ___________? 3. Larry is so famous that he doesn’t appear i n _______ very often 4. That was a terrible shot! I’m rather out o f ____ 5. How many cars do you sell, o n ________________ every week? 6. The police are Corning! Stay out o f ____________ until they leave. 7. I might be able to help you. What do you want to know in *> 8. I suppose I enjoyed my holiday on th e _____ 9. Can you tell me about the plans i n ______________ ? 10. The gun had to be taken away from David b y ______ Exercise 5. Complete each sentence with one of the phrases from the list. l Tse each phrase once only. byheart in diffìculties in tu rn on holiday outofwork by sightin pain in two on sale yvithout a doubt 1. When I sat on the pencil, it b ro k e ______ 2.

Most o f the people in the office a re ______________at the moment.

3.

This i s ______________ the best vvashing machine on the market.

4.

Graham has b e e n ________________ ever since he came to London.

5.

I know h e r ________________ , but I don’t know her name.

6.

The lifeguard dived in to save a swimmer

7.

John leamed his first speech_____

8.

Why don’t you share the bike? You can ride i t __________

9.

You could tell he was _____________ by the way he kept groaning.

10. Cigarettes and ice-cream a re __________in the íbyer Exercise 6. Complcte each sentence, using the suitablc preposition 1. Police ofíìcers don't have to wear unitorm \vhcn they a r e ___________ _ duty A. on B. under c . out of D. off 2. I feel very tired. ______________ times I consider giving up work. 3. 4. 5.

A - f°r B - at c . During D. Some The children were all upset, and some w ere_______________ tears. A. for B. at c . in D. on This factory needs modemizing. Everything here i s _______________ date. A. in B. out c . out o f D. beyond D on't vvorry, everything i s _______________ control. A. under B. in c . out o f D. for


6. 7. 8.

Sorry, I seem to have taken the wrong um brella__________mistake A on B .b y C .fo r Please hurry. We need these documents _____________ delay. A -on B. in c . without That wasn’t an accident! You did i t ______________ purpose'

D u .t l i

A - on

n. \\ith

B. of

c . for

D. no

9.

We thought the two íìlms were very sim ilar________ a great extent A. on B. to c . \vith D. at 10. Wc decided to take a holiday in W ales_____________a change. A. with B. for c . at D. in Exercise 7: Put in by,from, in or on into the blanks ( 0 complcte the follo\ving scntences 1. There’s something I want to \vatch___________ television. 2. They’ve told me I can have time off, but I haven't got i t ____________ vvriting. 3. I tound the English to be fairly íriendly people,_____________ the whole. 4. Why can’t you look at the problem _______________________ my point o f vievv? 5. Would you mind moving? You’re rather_____________ the way here. 6. I dialed the \vrong nuniber_____________mistake. 7. Is it OK if I w rite ____________pencil? 8. Are you h e re ___________holiday o r ____________ business? 9. I bookcd our seats a month ______________ advance and paid cheque. Ireland. 10. Jessica fell ill vvhile she w a s____________ a trip lo 11. Could you be quiet for a moment, please? I’m __________ the phone. 12. We ve had a few nice days, b u t____________ general it’s been a poor summer. 13. I \vas lucky. I found the solution_____________accident. 14. It’s a long joum ey. Let’s stop somevvhere___________the way and have a meal. 15. I spent ages looking for a phone b o x ,____________________ the end I found one. Exercise 8: Put in thc correct prcpositions (Eg. ơn, in, bv). You ma> also nccd ío use ‘th e’ or ‘m y\ 1. Do you think vve ought to book se a ts___________ advance? ~ No, I don’tthink s o .________ the whole it’s better to buy a ticket on the day. 2. Is it all nght ií I p a y ___________ credit card? ~ Well, if you đon't mind, l'd prefer i t _________ cash. 3. A lot of this iníormation i s ___________date. ~ I know. We do our best lo kcep _________ date, but it’s difficult. 4. Did the others lock you out o f the house _____________ purpose? ~ No it happened q u ite___________chance. 5. Is there an y th in g __________ television tonight? - No, but thcrc s somclhmg _________ radio I want to listen to. 6. These f!ats are s till_____________ sale. ~ Yes, they’ve b e e n ___________ market for over a year now. 7.

Was It an interesting talk? - ____________opinion. it was boring. but cveryonc clapped__________ end.


Chuyên để 5: READING (ĐỌC HIỂU) A. CÁ C DẠNG BÀI K IÉM TRA KỸ NĂNG ĐỌ C HIÉU Sau đây lả số dạng bài kiếm tra đọc hiểu phổ biến: - Đọc đoạn văn hay đoạn hội thoại và trả lời câu hỏi. - Đọc vả tìm một từ phù hợp văn cánh điền vảo chỗ trốniỉ (gap-fillirm). - Đọc các câu cho sẵn và sẳp xếp chúng thành bài hội thoại hợp lý. - Đọc và tìm ý chính của đoạn vãn. - Dọc đoạn văn, đoạn hội thoại và sáp xếp các thử tự thông tin. - Dọc đoạn văn, đoạn hội thoại và đặt câu hoi với úr gựi ý và tra loi. - Đọc đoạn văn, đoạn hội thoại và điền thông tin còn khuyết theo ban tóm tắt. - Đọc đoạn văn, đoạn hội thoại vả hoàn thành các cảu cho sẵn hay xác định các câu Díing (TRUF.) hay Sai (FALSE) hay Khòng chứa thông tin (NO INFORMATION) từ bài đọc - Đọc đoạn văn. đoạn hội thoại và tim hay giải thích niỉhĩa cùa từ troim \ ăn cánh - Đọc đoạn văn và chọn dáp án đúng dê tra lời từng cảu hói (multiple-choice) - Đọc một đoạn vãn dài và chú ý các thông tin chị tiết, các quan điềm, thái độ và nỗi các sự lựa chọn phù hạp cho từng đoạn văn ngẩn (multiple-matching) B. MỘT SÓ THỦ THUẠT LÀM BÀI THI DỌC HI Eli Theo các chuyên gia ngôn ngữ. dê làm tốt bài thi đọc hiên cằn dọc trước câu hoi đẽ định hướng nội dung cẩn tìm trong bài đọc hiểu: Thí sinh nên tập trung đọc những thông tin can cho cau tra lưi, cliir không nên cộ găng dọc \ủ hiêu liêt tât ca các từ troiiii doạn vãn. dọc mà không có định hướng gi chiếm rất nhiều thời gian và gây ra sự khó hicu Tùy theo các dạng bùi kicni tra đọc hiểu mà chúng ta có các cách làm khác nhau Vi dụ: 1. Doi với bài thi Dọc và tim một từ plùi hựp văn cành điền vào chồ trống (gaplilling) hay đọc doạn văn và điên thông tin còn khuyết theo ban tõm lắt. thi sinh cân xác định vị tri cân diên là loại từ gì (danh từ. động từ, linh lừ. liên từ ha) mạo t*-r........ )• sai1 dó có sự lựa chọn tir cho phú hợp với V nghĩa văn ban. thỏniỉ thướng dọc lướt toàn hài trirức. năm ý chính cua đoạn văn sẽ giúp thi sinh cỏ dĩip án de dàng và chinh xác hon. Exercise 1: Keail the paragraplis belcm and thc sumniarỵ \vliich lolloMs. Air polTution is a causc o f ìll-health in human bcings. In a lot of countnes there are la\vs limiting the amount o f smokc \vhich factorics can producc. Although there isn 1 enougli inlbmiation on the clìccls o f smoke in the alm osphac. doctors have proved that air pollution causcs hum discascs. Ihc gascs Irom thc cxhausts o l 'cars havc also incrcased air pollution in mosl citics. The Icad in pctrol produccs a poisonous gas \vhich oflon collccts in busy strcets s u r r o u n d e d h y h ig h b u ild i n g s . C h i l d r c n \vho livc in aiv u s vvhere th c rc IS a lot o f lead in

thc atmosphcrc can t think as qmckly as other childrcn and arc clunisv u hcn thcv usc their hands. Thcre are othcr long-tcrm clĩccts ol' pollution. \l' the gases in the atmosphere

"

continue to mcreasc, thc carth s climatc may become warmer. A lot ol thc ICC near the' ]

Poles ma melt and may cause serious tloods.

1


lo Z P^

) '" ‘ summ‘ ry by w M n g

co rre a KOrd

'■ » *'«»*r-«v«»«< ■

so m é^*uc o ũ n•trĩẽA r^ ãss ,— -------(1) can ^ m T c o n í ^ n i ; ----------- 121 c ° " s^ ' " " y --------------* ' 10 control the quantitv oi

I A\

the air. Air pollution causes p m íc u la ĩ đam áge to the bàdy b f t a rm i„g the for childrerTs---------------------- 1" ? * ,r“ !

Ũ

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h'nds07„!;„„r„'u? eĩ r i w ------- (7> and(8|aconèỉts ĩ th s very _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (10) T o T vẽrỹ bad bfld____

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h and So“ '' ™ * >ies, '“ •resulting inin

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TEL EV ISIO N Televis.on is an important invention o f the twentieth century. It has been nP0Pụlar hat now we can7 1 imagine what Hfe woú!d be.

iia

.

(2)

í n.

T f there were

(3 ). • • oTcom m uniSon'. ít b n n g s ^ s

and sounds from around the world into miilions o f homes. Through

(4).

S S „ r . sS , a n d ' T i" f c n J , y 'andS: M ? ' ■u •• knowlede e by introducmg to us new ideas. .. (6) mav lead us to new hobbies and recreations. In addition____(7). . . the nevvs televi^on provides us with a variety o f progràms thát can satisíy. . . . (8). . . taste Most peon^e ow seem to ike spenđing their cvcnings . (9) . . ídcvision. I. ,s morc c u m « dse

8

' ■ • • ( 1 0 ) - • • • t0

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a m ù se m e n ts a n y w h ere

E>erb « nts^ẵch ^ c e . " 0™ 8 passage and ' Kc dccide ,,hich

w

or D

at paHtaV^ y ^ v e r T t o p p e d ( I ).................. why people give each (2)........................ egKs , , . ^ r is tia n festiva] o f Easter celebrates the retum o f Chr st from the dead but the esnval actually name (3) . . . . . . . the gS deT s o f the sun Eostre whose name is taken from the East \vhere she (4)............ . . . . In very a n a e n t t.mes' to Sbegin aTheCÍ b bbU^t.on that Nvỉnter was (5) . . . . . and that a nềw h?e was ábouỉ ^ e\:c f ^ ............................ to the number o f young Ít produces Ít thè Symbol o f life. In somè parts o f the world, the rabbit leaves large (7) o f èees another Symbol o fn ew Iife) in the garden and ch.ldren have to fmd as 'many as they , í . ,v? 7 ( )............................. Chnstmas \vhen Santa Claus ieave presents lor ndividual chilđren. At Easter children have to be independent and (9) ẫfter hẹmselves. In this (10) the hunt for Eastêr eggs presents' the nccđ ồ youne DeoD e to Pf) nnt in tho ‘ 'CSCI1I!> me ncea ror 1. A. to \vonder 2. A. else 3. A. for 4. A. goes 5. A. íĩnish 6. A. as 7. A. numbers

B. \vondcnng B. person B. about B. sets B. cồnclusion B. since B. sums

c. u onder c. others c. after c. rises c. up c. due c. fígures

n . \\ andcr D. other D. with D. raises D. over D. because D. totals


8. A. like B. unlike c . diíĩerent D. similar 9. A. take B. get c . look D. carry 10. A day B. way c . habit r>. time 2. Đối với bài thi Đọc và trả lời cảu hỏi về chi tiết cụ thẻ: thi sinh nên tim ra từ •định hướng’ trong câu hỏi (từ địnli hướng đó sẽ giúp thí sinh biêt càu hỏi là vê vân đẽ gì và định hướng cho thí sinh phải tìm thông tin gi trong bài đọc, đọc lướt qua toàn bài, nhưng đọc kỹ phần có từ ‘định hướng' trong đoạn văn đê tìm chính xác câu trà lời. Exercise 4: Read the following passage and answer the questions. The world’s oceans are so vast that they can cope with thc present levels of pollution. Hovvever, little is known about the long-term eiTects ot' such slow poisoning. The most serious problem o f mođem time is that man is destroying the earth’s natural r e s o u r c e s and transíorming huge areas ìnto w aste land. As a result. Ít 1S becoming extremely diHìcưlt to grow enough to feed thẹ vvorlds rapidly incrcasing population. A way o f protecting all wild life on the earth must also be tound as many species are in danger o f disappearing completely from the iầce of the earth. The smoke in the atmosphere, for example, 1S ìncreasing so much thai the amouni ol

sunlight has been reduced in many cities. Man's whole environment is being changed in a serious \vay. 1. What is the process of making something dirty?

2. Find a word or phrase from the passage with the same meaning as the air, vvater and land in which we live?

3. What is the air surrounding the earth called?

4. What could be best replaced wealth, goods or Products peoplc can use?

5. What is-a difficulty which needs attention and thought?

3 Đối với bài thi đọc và trả lời các câu hòi tham chiếu: thí sinh cần xác định một từ, thường là đại từ chi đến một từ đã cho trước đó, hay đỏi với bài thi đọc tim nghĩa cùa từ trong văn cành, thí sinh cần chú ý tới văn cành mà từ đó ờ trong. Iiicu đoạn văn chứa từ đó mà suy diễn nghĩa cùa từ, đừng tập trung quá vào nghĩa đen cua nó vốn cỏ. Exercise 5: Read the folIo\ving passages carefully, then choose the ONE best answ er (A, B, or D) to each question The W interthur Museum is a collection and a house. There are many museums devoted to the decorative arts and many house museums. but rarely in thc United States is a great collection displayed in a great country house. Passing through successive generations o f a single family, Wintcrthur has becn a pnvate estate for

c


ce/ ltur^ ' Even after the extensive renovations made to it betvveen 1929

and 1931, the house remained a family residence. This fact 1S o f importance to the

atmosphere and effect o f thê museum The impression o f a I ved in house ,s apparèn

0 he f : the roọms , 00k as if they were vâcated only á short w hiíe a Ồ S by the orig.nal o w n er so f the fumiture or thê most recentresidem s oT th eh ou se can be a m a tte r o f p ẹ r s o n a l

rn T

ỉ 0

um,

in te r p r e ta tio n . W in tê r th u r r e m a ln s , th e n

a

h ou se

m

w ĩn đ i I

e and árchitectural elements has bèén assembled. Like an English

country house, it is an organ.c structure: the house. as w ell as the collection and

cmncul J

ĩ

il t0

_ *°r’

c^ n6ed over the ýears. The changes have

co.ncided with developing concepts o f the American arts, increased knowlềdge Ồn thề h t , *ect0rs s^udents’ and a Vrôgression toward the ach^evemeni ol I historical effect in period-room dispiays The rooms at W interthur havè folk)wèd this current, yet still retained the character o f a private house The concept o f a penodI room as a display technique has developed gradualỉy over „2 ***?' ° f a r t ■" • . . woPuld 5 o w , h e m to ? w°.u ,8ùve them m° re mệàning f° r the vìewer. cómparable to the habi at group in a natural history museum, the pénod ròom reprcsents the decorative

1. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. The reason that Winterthur was redesigned B. Llements that make Winterthur an unusual museum c . How Winterthur compares to English counlry houses D. Historical fumiture contained in Wmterthur 2. The phrase "devoted to" in line 1 1S closest m mean.ng to

A. surrounded by B. special.zing in c . successful in D. séntimcntal about 3. What happened at Winterthur betueen 1929 and 1931 A. The owners moveđ out B. The housé was repaired c The old fụmiture was replaced D. The estate became a museum 4. What does the author mean by stating "the impression o f ă ĩived-in house IS

apparent to the visitor" (lines 5-6)? A. Winterthur is very old. B. Fe\v people visit Winterthur. c. Winterthur does not look like a typical museum D. The fumiture at VVinterthur looks comfortable 5. The vvord assembled" in Iine 9 is closest in meaning to A. summoned B. appreciated c. brought together D. líindamentally changed 6. The \vord "it" in line 9 refers to A. VVinterthur B. collection c . English country house D. visitor 7. The word "developing" in line 11 is closest in meaning to A. traditional B. exhibiting c . iníormative

D. evolving


8. According to the passage, objects in a period room are related by all of the following EXCEPT A. date B. style c . place o f manufacture D. past ownership 9. What is the relationship between the two paragraphs in the passage? A. Paragraph 2 explains a term that was mentioned in Paragraph 1. B. Each paragraph describes a different approach to the display of objects in a museum c . Paragraph 2 explains a philosophy o f art appreciation that contrasts \vith thai explained in Paragraph 1. D. Each paragraph describes a different historical period 10. Where in the passage does the author explain why displays at VVinterthui have changed? A. lines 1-2 B. lines4-5 c . lines 6-8 D. lines 10-12 4. Đổi với bài thi Đọc và trá lời câu hỏi có ý nrơng tự: thí sinh cằn hiểu các cách diễn đạt khác nhau cùa ý đó. (Ví dụ: Đọc đoạn văn và xác định các câu Dúng (TRUE) hay Sai (FALSE) hay Không chứa thông tin (NO INFORMATION) từ bái đọc) Exercise 6: Rcad the passage belo»' then State whether the following sentences a re T R U E o r FA LSE: TR A D ITIO N S AND CƯ STOM S Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain, traditions play a more important part in the life o f the people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud o f their traditions and careíully keep them up. It has been the la\v for about three hundred years that all thc theatres are closed on Sundays. No letters are deliveređ, only a few Sunday papers are published. To this day, an English family prefcrs a house with a garden to a Hat in a modem house vvith Central heating. English people like gardens. Sometimes the garden in ữont o f the house is a little square covered with cement painted green in imitạtion of grass and a box o f flowers. Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland. Ireland, W ales and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday, and in Scotland it is not kept at all, except by clerks in banks; all the shops. mills and factories are working. But six days later, on New Y ear’s Eve the Scotch begin to enjoy themselves?-All the shops. mills and íactories are closed on New Year's Day. People ìnvite theừ friends to their houses and " sit the Old Year out and the New Year in". When the clock bcgins to strike twelves, the head of the family goes to the entrance door, opens it wide and holds Ít until the last stroke. Then he shuts the door. He ha;> ld the Old Year out and the New Year in. Now greetings and small presents are offered. A new national tradition was bom in Bntain. Every year, a large number of ancienl motor-cars and motor-cycles__ sometimes described as Old Crocks___ London to Brighton. “Crocks” means something or someone who 1S “ crockeđ up”__broken down and in bad condition. Englishmen keep up the old vetcrans. Vctcrai cars are those which were made before the year 1904. Some cars look very funny,somc are steered by a bar, like a boat. Somecars are driven by steam-engines (by boil water and not by petrol). This run from Lonđon to Brighton is a colouríul demonstration. People are dressed in the clothes of those times. The cars start fron


Hyde Park only in the moming, the oldest cars are leading. It is not a race anH m Jie cars come to Brighton, which is sixty miles from London, on"y in thc èveninu. Thĩs emons a lon ta es place on the day o f the announcement o f the law in 1896 which said

SSĨ

E iT - S 'fa S e

wa'k in

c m ỵ motor-car Then it moved alonỉ " ; ofmotor-careand a £ i d

1. In Britain, traditions are very important in the life o f people. Englishmen have always changed their traditions. E rìíĩlish fnmi1if»c

;_____.

S í fami!ies prefer l,v,ng ,n modem Ãat* 10 Christmas 1S the biggest holiday in Scotland.

houses vvith gardens.

Pcople in B rit.il. like K lebraúng •• su !he Old Year uut and the Ncw Ycar in" eve ™ “ r,ra" ° n ° f anC1Cn' m0,° r-cars a" d "'O.or-cỹcles is h e ìd ln England 7' M B rig h to T '0™ 1 race f0r ancienl molor-cars ” d motor-cycles frõm London 8

S e ,rlTarsarly days o f mo,or-cars- drivers had '° » « rcd clothes whcn đrivinụ

1 n cai ma khòng dược 1thê ỉ ' hhiện i - âUJrò ,Òi suymà f ngụCần1 pháisau su>;diễ" '°*fc * tim ráng ý đang thông túi irong ba, n> thòng

“«

Xi c V S T Í ỉ ỉ s r

' hen ^

' he S

i b .s,

77?:

í b"fbre the ^er,OUS study o f treê rmgs s arted: t h ĩ was dỒne ,n Arizonaby Andrevv Ellicott Douglas. L aD° Ugl!|S dfeVeloped a s im Ple technique for dating trees called cross-datinư and fo apenod o f ọver hventy years continued the study o f tree nngs. He spent m u ch o f kis time in logging camps néar FIagstaff’. p 1 The Douglas method hạs been used by many sc.ent.sts, Some of them used it to “

0gs n u

P u e b l° n iin s ' th e y

w e r ê a b le t o d a t e th e b u iĩd m g s n g h t b a c k

. T ? 10 * * * * *** ^ the b d 2 e pmes 1. What can be inferred from the íĩrst paragraph? A. Leonardo made many discovenes. B. Leonardo was famous as a painter c . Leonardo was interested in the aging process D. Leonardo became famous because o f his tree ring discovery. 2. What also can be inferred from the first paragraph? A. Leonardo started the serious study o f tree rings B. Leonardo-S discovery was not developed for ĩnany years c . Tree r.ngs were studied in Arizona for a long time after Leonardo. D. Douglas vvas a famous Arizona scientist 3. What can be inferred from the second paragraph? A. The term cross-dating was invented by Douglas. B. An uncomplicated method o f tree-dating was discovered by Douglas. c . It took Douglas 20 years to developed a tree-dating technique.

t ò th e

8


D. The technique o f cross-dating was developed near Flagstaff. 4. What also can be inferred from the second paragraph? A. Logging camps are good places for studying trce rings. B. Douglas spent 20 years near Flagstaff. c . Douglas spent most o f his life studying tree rings. D. There are courses for studying tree rings near Flagstaff. 5. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? A. The Douglas method has been used since the 10th century. B. Indians used the Douglas method to examine loggs. c . The earliest known trees can be dated by the Douglas method. D. Indians used bristlecone pines to construct their buildings 6. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? A. American Indians lived in the region investigated nearly a thousand years ago B. The Douglas method can be used to date all the 10d' century ruins. c . Scientists dated the bristlecone pine to the 10lh century. D. The Indian pueblo ruins were not as old as the bristlecone pines. 7. What was involved in the passage? A. Leonardo spent much o f his time in logging camps near Flagstaff. B. Leonardo spent much o f his time in logging. c . Leonardo spent much of his time in examining logs. D. None is correct. 6. Đối với bài thi Đọc và trả lời câu hỏi khái quát (hòi về ý chính hay chù đề cúa bài): Thí sinh nên tìm câu trà lời ở câu đầu tiên hay câu cuôi cùng cùa đoạn văn. 7. Đối với bài thi Đọc và chọn đáp án đúng cho mỗi câu hói từ các đáp án dà cho (multiple-choice): Thí sinh cần đọc toàn bộ bài đọc trước tiên đê hiêu nội dung cua bài đọc, sau đó bao phù các phương i n lựa chọn, và chi nhìn kỹ vào từng càu, từng ý, hay từng câu hòi, và sau đó có thê tìm câu trà lời trong bài đọc băng chính ngôn ngữ của mình. Sau đó, mới bãt đâu đọc các phương án lựa chọn, xem thư phương án nào gần với câu trà lời đầu tiên cùa mình nhât, và loại bò những phương án vô lý, hay gây nhiễu nhất. Bằng phương pliáp loại trừ dần các pliựơng án sai, chúng ta sè quyết định một phương án tối ưu cho đáp án cùa mình. Đối với dạng bài đọc hiệu này, cần chú ý các câu hòi thường theo trật tự như các thông tin trong bài đọc. Nếu cỏ câu hòi về toàn thể bài đọc và câu hòi về mục đích hay thái độ cùa tác giả đoạn văn sẽ thường là câu hổi cuối cùng và nên dùng thù thuật 'recul hehveen ìines' đê suy nghĩ về thái độ và tinh huống cụ thế cùa người viết. Exercise 8: R ead the Iblkm ing passages carelully, then choosc the ONE besl answ er (A, B, c or D) to each question T H E BEATLES In the 1960s, The Beatles vvere probably the most famous pop group in the whol( world. Since then, there have been a great many groups that have achieved enormou! II fame, so it is perhaps difficult now to imagine ho\v sensationaỉ The Beatles \vcrc i that time. They were four boys from the north of England and none of them hatl an training in music. They started by períorming and recording songs by blac Americans and they had some success with these songs. Then they started writin their own songs and that was when they became really popular. The Beatles changci


pop music. They were the íìrst pop group to achieve great success from songs they had wntten themselves. After that Ít became common for groups and singers to vvritc their own songs The Beatles did1not have a long career. Their fưst hit recõrđ wás in 1963 and they split up in 1970. They stopped domg live performănces in1966because ú hạd become too dangerous for them - their fans were so excitcd that they surrounded them and tried to take their clothes as souvenirs! Hovvever, today sonìe o f their songs remạin as famous as they were when they íĩrst came out. Throughout the world manv people can smg part o f a Beatles song if you ask them. 1. The passage is mainly ab o u t________ A. How the Beatles became more successful than other groups B. Why the Beatles split up after 7 years c . The Beatles’ fame and success D. Many people s ability to sing a Beatles song 2. The four boys o f the B eatles________ A. Came from the same íamily B. Were at the same age c . Came from a town in the north of England D. Received good trainmg in music 3. The word “sensational” is ciosest in meaning to A.Notonous B. Bad c . Shockrni"D. Popular 4. The lĩrst songs o f the Beatles w e re _______________ A. Written by themsel ves B . Broadcast on the radio c Pa d a lot o f money D. Written by blacic Ăm encans 5. What is not true about the Beatles? A. The members had no training in music B. They had a long stable career c. They became famous when they wrote their own songs D. They were afraid o f being hurt by fans i.The Beatles stopped theír live períbrmances because A. They had eamed enough rrioney B. They did not want to work with each other c. They spent more time vvriting theư own songs D. They were afraid of being hurt by fans. 7. The year 1970 was the time vvhen__________ A. They split up B. They changed pop music ' c. They started their career D. They stopped singing live S.What the fans o f the Beatles often did w a s ______ A. Smg together with them B. Take their clothes as souvemrs c. Ask them to w nte more songs D. Ask them why they should separate 9. Some songs o f the Beatles now_______ A. Are still famous as they used to be B. Became too old to sing c. Are sung by crazy fans D. Are the most famous 10. The tone o f the passage is that o f ______ A. Admịration B. Criticism c . Neutral D. Sarcasm . Đôi với bài thi đọc về một bài viết có nhiều đoạn nhò, và có khoảng 7 câu bi lirơc bA.đií * c_ác đoạn.văn nhò và đề chỗ trốn8; Thí sinh được cung cấp khoảng 8 câu khộng theo trật tự nội dụng (được đánh số từ A tới H) và được yeu cầu phải chọn câu nào phù hợp đẻ điền vào chồ trống (gap-filling). Đối với dạng nay thi


sinh nên đọc lướt toàn bộ đoạn văn. hiểu ý bao quát cùa đoạn văn. sau đó cố ỉiắng đoán các thông tin bị thiếu trong đoạn văn, hình dung thông tin cần điền vào các chỗ trông là gì. Tiếp theo; thí sinh nên đọc kỹ các câu đã cho để điền vào chỗ ừống, cố gắng tìm ra sự nối kết giữa các câu đó và bài khóa (chú ý: câu cẩn được chọn đề điền và đoạn văn chứa nó phải có cùng chú điểin). Sau khi đã chọn được đáp án rồi, thí sinh cũng nên đọc lại toàn bộ đoạn văn xem nó có nghĩa không, đẻ khăng định lại một lân nữa sự lựa chọn cùa mình là chính xác. Exercise 9: Choose from sentences A -H the onc Yvhich íits each gap 1-ố. There is one extra sentence you do not need to use. (12 points) A Industries have polluted the water, íishing has destroyed sea life and divers have damaged large parts o f the coral. B The crew \vere helpful and pleasant and the price vvas also very reasonable. c Altogether, it was a vvonderíul tnp. D I’m not sure I vvould go again. E It stretches for 2000 kilometres and is up to 800 meừes wide. F Hovvever, I didn’t think I could take part in a dive cruise and not dive. G At no point were we permitted to swim away on our own. H I was right it was an incredible sight. A Natural VVonder When I was asked to visit and write about the Great Barrier Reef, I was thrilled. had heard reports o f dam age done by tou n sm and other Industries, but felt that th(

Reef would still be a wonderful place to see.

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From the air, the Great Barrier Reef seems huge. 1 _______ I wasn't sure hon best to explore such a giant place, so after I had landed. I made enquiries and vvas told th best way to see the Reef is to take a dive cruise. I booked a place on a three-day cruise, an< despite vvamings about the State o f some of these boats, the boat I w as on was comíbrtabl and clean. s ________ I was entúled to eight dives plus use of wet suit, ílippers and othe equipment, three meals a day and two nights' accommodation Although I have been diving before, I am not an experienced diver. I vvas nervous to begin with, but soon felt completely safe. We were divided inK groups according to our ability and each group was gi ven an instructor. They had ver strict rulesl— With our guides, we saw some amazing sea life inclũding small sharks, crabs an thousands"ồf colouríul tropical fish swimming around in the coral. The other diveĩ were friendly and the evenings on board were very pleasant While I \vas at the Great Barrier Reef, it became perlcctly clcar 1'rom th conservalion programmes I came across, that the damage I had heard about had bee done. ° _______lEnvironmental groups have done much to stop this damage, bi sadly it continues. Despite this, the Great Barner Rccl' is a \vondcrful place to go. l or I1K al lcast is one o f the most significant natural wonders our earth has to offer. 9. Đối với bài thi đọc ờ dạng như sau: Thí sinh được yêu cầu nối các cảu hói hay các câi nói với các đoạn vãn ngắn của một bài đọc dài. Các đoạn văn ngẩn này cỏ thể về cá 9 con người, nơi chốn, . . . khác nhau. Thông thường, thí sinh được vêu câu nôi cá thông tin chi tiết hay quan điêm, thái độ được diễn tá trong bài đọc với chủ thế cú


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Tae Kvvon Do is a martial art which has become DODular as .. sporting activity in recent ýears! I started leammg it in the Ivory Coast in Africa when I was ahnnt l ì o ^ I » 1___ E

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bee" i ent by ‘he Tae Kwon Do federation in Korea tô open a club. It was very successíul. When he ám véd he didn° ,me mỵ. brother and I started leaming Tae weL were fighting like mad. But we quicklv understoođ we had to stop ôghting bécause we re a lú S ĩ that iìghúng was about se r ^ e l n c ỉ , n o ĩa g ĩe s s io n . Taễ Kwon Do teaches you to control your anger and control your bodv It IS 2 g° yOUr memory co-ordination and selĩ-d scípl nè ^ ô p te d a restaurant and then moved back to Korea. We had a verv frienđly relationship, but somehow I íeel like I was a d sappointrnent to him. He thought I had a futu è m he sport Bu, whẹn I was 17 I đíclded it vfas not vvhat r .a n t e d to d í t>. Hclen Mirren Kwon Dn

7 elding' * * w < ™ be,wee„ ,he V " d, ' V was m stram emaĩ in mý bécoming an actress. She knew I was interested in acting bút it iust w asn’t n optiọn in my wor!d My father was a d r tin g examíner and wasn t exposed to acting as a career It was Miss Weldmi! oId me about the National Youth Theatre \vhich was an sugglsted ! ỉ < r .n t o T a n d ' going there. About ten years after I left schooi c o % ĩ „ ; e„ d p t ™ 'ĨJy lê pm ũlí parts' 1 ® a letter trom Miss w éld n ! saying she was foIlowing my career wưh imeTest but as (aí af I know, she never came to see me p c r Z r She c e r tầ ^ v never came to see me backstage


10. pointed their pupil in the direction of a successful career? 11. demonstrated a sense o f humour? 12. decided what to teach by responding to their pupil’s interests? 13. shovved what was necessary instead o f talking about it? 14. was also doing another job? 15. put an emphasis on vvhat pupils expressed, not the way they expressed it?

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N isha Ishtiak My father was eđitor o f PakistarTs largest newspaper and he knew and liked its librarian, A tif Burkhi. A tif was welleducated and when I was about 12 my father decided 1 shoulí leam more about the region's history and he chose Atif as my tutor. It tumed out to be an inspired move. He \vould come to our house once a week to teach me, from the end o f school unti supper. He took me through a lot of history, but after a few lessons I got bored. ‘I know youYe beinc paid hy my parents to teach me this stuíìy 1 said, ‘but there are other things m the world. ’ He burst out laughing as he so often did and askec ‘What do you want to talk about then?" And so we would discuss global issues and world literature. D. S u z a n n e T e rry Brian Earle, my English teacher vvas a very intense man vvit thick glasses, and the fact that he taught a lot of his classes standmg on his head was also seen as extremely peculiar. He taught me for just one year and it was probably one o f the most Creative years of my life. He didn’t believe in giving marks for grammar or punctuation; he implieđ that the mechanics o f \vriting were not important ií you had something to say. When I wrote a short story for him called ‘A rm y\ he simply wrote across the bottom: 'You’vc just got lo kecp on writing. ’ Those few \vords o f support had a fantastic effect on me in terms o f wanting to wnte and be involved in writing Brian Earle had a love o f teaching and his subject._______

Chuyên để 6: WRITING (VIẾT) Trong các đề thi học sinh giỏi cấp PTCS, các bài thi viết thường ờ các dạng sau: Viết một lá thư (viết lá thư cho bạn bè, người thân kể về một chuyên đi cùa mìn hay về lớp học, tình hình học tập, sinh sống cùa mình, hay lá thư mời bạn tớị d sinh nhật mình, hay đi nghi hè cùng mình.........(write an mformal letter); việt cho ông (bà) hiệu trường, một nẹười đứng đầu tổ chức, câu lạc bộ nào đó để nghị hay phàn nàn, yêu cầu về van đề gì, hay đăng ký xin học bông, xin việc... . (write a formal letter) - Viết một đoạn văn miêu tà về quê hương, bạn bè, người thân, nghề nghiệp y thích, lễ hội, kỳ nghi........ Viết một bài luận nêu quan điểm cùa mình, hay đưa ra lập luận dê đánh giá mi cái gì đỏ. Sau đây là một sổ gợi ý, giúp các em làm tốt phẩn thi này: * HOW TO VVR1TE A LETTER I. How to w ritc a form al lettcr. (Cách viết một lá thư trang irọng) * T he ib rm a t of th e íb rm al letter (Hình thức cua một lá thư trang t r ọ n g ) :


Rcceivcr s address n h e rv c e iv c r 'x nam c

W riter‘s address

Ihc rcccivcr mic /ĨIC rccctvcr ‘v compuny) The rccciver X addrcxs ỉk u c (ngậy thảnK) fìừn, tin*, hiệu, âwt}i ỊV. Jtu chi titơ ĩỊỊỊuth nhthì)

Date

Dear Sir/ Madam, (opening a lettcr) Giving the content o f the letter (nội dung chính cùa bức thư) Ending the lcttcr I look forward to your reply Yours faithfully, Your signature.

*

*Một sổ qui ước khi viết thư: - Địa chì của người viết ở góc bên phải của lá thư d ự c i,!

v i'ếfn CÔng * "ay

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- Lời chào của lá thư, bạn nên dùnạ ‘f t w Sir/M adam ' nếu bạn không biết tên của1 người bạn đang viết tới. Nêu bận biết tên người mình viết tớ?, bạn nên dùng ước ẵ X ĩ nw l {u r , rt MÌSSorị - D r ' e t c ). Đổi với phụ nữ nêu minh ĩ S chẳc chẩn biết họ có gia đình hay chưa chúng tà dùng 'Ms + tên /"</, đoi vơi phu Iiữ ! ta^

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' C.UÒ\ !á ,h ư ’ t,iường có câu 7 lo o k/o m a rd to your repỉý (Tôi mong đơi sư Dhúc đáp từ ông/ bà)/ ' / look forward to hearingfrom you. ' g ựp th.ìrhlí.a-K ÚC thư bàn? •Y<>}>rsjaithfulìy nếu bạn không biết tên của người gừí. kết thúc băng Your s in c e re ly nếu bạn biết tên cùa người gửi. Viẻt chữ ký và tên đầy đù của mình ờ cuối cùng cùa lá thư * Bô cục cùa lá thư: nên có nhiều hơn 3 đoạn. - Đoạn đầu nên ngẩn gọn chi mục đích cua lá thư (yêu cầu hay phàn nàn cái gì) dòng d ư / y v ẳ r cua lá thư nẻn chửa đựng các thÔng tin cần thiết- khÔng viết dài cho logic, dễ hiểu. người nhận t h í nên chỉ ra những hành động’ sự hồi đáp mà người viết m0ng đợi từ


Cltủý: Không nên viết tất trong các lá thư trang trọng. Ví dụ: Tránh viết (l'm .. . / She's.. .) For example:_____________________________________________________ ’ Fortune Goods 3 /7 Orcharcỉ Road Singapore Mr David Clioi Sales Manager Everlong Batteries 171 Choi Hung Road Hung Hom HongKong Seplemher I811' 2(111 Dear Mr Choi, I am \vnting to infonn you thai the goods we ordered from your company have not been suppỉied correcíly. On 23 September 201 ỉ weplaced an order withyourfinn for 12.000 ultra super long-lựe batteries. The consignment arrived yesterdaỵ but contained onh’ ì.200 batteries. This error put ourfìrm in a dỉfficult position, as we had to make some emergencỵ purchases to'fiứfiỉ our commừmertís to aỉl our customers. This caused us considerable inconvenience. I am Wìiting to askyou to please make up the shortfall immediately and to ensure that siich errors do not happen again. Otherwừe, we may have lo look elsewherefor our supplies. I lookforward to hearingfrom you by retum. Yours sincerely J. Wong PurchaSing Offìcer___________________________________________________________Ị II. How to write an iníorm al letter. Cách viết một lá thư mang tinh bạn bè, thân mật cũng giống như cách viết một lá thư công việc, nhưng lời chào, lời kết thúc lá thư và nội dunẹ lá thư, chúng ta sử dụng ngôn ngữ thân mật hơn và có thể viết tắt trong lá thir. Cụ the: Chủng ta bất đầu lả thư bằng ‘Dear + first name (Dear Hoa,) Chúng ta kết thúc lá thư bàng: > 1’m look forward to seeing you. > Write to me soon. > Love, > From a lot o f love. > Good luck > Best vvishes. > See you then. > Take care. > .............. For example:


v!!ĩ! r^ y edy f tẤ&miỉw1(Ị ri,t looglud thatyou re matóng reaỉity what)vt, utuuys \xwaed. , í í T yOUr e'! íocome in thesiunmer because durìng the summer Hf have many cooking ỉestivàl. Ị™. ?. •»entịon thatyou want to meet peopie coõking evcnĩ/ay. tÌhii 's possihlc u .c y v j ° u 80 ÍO° ur restaurant wt'ere everyday deỉicious meais areprepared IlU . wa,! [ toknow what our traditionấl/oodis thai's 'Briham \vhich conlains many vegetables and it s very high in vtíamins and cárbohadrateỉ. AW asforyour invitation I m very Sony but thai tì,ne I mV/ bVsitting my schoo! excm I (t love to seeyou when you wilỉ come. Take care. Romati m. Cách viết cụ thể một số lá thư

----------

1. How to write a letter of invitation J ũn® như bố c,ục cùa một lá *hư thônể thường’ 'á thư mời cần có đầy đù làichảo va kẽt thúc cùa lá thư, nlurng nó cần đảm bảo đưọc nội dung sau: Phân đâu thư nên nói mục đích viết thư cùa mình, mình định mời ai đến dự kiện gì (What the event?), ờ đâu (where?), khi nào (when)

sự

' • 2 ? nỉ í du T f Cỉlíni1C,ủa Iá thư nẻn nẻu ,ởi mởi (maki"X ">'«“"<'») vả yêu cải. cho sụ khăng đ|nh lại có đên hay không của vị khách được mời (askingfor corựinnation)

y ,ú ị : ĩ ó 2 ,th] được sử dụn8 tron8 lá thư mời: Present Simpỉe Tense được dùng đè nói vẻ sự kiện; Future Tense được dùng để hoi và khẳng dinh lai rang vi khach có đẻn đen hay không. * Một số ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng trong lá thư mời: Making invitation: Would you ỉike r d like you Are you free W hydon’ty o u Will you How about What about - Do you feeỉ like Shall we Let's * Iníorm al wavs:

to come to my birthday party next Saturday?

come to my birthda) party next Saturday? coming to my birthday partv next Saturday?

go out for a picnic next Sundav,) gomg out tor a picmc next Sundav,,

It vvould be great vvonderíul ifyou could come to the conference ne.M Saturday? \ our presence at our conỉerence would be highly appreòiated It 1S our pleasure to invite you to the coníerence next Saturday? It IS our pleasure to have your presence at our conference_____ Asking for conĩirmation: Give me a call if you (can) could come. Let me know if you can come. Please let us know if you are planning to come

"“


Let me know about your plan as soon as possible. Just let me know when you can come and where we can pick you up. Please reply as soon as possible. * Sample letter o f íorm al letter of invitation____________________

Lisa GreertỆ 45 South Racìne Avenue, Chicago, IL United States -(312) 996-8700 Karen White 4550 Kennedy Drive, East Moline, IL, United States (309) 792-2500 December 20, 2011 Dear Karert. I have g o t the news th ai you are Corning dow n to Chiva vo Ịor the Christnuis llii.s year. Il is a great opportunity to meet. I lìave invited all II1V Iriends and acquaintances fo r a party on Christmas Eve. The party is organizes al my home and will begin at 7. 00 pm. It is indeed a pleasure to invite your family and you Jor the party. This will he fun and we can enjoy together with all the friends. It has been quite a Innự rime rliai you have been away from horne due to your work. This is the pcrfect clìance lu ineel afíer a ỉong gap. We will try to bring hack the Christmas memories thai wc shared at our scììool and college time. . Our children will get to kttow each other and the relalionship thai we share wilỉ strengthen as it will pass on to next generation. I hopeyou wiìl be able to Iiiake it to the party. I am looking forw ardfor your positive reply. Please let me know in advance so thai I can mcike the necessary arrangements. Let's make this Christmas memorable with get together ofỴriends. Yours sincerely, Lisa Greene * Sam ple lette r o fin fo rm a l letter of invitation

Dear Mai. / ’;« having a birthday partx next Saturday. \Vould you like to come. The partỵ starts at 7. 30 p. m and emỉs at ì ì. 00 p. m. Ị'm going lo invite somc <>f our uld cỉassmates, too. You lì ineel snme n f vour old fríends whom vnu haven 7 seen fnr so long. You can also ẹnjoy garttes, singing and dancing as well as many kinds of delicious cakes and fruits. Pỉease come andshare the happiness uith me. Please let me know if yoit come. Call me soon. Love, L Nga______________________________________________________________________ II 2. Ho\v to w rite a letter of acccptancc or rcfusal Cụng như bố cục của một lá thư thông thường, lá thư chấp nhận hay từ chối việc gi 1 cần có đay đủ lời chào và kết thúc cùa lá thư. nhưng nó cần đám báo đirợc nội dung sau: Đoạn đâu cùa lá thư cần nói rõ mình rât cảm ơn lời mời hay lá tlur mòi (SayingỊ thanks for the invitation) Đoạn hai của lá thư cần thể hiện rõ sự tiếc nuối cần phái từ chối và lý do hay sự vui lòng châp nhận lời mời.


-

Đoạn ba, nêu chấp nhận lời mời, mình sẽ nêu thời gian tới. hòi xem có cần yêu cầu mang gi haỵ nói mình tự nguyên mạng gì đến (nếu cần thiết) và nếu từ cìiối lời mời thì có thể nói lời cảm ơn lại một lần nưa và hẹn một dịp khác. * Một số ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng trong ‘a ỉetter of acceptance or reíusal': Acceptance: - Thank you very much for your invitation. I’d love to/ I’d be delighted to. . . . -Sure!/ Great! That would be fun/ wonderful. -That sounds like fun. - Great. Let’s plan for it. -That’s a good (great) idea! Reiusal: -Thank you very much but I'm afraid I’m busy then. - 1 wish I could but I'm busy. Maybe another time. Thanks/ thanks anyvvaỵs. / What about next Saturday,.. . . Saying thanks again and suggesting anothcr time: I hope we can get together on other occasions. - Maybe some other time. - Could we make it another time? Maybe next Sunday or the other after that. - What about next Sunday? Sample letter of informal letter of refusal______________________________________

Detir Jack and Betty, Tlìankyou vety much/oryour invitation to have a Ììoliday with you inyour hometown. I miist first apologize fo r the delay in respơncling lo you so late lo vvhich I regret and promise that I will not do tliis to vou (tguin. I also regrcl thai ỉ am unable lo come íỉuc to prcvious cDininilincnl hut hopc ìlhil \\ c will be uble to meel up soon to catch up UI1 uur neus un uthcr occusion. You see ihat / will be attending a summer eourse at thai timư. Once again please accept my apologizes fo r mỵ tardiness With best regards. Jenny Sample letter of iníormal letter of acceptancc____________________________

Decir Jack and Betty, Thank you very much fo r your invitation tu liave ư holiduy \vilh you in vuiir hometown. I 'd love to come and that 's a great idea to have a relaxing holiday in such peaceful and romantic pỉace asyour hometomt after a hctrd Horking limc. r u Iravel there by traiiĩ and tcike some o f your /avorile things Jrom the biggesl supermarkets. See you then. Love, Jenny Sample letter of tormal letter of reíusal 543 Pinc Vallcy Great Faỉls, IL 5999ì Dong Peterson Executive Director Software company ..


122 Main Street South Toxvn, MO 76890 April 24, 20ì I Dear Thomas, We appreciate that you took the tirne to apply fo r the position o f sales manager with our company. ỈVe received applications from many people. After reviewing your submìtted application materials, we have decided thai we wiìỉ not offeryou an inỉérview. IVe appreciate thatyou are interested in our company. Pìease do apply again in the future when you see a jo b posting fo r which you quaỉiỷy. Agciin, thankyou fo r applying. We wish you alỉ the best. Regards, Dong Peterson________________________________________ Sample letter of ĩorm al letter of acceptance____________________

507 Sliore Drive Hampton. VA 235(11 Mr. Jack Krebs, Divisiun Manuger Delta International Corporation 1212 Corporation Lane Richmond, VA 23312 Apríl 24. 20ì I Dear Mr. Krebs: I write to confìrm my acceptance o f your employment offer o/April 20 and lo tell you how delighíed I am to be joining Data International in Richmond. The work is exactly what I have prepared fo r and hoped to do. I feel confìdent thai ỉ can make a signiftcant contribution to the Corporation, and I am gratefuỉ fo r the opportunity you have given me. As we disciissed, I wiỉl report to work at 8:00 a. m. on May 22 and will have compìeted the medical examination and ding tesling by the start date. I understand thai my starting saỉary will he $35,000 annually with heallh and (lcntal coveragư provided, Additionaỉìy, ỉ shall complete CIÌI emplovmcnt and insunmcc forms for the new employee ưrientatiun un May 23. I look forward to \vorking \vith you 1111(1 vour JÌI1C tcd/n. / appreciale voiir cònfìdence ĩĩĩ me and am ven happy lo be joining your stajf. Sincerely. Jack Brown_________________________________________________________________ 3. How to write a thank-vou letter. Cũng như bố cục của một lá tlur thông thường, lá thư cảm ơn cần có đầy đủ lời chào và kết thúc cùa lá thư. nlurng nó cằn đảm bào được nội dung sau: Nội dung chính cùa lá thư phải diễn tà được sự biết ơn hay sự đánh giá cao cùa minh về những thứ minh nhận được hay sự giúp đỡ từ người khác,. . . và diễn tà được mình thích thứ đó như thế nào hay nhờ sự giúp đỡ đó mà còng việc của mình tiến triển như thể nào. Đoạn cuối cùa lá tlur nên diễn tả lòng biết ơn và càm ơn cùa mình một lần nữa. * Một sổ ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng trong ‘a thank-you lctter’


Expressing gratitude/ thanks - Thank you very much for your help/ helping with my work. Many thanks to you f o r.. .. It was very kind o f to help me with my work. ỉt was extremely good o f you to. I’m very much obliged to you for. . . I’m really grateíul to you for......... We would like to express our thanks/ gratitude to you lor helping. . .

But ior your greal help (assistance), we couldn't ha ve fmished our work on time. - My work cou!dn't have been successfnl \vithout your great help.

■VVe are extremely thankíul for your special help (assistance) and donation.

Professor: Van Hung. Pham The Director o f Vietnam nationaỉ ưniversity. Xuan Thuy St. Hanni

73 Nguyên Bieu Hanni, Vietnam 04 4567889

September 15"'. 20ì ì

Dear Mr Hung,

Thank you fo r all the heỉpyou have given me with my jo b search. ỉespeciaỉly appreciate the information and adviceyou have providetl. and ilw contactsyou have shared with me. Your assisiance has been invaìuablè to mầ durìtìg this process. Again. thankyou so much. / greatỉy appreciate vonr genernxitv Best Regards. Yours. Nguyên Minh ỉỉieii____________ 4. How to write a letter of complaint n CŨ" L nh,ư bố cục củ.a một lá thư th^ nẽ tliườnê ’ lá thư phàn nàn cần có đẩy đi. lời chào và kêt thúc cùa lá thư, nhưng nó cần đảm bảo được nội dung sau: • -

Nêu được mục đích và lý do cho bạn viết lá thư pliàn nàn về vấn đề gì Chi ra được sự phức tạp hay khó khăn của vấn đề. Đề nghị cách giải quyết vấn đề Đê cập tới hành động tương lai cúa việc giãi quyết đó

• Cuôi cùng kết thúc với sự lịch sự và mong đợi sự phúc đáp Chú ý:

■Lá thư phàn nàn nên ngẳn gọn, súc tích. 'uLỞÌ,?*Vả ĩ í độ của người Vlế- nẽn lịch.sự Y1 sự thô lỗ’ tức 8'ận hay mía mai, chế nhạo không thê giúp bạn giải quyết được vắn đề. - Người viết luôn thể hiện mình tha

th iế t

được giải quyết vấn để nhanh.


- Chú ý luôn đề nghị thời gian hợp lý cho hành động giài quyết vấn đề trước khi minh có thể có những sự lựa chọn khác. * Một số ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng trong 'a letter of complaint' - I am vvriting to you

in connection with regarding with

the radio I bought from your shop the rubbish you make around your restaurant.

to complain about about complain about

- 1 feel/1 must p

protest about

your making out so much rubbish around your restaurant.

Give suggestions for solving the problems I vvould suggest that you should collect the rubbish as soon as your restaurant closes. It would be better if you could send me a reíund. Why don’t you collect the rubbish as soon as your restaurant closes? Will you send me a refund soon? VVays of ending a letter o f complaint. I hope we will deal with it successfully. I trust this situation will not occur again. I would be very grateful if you would send me a reíund. I would be very grateíul if you could solve the problem soon. Your solution would be highly appreciated. Sample letter of complaint. Thư phàn nàn về lỗi của sản phẩm (complaints letter example about íaulty product) ____________________________________________________________

85 Minh Khai, Hanni Sales Manager Electrícity shop 75 Hang Bai Street Hanoi Apriỉ 24. 20ì 1 Dear Sirs/ Madams, On May ỉ ơ \ I bought a CD player, model JVC 204 at your electronio shop at 75 Hang Bai Street. I am disappointed because your product has not performed as it sliould. Its volume is too small even thouglì I maximiie it. Furthermore, the sound o f CD is not good. Sometimes, it has a bu22 when I am playing a music CD. Therefore this product is not o f satisfactory quality. To resolve the probỉem I would ỉike to require you to replace another one with highqualitỵ or give me a rẹfund. Enclosed are copies o f the receipt and the contract.______


I look forward to hearing from you and to a resolution o f this problem. I wilỉ wait for yo u fo r three days before seeking help from the leader o f the consumer group. Please contact me ai the email address nguyenhieu@gmail. com or by phóne number 0913459977. I really appreciate your help. Yours sincerely, Minh Hieu

5. How to vvrite an application letter Cũng như bổ cục của một lá thư thông thường, lá thư thinh cầu hay đon xin cần có đầy đủ lời chào và kết thúc cùa lá thư, nhưng no cần đàm bảo được nọi dung sau: Thông thường lá thư xin việc hay đơn xin học yêu cầu lối viết trang trọng, chúng ta thường băt đâu lá thư băng: Dear Mr/ Mrs/Ms + sumame hoặc Dear sir/tnadam. ■ Đoạn đầu cụa lá thư, người viết nên nêu rõ mục đích viết lá thư của mình, mình quan tâm đên công việc gì, trường học gì, và mình biết về công việc, vị trí hay trường học đó như thế nào.

For examples:

to you I am vvriting

with reíerence to in response with regard to in reply to to reply in connection with

\

the position o f working as a secretary in your company

to apply for

the advertisement for a tourist guide in The M oming Times. the post of tourist guide advertised in The Moming Times. to enroll for summer activities he d by your English Club. to apply for a scholarship to study in your college. - Đoạn thứ hai nên miêu tà ngắn gọn công việc hiện tại bạn đang làm (For

examples: I am currently working for. . . . / working as a receptionist in. . . / studying in. . . ) và nói đây thuyêt phục bạn có khả năng làm công việc được quảng cáo đó, hay đù năng lực đê tham gia trường học, các hoạt động.. . và nêu một số dẫn chứng đề chứng minh điều đó. (For examples: Ị believe thai I can meet all requiremenís o f tlìe job because.......... / ỉ am sure that I have the appropriate qualifications, experience and personality fo r this post/ position because.......... / 1 feel that I would be suitable fo r thẹ post/ position because I am hard-working, patiení and honest.) - Đoạn tiếp theo, ngưòi viết nên hỏi cụ thể về thời gian khi nào mình có thề tham gia cuộc phòng vấn cho công việc và khi nào mình có thể đảm nhận công việc đó.


(For examples: I am available fo r an inlerview at anytime at yơur convenience. /] will be willing to start \vork from the beginning o f Sepíember. ) - Đoạn cuôi cùa lá thư nguời viết nên nói về sự hửng thú và mong đợi được tuyển dụng vào làm việc hay được chấp nhận là một thành viên của câu lạc bộ . . Kết thúc lá thư một cách trang trọng và lịch sự. Sample letter of a job a p p l i c a t i o n . ________________________ Mr. George Gilhooley XYZ Company 87 Delaware Road Hatỳìeld, CA U8065 (909) 555-555 george. gillliooleydcvemail. com September Iơ'\ 2011. Dear Mr. Gilìtooley, I am wríting to apply fo r the programmer position advertised in the Times Union. A.s requested, I am enclosing a completed jo b application, my cerii/ìcalion. mv resume and three references. Tììe opportunity presented in this listing is very interesting, and I believe tliai my strong technical e.xperience and education xviỉỉ make me u very cumpetitivc candidate f o r this p o sitio n . The k ey stren g th s that I p o s s e s s fo r SUCLVSS in thi.s p osiiion incituie:

- 1 have successfully designed, developed, and supported live use applicatiniis - 1 strive fo r continued exceỉỉenve - 1provựìe exceptinnaì contrihutions tn customer senicv fnr all atstomcrs Witlì u Bachelor oJ Science degree in Computer Programming, I liave a full understanding o f the fu ll life cycle o f a software deveỉopment prọịect. I also have experience in learning and excelling at new teclinologies as needeiỉ. Please see my resume fo r additionaỉ in/ormation on my experience. 1 can be reached anytime Via email at georgc. gilIliooleỵ{u}emíiil. com or IIIY i cll plìone, 909-555-5555. Tìiank yoư /or your time and consideration. 1 look forward to speaking \vith yưii aboui this empỉoyment opportunity. Sincereỉy, Hatfield_____ ________________________________________ ______________________ 6. Hovv to write a letter of request Cũng như bố cục cùa một lá thư thông thường, lá thư yêu cẩu cần có đầy đủ lời chào và kết thúc cua lá thư. nhưng nó cần đàm bao được nội dung sau: Đoạn đầu lá thư. người viết cần nêu rõ mục đích viết thư cùa mình là yêu cầu về một vấn đề gi đó. Đoạn tiếp theo, người viết nên cung cấp một ít thông tin về mình đê người nhặn thir nhận ra người viết là ai. Sau đó, người viết mới viết ngắn gọn vồ các \èu cầu của minh. - Đoạn tiếp theo người viết cũng có thể trợ giúp thêm một số thông tin hay chia sè thông tin để đối tác có thể đáp ứng được yêu cầu của minh và cũng chì rõ thời gian mình cân nhận được sự phúc đáp lại cho những yêu cầu của minh - Đoạn cuối thư người viết nên cung cấp tên, địa chi, email, số điện thoại đẻ liên lạc lại và nếu cần hòi xem đôi tác có cần yêu cầu gì lại không.


• Cuối lá thư nên có sự cảm ơn về sự trợ giúp từ đổi tác - Két thúc lá thư một cách trang trọng và ljch sự. *Một số ngôn ngữ thường sử dụng trong 'a letter of request’ Can you Could you please Would you mind Could you possibly Would it be possible for you to I would be grateíul if you could I would highly appreciate if you could I am \vondering if you could I wonder if you could Sample letter of request

send me some inlbrmalion aboul the fee, the time, the course book for the course.

75 Nguyên Trai Hanoi. Vietnam 04 66778809 The Director o f New Sun Language Institute Le Duan Sl, Hanoi Dear Sìr/ Madam,

September 25 '\ 2011

Isaw your Institute's advertisement OI1 tọday's TVprogram. I am very interesìed in learning English and I \vould ỉike some more ìnformation about vnur Institutc. I can speak a little English, but I reaci it very slowly and my writing is bad. So 1 m nt to improve my reading and writing. Couỉdyou pỉease provide more information abnut the length ofthe cnurses and fees for beginners? I can suppỉy my record o f English studv Ị f necessary. I ỉook forward to hearingfrom you soon. Yours faithfuỉly. 7. How to write a letter of coníìrmation A letter of coníìrmation là lá thư đáp lại mội cách khẳng dịnli ràng mình chấp nhặn lời mời hoặc sự nhờ iàm gì độ qua thư cùa ai đó. Cũng như bố cục của một lá thư thông thường, lá thư khẳng định cần cỏ đầy đù lời chào và kết thúc cùa lá thư nhừne nó cân đàm bảo được nội dung sau: Đáp lại lá thư mời cùa đổi tác * I am ve/y happy/ glad to hear thatyou are going to have u party. y It is very kind/ nice/sweet o f you to invite m e . . . . Khẳng định lại rằng mình có tham dự được và thời gian, đia điểm, phương tiện gì bạn đen 'y I um sure r i l come. / Certainly, I will come. . . . > Certainly, r i l heỉpyou. . .. > I am so happy to help you. / '11come at 4. 00 on Monday ___ Luôn thê hiện răng bạn mong đợi đến ngày đó, việc đó


I am looking forward to it/ to help you. / can 7 vva/7fo r it any longer. / 7/ co/ne a«í/ / 7/ ốe waiting fo r you at the airport at 5. 00 p. m. See you then. Sam ple letter o f coníìrm ation > > >

Scptcmhcr 25'1'. 20II Dear Hoa. I m happv to hear that you are going toỉìcive a birthday party next Saturdciy. Cerlainlv. ỉ m willing to heỉp vou to nrẹanize the partỴ. ỉ '11 he free tnmnrrmv sn ỉ 'II go shopping with you to buy everything necessary fo r the party. / vv/7/ aỉso help you to send the invitation cards to votir friends. I 'II be at your tìouse ai 7. 00 a. m íomorrow. Love, Mai Jackỵ Brown Green Grass Company Hongkong Billy Bo Miracle Grow Fertilizer Shanghai, China Augusi 12"' 20II Dear Billỵ, We would just like to confirm the agreement made during a phone conversation on Fríday, Juìy 22"d. As per our conversation, our company, Green Grass Companỵ. agrees to deliver a 5-ton amount o f Green Grass pesticide toyour location in Shanghai every weekfor the duration o f 10 ,weeks. Upon compỉetion o f this task, we will recvive the sum (>) $5 million íiolìars. I f we fa iỉ to meet our obligations. all terins o f the contract wilỉ be terminated and we xvill receive no compensation fo r our work. Please respond to verựỳ that all the ahove information is correct and to confìrm your obligation in this. agreement. Yours sincerely, 8. How to w rite a letter of recom m endation ‘A letter of recom m endation’ là lá thư giới thiệu về một thể mạnh, ve đẹp cua nơi nào đó, hay ưu điểm cùa một ai đó, thường là đê giới thiệu nơi đỏ với khách dụ lịch hay giới thiệu người nào đó với người khác, hay một tô chức nào đó đê họ có thê xin được việc làm. xin được học bòng hay tham gia một tò chức nào đỏ. I ùng như bó cục cùa một lá thư thông thường, lá thư giới thiệu cần có đầy đù lòi chào và kết thúc cua lá thư, nhưng nó cần đàm bảo được nội dung sau: Mờ đầu lá thư luôn nói rõ mình muốn giới thiệu ai. nại nào cho ai. - Nội dung c h í n h cùa lá thư luôn nói rõ về những thế mạnh, ưu diêm cùa nơi hay người ma mình muốn giới thiệu.


-

Đoạn cuối của lá thư cũng cần nêu một số lợi ích mà người nhận thư sẽ được hưởng và kết thúc với sự mone đợi một kết qua tốt. Ví dụ 1: nêu viết lá thư giới thiệu về một điểm đến cùa du khách thì cần theo sườn ý sau: A letter of recommending a place Outline: Introduction: Name and location o f the place. Body: Most important good features (Food and drinks; local people; travel; accommodation; weather; entertainm ent,.. . ) Conclusion: make sure that the tourist will have a good holiday (a great time) there and have polite letter endings. Ví dụ 2: nếu viết lá thư giới thiệu về một ai đó thì cần theo sườn ý sau: A letter of recommending a person Outline: Introduction: Name o f the person and the reason vvhy you recammend him/ her. Body: Most important good ĩeatures (family background: education background: appearance & personality; expenences.. . . ) Conclusion: make sure that the receiver will be satisíied with him/ her and have polite letter endings. Sample letter of rccom m endation___________________________

Dear Jenny, I am very happy to hear thai you are going to spend your summer hoỉiday in Vietnam. I woul(i like to recommend a weỉl-biown place in Vietnuni tu you. u 's Nhu Trang Beach. Nha Trang Beach is located in the South coastline o f Vietnam, in Khanh Hoa Province. Nha Trang Beach attracts miỉlions o f tourists every vear. Most tourìsts are impressed by a clean, well-serviced seaside resort. It has a long nhi te xand heaches. The sea water is very blue and clean. You can go swimming, go surfing, go boating in the sea. ỉn addition tu the long streích o f beach, many different attractions and activities are available. Vacationer often visit Ponagar Tower, Dien Khanli Citadeỉ, Tomb o f Yersin, ỉỉusband Island. Mother Isìand, Van Phong Bay, Duc My Hot- ỊVater Spring Mud Batlĩ and Lo River, Oceanic Institute, Tri Nguyên Aquarium; Giant Buddha; and many ỳĩshing offshore islands. The weather iu Nha Tranẹ Beach is mostly sunny all year arouììíỉ witlì an average temperature of 26 (lơgrơe Cưlsiiis. Peopìe here are verỵ Jrìendly. At night, you can have a City tour 0)1 a very Iinique, nice pedicab. You can enịoy many delicious kinds o f seafood at reasonable príces. Tliere is also a hig seỉection o f hotels and mini-hotels in Nha Trang. Furíhermore, there are daily fỉight frnm Hu Chi Minh City to Nha Trung so il is verv convcnìcM lo Iravel tu Nha Trang. ỉ think you sììould come and see Nha Trong, ỉ am sure you will liavc a vưry wonderful holiday there. 1 am looking forward to hearing from you. Your sincerely, Minh Hieu


Sales Manager Software company 098672345 Executive Manager Electronic Company 87 London St July2(Hh 20ỉ ỉ Dear sir/ madam, I have had the pleasure o f working with Alicia Jones during the pasí two years xvhiỉe she has served as an Assistant in my ofjfìce. Alicia has shown the ability to estabỉish an excellenl rapport with many different constituents including students, administrators. and staff. Alicia is genuinely interested in helping others and provides Service in a consistently positive and helpful manner. Alicia is self-assured and calmly handles the stress associated with busy times in the offỉce. Alicia is exceptionally responsible and volunteers to jump in and help out m th anv tasks. She blends a weỉl organized, task oriented style with the aforementioned sensitivity to the needs o f our cỉienteỉe. I have rarely met a siudent employee over the past ten years upon whom I can rely as much as Alicia. As you can telỉ, I think very• highly o f thừ young woman and recommend Alicia without reser-vationsfo r employment or any other endeavors she chooses to pursue. Please let me know i f you have anyfurther questions about thừ outstanding young woman. Your faithfully, David Bro\vn____________________________ * H O W T O W R IT E AN ỀSSAY I. Làm thế nào để viết một bài luận tiếng Anh hiệu quả Trước khi bất đầu viết bài luận Tiếne, Anh. bạn cẩn phải xác định 3 điều quan trọng: viet gì, viêt cho ai và viêt như thê nào. Sau đây là một số lời khuyên giúp bạn viết tốt bài luận Tiếng Anh. 1. Hiểu rõ chủ đề Phân tích và hiểu rõ yêu cầu của chù đề. Một phương pháp hiệu quả là bạn nên gạch dưới nhữug từ ngữ quan trọng trong chủ đề nhằm xác đính những ý chính mà chủ đê đang đề cập đến. 2. Trả lời chính xác câu hỏi Đây là lời khuyên quan trọng bạn nên lưu ý. Trả lời câu hỏi sai là một sai lầm phổ biến của học sinh. Hãy chăc chăn hiểu rõ những gì giám khào nêu ra trong chù đề và bạn sẽ được đánh giá cao nếu câu trà lời thật sự xoáy vào câu hòi đỏ. 3. M ờ bài tốt Mở bài nên ngắn gọn súc tích và những điểm chính được nhấn mạnh. Bạn nên làm rõ một số khái niệm trong bài viêt cùa mình. Mờ bài sẽ bị mất điềm nếu quá đi sâu vào chi tiết, rồi sau đó lập lại những lập luận này trong phần thân bài. Bạn nên bắt đầu trong phân mỡ bài với những câu văn có cấu trúc đcm giản vì điều này giúp bài luận trờ nên rõ ràng hơn.


4. L ập dàn ý Một dàn bài cụ thể giúp bạn tập hợp được suy nghĩ của mình cũng như không quen đe cạp đèn những lập lụận chính. Đây là cơ hội cho bạn vận dụng trí tuệ vẻ những gì bạn biẽt liên qụan đến chù đề. Đừng nên đi vào chi tiết quá nhieu hãy viết các ý chính roi sau đó triển khai thành câu vãn hoàn chình trong bài luận. 5. Ba bước quan trọng tro n g lập luận - Bước 1: trình bày nhận định và ý kiến cùa bạn. - Bước 2: giải thích nhận định và ý kiến ấy. Đừng quên là liên quan đến chủ đề

điều bạn giải thích ph

- Bươc 3: xem xét và cân nhăc lại tranh luận cùa bạn. Đây là cơ hội để bạn thể hiện những lý lẽ trong tranh luận này là do chính bạn nghĩ ra chứ không phải sao chep họặc ghi nhớ từ những nguôn tài liệu khác. Bước cuối này còn được gọi là “Phân tích đánh giá”, là phân khó khăn nhất nhưng cũng chính là phấn cần thiet nhất để ghi áịem.

S(JII đâỵ là cách trình háy một mật vấn đề. Nó dược sử (lụng nhàm thuyết phục người đoc tin hoăc lủm mrìr vìêc uì /ìn MAt IVĨMAồ nân .-A ■ Tô chức

Ngôn ngữ

Phân giới thiệu

cho người đọc biết quan điểm của tác giả

Quan điểm cùa tôi là ..

Hàng loat các lý lẽ

trình bày các lý lẽ một cách hợp lý (mỗi đoạn một ý), đưa ra ví dụ khi cần thiết

Kết luận

Tông hợp-lý lẽ

TÔI nghĩ. . . Đâu tiên là,. .. Thứ hai là,. .. Cuối cùng là.. . . Do đỏ,. . . Kết lu ậ n ,...

6. Kêt luận Nen neu ra một cách tóm tăt các lập luận trong bài cũng như nhấn mạnh câu trả lơi chinh cua bạn. Kêt luận nên cô găng thêm vào một số ý mới và không hoàn toàn phải lập lại những ý đã có sẵn trong bài. 7. Suy nghĩ rõ ràng và dùng từ hiệu quả

Điêu quan trọng nhất lả viết những gì có liên quan đến chủ đề. Mặc du chất lượng qụan trọng hơn sô lượng, nhưng cũng đừng nên lúc nào cũng theo phong cách tối giản và viết càng ít càng tốt. Viết văn súc tích đoi hỏi ờ bạn một suy nghĩ rõ rang. Kể từ khi ngon ngữ trơ thành một công cụ thê hiện suy nghĩ, sự cậu thả trong sừ dụng ngôn ngữ cỏ thê bị đánh ạiá như cẩu thà trong suy nghĩ, o một số trường hợp, học sinh thường cô gàng nghĩ đến các từ ngừ phức tạp nhầm tạo nên một bài luạn tot, nhưng hãy lưu y sử dụng chúng trong ngữ cành phù hợp. 8. Cách trìn h bày Điem đánh giá cùa bài luận có thẻ bị giảm chi vì những lỗi nhó liên quan đến chính tả, dàu câu,. . . . hay cách canh lề và nên trinh bày một luận điếm trên một đoạn vãn. 9. Viết có tính thuyết phục ' Đê trình bày một lý iẽ trong một đoạn văn cho có tính thuyết phục, các em nhớ phải biêt cách viêt một đoạn vãn. c ấ u trúc của một đoạn văn như sau:


A PA R A G R A PH (1 đoạn văn) * Topic sentence (câu chủ đề, nêu ý tường chính cùa đoạn văn) * S upporting sentence 1, 2,3,4,. . . (các câu phát triển ý là câu chứng minh cho câu chù đe, I1Ỏ có thể là ý ệiài thích, hay nói rõ hơn ý cho câu chú đềbàng cách đưa ra dẫn chứng minh hoạ, sổ liệu, sự k iệ n ,.. . ) * C oncluding sentcnce (câu kết luận của đoạn vãn là câu khẳng định lại câu chủ điểm, tóm tất lại các ý của đoạn văn)__________________________________________ Để các đoạn văn có thể liên kết với nhau, và được thống nhất trong một mạch chảy của bài viết, các em phải biết cách sử dụng các từ nổi câu cho hợp lý. Sau đây là bảng các từ/ cụm từ nối. Chú ỷ, sau các từ/ cụm từ nối này, chúng ta sử dụng một mệnh đề, trừ những cụm từ có dấu (*) trên đầu thì theo sau là cụm danh từ, danh từ.

First o f all -fìrst(ly) (Tritớc hết là. = initialìy = To begin with; Second (ly): Thứ 2 là; Third (ly): thứ 3 là; First, Next, Then, After that (thừ), FolIowing thừ (,thai), Finally. *Tlìe first reason is . . . / * The second is. . . *Last but not least. . . (điểu cuối cùng nhimg không kém quan trọng hơn những cái khác là. .. ) Also (cũng vậy); Furthermore (Hưti nữa là) = In Adding to what we addition = Aclditionally = Moreover; Besides (Ngoài ra) have said (Từ nối để chúng ta có thể - and, similarly, likewise, as well as thêm ý vào điểu - not only. . . but also.........; even heside this/that ch úng ta đã nói) Contrasting (từ nối In contrast to this= On the contrarv = In contrast (tmmg để diễn tả ý tương plian với); Conversely (Đối lập với); Ort the other hancỉ (Mặt khác là. . . ); ỈVhile (trong khi đó); ỈVhereas (Trong khi); phàn) However (Tuy nhiên) Despite/ in spite of/though/ although/ even ihough (mặc dầu);otherwise (mặt khác thì);nonetheless (tuy nhiên, dù sao) Simiìarly (tirơng tự); Likewise (Như thê, lưưtig tự như vậy); Expressing similarity (từ nối đê In the same way (trong một cách như vậy) diễn tã ỷ tương tự) Showing results (từ As a result (như một kêt quá thu đirợc)= As a consequence = nối để diễn- tả kết Consequently; Hence (vì thế, vì lý do đó cho nên; do vậy) = Thus = Therefore = So quà) Giviitữ examples For example - For instance (ví dụ như là); in particular = (từ noi đế đưa ví dụ particuỉarly (cụ thê là. . ); * such as (như là. theo sau là một loạt danh từ liệt kê; that is/ that is to say/ namely........) minh ho ạ) Although = Even though = Thouglĩ (mặc dáu)= In spite o f Conceding (từ nối th ừ / the fact that. . . = Despite this/ thai/ the fact that; * In diễn tả sự nhượng spite o f . . . = * despite. . . however (tuy nhiên); nonetheless bộ) (tuy nhiên, dù sao); still (mặc dù vậy, áy thê mà); yet (song, vậy mà, tuy nhiên) In other words (nói một cách khác); thai is lo say (điêu đó nói Restating (từ nối rằng..); to put it simply (đê nói một cách đơn giản rang.. .) diễn tả sự giải tliích lại, diễn đạt lại ý)

Sequencing/ lisring (từ nối clii sự liệt kê)


Infering (từ nối diễn tả sự suy luận) Summariỉing (từ nổi diễn tà sự tổng kết lại, tóm tắt lai. .

In other words; in that case ((rong trường hợp đỏ thì. . . )• (or) else ịkẻo không, th ì..); othermse (nếu không thì. . . ) In summary — To sum up = To conclude = To recapitulate— In conclnsion = ỉn short —In brief,. . . . (nói tóm lại rằng/ đế tóm tăí lại, đê cô đọng lạ i,.. . ) ; In a nutshell, lasíly, ỹinaỉỉy

10. Trả lòi câu hỏi chính của chủ đề. Cuôi cùng, đọc lại bài viet thật nhiều lần để xác định bạn đã tập trung và trà lời câu hòi mà chủ đề nêu ra hay chưa. Sample paragragh: Should students wear school uniíbrm? State your opinion in a short paragraph.

My opinion is that secondary school students should wear casual clothes. Firstìy, casual clothes make students feel comfortable because lìxey don I ịcel cọnstrãineìỉ lu wear uniforms that they don't like. Secondly, \vearing casual clothes gives studenls Ịreedom o f choice. They have rights to choose size, colors and/ashions ofclothes thai they love. Thirdly, casual clothes make students feel self-confident when thev are in iheir /avorite clothes. Finally, casuaì clothes make school more colourful and lively. In conclusion, secondary school students should wear casual clothes. tVearing casuaì clothes is convenient, comfortable and fun. Sample Essay: Write an essay about the importance of TV. Outline Essay Introduction Today it is very common in industriaỉised Introduce general topic (TV) countries fo r a household to have at least one Narrow down topic (household television. In fact, it is so common thài it is diffìcuỉt to imagine a household without TV. This without TV?) shows just how signựìcaní television is to us. but Focus on thesis (TV important) Reasons and reader guide we can see that its importance is fa r greater than (valuable programmes. content, just being an object we own i f we look at the variety o f programmes and valuable content it purposes) offers and the purposes it serves in (luily lije. Body: developmental paragraph First o f all, there are many different types n f 1 (Variety of programmes) programmes on teỉevision thai are useful. The Topic sentence (topic and viewer can watch a weather report to prepare fo r controlling idea: many programme the day. Cartoons and sport provide relaxation and jủn. Scìiool programmes, documentaries and the types) news teach us about the world. And advertisemenís Supporting ideas (list some types) inform us about Products and new ideas. Details (íunction) Bodỵ: developmental paragraph Secondly, the Content is relevant hecause ií is 2 (Iníòrmative character of content) reaỉừtic and up to date. As TV is a medium that Topic sentence (topic and combines moving, colour images and sound, it controllmg idea: what makes resembles real life, so the viewers can identiỷy \vith what they see. Fwthennore, modern technology content attractive) means that the content is up to date, fo r example, Supporting ìđeas (realistic, e t c . ) news reports càn be broadcast live and Jrom all Details (value for viewers) over the yvorld. Thừ means thai information is available almost anywhere at anv time.


Body: developmental paragraph 3 (serves many beneficial purposes ÚI daily life)

Finally, TV can be used to enhance many important aspects o f everyday Hfe. Peopìe seek entertainment and distraction, and TV can give Topic sentence (topic and us that in the form o f film s or cartoons. People controlling idea: how does TV want educaíion, inỊòrmation and instruction meet peoples needs) because they are inquisitive and ỉike to learn. TV gives us these in documentaries or educational Supporting ideas (people's needs) programmes, in reports or cultural magazines. Details (speciíĩc íùnctìons) People enjoy creativity. and TV gives us that in (he work o f all the people involved in creating clever film scripts, ejfective scenery, wittỳ dialogues or magnificent camera shots. TV gives us the world, other cultures, other people languages and ideas. Il introduces us to knowledge. Conclusion In conclusion, TV serves our ỉife. TV is a very essential appliance and our life would be ditll and boring withoul it. B. BÀI TẬP T ự ÔN LUYỆN * Write a letter.

A. Guided writing: Make ail the changes and additions nccessary to produc from the foUowing sets o f words and phrases that together make a complete letter Exercise 1 Dear Madam/sir 1 .1 / like / express / concem / increasing number / karaoke bars / City// 2. There / be / lot / reason / 1 object / places// 3. Firstly / owners / take / much money / those / come / sing 4. Secondly / they cause / much noise / neighborhood 5. Thưdly / there / number / pupils / play truant / just / go / those places / sing 6. Last / least / these bars / do harm / appearance / city / because / their / ugly / ílashing lighư/ 7 . 1 / want / say / 1 / not / old íashioned person// 8 . 1 / hope / authority / take / matter / careful consideration// 9. I / not mean / ban them / but / there should / effective way / control / this kind / entertainment places//


10.1

/ look / see / City council / do / this master

Your truly, Jon Brown Exercise 2 Dear Hoa, 1. I / vvrite/ introduce/ you/ language school/ you/ can improve/ English. // 2. Instead of/ leam/ your own/ as/ you/ do/ now/ you/ should leam/ speak/ English/ others

3. The Academy o f Language/ offer/ you / good and íriendly environmenư practice/ English// 4. They/ also/ have/ well-qualified teachers. // Therc/ classes/ different levels/ the aftemoon/ evening/ and/ courses/ begin/ íĩrst week/ this November// 6. If you/ interested/ you/ can phone /38765432/ ĩurther iníòrmation// Best o f luck!

Mai Exercise 3 Dear Mom and Dad, 1. I/ arrive/ Hanoi/ 5 o ’clock yesterday moming// 2. I/ staying/ nice hotel// 3. Iư not/ far/ City center// 4. I/ already see/ Uncle H o’s Mausoleum/ some places/ ìnterest here// 5. Tomorrow/ going on a trip/ Ha Long Bay// 6. I/ never/ be/ there before// 7. I/ be excited/ trip/ not sleep// 8. I/ be back/ Sunday, Nov 10th// 9. I/ tell you/ more/ trip/ when/be/ in Hue//


A lot o f love. Mai Exercise 4 Dear Mary, 1. It / be / long / time / since / 1 / last hear /'you// 2. How are you getting on? 3. you / like / come / stay / me / my cottage / countryside?// 4. You / your family / vvelcomed / if / want / visit / us// 5. v/hat about / come / the end / next month?// 6. Write / let / me / know / if / you/ come. // A lot oflove. Daisy. Exercise 5 Dear Marry, 1. 1/ be/ very happy/ geĆ° letter// 2.

I/ not knovv/ you/ arrive back/ Vietnam//

3.

You/ ha ve/ good time/ London?//

4.

I/ look forward/ hear/all about It. II

5.

Thank you/ invite/ me/ dinner/ next Saturday//

6.

I/ afraid/ not able/ come. //

7.

Because I/ attend/ my auntâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s/ vvedding party//

8.

What about/ next Sunday//

9.

If possible/1 come over/ your house/ dinner next Sunday//

10. W rite/ me/soon// From love, Tom


Exercise 6 Dear Sir or Madam, I. V see/ your Foreign Language Center/ advertisemenư Vietnam ’s News// 2.1/ interesteđ/ improve/ my English speaking/ your Language Center. // 3. l/\vould like/ have/ some/ more míòrmation/ the course/ F.nglish speaking skill. 4. you/ tell/ me/ thc schedule/ fee/ the courses?//

5. Will/ L' tested/ beĩore/jom / the classes?// 6. I/ looking/ forward/ hear/ you. // Yours sincerely, Minh Hoa Exercise 7 Dear Sir/ Madam, 1.1/ write/ you/ the fans in my room/ I/ ask/ your company/ install. // 2.1/ not satislìed/ becausc ol/ thc poor quality/ thc fans/ provide/ your com pany.' 3. The fans/ not work/ well/ because/ \vhen/ they/ run/' high speed/ they/ make/ a lot o f noise. // 4. This/ rcally/ make/ me/ diHìcult/ sleep/night. // 5. Furthermore/ they/ noư electricity-saving fa n s/1/ need/ buy. // 6.1/ \vould like/ your company/ responsible/ all the repair work. // 7. If possible/1/ vvould like/ have/ other nevv electricity-saving fans/ high quality. // 8. I/ look for\vard/ hear/ you/ and/ get/ quick resolution/ these problems. // Y ours ía ith tu lly,

Minh Tri. Excrcise 8 Dear Mai, 1. I/ w n te/ tell/ hovv sorry/1/ be/ hear / vou/ fail/ that examination. // 2. I/ know/ you/ try/ besư work/ very hard/ but/ that examination/ be/ too diHlcult. //


3.

I/ think/ you/ not be/ too disappointed/ no\v. //

4.

There/ be/ many other examinations/ come/ and many ncvv challenges/ comc you/ too//

5.

I/ hope/ you/ succeed/ the next year's examination. //

6.

You/ have / 2 weeks off/ you?

7.

Why/ you/ not visiư us/ the countryside?

8.

We/ have/ a lot o f fun/ here/ and/ you/ reíresh/ that hard examination. //

9.

Please/ write/ me/ phone/ if/ you/ come. //

10. W e/ look forward/ see/ you/ soon. // Exercise 9 Dear Mrs. Jenny, 1. On behalí/ our class/ V \vould like/ express/ great/ gratitude/ you/ help/ us/ organize/ English Speaking Club. 2.. Ỷou see our Hnglish Speakmg Club wouldn't havc been held successíully but for your great help. 3.

The English Club/ stimulate/ English leaming/ among us//

4.

All o f us had a lot o f fun and leamed a lot from each other in the Club.

5.

I/ hope/ get/ more/ assistance/ you/ the future/ hold/ activities/ the Club/ regular//

6.

I/ loolcibrvvard/ hear/ you/ soon// Yours sincerely. Mai

Exercise 10 Dear Sir/ Madam, 1. I write/ you/ apply/ part-time job/ you/ advertise/ Labor News. // 2. You/ say/ you/ need/ tutor/ help/ your daughter/ Math/ Chemistry/ Grade 9. 3. ư be/ grade 11/ now/ and/1/ be/ very good/ Math/ Chemistry. // 4. I/ be/ really interested/ work/ tutor/ free time/ in order to/ eam/ some more money/ my study. //


5. Because I would like/ become/ teacher/ in the íuture/ so/ work/ tutor/ give/ expenence 6. Furthermore/1 be/ gentle/ patient/ hard\vorking. // 7. I/ think / I/ meet/ your demands/ and/, help/ your daughter/ study/ these subjects/ good. // 8. I/ go to school/ the moming/ but/ I be/ free/ other altem oons/ excepư Tuesday/ Thursday altemoons. // 9. I/ would preíer/ work/ Monday, Wednesday and Priday aftemoons/ 2 p. m/ 4 p. m. 10. I/ look lbrvvard/ receive/ reply. // Yours faithfu!ly. Nguyen Minh Hieu B. Free writing Question 1 You have rcceived the following lettcr irom your English-speakin” IVicnd.________ Thanks for mviting me to stay wiih you whcn ỉ visit your country ncxt month I'm not sure how to get to your apartment from thc airport. Could you write back giving me some basic instructions? What \vould be the best method o f transpõrt for me? I'd prefer one that isn't too expensive! Just one other thing - \vhat wi!l the vveather he 11ke when I get therc? (Just so knovv what clothes to pack!)........... .......................

ru

Write your lctter o f reply to your triend (around 120-180 vvords). Question 2

'

\oư have seen the foHowing ịob advertisement in your local youth centre.___________ A C T IV 1T Y CO-ORDINATOR WANTED! (\Vcckends only) \Vould you likc to \vork vvith young childrcn agcd 5-117 Do vou have lots o f eneruy? Are you an cxcellent s\vimmcr? II thc ans\ver to thcsc i]Licstions is 'ycs' then wc \\ant to hear from vou Our ( hildrcns Club is lookmg ior somcone to hc in charue o f a group ol’ 10 children to leach thom s\vimminiỉ and to do a raniỉc ol othcr activitics. Plcosc scnd a lcttcr to Mr Hung saymg why you are suitable for the |ob. VVrite your IcttCr of application to Mr. Hung, (around 120-180 \vords)

Ọuestion 3 You ha ve received the ib]|ọwing letter rrom your [ĩnglish penlriend.________________ I'm rcally pleased you're planning to attcnd an p.nuiish language summer course in England to study. Let me know \vhat type o f course youVe intercsted in and ril call some language centers and institutes to ask iòr some morc dctails. lh c morc iníormation you can give mc the better!_________ Write your Ictter o f reply to your penfriend (around 120-180 vvords).

Ọucstion 4 You ha ve seen the lollinvmg job ad\crtiscm cni un ihc nơticcboard ol Nour local language school:


CLUB ORGANISER NEEDED! (Monday and W ednesday evenings only) Our language school is lookinu for a person lo help organise a Film Club for students o f English. Our I-ilm Club will niecl INVÍCC a \vcek to \\alch a lĩ 1111 111 ị English followed by a discussion o f the nim. Do you have some knowledge oíE nglish? Do you like working with groups o f people? Arc you mterested in films? If you think you would be a suitable person to organise our Film Club then we \vould like to hear from you. Please send a letter to thc school ovvner saying \vhy you are suitable for thejob ___________________________________________________ Write your letter of application to the school owner. (around 120-ISO \vords) Question 5 You are reading an English language magazine and you see details of a language school that you are interestcd in._______________________________ LEARN ENGLISH AT YOUR OWN PACE! If you would like to study English on a course that has been specially designed to meet your needs and mterests, then contact the Principal o f the ElTective Leaming School giving details o f your: Motivation jbr studying Hnglish: lcngth ol‘ ume siudyiniỉ l-.nghsh; streniĩths aiul

\vcaknesses in the language Preferred start date and length ol coursc Hobbjes and interests We will contact you once vve have received your đetails in order to arrange a programmc o f study for you__________________________________________________ Write your letter to the Principal o f the school. (around 120-180 \vords) * W ritc an essay Exercise 1: Should dangerous sports such as boxiniĩ or motor-racirm bc banned? Write an essay to give your opinion. Exercise 2: How do you think society will be atĩected by the grovvth of telecommuting? Writc an essay to give your opinion. (D ẹỷìnition: Teìecom m uting: u orkers íloing a lL o r p a rt ụ/ thơir w ork /rom lionie

and commumcating witli ilìeir office hy Computer.) E x e rcise3 : Should rich countries help poorcr ones? Write an essay to give your opinion. Exercise 4: Do chilđren learn morc qiiickly tlian adulls? Writc an cssa\ ti) UI\C your opinion. E xercisc 5: Should Smoking bc banncd? \s rile an CNSiUV U) iii\c >our opimon.

Exercise 6: Do you think that only study in college or university can give you success in life? (Is a third-level education nccessary Ibr succcssV). Write an essay to give your opinion. Exercise 7: Should children be educated at home or in school? Write an essay to give your opinion. Exercise 8: Should parents use corporal punishment to discipline children? Write an essay to give your opinion.


Exercise 9: Why do many students drop out school? W nte an esay about the reasons and sollution for this problem. (School Drop-Outs: Problems and Solutions). Write an essay to give your opinion. <t,,HEXerĩrÌSCr u : ^ yOUr English class yoU have been điscussing different ways of snadying Engli J Your teacher has asiced you to write a composition with the 0 ovving title:Thẹ advantages and disadvantages of learning Énglish àbroad compared to Iearning in your ovvn countrv. Write your com position for your teachèr (arounđ 120-180 vvords). Exercise 11: ‘W hy a re exam inations im p o rta n t? ’ Write an essay to give your Exercise 12: ‘Why are familv important to everyone?’ Write an essav to give your opinion. J B Exerdse 13: ‘Is the íricndship important to you?’ Write an essay to giveyour opimon. Exercise 14: ‘Environment pollution is a pressing issue for everv nation? VVnte an essay about causes and solution to this problem. Q uestion 15: Write a short passage of argument (about 100- 120 words) to persuade your íriends to go to school by bicycle. (while some students like going o school by motor-cycle) B Question 16: Your classmates are having a discussion on “ Whal should wc do to protect the environment?". Revvrite the conversation in about 1 5 -2 0 conversational exchanges.

GIỚI THIỆU MỘT SỐ ĐỂ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI ANH VĂN MỘT SÓ ĐÈ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI TỈNH PTCS SỜ GD ĐÀO TẠO TÍNH NGHỆ AN

KỲ THI CHÍNH THỨC HỌC SINH GIỎI TÌNH LỚP 9 Nãm học 2009 - 2010

ĐÉ THI CHÍNH THỨC

MÔN: TIÉNC ANH - BẢNG A Thời gian làm hài: 150 phút

ĐIẾM Bằng số.............

HỌ TÊN, CHŨ Kí GIÁM KHẢO Giám khào 1 :.............

Bằng chừ:....................

Giám khảo 2 : ...........

I. Pick out the \vord of thc other words. 1. A. legal 2. A. whisper 3. A. discuss 4. A. technique

SO PHACH

nhose underlined parí is pronounced diíTerently from that B. legcnd B. waste B. butchcr B. cjiemical

c. encrgetic c. husband c. hungry c. characteristic

n. D. D. D.

manager ìnspiration butter attach


c.

5.A . onion B . author walk D. taught ____ 1, 1 2. I 3. Ị 4. Ị 5 . _____ u . Identify the word whose stress pattern is diíĩerent from that of the othcr \vords. l1..A inclùde B. improve prepare D. ansvver A.. include -» A • _ J ____ 1_t r> c* i« fr\rmr»ti\'ẩ' rì Vt' D. intí'ĩ*níMÌ intcractivc informative B. inexpensive 2. A. independcnt D. cncourage c . consider B. rcmcmber 3. A. decorate I). tircenhousc surlace B. machine 4. A. purpose

c. c.

c.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

SE C T IO N B: VOCABULARY AND GR A M M A R . I. Clioose the best answer from .4, B, c or D. 1 Nam: Pleasẹ________ Ba to lock the door carefully if hc goes out tomorrmv. - 1.an: OK c. remember D. rcnnnd A. say B. taik you bring them back by Monday. 2. You can borrovv my b o o k s_______ c. so D. \vhilc A. unless B .a s lo n g a s 3. The hardcr you try. B. you achieve the more success A. the most success you achteve D. the bcttcr you achicvc success c. the more success you achieve _______ purpose. 4 .1 am sure hc didrTt break your vase c . for n . ‘MI A. in B with 5. Put on this scream t o ________ yourself from the sun. c . inon! 1>• divcri B. prcNcnl A. protecl lbr a vegctanan, so shc lell ihe rcstaurant. 6. She didn't iìnd anything _______ c. suitability D. suitahly A. suits B. suitable 7. Hung: \Vould you mind if I smoked in hcrcV- H o a :________ A Yes I'd lovc to B. Thanks. I don't smokc I’d rather you didn’t D. I m soưy 8. Lan: Let’s go to Cua Lo beach aĩter the e.xam.______ Hai: Vcs. thai sounds A. should we B. shall \vc c . shan t we D. shouldn l \vc 9. Somc people________ sports in order to keep lít. not because they like them. A. train practice make D. do 10. lt is usually impossible to tell the difference betvvcen________ tvvins. A same B. similar identical D. alike 10. 9. 8 . 7. 6 . 3. 2. 1.

c.

B.

c. c.

//. Supply tlie correct verb form s to compỉete tliơ sentences. ilic Lcononiici. 1 In thc ìistor} oi Nobcl Pn/cs, slic llic lìrsl \\oman (a\N'aid) I f s timc (do) somethinu lo protcct (Hir cn\ironmcnl. scriously in the lasl ten years. B: Yes, OK. 1 ihink It (destroy)_ in class. 3. Miss VVhite: Pcter! You (ahvays talk) Pcter: I m sorry, I w on't talk more 4. John: 1 really regret (b u y )_ Tom: I had told you beíore!

Ihis second-hand motorbike.


5. He (not v isit)-------------his grandparents i Hoa: Do you know kno\v the man (sit) 1. 2. 3.

sinee he (leave)_________ his hometoNvn. next to Miss Lc? I.e? - Ha: ll:i NNo. in I o n ’. 1Hdon‘t 4. 5. 6.

NOISE PỎLLUTIÓ n rhe tamilies in our streets are slcnvly being driven mad by the 1)___________ o f the inhabitantsoí Nn 13 to have any form o f (2)___________ with them. The trouble started over what is inown as noise pollution. Every evening the (3) ______ neighbors used to tum up the volume on the ĨV so loud that no one in the ( 4 ) ____________ was able to hear mything else. Not (5) \vhat action to take, local ítsidcnts hcld a meeting to sec if anyone had any sueuestions as Dho\v to deal with thc problem. Ã (6) was madc to md a number o f peoplc lo talk to the lamily in N" 13 and ask tem ( 7 ) ___________ lo tum their music down atter six in ihc tvening. (8)____________, the visit did not tum out to be 15)__________ . as the inhabitants o f N° 13 refused to talk to tem. So,on the (10))___________ oi the local police, the matter snow in the hands o f the court. 1. 2.

6. 7.

3.

8.

4.

9.

5.

1- REFUSE

COMMUNĨCATE 3-TH IN K 4NEIG ỈĨbO R 5- KNOW 6- DECIDE 7- PO I.IIL 8- PORTUNE 9- SUCCEED 10- ADVISB

10. --- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------

KÌDENTIFY and CORRECT 8 mistakes in the follow ingpassage. SAVING ENERGY 1 Many people still believe that natural resources will never he used up. Actual 2 the world's energy resources arc iimited. Nobody knovv exactly how much 3 tuel is left. However. \ve also should use them economicallỵ and trv tmdmu 4 out altemative sources of'po\ver. 5 According for Protessor Marvin Bumham o f the New tngland Institute of 6 Technology, \ve have to start conserving coal, oi] and gas before it is vcry late; ^ and nuclear pouer is the only altemative. Hovvever. many people do noi ' approve o f using nuclear power because o f It’s very dangcrous. What would happen vvhether therc were a senous nuclear accident? Radioactivity causes canccr and may bad affect the future generations. The most eíĩcctive thing is __ that we should use natural resources as economically as possible. Line 1 2

Mistake

Correction

Line 5 6

Mistake

Corrcction

J


3

7

4

oo

1

SECTION C: READING I. Read the passage and choose the best answer from A, B, c or D. A RICH TEENAGER Computer programmer David Jones eams £35,000 a year designing new Computer games, yet he cannot íĩnd a bank prepared to let him have a cheque carđ. Instead he has been told to wait another two years. until he is 18 The 16- vear- old vvorks for a small company in Liverpool, where the problem o f most people o f his age is rinding a job. David’s company releases two new games for the expanding homt Computer market each month.

But David’s biggest headache is what to do with his money. Despite his salary, eamed by inventing new programs within tight schedules with honus payment and proíit-sharing, he cannot drive a car, take out a mortgage, or obtain credit cards. He lives with his parents in their council house in Liverpool, vvhere his father is a bus driver. His company has to pay £150 a month in taxi fares to get him lìve miles to work and back everyday because David cannot drive. David got his job with the Liverpool - based company four months ago. a vear atìer leaving school with six O- levels and working for a time in a Computer shop. “I §ot tht job because the pcople who run the company kne\v 1 had already vvntten son* programmes,” he said. I suppose £35,000 sounds a lot but in fact that is being pessimistic. I hope it will come to records and clothes and hc gives his mother S20 a ueek But most o f his free time is spent working. "Unluckily, computing was not a part ol our studies at school.” he said. “But I had been studying it in books and magazines fa f o u r y e a r s in m y f r e e t i m e . I k n e w w h a t I v v a n te d t o d o

a n d n e v e r c o n s id e r e d

stavinỊ

on at school. Most people in this busmess are 1'airly young anyway. " David added. “ I \vould like to eam a million and I suppose earlv retirement is possibility. You nevcr knew when the market nught disappear. " 1. What is David different from other young pcople o lh is age? - Hc A. eams an extremely high salary B. is unemployed c . doesn't go out much D. lives at home with his parents 2. D avid's greatest problem is A. making the banks treat him as an adult B. inventing Computer gamcs c . spendmg his salary D. leaming to drive 3. He was employed by the company because hc_ A. had worked in a Computer shop B. hađ written some Computer programmes

c . \vorks very hard D. had leamed how to use computers at school 4. He left school after taking O- levels because he__ A. did not erýoy school B. was afraid of getting too old to start computing c . \vanted to \vork with computers and staying at school did not hclp him D. vvanted to eam a lot o f money


i.

Why does David think he might retire carly9 A. He thinks he is too young to write Computer programmes. B. He wants to stop working when he is a millionaire. He thinks his company might go bankrupt. D. He thinks Computer games might not alwavs seỊỊ well.

c.

y —7------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ^ -1 3Ị 4. n. Fill in each numbered blank with ONE suitabíe word. ~--------A DOCTOR A doctor who \vorked in a V.llage was very annoyed because many people (1) --------------to stop him in the Street and ask (2) his aHvirè In tkic uí was never paiđ for his services, and he never managed to eam much (3) He made up ---------- 777 ind ÍO put an end to do this- One dãy, he (5) yMmg man (6) — _ sặịd tohim, doctor. Pm so

-ỏi

b

s . ! ? "

^

Ieft

ĩ í ; 2 5 ' ° “ eyef and stick

T h ' d» c «

'0 be

stopned bv a S r íe

S 5 £ ìr

lồi

r

y?m'one“c (8) _ _ _ _ _ òfỳ™ĩnòúih~Then te

with his tongue hanging out Iiun. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. __________ 8 r -’8.______________ 9. 9^_______ 10 -------------i - 710. s r r T i n v D: n . WRITING o iT iv r’ SECTION ----------------------------- --------Ị Complete the second sentence so that ỉt has similar meaning to the f.rst One. 1. 1he last time I vvrote to him was three months ago I haven’t........................ 2. That restaurant is so dirty that no one wants to eat there. It is such.................... 3. The hurricane blew off the roof o f his house. The ro o f................ 4. How many competitors were there in the game yesterđay? How many people........... 5. Pay the money back to me or I will call the police. If you............................. 6. “If I were you. I would try my best to leam English”. John said to Jane John advised.................... 7. I was not surprised that you did very weI1 in your exam. It came as...................... I. COMPOSITION: What benefits does English Speaking Club bring about to secondarv students9 e a composition to express your ideas. (You should write mthm 140-J60words)

Ị5


SỜ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO GIA LAI ĐÈ CHÍNH THỨC

KỲ THI CHỌN HỌC SINH GIÒI TÌNH LỚP9THCS NĂM 2010

Môn thi: TIẾN G ANH Thời gian thi: 90 phút (không kể thời gian giao đề) Ngày thi: 01/04/2010 P a rt 1 Phonetics (lm a rk ) I. Choơse the word whose underlined part is pronounced differently (0,5mark) D. shell c. seaside B. shore 1. A. sure D. íoot c. hook B. book 2. A. boot D. great B. mean c. quay 3. A. kẹỵ D. ĩhumb c. theme B. there 4. A. think D. calculate B. dangerous c. battle 5. A. hat Choose the word whose stress is different. (0,5mark) D. exercise c. Computer B. customer 1. A. accurate D. occupied c. occuưence B. ìnherit 2. A. initial D. decent c. đefeat B. effect 3. A. affect D. ìntroduce c. intolerant B. reíeree 4. A. interfere D. altemative c. organic B. belonging 5. A. deíìnite P a rt 2 V ocabulary and G ra m m a r (6 m arks) I. Choose the correct word orphrase to complete the sentences. (2imirks) 1. Óne o f the major cau ses_________ heart disease is lack of exercise. A . for

B . to

c . of

D. by

2. On March 27, a lot o f fưework i s _________ off in Danang city. A. set B. gone c . placed D. bumed 3. H e __________an overdose o f heroin and died. A. used to B. used c . was used to D. was used 4. Can you give me th e _________ for tomato soup? A. formula B. recipe c . order D. method 5. I must go to the dentist a n d _________ A. get my teeth to take care o f B. take care of my teeth c . my ĩeéth be taken care o f D. get my teeth taken care of 6. The t\vo cars for sales were in poor condition, so I didn’t buy A. either o f them B. both of them c . neither o f them D. each of them 7. __________his íinancial problem, Mark bought a new motorbike. A. Although B. Because c . Despite D. Instead of 8. The first time I noticed something vvas wrong w a s _________ I got home. A. since B. when c . for D. until 9. I told her the instruction ag a in _________ do Ít vvrong. A. so that she will B. in order for her not to c . in order not to D. so as to


10.The w om an_________ lives next door to you. A. I bought my car B. whom I bought my car c. I bought my car from D. from that I bought my car 1 Error Recognition: Ideniiỷy the error in each sentence (2marks) 1. Liquid takes the shape o f anv Container which it is in placed. A B c D !. Lf you need to get mto the flat, there’s a key belovv the doormat.

A

B

c

D

I. Wendy sat_down nẹar to Jeff and whispered something ịn h is ear. A B c D I. There aren’t a.few sunnydays ạt this time of the vear. so let’s go to the beach today. A B c D i. Yọur bnefcase 1S in the kitchen. darling. Don’t íorget to take laptop.

A

B

c

D

i. Billy! Stop behaving as a clovvn and sit dơwn. A B C D ỉ. There s a coffee shop inthe hotel and it as well has a restaurant.

A B c D ‘My parents gtopped me to get married to. the man I love.” says Alice. A B c D l Jane ran over to me and breathless informed the failure o f our team. A B c D 0. Nẹither o f the boys had ever been out of tovvn before, so they were really excitinti. A B c D 11. Complete each sentence with a word made from the word gi ven (ĩm ark) 1. Actually I found Tony s book w a s _________________ interesting. (surprise) 2. Ann has left home and i s _________________ of her parents. (depend) 3. Not being chosen for the team was a g rea t_________________ (appoint) 4. Mike tried __ _______________to phone Cathy several times. (success) 5- ________________ is a serious matter, and you have to think about it. (m arry) 'írt 3 W riting (4m arks) I. Rewriíe eacti sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the yvord giveit. Make any other necessary changes. (2marks) 1. I’m afraid that we haven’t got any eggs. (run) 2. Our new house makes me feel excited. (about) 3. Ellen didn’t have enough money for the ticket. (aíTord) 4. Why don’t you search for this word in the dictionary? (look) 5. The Iast film we saw was more írightening than this One. (as)


6. This chair is not comíbrtable, and nor is the other one. (neither)

8.

They have just painted Ann’s portrait. (had)

9.

Ugh! This cake has a rubbery taste. (rubber)

10. Jane is very similar to her father. (takes) / /. ưse the foỉlowing sets or words andphrases to write a complete letter. (2marks) Dear Saĩly Thank you / your last letter. /Be/good/hear/you. 1. ____________ My/big news/be/I/decide/change/jobs. 2 . ____________________________________ ____________

I/fìnish/work/VìetcomBank/next monửvand/start/new company, HA Gia Laiy week after. 3. _________________________________________________________ VietcomBank/not want /me/leave/but/HA Gia Lai/more money/more opportunities. I 4. __ ___________________________________________________ I/hope/be/manager/there/two years. 5. I/have/party/the 25*/ and/love/seeyou. 6 . ______________________________________________________________________________ Perhaps/you/could/persuade/brother/come/you/as well. 7 . _______________________________________________________________________

I/really enjoy/dance/him/at your party.

8.

_______________________________________________________

9.

_________________________________________

My neighbors/promise/go out/ for the evening,/so/we can/play/music/as/loud/want. I/must/stop/wnte/now and/do/some work. 10.

See you on the 25' , I hope. Love Claừe P a rt 4: R eading (óm arks) Passage 1 Clozc test: Put ONE suitable word into each gap. (lmark) Approximately 350 million people speak English as their íĩrst language. Ab the same (1)_______________ use it as a second language. It is the language aviation, intemational sport and world ữađe. It is an official language in 44 countrie In many (2) _______________ it is the language o f business, commerce technology. There are many vaneties of English, but Scottish, Texan, Australiai Indian, Jamaican ( 3 ) _______________ o f English despite the ( 4 ) ____________ pronunciation, structure, and vocabulary, would recognize that they are all speakin the ( 5 ) _______________ basic language.


Passage 2 Read the passage and choose the correct answers (1 tnark) A Robotic Astronaut Robots are replacing people in many jobs. They are used in the car mdustry. People complain that they take needed jobs away from people. But there is One piàce where robots are welcome to do work.

A robot astronaut was developed by NASA It is called Robonaut. Robonauts 1,ke humans. However, they have more ílexible arms and hands than humans Ihey can do some of the more difficult work in space. Robonauts are expectêd to work with human astronauts in future missions. They need no spacesuits oxygen and reals to survive in space. Humans need air to breathe and protection from extrem e temperature changes. Most importantly, Robonauts will be serự where astronauts cannot go yet because the risks are too high. 1. How do people feel about robots? A. They do not like how robots take jobs. ““ B. They do not want robots to hurt astronauts. c . They think robots are o f great help. D. They want robots to replace astronauts. L The word extrcm e in the passage is closest in meaning to A. variọus B. distant c . radical D. unreasonable . According to the passage, vvhere is the one place robots are vvelcome to do vvork? A. At NASA B. In space c . On the sun D. On Earth According to the passage, what is One advantage o f Robonauts? A. They do not need food or oxygen to survive in space. B. They do not need extra fuel to keep working in space. c. They resemble humans in appearance. D. They were developed by NASA, which ensures their quality.

The end! SỜ GD-ĐT THANH HÓA

KỲ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI CÁP TỈNH

***** ĐÈ CHÍNH THỨC

Năm học 2 0 0 9 -2 0 1 0 Ngày thi: 24/ 03/ 2010 Thời gian: 150 phút

Question ĩ : Part a- Choose the word that has the underlined part pronounced differentlv from the rest:

c.

•A. sensitive B. beneĩit pretty D. remedy 2.A. orangẹs B. figurẹs_ c . classes D. vvatches . A. gabage B. garạgẹ sewagẹ D carriage ' *• now B. flow rọw D. knọw ^complaịn B. ascertaịn c . campaịgn D. bargaịn Part b- Choose the word that has the diíĩerent stress from the others: . A. dormitory B. category pnority D. ordinary •A. pesticide B. separate c . slavery D. effĩcient A. apphance B. activity adventure D. average

c. c.

c.

c.


Ouestion 2: Supply the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. 1. 1’d rather you (not wear)....................jeans to the office. 2. When I íìrst (com e)......................to this village, it was a quiet place. But since then population (double)................and a lot of leisure facilities (build)..................... 3. The teller was made (lie)........................ down on the floor. 4. The money (steal)..........................in the robbery was never found. 5. Thisbuilding (be)................íìnished by the end of 2015. 6. C an’t you see that I’m busy (vvrite)....................? 7. There’s nothing (do)...................... about it novv, except tell the police the truth. 8. My boss is angry with me. I didn’t do all the work that I (do)..................last week. Question 3 : Fill in the blank with a suitable preposition: 1. Lan’s alarm clock didn’t go..this moming, so she got up late. 2. She was laid............. for weeks............................a slipped disk. 3. Don’t make up your mind at once, talk....................with your lawyer íĩrst. 4. There is no cure...................... baldness except a wig. 5. He grew...................... a very good player. 6. That tie doesn’t go...................... that suit. 7. Get.................... the bus at Third Street and get..........................at Broadvvay. 8. He looked down...................... his less fortunate neighbors. Questỉon 4: Give the correct forms of the words in brackets. 1. Chatting has become more and more.............................with young Internet usen (people) 2. Advertisements account for three fourths of the............................ o f the newspapet (come) 3. These workers got a bonus because they did their jo b s.............................. (eíĩect) 4. \Vhat do y o u ..................do in the aítemoon? (use) 5. You can buy electrical................................................ at the shop over then (apply) 6. He has been one of the most effective................ in the “Keep Our City Cleaiỉ campaign. (activity) .7. The Htpsident’s New Year Speech is going to broadcast................................. (nation) 8. Some people believe strongly in the............................ o f life on the other planeti (exist) 9. His lawyer speaks m ore.............................................. than yours. (persuade) 10. The weather in Bntain is.................................... we don’t whether it’s sunny or rain after five minutes. (predict), Ouestion 5 : Choose the word or phrase to complete the sentence: 1. The smaller the room is, the..................íumiture it nceds. A. fewer B. smaller c . more D. less 2. How can I know..................book is yours? They are so alike. A. what B. vvhich c . this D. the


3. The secretary to ......................I talked didn’t know where the meeting was. A. which B. who c . that D. whom 4. Nobody knows \vhat the....................o f the explosion was. A. source B. cause c . reaction D. reason 5. It looks................... it's going to ram. A. as B. as like c . as if D. if 6. Babie& have to leam how to..................before they can walk. A. cravvl B. creep c . strike D. stroll 7. What are the m ain..................of this illness? A. traces B. symptoms c . emblems D. tokens 8. My sister ts very........................... oispiders. A. terror B. terrify c . terriíìed D. terrifying 9. Stop now, you 've done...work for One day. A. too many B. plenty c . quite more D. quite enough 10. If you take a train or a bus, you must pay a........................... A. fare B. tip c . fee D. commission Question 6: Part a: Fill in each numbered blank \vith a suitabie word. An increasing (1)..................of people are now going on (2).......................... to Egypt. The population o f Egypt is about 50 million and the (3)................ is EL Qahira (Cairo), a busy city of just under 9 million people. Although the climate is hot and dry, (4)................. . of the country is desert, the average temperature (5).................... October to March is not too high. The most (6).......................sights are the pyramids at Giza. Hovvever, it’s also pleasant to visit Alexandria.Port Said and several (7)....................... places and do as much (8)..............as possible. A (9).......................to Luxor is very interesting, and there are írequent (10)............. there from Rario. Part b: Read the following passage. Then ansvver the questions belon. Traditions and Customs in Great Britain Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain trađitions play a more important part in the life of the people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud o f their traditions and careíully keep them up. It has been a law for about 300 years that all theaters are closed on Sundays. No letters are delivered, only a few Sunday papers are pulisheđ. To this day an English family preíers a house vvith a garden to a flat in a modem house with Central heating. English people like gardens. Sometimes the garden in tront of the house is a little square covered with cement painted green in imitation o f grass and a box of flowers. Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland. Ireland and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday, and in Scotland Ít is not kept, except by clerks in banks and all shops and factories arc working. Qucstions: 1. How ìmportant are traditions in Britain?


3. Which does an English family prefer, a house with a garden or a flat? 4. Finđ a sentence in the passage which shows that the English people like garden very much? 5. How Christmas is kept in Scotland? Ouestỉon 7 : Part a-There is a mistake in the four underlined parts of each sentence. Find and correct it. 1. Not put your clothes on the bed A B D 2. They nonnallv caught the earlv bus but today they came to visit us with a car A B c D 3. What do you oíten have for the lunch? A B c D 4. Your brother hardly goes to work bỵ bus, doesn’t he? A 5. Kangaroo, that can be seen everyvvhere in Australia. ha ve long taỊỊs

c

B

A

B

c

D c

D

Part b- Use the given words to make meaningĩul sentenccs. 1. It / be'/ such / cold day / we / decide / not / go out. 2. pkease / tell / if / you / take / books / my room.

Question 8: Rewrite the foIlowing sentences so that the meanings stay the same as the ones given. 1. If you saw d UFO, what vvould you do? I f a ư F O ................................................ ............................ 2. I can’t sing beautifully, so I can’t join thcm now. I wish........................................................................................................ 3. She couldn’t come to class because of her illness. As............................................................................................................


4. He got down to writing the letter as soon as he retumed from his vvalk. No sooner.................................................. 5 .1 have never read such a romantic story. This is.............................................. 6. Even though I admire his courage, I think he is foolish. Much.......................................... 7. The sea was so rough that the ferry couldn’t sail. The rough sea.............................................. 8. Their chances o f success are small It is not..................................................... 9. Keeping calm is the secret of passing your driving test. A slong as.......................................... 10. The train joumey from London to Bristol takes two hours. It is a................................................

The end!

UBND TÌNH PHỦ THỌ KỲ THI CHỌN HỌC SINH GIỎI TỈNH LỚP 9 SỜ GỊÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO NĂM HỌC 2009-2010 ĐÈ THI CHÍNH THỨC Môn: Tiểng Anh Thời gian làm bài 150 phút (Không kể thời gian phát để) Ngày thi: 30-03-2010 I. Choose the vvord >vhose underlined part is pronounced differently from the rest bv circling the corresponding letter A, B, or D. (20 points) 1. A.ought B. thought brought D. though 2. A. thick B. think thus D. thin 3. A. foot B.school book D. good 4. A. knew B. grew threw D. flew 5 A. lose B.close chose D. rose 6. A. dosage B. massage caưiage D. vovaae A. high B. home hour D. hom A. passed B. íbrced threatened walked 9. A. break B. steak great D. bread 10. A. confusion B. tension seizure D. measure n. Choose the One >vord or phrase that best completes the sentence. Identiíy your answer by circling the corresponding letter A, B, or D. (40 points) 1. What's your birthday, Ann? - I t's ..................................................................... A. on the thirty-one o f July on the thứty-fírst o f July B. on July the thirty-one D. in July the thirty-íĩrst 2. The sun..................................... in the west. Look ! It.......................................... A. set/ is setting B. sets/ is setting settmg/ set D. set/ set

7. 8

c, c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

D.

c,

c.

c.


3. All the boys are good at cooking, but........................ is as good as the girls. D. every c .n o n e B. neither A. either 4. The vveather.................. ............. lìne so far ihis week. D. had been c . has been B. was A. is 5 . 1 have so many routines that sometimes I feel......................I am an automatic robot. D. like c . even though B. even if A. as if 6. The vvalls o f the house are covered. . . . ............. a coat of paint. D. under B. in c . by A. with ceremony. 7. That was a .................... c . well-prepared D. well-prepare B. prepare-well A. prepared-well 8. That novel was vvritten by a well-known writer. It is worth. D. have read c . read B. reading A. to read 9. Is this the address to. ........... you want the package sent? D. whom c . that B. which A. where 10. The father sat by his................chilcTs bedside all rtight as he was sick. A. sleep B. asleep oversleep D. sleeping 11. He has adopted three orphans. . his own six children so that, all together, he has nine children to provide for. A. except B. beside bcsides D. in place ol' 12. You should take régular exercise..................sitting in front o f the television all day. c. vvithout D. even B. instead o f A. in spite o f Anna phones. 1 3 .1 don't want to go out tonight............... c. when D. in case B. even though A. so that 14. Iobject to........... like this. B. ưeating A. be treating D. have been treated c. being ừeated 15. Since..............to a vvarmer and less humid climate, I’ve had no trouble with my asthma. c. upon moving D. moving B. I moving A. I mo ve 16. Shy people oíten íìnd it difficult to. . . . group discussions. c. get on with D. get in touch vvith B. take part in A. take place in 17. Our soccer team lost................three goals to nil. A. with B. by to D. in 18. Don’t forget to................the alarm clock for six o ’clock tomoưow moming. A. set B. put c . ring D. wind 19. Not only did he lose the keys. but he also forgot the tickets. A. He íorgot the pair o f tickets to the concert. B. He didn't know he had to ha ve tickets. c . He got the tickets after he found his keys. D. He lost his keys and forgot the tickets as well. 20. “Do not write on the walls", said the teacher to the boy. A. The teacher tolđ the boys do not wnte on the walls. B. The teacher told the boys not to vvrite on the vvalls. c . The teacher said to the boys not \vrite on the walls. D. The teacher said to the boys đo not write on the vvalls.

c. c.

c.


HI. There is a mistake in the four underlined parts of each sentence. Identiĩy your answer by circling the corresponding letter A, B, c , or D. (20 points) 1. Jason’s proíessor had him to write his thesis manv times before allowing him to

A

B

c

present it to the committee. D 2.1 think Helen ịs accustomed to \vork eight hours a day. A B c D 3. The more frequent you exercise. the ureater physical endurance you wilĩ have. A B C D 4. Only when you have had a chance to know various occupations vou wỊH decide on your career. A B C D' 5.1tried to do everything to contact John two weeks ago but so far I don't receive his reply. A B c D 6. Most students were able of ílnding good jobs three to six months aftcr graduation. A B C D 7. The letter was sent by special deliverv must be important.

A

B

c

D

8. Because the torrential raưis that had devastated the area, ữie govemor sent the National A B c Guard to assist in the clean-up operation. D 9. My brother attends an universitv in the Midwest which specializes in astrology.

A

B

c

D

10. Although Mark has been cooking for many years, he still doesn't knowto prepare French

A

B

c

D

foods in the traditional manner. IV. Give the correct form of the words in brackets to complete the sentences. (20 points) 1. Vietnam declared i ts ________ on September 2™1, 1945. (DEPEND) 2. The phone doesn’t work. It’s been (CONNECT) 3. It was a com plete_________ due to poor planning. (FAIL) 4. He cycled_________ and had an accident. (CARE) 5. He is thinking o f taking early _________ next year. (RETIRE) 6 .1 am aíraid you ha v e _________ me because that is not what I meant. (UNDERSTAND) 7. It is said that th e _________ o f a Swiss vvatch is perfect. (PRECISE) 8. Television can make things m o re ____________because it brmgs both sounds and pictures. (MEMORY) 9. A famous pianist w a s _________ for seven years. (PRISON) 10. He’s an expert in tcchnology. We call him a (TECHNIQUb)


V. Read this passage carefttlly and then choose the best answers to the questions below by circling the corresponding letter A, B, c , or D. (10 points) A recent investigation by scientists at the u s Geological Survey shows that strange animal behavior might help predict future earthquake. Investigators found such occurrences in a ten-kilometer radius o f the centre of a fairly recent quake. Some birds screeched and flew about vvildly. Dogs yelped and ran uncontrollably. Scientists believe that animals can perceive these environmental changes as early as several days before the disaster. In 1976 after observing animal behavior, the Chinese were able to predict a terrible quake. Although hundreds o f thousands o f people were killed, the govemment was able to evacuate millions o f people and thus keep the death toll at a lovver rate 1. What prediction may be made by observing animal behaviorV A. the number o f people who will die. B. environmental changes. c . a coming earthquake. D. the ten-kilometer radius o f an earthquake. 2. Why can animals perceive these changes when humans can not? A. Animals are more intelligent than humans. B. Humans don’t know where to look. c . By running around, they can feel the vibrations. D. Ammals have certain instincts that humans don’t possess. 3. If scientists can accurately predict earthquakes, there will be.................... A. a lower death rate. B. fewer animals gomg crazy. c . fewer people evacuated. D. fewer environmental changes. 4. Which o f the following statemcnts is not true? A. Some animals may be able to sense an approaching earthquake. B. All birds and dogs in the ten-kilometer radius of an earthquake center become wild before the quake. c . The Chinese have successíully predict an earthquake and saved many lives. D. By observing animal behavior scientists perhaps can predict earthquake. 5. In the passage, the word “ evacuate" most means........... ............... A. save B. exile c . desừoy D. remove VI. Read, íhen choosc the best airnver by circling the corresponding letter A, B, c , or D. (20 points) Radar is an electronic device that can “see” great distances (1).............. fog, ram. I snovv. cloud, and darkness. It can fìnd and (2). 7 .................locaté missiles, aircraít, ships, cities, rainstorms, and mountains. Radar uses radio vvaves, (3)...................... light waves, which the human eye uses in seeing. This makes it (4)..................for radar to ị locate many kinds o f objects at (5).................. greater distances than the eye can see. Radar became an ìmportant military device during World War II. Today, net\vorks of| radar lookout stations guard the United States and Canada 24 hours a day agamst (6). .1 ........... missiles and airplanes. Patrol planes and ships (7).....................the oceans \vith


ndar for hostile shịps and aircraft. Airports use radar to (8)......... planes saíety to earth mfog or storms Ships use it to steer clear o f other (9). . . . . . . . . Ổr L b e í S . Radar helps weathermen wam o f (10)............. hurricanes or tomadoes. • 1. A. in spite SDitc R C' — 1_ n <.1 B. Hpsnitp despite c. though D. although A. cure B. exact c. accurately D. accurate A. instead of B. in addition c. in stead D. in addition to A. possibility B. possible c. impossible D. can A. near B. íầrther c. far D. iiirther A. long range B. near range c . ranged D. length range A. use B. find c . seek D. search A. fmd B. take c. guide D. guidance A. vessel B. vessels c. sail D. sails 10. A toapproach B. approaches c . approach d ' approachĩng ;„ L FÌnÌSht!1! Cr dSentenCe in such a way that u means the same as the sentence printed1íbefore it. (20 points) 1. The fumiture was too old for us to keep. —* It vvas.................... • Nobody has cleaned the streets this week. —♦ The streets....................... . While mending the road, they accidentally blocked our water p ip is ............................ —» They accidentally cut................ . He brought the umbrella along but it didn’t rain -» H e n e e d n 't........................... While I strongly disapprove of your behavior, I will help you this time...................... —» Despite............................ I The underground is quick and cheap. —» The underground is ....................... He was annoyed because his secretary came late to work —* He obịected to ................ Neil regrets haying sold his car. —» Neil wishes............. The child ran out because o f the strange noise —♦ The strange noise............. ). Immediately after his arrival, things went vvrong —* No sooner....................... VUI. Use the word given in brackets and make any necessary additions to write a nevv sentence in such a waỵ that it is as similar as possible in meanìng to the onginal sentence. Do not changc the form of the given word. (10 poiiưs) “Do you realize what the time is. Steve?” asked Chris. (vv hat) I met her while I was staying in Paris last summer. (stay) Susan vvas too excited to sleep. (that) Sandra said that she was willing to work late. (mind) The coins are believed to be buried for safe-keeping. (It)


IX. Look at the following sets of words and phrases. Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce sentences which together make a complete letter of complaint from Jane to Mr. Pike Smith. (20 points)

Dear Mr. Smith, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

I vvrite / complain / dirt / smoke / come / your factory / chimneys. Two days ago / 1 / decide / do / my vvashing. I wash / sheets / put them out to dry / it / be / nice sunny day/ there / be / breeze. When 1take / washing in / 1/ be / horriíied / discover / it / covered / in dirty marks. I / assume / breeze I mention / carry / dirt / your chimneys. Until this accident / ỉ think / your chimneys / be safe and clean. I / suggest / your factory / fit / new filters to its chinineys / as tlie dirt and snioke / dangerous.

8. I look / receive your reply.

sincerely, Mrs. Jane Hunter THE END

SỞ GIÁO DỤC & ĐÀO TẠO QUẢNG NAM

KỲ THI CHỌN HỌC SINH GIỎI LÓP 9 THCS NĂM HỌC 2009 - 2010__________ Thời gian: 150 phút (không kể thời gian giao đề) Ngày thi : 02/4/2010

ĐÈ CHÍNH THỨC

SECTION ONE: LISTENING (2.0 pts) Question 1. Jun has ju st returned fro m South Africa and lie is telling (ìfriend abou his trip. Listen to the tape and tick 4 topics he taỉks about in tlie “Answt I

«f TTI________ V

N um ber

/lia <1 /■

(■ /i/I/ih

/ỉ/ìlt/Ị

/ ir /1!» />V/l»lin//»

Topics

1.

The length o f the trip

2.

íf7ỉo he travelecỉ with

3 .-

Things he sa\v

4.

Other trips he has taken

5.

W hether he cnjoyed the trip

6.

His study plans for next semester

7.

Whether he complained about the bus

8.

W hether he would recommend the trip to other people

9.

The foods he ate

10.

The íòrests in the South Aírica

V í ì t í l ì í t Vi* ti

Answers

V


Part a. Lỉsten to the interview with graffiti artist Hotvard Burns and aitstver tlie questions belotv. You have to ỉisten to the tape hvice. (O.Spt) 1. Where is Ho\vard Bums from? 2. When did he íìrst start doing graffiti? 3. Why did he want to be a graffiti artist? 4. Where does he show his art these days?

Part b. Listen to the tape again and/ỈU in eaclt blank with one word. You have to listen twice. (0.5pt) ~ 1. A “piece” is a fmished painting that’s both colourful and _ 2. Hcnvard always \vrote______________________ on his art 3. He thinks people shouldn’t draw on m onum ents,_____________ or houses 4- I n ____________graffiti artists often go out in groups. SECTION TWO: GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY (ó.Opts)

Question 1. Circỉe the best option A, B, c or D to fin ish each o f the /ollotving sentencếs (2.0pts). 1. He com pletely______ with what I said. A-agreed B .argued c . accepted D. complained 2. Helen was the last applicant t o ________ . A. intervievv B. be intervievving c . be interviewed D. have intervievved 3 . 1 can't find my purse anywhere; I m u st______ it at the cinema. A. leave B. have left c . be leaving D. have been leaving 4. Hoi An is fam ous______ its old streets. A of V B. with c . about D. for 5. The sheet o f paper slipped_h is hand íalling___________________ the ground. A. off / onto B. from / dovvn c . trom / upon D. o ff / upon 1_______ she will agree about giving you a pay rise. A. hard think B. think hard c . hardly think D. think hardly 7. Do you know the m an ____________ over there? A. stands B. standing c . who stanđ D. whose standing 8 .1 m afraid I have to leav c_____ a few days' time A in B. for c .o n D. by


this problem? 9. Do you think w e’ll find a solution B. to A. about D. with of o f the mountains. 10. From the hotel, there is a good B. picture A. Vision D. sight view with us on our next tnp? 11. Why don't we take Lisa B. in A. on D. along to to smoke or drink. 12. When I was younger, I B. didn’t used A. never used D. wasn’t used not used stealing my pen. 13. When I questioned him, he íĩnally B. admitted A. accused D. accepted coníessed 14. Her \vritten work is excellent. She Duts her ideas so W( B. forward A. across D. out on 15. If we to the íootpath, we won’t get lost. B. keep A. follow D. remain stay • * * 16. “CouỊd I just do it right now?” B. Not for me A. Yes, you could D. Why not? Go ahead Yes, let's

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

14

c.

Question 2. Màtch a line in column A with a line in column B to make a new meaningful sentence. There are two extra lines in column B that you do not need to use. 0 is an example (1.0 pt). B A

c

0. It’s difficult to keep them

A. about which game to play next.

1. She couldn’t decide which to choose

B. it would be the favouníe to win.

2 . 1 can hear someone

c.

3. Were the govemment to bẹ íbrced into another election,

D. she eventually managed to speak to the director.

4. The children coưldn’t agree

E. in order to prevent a cold.

5. By telephoning every hour

F.

because all the cakes looked good.

6. You m ustn’t drink alcohol

G.

when you go into a pub.

7. Although the injury was serious

H.

shouting in the distance.

8. Trees vvere planted along the streets

working all the time.

I.

so as to reduce traffic noise.

J.

it didn’t keep her out of the game.

K.

when you drive a car.


Question 3. Read the text beỉow and ỉook carefuỉly at each tine. Some o f the ỉines are correct but some have a word yvhich should not be there. I f a line is correct put a tick (S) at the cnd o f the ỉine. I f a line has a word which shoulíỉ not be there, write the H ord at the end o f the line. Some lines Itave been donc as examples (1.0 pt)._________ PROBLEMS WITH A FRIEND Lines Susie Williams has been my best íhend ever since we vvere 0 being at primary school together. and last week she told me 00 some good news. She liad decided not to marry with her boyíriend. They had been going out together for about two 1 years. and got engaged last Christmas. I was never happy 2 about their relationship, as I thought so that he was not the 3 right partner for her. I always felt that if they had o f got 4 married, she vvould have completely lost her independencè 5 because he would have to mađe her give up her studies and 6 stay at home all the day. Susie would have hated that as I 7 knovv that she is a very ambitious person, but when I was mentioned it to her she became quite angry, saying that I was 8 jealous her, and vvanted him for myselí. Sometimes it isn't easy 9 being a best íriend.__________________ rvtiểi un uppropnaie j o ' ----- r BLOCK CAPITAL. (0) has been done as an example (2.0 pts). I hp Acongagua Apnnnomio iisp na challenge to any _____ . • • is (0) ... Thẹ mountaineer, yet it QỊỊpealiiìỊỊ to amateurs and proíessionals alike. Bolivia vvelcomes anyone whose (1)__________________!t is to test their stamina and (2)—-------------------------making the arduous joum ey to the summit II1lo beautiful utduuiui Iiiuuniain. _____________ 1 of this mountam. (3)___________ , this fouc-day

Answers being V

V

APPEAL INTEND STRONG APPARENT

tre„ can prOVe m° re o f a chal,en8e than first expectèd. The initial stretch seems (4)____________________ a gentle stroll through the lưsh valleys o f the Andes, where the climbèrs E FF O R T can enjoy eniov the thp ctnnn in a (5) stunning o f the Acongagua in the lake. Ho\vever, it soon becomes (6) REFLECT challenging for even the fittest o f mountaineers. Many have to be SIG N IFY treated for (7)_________ _________ or altitude sickness in their attempt to reach the summit. (8)__________________ though, more EXHAƯST and more climbers are making it to the top. The secret? To be iN rR F A S F cautious and take a much slower pace.

A_____'

SECTION T H R E E : READING (6.0pts)

Question 1: Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, c, or D best fìts each space. (0) has been done as an example (2.0pts.) Soon (0)----------- the call, Sherlock Holmes ( l) to the address he had been given. He looked at the house (2)_______ every detail; the garđen, the drivevvay the main entrance. The main entrance was still locked and there were no ĩootprints on the ground so the murderer (3)_______ have entered the house from there. However one o f the top windows was half open and the tall tree right next to it was easy to climb so he w -----------have come in this way. Holmes went near one o f the ground flo o r vvindows and peered ìnside. It was obvious that whoever had broken into the house hađ no


intention o f (5)___________anything. Priceless vases and paintings were still in place but someone had moved the íumiture. Why? It was then he ( 6 )_______ that opening on the wooden floor. He (7)_ to see anything else. He swung round to the police inspector behind him. ‘This (8)_ ___has been solved’ he announced. Ổ. Ayaíter B. when enough D. time 1. A. arrived B.reached called D. got 2 . A. examining B .looking testing D. prosecutiniỉ 3. A .could B. couldn't needn’t D. mustn’t 4. A. should B. must c . need D. had 5. A. robbing B. picking c . committing D. stealing 6 . A. noticed B. noted c . remarked D. pointed 7. A. needn't B. needn't ha ve didn’t need D. couldn’t 8 . A. incident B .case c .e v e n t D. occasion

c. c. c. c.

c.

Question 2. You are going to read an article in a magaùne about shopping. Six sentences have been removcd from the artide. Choose from the sentences A -H the one which Jĩts each gap (1- 6). There is One extra sentence which you do not need to use. (0) is an example (1.5 pts). A. If I spent more than five minutes in this environment, I’d have a nervous breakdovvn! B. They’d rather wait to be given a pair for Christmas, even if it’s only July. c. Press some buttons and the shopping is delivered to your door. D. I do all my shopping locally and I still hate it. E. There's nothmg worse than enthusiastic shop assistants. F. They become depressed if they haven’t been shopping for a week. G. Big supermarkets make huge profits, destroy small shops and spoil ửie community. H. It bores me stifĩand I can’t stand it. SH O PP IN G - A PERSON AL V IEW There are many different types o f shops - department stores, supemiarkets, market stalls, traditional shops, the list is endless. But vvhether I’m in a huge modem shopping centre, a cosy village shop or an outdoor market in Morocco, it’s all the same to me. It’s shopping. (0) H There are three t>pes of people. Those who love shopping, those who don’t have an opinion, and those who hate it. Those who love it are 'shopaholics'. They buy anything, anỹĩime, anywhere, and at any price. (1)_____ Those \vho don’t have an opinion will usually do enough shopping for a comíortable life. They know how to say no to a bargain and when their credit carđ is reaching its limit. Those who hate it will try anything to get out o f doing it. They ask their family, they ask their friends. They happily go without milk or sugar in their coffee rather than go to buy some more. They wear socks with holes in them and don’t buy new ones. (2)_____ _

I, o f course, am one o f the ‘haters’, but when I’m absolutely forced to go because I have nothing left to eat, drink or wear in the house, I like to be left alone. (3)____ They try to make you think they’re interested. They try to make you feel special. They tell you that a pair o f green trousers with red spots really suit you, but you know they only \vant your cash. Give me a bored, rude or đisinterested shop assistant any day!


The sales? You w on’t see me there. Think o f those pushing crovvds rushing abont looking for bargains, lines o f people queuing up vvaving their credit cards. (4)_______ O f course there are also serious reasons why I dislike some shops. (5) Their prices are too high and they sell períectly shaped, perfẽctiy coloured íruit and vegetables which make you wonder what is done to them when thếy are being grown Shopping by Computer, that’s the answer. (6)____ It probably woũldn’t aíTect the serious problems I have mentioned, but it would certainly get rid o f the crõwds and avoiđ the ‘helpíul’ assistant.

Question 3. Read the text belơH' and think o f the word which best fìts each space ưse onỉy ONE word in each space (2.5 pts). As soon as my ĩather had booked his ílight to Cairo he had a (0) fww\ íeeling, a kind o f íòreboding. It was not his íìrst business trip to Cairo but it was certainly his (1)____________ eventful. To begin with, his (2) was delayed for two hours due to mechanical failure and when it íìnally arrived the plane door wouldn’t open. When he got his suitcase from the baggage area it had ------------------ torn down one side, and then the íĩrst taxi he took ran --------------- ° f petrol. Feeling a little annoyed, he caught another taxi and made it (5)_____________ his usual hotel. At the reception he was told that his reservation could not be found and there was no chance o f íìnding a (6X____________ for him as they were fully booked so he had to settle (7)_____________ another hotel. When he finally got to his room the llShts (8)___ -________ off as he vvalked in. By now he was very upset. He called Mr. Fekesh, wanting to have a (9)_____________with him about their meeting and they told him he had had to leave on urgent busmess. Hurriedly, my father went bacic t0 the ( ]°)____________ and caught the íìrst ílight home just hoping the plane wou!dn’t crash on the way back. SECTION FOƯR: W R ITIN G . (6.0 pts) Question 1. Make any changes and additìon to buiỉd the sentences from tlie cues given (2.0pts). 1. I / tired / that / able / go out / tonight. 2. Some / our electricity / now / come / nuclear power. 3. We / lucky / catch / last bus / am ve / home/ very late / last night. 4. Football / said / be / good / games / play. 5. Students / spend / much time / leam / English / aday’s time. 6. Paul / not / tall / reach / top / cupboard. 7. We / often / have / diffĩculty / íìnish / work / vveekend. 8. O f all / hotels / to\vn / the Royal Hotel / expensive.


Question 2. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the Jĩrst One. Use the word given in brackets and otlier words to compỉete eaclt seitlence. Don 't clianse the íorm o f the eiven vvords. (0) has been do ne as an exam ple (2 .0 pts).

0. "Do you know hovv to get to the town center?” she asked me. (WAY) 1. We haven’t got enough rnoney, so we can't buy a new c o o k e r. (SHORT) => We 2.1 gave back my blue shirt and got a white One. (EXCHANGED) => 3. The only one person vvho was not at the party was Tom. => Everyon 4. If there is one thing 1 hate doing, it’s the ironing. => l f t 5. Mr. David is employed bv a hig constriiction firm. => Mr. David 6. We haven't reccived confirmation o f hotel booking yet. => Our liotel booking 7. ‘i n my opinion, you shouldn’t stay up so late”, Lan said to Nam. => Lan 8. It is necessary to íinish this homework tonight. => I

(APART) (STAND) (FOR) (BEEN) (ADVISED) (GOT)

Questiòn 3. Write a paragraph (120-150 tvords) to express your opinion about “The advantages and disadvantages o f nuitchíng television ” (2.0 pís). = = = = = = = The end = = = = = = UBND TĨNH BẮC NINH SỞ GIÁO DỤC-ĐÀO TẠO ĐỂ CHÍNH THỨC

ĐÈ THI HỌC SINH GIÒI CẤP TỈNH Nam học 2 0 0 9 -2 0 1 0 Thời gian làm bài: 150 phút Ngày thi 14/4/2010

PART I. PRONUNCIATION • Vocabularv - GRAMMAR (10 pts) I. Circỉethe wordwhose underiỉned part is dịfferently pronounced/ rom the others (l.pt) 1. A. Iiarassment B. statement c. papenvork D. vacating 2. A. account B.adjourn c. announcement D. voucher 3. A. pension B. compensate c. security D. secretar> 4. A. pins B. ringbinders c. files D. stamps 5. A. technology B. puncher C.pitching D. dispatch 6. A. Vision B. mission c. fusion D. confusion 7. A. headache B. stomach c. moustache D. chemist 8. A. danced B. lived c. arrived D. loved 9. A. genn B. gas c. gain D. goods 10. A. faịth B. íaịlure c. íaịnted D. íaịrly


_

II. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. Circỉe A, B c or D. (3.0 pts) 1. The weather has tu m e d _____ . A. coldy and vvindily B. coldly and windy c . cold and windy D. cold and vvindily 2. Nobody is ready,_____ ? A. is he B. isn’t he c . arethey D. aren’t they 3. He was pleased to ha ve the _ to hear such a fine musician play his favourite piece o f music. A. occasion B. possibility c . opportunity D. fate 4-_____ I had met him twice before, I didn’t recognise him. A. Although B. However c . If D. But 5 .1wish you d stop chatting a n d ______with some work A\ get down B. get on c . come on D. come back 6. He won $ 200.000, ____ he gave his parents. A. half of which B. half o f that c . half o f them D. half o f it 7. The bus company h a s _____ the fare by 50%. A. raised B. ansen c. rose D. risen 8. It's time ỹ o u _____ back to your work A- g° B. went c. havegone D. shall go 9. There was n o _____ in waiting longer than half an hour so we left. A. good B. point c. worth D. use 10. If we built more hospitals, we co u ld _____ better care o f people. A. get B. do c . gi ve D. take 11. Twenty-fĩve do llars_____ too much to pay for that shirt. A. 1S B. are c. were D. been 12. The kidnappers have been caught, and the child is no longer _____ danger. A. on B. in c . at D. o f 13. Jim s parents wouldn t h im go to the demonstration. A. agree B. allow c . permit D. let 14. Tony always goes to w ork _____ his car. A. on B. by c . in D. with 15. Hoa is very good a t _____ English A. speak B. to speak c . speaking D. speaks III. Choose the best word or pltrase with the same meanìng as the underỉined part. Circle A, B, c or D. (1.0pt) 1. w hat \vould happen if the vvater resources were m ade dirtv'* A. run out B. restricted c. polluted D. destroyed 2. Most people vvho live in apartments are u rb an dvvellers. A. o f a village B. o f a city c. vvealthy D. famous 3. He was proud o f his son’s accom plishm ent A. íĩrst attempt B. endurance c. determination D. achievement 4. They extended the road for ten more miles. A. lengthened B. repaired c. planned D. constructed


5. It is riskv to climb to the top o f that tree. A. unusual B. normal

c. dangerous D. brave IV. Eacli o f these senteitces contains 1 mistake. Find and correct them. (l.Opt) 1. The police is now investigating the robbery that took place in our neighborhood last night. 2. There was a slight disagreement between committee members o f the Club, regarding their trip next month. 3. My pen has very few ink in it; so could you give me some? 4. Either William or his brother have to do this. 5. It is hoped that the develop counừies will be Iess selíìsh in their economic policies and help the poorer nations.

V. Give the correct form o f the words in bold in the same ỉine. ỈVrite your ansìvers OII tlie Itumbered blanks. (2.0 pt) 1. My tea c h e r............................. me to take this exam. (courage) 2. He has t h e ...................... to become a proíessional ĩootball player. (able) 3. Give me something to drink please! I'm dying o f ....................... (thirsty) 4. We try to bring our work to......................... (satisfy) 5. The...'............................... o f the question was requested. (repeat) 6. The teacher checks for reg u la r...............................(attend) 7. The roads are rough in...................................... areas, so it’s hard to travel by car. (mountain) 8. The people \vhose houses are to be demolishes when the new road is rebuild will be........................................... outside the city. (house) 9. My mother vvants me to have this photograph..................................(large) 10. Who is t h e ............................. o f this wonderful work o f art? (create) VI. Supply the correct tenses o f the VERBS in bracket in either active or passive voice (2 pts) Every tẽii minutes, one species o f animal, plant, or insect ( 1 ) ______________ (die) out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today ( 2 ) ______________ (become) extinct twenty years from now. Fortunately, somebody is trying to do something about it. In 1961, the World Wildlife Fund (3) ______________ (found) - a small group of people who (4) ______________ (\vant) to raise money to save ammals and plants from extinction. Today, the World Wildlife Fund is a large intemational organization. It (5) ______________ (raise) over 35 million pounds for conservation projects, and has given support to National Parks in six continents. It (6) ______________ (help) 30 mammals and birds - ìncluding the tiger - to survive. Perhaps this is not much. but it IS a start. If more people (7) ______________ (give) more money - and if more govemments wake up to what (8) ______________ (happen) - perhaps the World


Wildlife Fund ( 9 ) ______________ (be) able to help us avoid the disaster that (10) _____________(threaten) the natural world, and all of us with it. PART II. READING (6.0 pts) /. Clioose the word that bestfìts each o f the blanks in the foĩỉowing passage. Circle

A, B, c or D to indicate your ansìvers. (2.0pts) Are you one of the thousands o f people who eagerly follow every new ( 1)_____ Ihat appears? Or are you one o f those vvho go to the shops and just buy (2) thcy can tind in their size that (3)_____ them? Or perhaps you order from a mail-orđer caialogue. and then have to send everything back because nothing fits? Whatever kind of shopper you are, One thing is certain. Every one íĩnds clothes important. (4)_____ a recent survey, people spend more time (5)_____ buying clothes or thinking about buying them. or looking at them in shop \vindows. than they do on most other Products, apart trom food. And the reason is obvious. Clothes are an important part o f our appearancc. At work, you may need to ìmpress a customer. or persuade the boss thai you knovv what you are doing, and clothes certainly help. Well dressed people. so they say get on in the world. And as far as attracting the opposite sEg is concemed. ciothes also play a vital role. (6)_____ a friend vvho has been wearing the same old jacket or the same old dress suddenly appears in the (7)_____ íashion, you can be sure that romance isin the air. And apart from work and romance. there are the (8)_____ o f sport. music and leisure on the way we dress. So excuse me while I (9)_____ on my tracksuit and minmg shoes. I ’m just dashing off (10)_____ some fast window-shopping. 1 A. appearance B. fashion c. uniform D. dress 2 A. vvhatever B. vvhoever c. whichever D. hovvever 3 A. matches B. suits c. takes D. couples 4 A. On account of B. Because of c. According to D. Due to 5 A. but B. either c. or D. nor 6 A. If B. Because c. Although D. Unless 7 A. Iast B. minute c. latest D. complete 8 A. affects B. benefits c. conveniences D. influences 9 A. have B. dress c. vvear D. put 10 A. in B. for c. to D. tovvard //. Read the / 'ollomng passage and ansyver the questioits that foỉlo M’. Circle A, B, or D to indicateyour answers.(1.0pt) The search for altemative sources o f energy has led in various directions. Many communities are buming garbage and other biological wastc products to produce electricity. Converting waste Products to gases or oil is also an eíĩicient way to dispose of waste. Experimental vvork is being done to derive synthetic fuels from coal, oil shale and coal tars. But to date, the process has proven expensive. Other experiments are underway to hamess povver with giant windmills. Geothermal power. heart form earth, isalso being tested. Some experts expect utility companies to reVIve hydroeìectnc power derived form streams and nvers. Fifty ycars ago hydroelectric power provided one third of the electncity used in the United States, but today it supplies only four percent. The oceans are another potentia! source of energy. Scientists are studyiniỉ ways to convert the energy of


ocean currents, tides and waves to electricity. Expenments are also undenvay to make use o f the temperature diíĩerences in ocean water to produce energy. 1. Which is the best title o f the passage? A. The Use o f Water Productions for Energy. B. The Search for Altemative Sources o f Energy, Eííìcient Ways o f Disposing o f Waste. D. New Discoveries in Geothermal Power. 2. Fifty years ago one third o f the electricity in the United States was provided by.... A. wind B. waste Products water D. oil 3. In the second paragraph, the phrase “synthetic fuels” coulđ best be replaced by which o f the following? A. Biological fuels B. Low buming fuels Fast bummg fuels D. Artificial made fuels 4. Which o f the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an altemative source of energy? B. Geothermal power A. Electricity D. Buming o f garbage Synthetic Fuels 5. According to the author. the impracticality o f using coal, oil shale and coal tars as sources o f energy is due to ....... B. their being money consuming A. theừ being time consuming D. the lack o f technology the scarcity o f sources

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

III. Read the followỉng passage. Choose from the sentences (A-G) below which best Jìts in each numbered gap(1-5). Tltere is one extra sen ten ce Yvhich you do not neei

to use. There is an example at the beginning(O). (l.Opt) Camival is deíĩnitely not a spectator sport. It’s very diíĩĩcult to get carried away by the atmosphere unless (0)___G___ and by that I mean vvearing a disguise of some kind, even if It’s nothing more than a mask or a funny hat. ỉn fact, the number of people (1)_____ is usually fairly small, so you will almost certainly be conspicious out of fancy dress. You are bound to regret not having gone to a bit of trouble when (2)_____ having the time of their lives. Ask a friend to lend you a costume if (3)_____ . You may even fmd that (4)_____ . If all else fails, you can always improvise with old streets and clothes, after all, you don’t have to look spectacular, elegant or beautiful, but you should try to enter into the spịrit of the íestivities if (5)_____ . A. you do not have one D. they are available for hire somevvhere B. who do not bother to dress up E. you vvant to enjoy them c . \vho don't want to make trouble F. you see every body else G. you are taking part yourselí IV. Fiỉỉ in each numbered space with one suitable word. (2.0pi) I’d like to talk about some o f the problems that students face ( 1)__________ they follow a course o f study through the medium of English (2)____________English IS not their mother tongue. The problems can be (3)__________ into three broa categories: psychological, cultural and linguistic. The íirst two categories mainlj affect those (4)__________ come to study in Britain. r u comment only briefly ot these two categories and then spend most of the time lookmg at linguistic difficultie apply to everyone. Some o f the common psychological problems really involve fearo


the unknown: for (5)---------------- , whether one's acedemic studies will be too difficult Looking at the cultural problems, we can see that some o f them are o f a verỹ practicai nature, e.g arranging satisfactory accommodation. Others are less easy to deíìne ị)---------------- Iargest category seems to be linguistic. Let s look at this (')— :-----------some detail. Most students, in their (8)_______________ countriẽs will have lịttle opportunity to practise using (9)___When íòreign leamers Ărst have the opportunity to speak to an English-speaking person they may have a shock: they õíten nave great (10)___________ in understanding. PART III. VVRITING: (4.0 pts)

I. ĩù tish the second sentence in eaclt pair in such a Yvay thai ií means the same as the sentence before it. (2.0 pts) 1. He has never been on board a ship before. This is the íìr s t................................... 2. David finds it easy to make íriends. David h a s .......................... 3. Finish eating íĩrst, then you can watch TV. You can’t watch TV................................ f 4. In spite of her tiredness, she managed to íinish her work. Although......................................... 5. No messages have come for me, have they? There ha v e .............................. 6. When he drinks a lot, he gets very bad. The more.................................. 7.1 regret not buying any tickets lor the conccrt. I w ish .................................... 8. My advice to you i‘s to go to the doctor's. If 1.... ............................ ....... ................................................. 9. A doctor is taking his temperature He is havíng................................... 0.1 was not familiar with that kind o f Computer. It was a .......................................... u. ỈVrite the second sẹntence in such a way tlial it ỉs as similar as possibỉe in

meaning to the original sentence. ưse the word given in brackets and õther words as necessary. Do not change the form o f the given word. (1.0 pt) . He drove so carelessly that he had an accident last month. (such) !. Dicken s last novel was uníìnished when he dicd. (vvithout) . Mark is too young to see the horror film. (enough) . Everyone but Jane failed to produce the correct answer. (succeeded) 5. “How about going to the concert?” said John. (suggested)


tíl. ĩỉ rite m eaningfuỉ sentences using suggested words. (1.0 pts). 1. train/ already leave/ beíòre/1/ get/ station 2. what/ happen/ if/ there/ no plants/ earth? 3. we/ now/ face/ probleni/ overpopulation 4. if/ you/ not help/1/ not meet/ my brother/ last month 5. you/ never/ vvill/ regret/ do/such/ kind action The ettd MỘT SÓ ĐÈ THI VÀO TRƯỜNG CHUYÊN SỞ G D& ĐT NGHẼ AN KỲ THI TUYÊN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 TRƯỜNG THPT CHUYÊN PHAN BỘI CHÂU NĂM HỌC 2011-2012 ĐÈ CHÍNH THỨC Môn thi: TIÉNG ANH Thời gian: 120 phút (không kể thời gian giao đề) SECTION li PHONET1CS I. Choose the word whose underlined part is pronounced differently from that of the others. D. repetition c. pretty B. preparation 1. A. precious D. psychology c. choir B. parachute 2. A. architect D. jea!ous c .sea so n B. rẹason 3. A. trẹason D. garbage c. energv B. suggest 4. A. aggressive D. pension c . pleasure B. V is io n 5. A. measure Your ansvvers: 5. 4. 3. 2. !. D. stationen* c. inventor> B. literacy A. oíĩìcial D. courageous c. ecosystem B. severe A. diversity D. judeemcnt c. intellieent 3. A. prediction B. compulsory D. mountain. c. honesty B. entertain 4. A. valuable D. separate c. mechanic B. product 5. A. realize SECTION lĩ: VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR I. Choose the best answer from A, B, or D to fill in the blanks. 1. lt is recommendcd tliat h e _______ this course A. took B. takes c. take D. taking 2. Various societies defin e _______ in many rather complEg vvays. B. \vhat success is A. that is successful D. what is success c . that success is

1. ọá-..

c


3.1could not tum in my paper on time because my word processor 4 “Y tfell,d(r ! L , . . B' .d0Wn . c t° re èov^ D broke down must alw ays----------- us the truth” the judge said to the man. A. tell B. confess speak D. say 5. Her íather is a __drinker. He is always drinking. A. strong B. heavy addictive D. capable 6. Don’t set off fìreworks too closely to your house A. do you B. don’t you c . will you D. w on’t you 7. Trains stop here in order t o _______ passengers only A .p ick u p B. get off c .p u ll up D. pull in Ị 8. In recent years, more and more people__ ___ for things with credit cards. A- pay B. are paid are paying D. have been paying 9. He was the íirst person the fire A. discover B. to discover discovering D. discovered 10. “Who was the man with you yesterday?” - “He was A. the next door man B. the man next to the door c . the man next by the đoor D. the man next door 11. John: “I didn’t pass my driving test ” Anna: “_______ Ị” A. Better Iuck next time B. So poor c . Congratulations Đ. That was nice o f them 12. You c a n _______ your sister to our party tonight. A' bring B. carry c . tẵke D. get 13. You need more exercise, so you shouid . go 11'. A. carryout B. take in c . tum D. take up up 14.1 like that photo very much. Could you make an for me? A. increase B. enlargement c . expansion D. extension 15. His roses won the ĩ.rs t________ in the local Aovver compet.tion A .pnze B .aw ard c . cup D. reward ^L There are TEN mistakes in the passage. Find and correct them Ev-erỵone wants to reduce pollution. But the pollution problem is as complicated as it is senous. It is complicated because o f much pollution 15 caused by things that beneíìt peopĩe. For example exhaust of automobiles causes a large percent o f ail air pollutiôn! However, the automobile provides transportation for million o f ị people Factones discharge much of material that polĩutes air and WatíT' -íu 1 factories SI ve employment to the large numbèr of ’ t0 end 0r great reduce Pollut>on immediately, people would have to stop using many things that benefit them. Most the

c.

c.

c.

c.

-° n0t want ÍO do that> course. Neverthẽĩess. pollution cân be gradũalreduced in several ways. Scientists and engineers can !! ways t0 less the way ° f pollution that such things like automobiles and factories cause. Govemments can pass and enforce laws that request businesses and traffĩc to stop, or to cut dõwn on l| certain polluting activities.


III.

Fill in each blank with the correct lbrm of the given word. SATISFY

1. He feels sad about h is _______ result in the examination. 2. The_____ o f this íactory are widely consumed in this country.

PRODUCE 3. You must keep on vvorking with him no matter how much y o u _____.

AGREE

4. Film íestivals are_______ divided into categories like drama, documentary or animation. 5. He erýoyed_______ with íriends and it cost nothing.

TYPICAL

6. I have just bought a replacement for one o f my favontes which ' disappeared. 7. Gift exchange i s _______ expression o f social relations.

SOCIAL MYSTERY SIGNĨFY

8. I try not to remember t h i s ______ experience that only leaves me with unhappy thoughts. 9. The b o y _______ asked for permission to go out with his friends.

RIGHTEN

10. British Rail apologized for th e _______ of the 4.20 to Bath.

CANCEL

REPEAT

SECTION III: READ1NG COMPREHENSION I. Choose the best answer from A, B, c or D to fill in each numbered blank in the following passage. NEW HUNT FOR LIFE IN SPACE British space scientists are planning to join the American in the race to íìnd evidence o f life on (1)_______ planets. Alan Penny and his team at the Rutheríord Appleton Laboratory have designed a telescope that is 40 times more powerful than Hubble. Known as ‘D anvin’, his telescope could tell if planets 50 (2) ______ _ years away have any kind o f lifc on them. Two days ( 3 ) _______ , NASA scientists had shown a proof that one o f Jupiter’s moons could support life, Penny announced thai his telescope may be included in a European Space Agency mission. The Danvin project vvith a (4)_______ o f 500 million, is on a short list o f t\vo proposals. If approved it will probably be (5)_______ around 2015, its destination somewhere betvveen Mars and Jupiter. The blueprint is actually for five telescopes positioned 50 m e t e r s a p a r t in s p a c e , s l o w l y c i r c l i n g a ( 6 ) __________ P r o c e s s i n g s t a t io n . T h e c o m b in e đ

data from these telescopes would build up a full picture o f a planet, picking out faint images that-have never been seen before. Darwin would not be able to take detailed photographs o f the planets it ( 7 ) _______ , but Penny believes a second- generation telescope could be sent up to do this. He claims it is worthwhile mapping the umverse around our ( 8 ) _______ galaxy, even though these planets lie (9)________ our reach for the moment. The European Space Agency will make its decision (10) _____ Danvin within three years. D. the other others B. other 1. A. another D. lighting lightemng B. lighten 2. A. light 3. A. following

B. after

4. A. price

B. schedule

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B. íetched

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Ihé e c h o e s T o

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trained technician can detennine the distance béhveen the radar set and oth ỉr obiects 4 n X - Lat 'J n , z radio detectKm ẵndrangm g , Ít R , f°r detection o f thc distancẽ between an object and the radar t Besides being o f critical importancẽ to pilôts. radar is essential for air Iralfic T ; “ r* ■"Ck.ng « a t L “ 1 z Z n ĩ 1. What IS the main topic o f this passaue? A. The nature o f radar. B. History o f radar c . Altematives to radar. D. Types o f ranging 2. Accord.ng to the passage. what can radar detect besidcs íocaúons o lo b ie c ts ' A Shape B. Speeđ c . Size D. Weight 3. Which type o f waves does radar use? A.tidal B. heat c . sound D. radio 4. The word tracking in the passage most closely means < se" dl,n g, B repa,r,ng c rans ing Õ T ^ r d n n g Ibr 5. What might be iníerred írom the passage about radar? A. It has improved navigational safety. B. It \vas developed from a study o f sound waves. c . It takes the place o f a radio. D. It gave birth to the invention o f the airplane III.

FH1 in each numbercd blank with a suitable «ord in the follo«ing passaae. The idea thai a blind person could drive a car sounds cra/ỹ. And the concènt of somcone who can t seẹ dnvmg a car at almost 150 miles per hour sounds év eỉ ( ì ! M.randa Naylor, a bl.nd accountant trom Southport, has donc exactly thai m spoiis cár T , ( ) ------- — ™ neỵ for charity Mrs. Naylor drove (3) V0 .n ,eSL f styaight line along ,hc runway o f a d sused air ìeld She was in radio T L aCt;: : í , h: r„hUí ? Naytor. (4) _ _ _ _ _ was a b le to glve hcr d.recnóns and ken blmd ló í

------ ĩ r l “ " l l í Irams đogs for the blind Mrs. Nayìor has ----------was S1X years °Id ar>d she still has some visual memories of

h eb


the world ( 7 ) _______ her. She admits that not having her sight makes hcr lifc a\vkward at times. She believes that if you are disabled in any vvay, you shouldn t \vaste time (8) _______ sorry for yourself. “ít makes a lot o f sensc to keep busy” she says. “Achieving (9) can be a great source o f self conftđence”. Miranda is now looking for a nevv challenge and ( 10 ) _______ like to ride a motorbike. SECTION IV: VVRITING I. Finish the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the íirst one. 1. I finđ his handvvriting very hard to read. !=> I h a v e .............................................................................................. 2. He got down to writing a letter as soon as he retumed from his work. No so o n e r............................................................................................ 3. Success depends on your hard vvork. The h a rd e r.................................................................................... 4. "If I were you, I w ouldn't accept his mam age proposal". said Nam to Lan. <=> N a m ............................................................................................. 5. No matter hovv hard I tried, ỉ could not opcn the window. ^ T r y .............................................................................................. II. Finísh the second sentence so that it has the samc meaning as the lìrst one, using the givcn word. Do not change the given word. 1. The íridge is completely empty. LEFT o .......................................................................... 2. It is pointless to have that old typewnter repaired. WORTH .... ........ ............................................. ....... 3. Frank never pays any attention to my advice. NOT1CE ......................................................................... 4. John only understood very little of what the teacher said. HARDLY o ................................................................................ 5. Her ability to run a company really impresses me. IMPRF.SSF.n o ................................................................................ III. Writc a composition on the following topic (about 150-200 >vords)

.••••

D o y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e c \v it h th c íb llo v v in g S ta te m c n t ?

It is betteu for children to grow up in the countryside than in a hig City.


SỜ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO PHỦ THO KỶ THI TUYẺN SINH LỚP 10 TRUỜNG THPT CHUYÊN HỪNG VƯƠNG ĐẺ CH ÍN H T H Ứ C Năm học: 2011 - 2012 --------------——-— I Môn: TIẾNG ANH (chuyên)

Thời gian làm bài: 120 phút (không kê thời gian giao đề)

PART I. PHONETICS (1.0 point) an exam plc at the beginning (0). (0.5 pt) B. think thev D. throuch B. hungr> stronger D. single B. material mature D. intensity B. houses raises D. promises B. bank sand D. band B. magic nạg D. dismayed — — „ „ „ „ I S uuicri Therc is an example at the beginning (0). (0.5 pt) 0. A. active B. section appoint D. happy 1. A. national B. engineer interesting D. scientist 2. A. responsible B. environment importance D. residential 3. A. provide B. combine Service D. account 4. A. điíTerence B. diffĩcult supporlinu D. bcautiiiil 5. A. social B. reply contain D. appear PART II. GRAMMAR AND VOCABƯLARY (4.0 points) L Choose thc best word or phrase to complete the folíowing sentcnccs. (2.0 pt) 1 is normally used to refer to the treatment and training o f the child uithin the home. A. Feeding B. Mothering Upbringing D. Educating 2. Several important methods were _ for preserving food in the nineteenth century.

c. c. c. c. c. c.

0. A. thick 1. A. change 2. A. intention 3. A. rises 4. A. hand 5. A. battle

c. c. c. c. c. c.

c.

A. seen

B. covered

c. prepared

D. invented

3. A m an IS vvalk in g tovvards m e . _____________ m an is c a r r y in g ___ parcel.

A. A / the B. The/ a c . 0 / the D. 4. A few years after you buy it, a house is usually ___ originally costs you. A. expensive B. vvorth worthy D. 5.1 will do anything b u t______ the dỉshes. A. \vash B. vvashcd c . vvashiim D. 6. ỉ âm so tired tli3t I Cân 11ìKIkc \vhat you arc sayỉng

c.

The/ o much more than it valueless ttill \\ash

A- UP B- in c . out D. on 7.1 rem em ber----------the letter some time ago but I can't remember exactly when. A. to post B. posted posting D. post

c.


8. They wamed u s ______ to the seaside in that month. A. to not go B. not to go not to gomg D. not go 9. “I really like your nevv shoes.” - “And they cost less than 1______ A. expect B. was expected had cxpected D. am expecting 10. Those kids are alw ays______ trouble. D. putting with A. looking up to B. gettmg into íìnding about 11. It is essential that h e ______ that contract. D. is reíusing A. reíuse B. refuses c . refusing 12. Either o f these b u se s_______ past the university. D. going A. go B. goes have gone 13. _______ the flight’s delay, they did not attend the conference. A. Because B. Although Because o f D. As 14. I t ________that many people are homeless after the floods. is reported D. reporting A. vvere reported B. reports the othcr onc. 15. This shirt is much prettier. but it costs c . twice as much as I). t\vice as manv A. so much as B. as many as 16. DorTt worry about her _ complanation D. complaint A. complaintment B. complaination _ you. 17. Please íorgive me. I didn't w a n t____ c . to be upset L). being upsei A. to upset B. upsetting by the human body, it gets into the blood stream quickly. 18. Vitamin B. is easily absorbed A.,absorbs easily D. absorbed easily is being absorbed easily - _________ , I don't mind. 19. What would you like to eat for lunch? D. Anything Every thmg A. Nothing B. Something

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c

c.

c.

20. 3/4 m ean s_______ . D. thirth fourth three íourth B. three quarters A. third quarters II. Give the correct form of the words in C a p ita l lctters. (1.0 pt) G E T T IN G AHEAD IN BUSINESS Your chances o f success can be greatly increased if you follow a few simple rules in your vvorking life. Fừst o f all, remember that your (1 ) E M P L O y _____ uants you to do -well- that’s what you are being paid tor. Manv companics choose (2) A M B ITIO N ___________ young people to vvork for thcm and provide a lot ol' (3) E N C O rR A G E ____________ for their workers. VVorking for a large. intcmational company may provide job (4) SEC IIR E__On the other hand. a smaller company rnight gi ve you the chance to use your (5) IM A G IN E ______________ morc Secondly, remember ihat any experience you gain \\ill aUvays (6) STR O N G ____________ yoụr position in the company. The company \vants (7) PR O V E____________ that you want to get to the top. Take any opportunity you get to courses related to your \vork. The more (9) go on (8) TR A IN _ you are, the better chance you have o f being promoted Q U A LIFY _______ Finally, don't give up, even when you are (10) SU CCESS___ Stick with it and you'11 get there in the end.

c.


I1L ĩ / hl pa.ss.age be,0W c° ntains 10 errors- UNDERLINE and CORRECT them p ™ ' ded There is an ™ After an absence — //» th.rty years, I dec.ded visitmg my old ^ s ----- í - — iuy <J1U 0......... for school again. I had expected to fmd changẽs, but no a completely different buiĩding. As I walked up the school 2. ground, ỉ \vondered for a momcnt if I had come at the nưht 3. address. b The grimy, red brick fortress with their tall vvindows that had 4 looked up grimly on the playground and playing nẽíds iiad 5 svvept away. In its place stood a bright. modem block risen 1'rom 1 6 the ground on grẹat concrete st.lts. A huge expanse o f glass 7 extending across the face o f the building. and in front, there was 8 . . . a vvell-kept lawn where previous there had been untidy grave! 9 yard.

10 .

PART III. READING (3.0 points) I. Read the passage below and fill each blank with ONE suitable word (1 0 pt) Speech is One o f the most important ( 1) _ o f communicatmg. it cons.sts of more t’lan j ust making noises. To talk and also to be (2) hv nther people, we have to speak a language, that is we have to use combinations o f (3 — — . that evẹryone agrees stand for particular object or idea. Communication wouid evervnne made mnrlIir» mimown _____ would be impossible iff everyone up their language. - ,(4>------------- a 'anguage properly is very ìmportant. The basic (5) . n nơt 'T17 large’ and onIy about 2Ó° 0 words are necded to (6) quite well But the more vvorđs you know, the more ideas you can (7) the more precise you can be about their exact meaning.

of r

i! and

Ti?rd,o?re the (8) — T-------- — thin8 we use in communicating \vhat \ve \vant to --------------- we sa>’ 'he words 1S also vcry important. Our tonc o f voicc

can express many emotions and (10 ) ________ vvhether vve are pleased òr angry. for II. Read the text and decide which answer best fits each space given (1 0 pt) THE BAT k , uThe..bat. mayJ See!? an ordinary creature, but in fact it is an artiazing ammal. The has wings and isr the on|y anima* ( 1) ________ o f true Aight Therè aré many (2) -------- _ species o f bat. In Britain ( 3 ) ______ there are fourteen types o f bát, \vhich ranges ranges in in ssizes i z e s fr from o m aa few f e w inches i n c h e s to t o ( 4 )______________ ) ________ f e e t in v v feet in g sDin a nvvingspan. . Bats are noctumal ạnimals ( 5 ) ______ become active only at dusk. Many species — — - on f “rad a r' System to íìnd their way around. The bat emits squeaks and then measures the echoes to “see” how far a\vay ány (7) _ _ _ The (_8) ----------o f bats. survive on a diet o f insects while others eat ữuit. There are two spec.es wh,ch eat f,sh and there are even some bats wh,ch cat mcat! Son c

K

r

r

p

(9) —

These

Bats are sociable creatures and fomi large colonies. Most bats (10) tamighout the winter months. Many people are aíraid o f bats vvithout even seeiny one Perhaps if we leam more about these wonderful creatures. we will no ìonger fear thêm.


c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.oi' c.

D. probable possible B. able 1. A. capable D. conílicting diíĩerent 2. A. differing B. contrast D. lonesome lonely B. alone 3. A. all littlc D. scxcral 4. A. various B. few which D. they B. who 5. A. whose D. conlìde B. rely stand 6. A. put D. hlockace obstacle B. baưier 7. A. hindrance D. number amount B. population 8. A. majority D. 1'rom B. oíT 9. A. out D. rest hide B. sleep 10. A. hibemate III. Read the following passage and choose the best answer. (1.0 pt) Reading to oneself is a modem activity which was almost unknovvn to the scholars o f the classical and medieval worlds, while during the fifteenth century the term “reading” undoubteđly meant reading aloud. Only during the nineteenth century đid silent reading become com m onplace. One should be vvary, however, of assuming that silent reading came about simply because reading aloud was a distraction to others. Examinations o f íactors related to the historical development o f silent reading have revealed that it became the usual mode of reading for most adults mainly because the tasks themselves changed in character. The last century saw a steady gradual increase in literacy and thus in thc numhcr of readers. As the number oi’ readers increased, the number o f potential listeners declined and thus there vvas some education in the nced to read aloud. As reading for the beneíìt o f listeners grew less common. so came the llourishing ol' reading as a private activity in such public places as libraries, raiKvay carriages and officcs, ttherc reading aloud would cause distraction to other readers. Tovvards the end oi' the century, there was still considerable argumcnt over \vhether books should be used for iníbrmation or treated respectfully and over \vhether the reading o f matenals such as newspapers was in some vvay mentally weakening. Indeed, this argument remains with us still in education. However, whatever its virtues, the old shared literacy culture had gone and was replaced by the printed mass media on the one hand and by books and penodicals for a specialized readership on the other. By the end o f the twentieth century, students were being recommended to adopt attitụdes to books and to use reading skills vvhich were inappropriate. if not impossibler for the oral reader. The social, cultural and technological changes in the century had greatly altered what the term “reading” ìmplied. 1. Rcading aloud was more common in the medieva! world because_______ . A. there were few places available for pnvatc rcading B. peoplc rclied on reading for entertainment c . fevv people could read to themselves D. silent reading had not been discovered 2. The vvord "com m onplace" in the tìrst paragraph mostly means “ _______ A. most preferable B. \videly uscđ c . for everybody’s use D. attracting attention 3. The development o f silent reading during the last century indicated_______ . A. an increase in the number of books


B. a change in the nature o f readmg c. a change in the status of literate people D. an increase in the average age o f readers

I

4 A. AlTtheh đecreasing l ^ ! n8:,eSP“number .Ìa'!y 1o f listeners 0 places- n ° unshtd " » W y because o f An R 5. * ,

Ĩ

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I « n a T s w a s an m d t í r ô n oef

D

■ ________"

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A. a change in the readers’ interest B. a decline o f standards o f literacy c . an improvement o f printing techniques D. an alteration in educationalists’ attitudes 6^

A.

T ? liz7 ! rra d m h l>>" i" P^agraph 4 m„ slly means •• “ " ----------limi ed number o f readers m á particular ãrea. oi' knòwlédge 3 reading volum e for particular professionals

c . a status for readers specialized in mass media D. a requirement for readers in a part.cular arẽa o f b K ^ ta to e whỗ. p

° ral re a d e r"

,he las' P ^ g r a p h

A. 1S good at public speakine

|Krs<m

R

c . takes part in an audition 8 All n f thp Trvii _ , staréd liK raeycullureEX C H -'^

mostly means

n p

re? ding to an audience *s interested in spoken language

faC10rS thal affcCKd the con,inu*tio"

. Í Í S S ;

old

ồ:£ ^ £ £ 2 “

». Which o f Ihe folIow „8s slatements is NOT I R r a t !. f 8 skills A R « H i n nôi ^ i a i c m e n i s IS INU J I R U E a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a s s a g e ? A_Reading aloud was more common in the past than ừ is today . e c t a o l o g . x r a n ĩ e í " ’8 hab,ís was n

cul.ural and

l hCf dnc lin e ° í r_!ad in g aI.° ud w a s w h o I|y due to its d istractin g eíTect

a Not all pnnted mass media was appropr.ate for reading abóm. 10. The wnter o f this passage is attempting to A. encourage the growth o f reading B. explain how reading habits have developed c. show how reading methods have improved D. change people’s attitudes ịPART IV. WRITING (2 0 points)

In Ị, , y y* Thereỉsan exampleat thebeginning(0) (1 lo. I haven t phoned her since she left for Paris. (LAST)

Onh

Y The l- 22ítime Ip h o n ed her was yvhen s/te leftforP aris b° re a str0ng resemblance t0 hẽr grandmother. (REM IN D ED )


2. Sarah wore dark glasses so that no one vvould recognize her. (AVOID)

-ỳ S a ra h ....................................................................................................... 3. She intended to find out who is responsible for the accident. (IN TEN TIO N ) -ỳ S h e ....................................................................................................... 4 . 1 haverTt decided yet vvhether to move or not. (MIND) -ỳ I ............................................................................................................................................. 5. I don't normally go into town by car. (USED) I............................................................................................................................................... 6. She started working as a secretary five years ago. (BEEN)

•ỳ She h a s ................................................................................................ 7. You might fall if you're not careíul. (OR) -ỳ Be ca re fu l........................................................................ .......................... 8. ‘T v e seen the ĩilms three times, Mary” said George. (TOLD) -ỳ G eo rg e...................................................................................................... 9 . 1 haven’t eaten this kind o f food before. (TIM E) •ỳ This is t h e ....................................................................................................... 10. When I get home, I’m going to have a shovver sừaight away. (SOON) •ỳ I’m going t o ................................................................................... II Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same ãs the sentence printed before it. Write your answers in the spaces provided. Therc is an example at the beginning (0). (1.0 pt) ' 0. We are looking forward to going abroad this summer. -ỳ We are excited about going abroad this summer. 1. That meal was excellent. ->W hat ............................................................. ...................................................... ! 2 . 1 don’t really want to visit the museum. -ỳ l'd rather................................................................................................................... 3. Please don’t smoke in this area of the restaurant. •ỳ Customers are requested...................................................................................... 4. Although he took a taxi, Peter arrived late for the concert.

rỳ In .............................................................................................................................. 5 I left without saying goodbyc as I didn t want to disturb thc mecting. -ỳ Rather........................................................................................................................ 6. The cost o f living has fallen considerably in the past week. -ỳ There has................................................................................................................ 7.The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day. -ỳ Only by..................................................................................... .................................. “Could ýou guard against my handbag while I go to the toilet? -ỳ Could you keep an..................................................................................................... 9. He regrets having invited her to the party. -ỳ He .. ............................................................................................................................ 10. ‘7 admit that Ị forgot to turn on the alarm system. " said Robert. -ỳ Robert confesfied to....................................................................................................

8.


W S ™ È N m S TẠ0 -------------- — ________

“ ™

^ S

, „ „ĐÊ CHÍNH _ _ THÚC _ _ I. PRONUNCIATION (10 points)

= U JP = ÉNQUÓ C „ ỌC Khoá ngày 24.6.2011

„ Mồn: r " híii: ^ r120,M u• /«07 gian lùm

Part 1: Choose the word nhose underlined part is pronounced differently from that of the others. (5 points) 1. A. double B. blouse ground D. ounce 2. A. Service B. decision scientist D. bride 13. A. dosage B. massage carriage D .voyage 4. A. good B. mood noon D-Pool 5. A. advance B. aaccess D ttc s s c.aappliance p p iian c e D. acquạintance acquaintance Part 2: Choose the nord whose stress pattern is different from that o ĩ the others (5 points) 1. A. vacancy B. calculate delicious D. furmture 2. A. coltection B. occasion govemment D. religion 3. A. explain B. reverse divide D. travel 4. A. atmosphere B. employment Insurance D. interpreter 5. A. construction B. description television D. temptation II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR (40 points)

c. c. c. c. c.

c. c. c. c. c.

Part 1: Choose the best anS« e r from A, B, c or D to complete the followIng sentences: (10 points) 1. She burst in to ________ vvhen she opened the letter. A. crying B. sadness c . misery D. tears 2.1 felt extrem ely-------------- when I couldn’t remember my neighbour’s name. Ị A. embarrassed B. embarrassment c . embarrassing D. embarrass 3. There IS alw ays__________________ traffic in thc City centre in the rush-hour.

B. heavy c . strong D. big 4. My dad w a s ----- --------with me when I told him I had lost the camera he bought me A. scared B. guilty c . \vomed n lunous • 5' 1 v e -------------down on salt and cut

B. put

in my diet because they re noi good tbr me. c . got

D. gonc

6. We had a períect view from the aeroplane because the sky \vas

A dul'

B. sullen

c . dark

D. cìẽãr

7. The path was v e ry ________ because o f the wet vveather. A. stony B. muddy c . sandv D dusty 8. When a tropical s to rm ----- ------- 120 kilometers per hour, it can damage a lot of A. reaches B. comes c . arrives D. runs 9. We listened vvhile the examiner gave us the directions. A. attcntion B. attentively attentive D. attentiveness 10. Can you give me th e _______ for tomato Soup? A. tbrmula B. recipe c . order D. method

c.


Part 2: Use the word given in capitals at the cnd of each line to form a \vord that fits in the space in the same line. (10 points) Jealousy is a confusing emotion and it can make people 1. EXPECT 2. VARY behave in totally (1)...........................................................ways. It can of course have awide ( 2 ) ........................................................ 3 DISAPPOINT o f causes and some people feel jealous more easily than 4. CHAMPION othẽrs. It could be that you are (3) 5 CONGRATULAT that your team didn’t win the 6. PbRSON (4 ) ................................ and you can’t bear to 7 ANNOY vvatch the other team receive the cup. The acceptable response 8. REAL is to offer them your (5) .......................................... and not to show your jealous feelings. Jealousy may also have Ìts ongins 9 EMBARRASS in other more ( 6 ) ........................................... circumstances such 10. APOLOGY as a friend getting a job you wanted yourselí. You should not show your ( 7 ) ........................................ as this can make you look (8) ......................................... small-minded. If you do express your view, it will be (9) ..................................... f°r the other person, who can’t do anything about their success, and you even lose a íriend unless you (10) may immediately. Part 3: Complete each sentence with a word from the box. Make anv other necessary changes. (10 points) break get give come take set go (x2)______ I let turn 1. IS' Peter at the party? No, but I’m sure h e ................................ up soon. 2. My father still hasn’t re a lly ............................over the death of my mother. 3 It’s not easy to ................... up smoking. l ve tried to do it lots of umes \viihout being successful. 4. You can rely on her. She w on’t ................................you down. 5. Don’t eat that sausage. I think it’s..................................off. 6. I’m sorry I’m late, but my car ...................... down on the way here, so I had to phone for a taxi. 7. When they were cleanmg out the attic, they .............................. across iheư grandmother’s old school books. 8. After she had íinished loading the car, s h e .................................... off on her holiday. 9. Sorry, I don’t mean to interrupt you. P lease.............................on and íinish what you are saying. 10. What a lovely baby! He certainly...............................after his father, doesn’t he? Part 4: FH1 the gap in each of these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. (10 points) 1. On their next anniversary, Doris and Fred (be).....................................married tor twenty years. 2. He alvvays talks as though he (address).............................................a pubhc meeting. 3 .1’m sure the letter won’t amved on time unless it (send)..................................... by air. 4. The news about the storm (already broadcast)................................on radio severa times so far. 5 . 1 don’t really like my maths teacher because he (a1ways pick)............................ on me


6. He thanked me for what I (do)................................... for him 7. She is ạccustomcd to (n a m )........I I I I I I I tò, long hours. 8. By the time I arrived, the footbal! match (already start).... ...... 9 .1'd rather you (not te!I)....................... .z . . . h e r the truth‘‘" ìn P c V n ix i!n ™ ............................................

10 hours! You must w ake her up

III. READING COMPREHENSION (25 points)

Part 1: Read the text belọn and think of the word vvhich best r.ts each space I s e only one word in each space (10 points) p The Benefìts o f Physical Activitv The pace o f modem life is very fast, and most peoplc have busy and demand.níi ives So eating a balanced diet and doing physical àctivitý can (1) a Ig 1 íerence to overall health. Regular physical activity is good (2) your whoIe body, from your brain to your bones. Yet many people do not get (3) ---------------------- exercise. The good news is that (4) is Msipr rtwm

'° ’ physlc“' yoụr day b .c L s e yóu cân ( ’ ------ —--------------t*me a°d almost anyvvhere. No matter (7) ----- ----- ----your age and stage o f Iife there are plenty o f vvays to takc cxercise. r

r ya,

h r wer! made for waIklnẽ ’ so use them (8) you uet the chance Walk around town. Ignore lifts and escalators and build up your leg muscles by cl mbing stairs. Next get out and play. Kicking á ball is ĩu n a n d i u álto a ỉrea

zhings al once! Vvhilc„you lalk on the phone , or__ - *ạm ily. Pinalty' lỉy do.ngTÒ vvatch tclêvision! stretcli. Iilì \veights or _______________ household chores. Part 2: Read the passage and choose the correct ansners: (5 points) Some people believe that soon schools will no longer be necessary. These people say that because o f the Internet and other new têchnology, then * 15 no longer any need íor school buildings, formal classes, or teachèrs. Perhaps this will be true one day hut l harí for ™e to ‘maf ine a world without schoõis. In fact, we need to lôok at how catn use ne^ technology to make schools better not to ẽliminate thern. We shôuld n v e n t a nevv k in d o f s c h o o l th a t 1S l in k e d to lib r á r ie s , m u s è u m s , S c i e n c e c ễ m e r s la b o r a to r ie s , a n d e v e n c o r p o r a t io n s .

Corporations ought to create leaming programs for schools in their area of expẹrtise. Independent experts could give talks on video or over the Internet TV a c u a ĩív V n stf ° " s ™U u'd develop programm.ng about thmgs students are actuallỵ studying in schoo s. Laboratories could set up webs.tes tó demonstratc ncw technology so students could view it on the Internet I . Is th ,s Just l dream? No. Already there are several towns where this is beginning In te n S " 1' ? ,a g’ Virg,inia' is one of toem. Here the entưe City 18 linked to thỉ Internet, and leaming can take place at home, at school, and in the oiTicc. Busincssés prov.de programs for the schools and the community. The schools provĩde computCT t , i 0r p

p le . . aù

!:

“ sc

has Internet a c c e s s,

old er p eo p íc

pạrtic pate as tnuch as younger ones. and everyone can visit distant Iibraries and museums as easily as nearby ones. How will this new kmd o f school change leammg? It is too early to be sure but It is very exciting to think about. Technology wiíl change the way we leam; schools wiíl change as well; and we will alỉ leam something in the process.


1. It can be infeưed from passage that A. schools are not necessary. B. schools are till necessary. c . new technology will replace schools. D. A and c 2. According to the author, the statements belovv are possible about schools except A. corporations should get involved. B. everyone can visit distant libraries as easily as nearby ones. c . new technology will replace teachers completely. D. new technology will change the way we leam. 3. The future schools should be A . lin k e d t o a ll t h e C a p ita l c i t i e s th e w o r ld o v e r . B . l in k e d to l ib r a r ie s , m u s e u m s , S c ie n c e c e n t e r s , la b o r a t o r ie s a n d e v e n c o r p o r a tio n s .

c . for all young intemational people. D. for old people only. 4. Which o f the following statements is true about Blacksburg? A. It's the biggesl library. B. It's the school with new technology. c . It's the city where there are no teachers. D. It's a City in Virginia where leaming can take place at home, at school and in oíĩices. 5. How does the author feel about the change of schools in the future? A. Pessimistic. B. Positive c . Depressed D. Indifferent Part 3: Read the following passage and decide which answer(A, B, c or D) best fits cach spacc. (10 points) N EW Y O RK CITY New York city has grovvn into the second largest city in North America. It is now a major business, cultural and shopping centre (1)______________millions of visitors each year. Most tourists stay in the (2)_______________ot the City, in Manhattan, li 1S

easy to see the sights o f Manhattan on ioot or you can take a tourbus. There are cycle (3 )________________in the city if you \vant to hire a bicycle but you necd to bc brave! The subvvay is the quickest mcans o f public transport but you will want to avoid the (4 )_______2________hour. And, o f course, there are the íamous yellovv taxis. There are few taxis (5)______________ - just wave your arrn at a taxi with its- light on. You will certainly want to visit Central Park, a liuge opcn (6)______________ \vhich is idcal for

relaxing oĩf a hot summer day. The City is rich in restaurants but remember that smoking is (7)_____ One of the many boat trips goes to Ellis Island vvherc you may want to stop lor a (8)______________ to rcad about the history o f immigration. The main residential areas are in the (9)______________of the city where, as in all large cities, some districts are quite run down. Many tourists visit Ọueens vvhich is the location of somc interesting art galleries and Brooklyn for cafés, shops and nightliíe. (10) D. attractine c. arriving B. advancing 1. A. appealing D. eye c. focus B. interior 2. A. heart D. ways c. lanes B. streets 3. A .roads I). hurry c. cro\vded B .rush 4 . A. busy D. stations c. kiosks B. stalls 5. A .ranks D. estate c.space B. region 6. A. surlầce


c. c. c. c.

7. A. banned B. excluded reíused 8. A. period B. vvhile length 9. A. outdoors B. outskirts outsiđes ío. A. alive B. Iifẹlike live IV. VVRITING (25 points) Part 1: Finish the second sentcnce in such a way that it m eans sentence printed before it. (5 points) 1. People always laugh at his face, and he dislikes it. He hales 2. It is said that the thief stole everything in the house. Everything________________________ 3. Despite her injured ankle, Esther stiĩĩ won the tennis match. Athough_____________________ 4. Most student can work very hard when they feel like it. Most students are capable 5. Scientists have tried very hard to find a cure for this disease. A lot o f effort

D. D. D. D.

dismissed piece outlincs livejy

the same as the

Part 2: Read the text below and look care/ully at each m m bered line. Some o f the lines are correcí, and some have a word which should not he there. Ifthe line IS correct. p u t a (yị) hy the number. IJ ilw liIII' liíi.s II w u n ỉ u/iii li sh ou iiì Hu! hc A HOLIDAY DISAPPOINTMENT Things started to go wrong as soon as we got to the hotel. We were all being compĩetely exhausted aíìer oũr long joumey and looking forward to have a shower and a rest! However. we found that our room was not ready, which was very much íỉnnoying, ullhoiigh the managcr was extremely apologetic. While we were wàiting, we asked about the excursions to places o f an interest which we had read about in the brochure. Imagine how we felt when we were told they had all been cancelled away! Apparently the person responsible for organising them had left suddenly and had not been replaced. Then Sally saw a notice thát pinned to the door o f the restaurant, saying it was been closed for redecoration, and Peter discovered that the swimming pool was empty. When vve eventually got to our room we were hoưified to so find that it was at the hack of the hotel, and we had a view out of a car park, which seemed to be used as a rubbish dump. We seriously began to wonder \vhether or not to stay

0. V 00. being 1............................................... 2..................................... 3.................................................... 4............. 1................... 5............................ 6... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.................................... 8...................................... 9.................................... 10..............................

rart 3: YYithin 250 \vords, write a composition on ONE of the followin£ (10 points)

ÍODÌCS

Topic 1: It 1S better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big City. Do you ạgree or disagree? Use specitìc reasons and examples tố support vonr opinion Topic 2: What career \vould you like to choose after leaving school?


SỞ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO HA TĨNH

ĐẾ CH ÍNH THỬC

ĐỀ TUYÉN SINH LỚP 10 TH PT CHUYÊN HÀ TĨNH Năm học: 2009 - 2010 Môn: Tiếng Anh Ngày thi: 26/.27-06-2009 Thời gian gian: 120 phút(không kể thời gian phát đề)

Part 1: Choose the word whose underlined part is pronounced diíĩerently from that o f the rest 1. A. hope B. stop c. slope D. cope 2. A. technical B. attention c . event D. talent 3. A. encounter B. enter c. ẹnlarge D. entrust 4. A. call B. count c. centre D. cable 5. A. pure B. durable c. cure D. pursue Part 2: Pick out the word whose syllable is stressed differently from the others: 1. A. passage B. enịoyable c. moment D. matches 2. A. associate B. together c. traveler D. protected 3. A. weather B. Electric c. absorb D. potential 4. A. preíerence B. attraction c. advantage D. discover 5. A. escaping B. eruption c. delicate D. explain Part 3: Choose tbe correct word or phrase underlined to complete the sentence 1. What your sister like? She is funny and ìntelligent. A. is B. does c. was D. did 2. If I knew you busy, I wouldn’t disturb you. A. were B. had been c. are D. would be 3. The man tovvards us is an engineer. A. coming B. comes c. is coming D. to come 4. If you had come to the party, you her. A. vvould meet B. would ha ve met c. had met D. met 5. The company employees are on strike is closing down soon. A. which B. vvhose c. that D. where 6. Water bòìl/ is boiling/ boils/ was boling at 100°c. 7. Sunday is a holiday _____________ rnost people rest. A. which B. that c. where D. when 8. When she was cooking dinner, she __________her íĩnger. A. cuts B. cut c.-w as cutting D. is cutting 9 . 1 have lived here since I . 10 . A. am B. ha ve been c. will be D. was 10. They would be angry if y o u _____ them. A. aren’t B. don’t c. w on’t D. didn’t visit 11. What will you do if y o u ________ _ a million dollars? A. win B. won c. hađ won D. will win


12. If you stay up late, y o u ____________sleepy the next moming. A- feel B. felt wóuld feel D. will feel 13. __ which attract so many visitors as Venice, Italy. A. Fewer B. As few There are few D. Few places 14. He was _ o f all his money. A. stolen B. robbed removed D. taken 15.1 him to am ve in a íòrtnight. A. expect B. wait hope D. suspect 16. The question was difficult thereíore _of students could answer it. A. few B. a lot o f a few D. a bit 17. The people in the theaưe are the__________ A. audience B. lookers observers D. vvatchers 18. If you live in a house which is not yours you have to pay__ A. a fee rent făre D. charge 19. The person who designs a house is the__ A. engineer B. architect c . painter D. builder D. builder 20. Can y o u __________a pound note? I need som ecoins for the telephone box. A.exchange B. change give D. offer 21.What ___________ advice she ga ve us ! A. so good B. such good a good D .good 22.My dog as well as my c a ts _______ twice a day. A. eat B. eats has eaten D. have eaten ' 23.When I came into the class, I realized I knew ____ A. them all B. all them c . they all D. all o f they 24.Do it right n o w ,__________ ? A. do you B. aren’t you c . will you D. don’t you 25.W e ________ for her for ten minutes. A. wait B. waited c . are waiting D. have been waiting

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

c.

B.

c.

c.

c.

c.

26.HÍS father is not interested in tennis and _

A. he doesn’t, either B. so doesn’t he c . neither does he D. neither is he 27.The little girj wasted half an h o u r___________ for her picture book. A. look B. looking to look D. looked 28.__________ does it take you to do the washing? A. How fast B. What time c . How long D. How often 29.Your hair is long. Are you going t o ________ ? A. have it cut B. have cut it c . be cutting it D. have it cutting 30.Would you like tea or coffee? - I ________ drink tea than coffee. A. would like B. would prefer c . would rather D. vvould wish 31.lt is high time you more attentive in class. A. are B. were must be D. ha ve been 32.He was ______that we tumed off the TV set immediately. A. so bad singer B. such bad singer such bad a singer D. so bad a singer

c.

c.

c.


_

33.1 wish y o u ______________ that! lt’s really annoying habit. A. won’t do B. couldn't do c wouldn’t do D. don’t do 34. ‘i ’m sorry about that!” - “______________ !” A. T hat’s right B. O f course c . It’s OK D. You’re welcome 35.Not until 2 0 0 8 ____________ across the river. A. the fưst bridge was built B. the íìrst buildmg o f a bridge vvas c . built the íĩrst bridge D. was the íĩrst bridge built 36.Excuse me! I ’m leaming my lesson.____________tuming down your stereo a bit? A. Would you please B. Would you mind c . Could you D. Would you like 3 7 .1 wa$ j u s t _______ to go out when Peter phoned. A. used B. planned c . about D. around 38. The book provides students_useful tips to pass the cominc exam. A. o f B. about c . on D. \vith 39 . ________he practised hard, he didn’t pass the driving test. A. As long as B. Even though c . In spite of D. If 4 0 .1 felt disappointed because I w a s ________ by the company I applied to. A. criticized B. rejected c . blamed D. forgotten 41. If I vvere you, I ___________ harder to pass the examination. A. would work B. will work c . worked D. work 42. We were all hungry, so she suggested__________ dinner early. A. to h av e B. having c . had D. have 4 3 .1 wish I _______ in London with my íriends now. A. am B. was c . were D. will be 4 4 .1 finđ it difficult to make a g o o d _________ on this problem. A. want B. decision c . thought D. vic\v 45. We didn’t ____________ to the station in time to catch the train. A. reach B. arrive c . get D. lead 46. My mother is one of the \vomen w ho............ money. A. erýoys to spend B. enjoys spending . c . enjoy_spending D. cnjoy to spend 47. Their exports are ju st........... ours. A. similar B. like c . as D. same 48. You may put money in a small coin bank........ a piggy bank. at home to keep it safe. A. as such B. such c . such as D. so 49. Ít is time you........ hard for the exam. A. to revise B. revise c . revised D. revising 5 0 .1 live in Dalat............is One o f the most beautiĩul cities of Vietnam. A. who B. where c . which D. that Part 4: Give the correct form o f the words in brackets to complete thc follo\ving sentences 1. Novvadays laser beams can be used to treat J __ DE AF 2. Thousands o f are working hard to find out remedies to swine flu. SCIENCE 3. Only fiv e ____________ were shorlisted for ửie interview. APPLY


4. Peter drives very ______ H e’s hardly had a minor accident. 5. My father has la te ly __________________ in giving up smoking. 6. After the earthquake, very few people were found to be _ _ 7. Your son is very naughty. He has cut him selí again, and it is______ badly. 8. The doctor tried to ____________the soldier’s wound in a íierce battle.

CARE SUCCESS LIVE BLOOD HEALTH ATTENTION SHORT

9. She is a studious pupil. She alvvays listcns _____ to her teachers* lessons. 10. Whenever there are food ________ people ìmmediately Part 5: There is a mistake in each of follo>ving sentence find and correct it 1. He spent two hours to translate this text into English yesterday moming. 2. We are going on a tnp to a countryside with our classmates next month. 3. Many o f the peoples in my home village have lived in their village all their lives. 4. First the examiner asked me what my name was, and where I come from. 5. Could you send me some information about a possibly course that I can take? 6. They who arrive early will get the best selection o f seats. 7. Fertilize farmland is one o f the biggest natural resources in the Central.States. 8. There are many dillcrcnt vvays o f comparmg the economy of one nation with thosc o f another. 9. Drug addition has rcsultcd o f many dcslroycd carcers and expulsions from school or college. 10. The company did not want to hire a man that his expenment was so limited. 11.1 have a very interested job because as a joumalist I meet many people. 12. My boss watches mc closely and lets me kno\v ho\v I am doing and tells me if ỉ am doing bad. 13. You probably have never heard o f my country where I li ve because it’s very far o f your home. 14. I vvould like you see some pictures o f my country and I wi!l attach them to my next report. 15. I am trying since I was at school to leam a íbreign language hut it was difficult for me. 16. On their very first evening he told his wife he was just going out for a short \valking but it \vas really to buy hcr some flowers. 17. He found a shop quickly and brought the llowers but he couldn't get back to the hotél. 18. I have eaten too many o f those greasy bacon pies, and now I feel sickly._____


1 0 ,1 lo

was upset last Monday moming by hcr bad altiiudcs. 20. Vly brother ỊS not old enough ỉbr driving a car Pnrt 6: Choose f 'hnncp tho íincu pr to tn fill Pỉirh of ni the gaps in the text below Part the hpct best answer fìll in each There’s now increasing concem about the world’s cnergy resources, pamcularly about those ìnvolving tbssil (1)_______ . In less than a hunđred years we shall probably (2)_____ all the present (3)______of oil and gas. The world's coal ( 4 ) ____ should last longcr but, once used, these can not be ( 5 )_______ . It is important, theretbre, that we should develop such (6 )_____ sources of energy as solar energy and nuclear energy as well as water and wind (7)_______ (classed as (8 ) _______ energy).Until these energy (9)_____ are vvidely used. it IS important for the _ as much as possible. developed countries to reduce energy (10) D. energies forms B. povvers 1. A. fuels D. exhaust total B. complete 2. A. end D. sources amounts B. productions 3. A. íìndings D. contcnls mines B. stores 4. A. reserves D. produced renewed B. repeated 5. A. updated I") rcvolulions c . surprisinu B. altemative 6. A. traditional I). niolion pouer B. strcngth 7. A. lorce D. continuous c . renevvable B. continual 8. A. repeatable D. materials c . provisions B. supplies 9. A. goods D. consumptio c . waste B. destruction 10.A. exhaustion Part 7: Fill in each nunibered blank with one suitable word George Washington was bom on February 22nd, 1732 in Virginia. His (1)_________________ were Augustine and Mary Washington. George (2) _ of his early ______________ up on a farm in Virginia. Little is (3) childhood. He attended ( 4 ) _________________iưegularly from his 7th to his 15th year. His ( 5 ) ______________subject was mathematics. He leamed to be a surveyor of land when he grew up. He (6) ________________ the army and was a leader dunng the American Revolution. He later became the íìrst (7 )____________ of the United States. _ by his people the "Father of our George Washington is (8) his birthday on Presidcnts' Day in country". The Americans (9) is on the one-dollar bill. February. His (1 0 )____________ Part 8: Read the follo>ving passage and then put a circle round the lctter of the correct words to complete each sentence \vhich Ể'ollows: Keeping our teeth hcalthy It’s very important to have healthy teeth. Good teeth help us to che\v our food They also help us to look nice. How does a tooth go bad? The decay begins in a little crack in the enamel covering o f the tooth. This happens aíter germs and bits of food have collected there. Then the decay slovvly spreads inside the tooth. Eventually, poison goes into the bloođ, and we may feel quite ill. How can we keep our teeth healthy? Firstly, we ought to visit our dentist twice a year. He can fill the small holes m our teeth before they desừ-oy the teeth. He can examine OUI teeth to check that they are grovving in the right way. Uníortunately, many people wait until they have tooữiache before they seổ a dentist. Secondly, we should brush our teeth with a toothbrash and Auoride toothpaste at least twice a day once after breakíast and once

c. c. c. c. c.

c.


beíore we go to bed. We can also use wooden toothpicks to clean betvveen our teeth after a meal. Thirdly, we should eat food that is good for or teeth and our body: milk cheese íìsh brown bread. potatoes, red rice, raw vegetables and fresh fruit. Chocoíate, sweets biscuits and cakes are bad, especially when we eat them between meals. They are hărmíui becăuse I they stick to our teeth and cause decay. 1) Good teeth help u s _______ . a) be nice b) have good eyesight c) chew our food d) be important 2) When food and germs collect in a small crack, our teeth o1become U r\ ỉ 1 V1 a) hard b) begin to decay c) senđ poison into the blood d) makc us fecl quitc ill 3) A lot people visit a dentist only when _ a) their teeth grcnv properly b) they have holes in thcir lccth c) they have toothache d) they have brushed their teeth 4) We ought to try to clean our teeth _ a)once a day b) at least twice a day c) betvveen meals d) before breakfast 5) We shouldn't eat a lot of a) red rice b) fresh fruit c) fish d) chocolate 6) Sweets are harmful because they make our teeth a) black b) ache c) bad d) cracked Part 9: Revvrite the fonowing sentences, begin as sho\vn and keep the mcaning unchanged 1. The ílight from Bangkok to London lasted for more than tvvelve hours. It took 2. No decision on the issue has been made yet. Nothing 3. It was such a boring film that she felt asleep. The íìlm 4. One o f my favourite pastimes is watching plays. Going 5. You can borrow the car but you’ve got to fill it up with petrol. Provided 6. It’s quite pointless to complain about the situation. There is no 7. She spends too much money on clothing. If 8. You are the worst íootballer in the world. No one 9. Susan fmds it easy to make ííiends at her new school. Susan has no 10. There are a lot o f vehicles on the road today. There 1S Part 10: Use the words given to make meaningíul sentences so as to complete a story 1. man/ holiday/ London/ first time


2

. after/ arrive/ hotel/ he/ send/ wife/ telegram

3. in/ telegram/ he/ inform/ wife/ of/ safe/ arrival 4. he/ also/ give/ her/ name/ address/ hotel 5. next day/ he/ go/ sightseeing/ round/ London 6

. he/ satisíy/ enjoy/ visiư much/ as/ it/ one/ most beautiíul cities/ world

7. he/ go/ restauranư have/ dinner/ atter/ tour 8

. hẹ/ tired/ want/ go back/ hotel/ geư some sleep

9. uníortunately/ he/ not remember/ name/ address/ hotel 10.

late that nighư wife/ receive/ strange/ telegram/ say/ “please/send /name/address/ hotel/at once”.

- T H E ENDv SỜ G D -Đ T TP HÒ CHÍ MINH

KỲ THI TUYẾN SINH VÀO LÓP 10 CHƯY Năm học 2010 - 2011 Thòi gian: 120 phút Ngày thi: 2 1 /6 /2 0 1 0

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO FILL IN THE BLANK. (20 points) 1. They seemed to b e _______ to the criticism and just caưied on as beíore. A. disinterested B. indifferent c . sensitive D. uncaring 2. He sp o k e_______ all the tầmilies Vvho had lost relatives in the disaster. A. \vith.a view to B. in respect o f c . o n b e h a lfo f D. in aid of 3. They are very good friends but in terms o f sports they are vvorlds_______ . A. away B. separate c . apart D. different 4. The operation was doomeđ to tầilure from the w o rd _______ . A. go B. start c . begin D. nou 5. Her penknife came in v e ry _______ when thcy were on their picnic. A. useful B. handy c . practical D. convenient 6 . The đoctor was unable to go avvay for the \vcckend because shc w a s _______ duty. A. at B. by • c . in D. on 7. She is to o ________ to hide what she thinks about them. A. quiet B. outspoken c . apologetic D. broadminded 8 . The little b o y _______ into tears when he thought that he was lost. A. burst B. fell c . broke D. dripped


9. The íìlm _______ a lot o f attention. A. generated B. manufactured c . promoted D. brought 10. All the engineers were happy because they íìnally m ad e _______ . A. a breakthrough B. an outburst c . a viewpoint D. an outcome 11. Tom: Jane’s daughter is very rude. Mary: Y ou’re right; she has no manners________.

A. however B. whatsoever c . vvhenever D. evermore 12. Because o f her recent poor form, she is only expected to come fou rth_______ . A. at least B. at best c . at worst D. at will 13.1'm in n o _______ this evening to listen to his silly jokes. A. feeling B. tendency c . mood D. opimon 14. _______ was the effect more powerfully felt than in the suburbs. A. Nowhere B. Somewhere c . Anywhere D. Everyvvhere 15. _______ the choice, I would definitely not go. A. Giving B. Having given c . Given D. Being given 16. Tom: The building’s nearly fmished, isn’t it? IVIary: Yes, but it’11 b e ________ \ve can move in. A. to much time till B. a long time before c . hardly time when D. very soon that 17. Tom: Is your govemment salary good? Mary: Yes, but I don’t make as m uch ________ worked in private industry. A. as I B. if I would have c . I would if D. as I would if I 18. Tom: Betty didn't win the beauty contest o f Singapore. Mary: .She would h a v e ________ some talent. A. had she have B. have she had c . had she had D. have she have 19. Tom: I savv you studying at the library last night. Mary: Y o u _________ ; I w asn’t there.

A. wouldn’t have B. can’t have c . might have D. have 20. Tom: What’s all the noise about? Mary: We had a bad accident_______ at thc lactory. A. happened B. happcning c . happen D. has happcned 21. Tom: Can you wait while I run into the library? Mary: O K ,_______ you hurry. A. even though B. as long as c . when D. unless 22. Tom: Do you know where Barb is? Mary: Strange_______ sound, she is in South Africa. A. may it B. as it may c . like it may D. does it 23. Tom: Who did you invite to dinner? Mary: No One_______ than Frank and his family. A. rather B. except c . besides D. other 24. Tom: A lot o f money goes for AIDS research. Mary: Yes, because i t 's _____ the govemment is spending a lot to find a cure. A. a so serious disease B. so serious a disease c . so a serious disease D. such serious that


25. Tom: Which is more important: luck or effort? Mary: Luck i s _______ effort. A. on the same importance B. the same importance as c . o f the same importance as D. as the same importance as 26. This is the latest news from Timbuktu. Two-thirds of the c ity _______ in a fìre. A. was destroyed B. have been destroyed c . has been destroyed D. were destroyed 27. There was no altem ative_______ wait until the rescue team came. A. but B. but to c . than to D. than 28 . ________ his invaluable work, the project would never have succeede A . For all

B. In v ic \v o f

c . But for

D. p rovidcd \vith

_

29. This is the only p a rty ______ in my life. A. I never enjoy B. I ever enjoy c . I've never enjoyed D. D. I've ever rcally erụoyed 30. “So long!” is another way o f saying_______. A. Hello! B. Cheer up! c . I’m very happy. D. Goodbye! 31. Tom: Take care o f yourself. M ary:_______ . A. I will B. Yes, I do c . Not bad D. YouYe welcome 32. Tom: Can I have your order, please? M ary:_______ . A. Two chickens, please. B. ril do it right away. c . Yes, sir. D. Just do whatever you want to. 34. It vvas in the countryside_______ . A. where John was brought up B. John was grovvn up c . that John was brought up D. \vhich John was grown up at 3 5 .1 don’t know how you manage t o _____on only £50 a week. A. get by B. take in c . cut do\vn D. look dovvn 36. The plumber came yesterday t o _______ the burst pipes. A. tum o ff B. look into c . get over D. see to 3 7 .1’m afraid I haven’t got time t o _______ the matter right now. A. go into B. look for c . tum over D. clean out 38. Our school doesn’t b rea k _________ until the end o f July. A. out B. in c . off D. up 39. The govemment is to b rin g thè necessary lavvs to deal with the problem. A. down B. to c . up D. in 40. D o _______ your shoe laces, or you will tumble over them. A. with B. up c . about D. on il. CHOOSE THE SƯITABLE WORD TO FILL IN EACH BLANK. (15 points) Research has shown that over half the children in Britain vvho take their own lunches to school do not eat ( 1 ) ________ in the middle o f the day. In Britain schools have to ( 2 ) ________ meals at lunchtime. Children can ( 3 ) _________ to bring their own food or have lunch at the school canteen. One shocking ( 4 ) ________ o f this research is that school meals are much healthier than lunches prepared by parents. There are stnct ( 5 ) ________ lor thc preparation ol


school meals, which have to include one ( 6 ) of fruit and onc o f vegetables, as well as meat, a dairy item and starchy food like bread or pasta. Lunchbõxes ( 7 ) ------------ by researchers contained sweet drinks, crisps and chocolate bars Children (8 ) ________ ^ i c e as much sugar as they should at lunchtime The research will provide a better (9) ________ o f why thc perccntagc of ovenveight students in Britain has ( 1 0 ) _ _ _ in the last decade. Uníoitunately the govemment cannot (11) ________ parents, Darents. hut tkd (í P 1 ) but it it rnn can rế*minH rcmind thpm thom oẩ\í'f the value o f milk, fruứ and vegetables. Small changes in their children s diẽt can (13) ------ ------ their fu tu r e health. Children can easily develop bad eating (14) at this age, and parents are the only ones who can ( 15) it 1. A. appropriately B. properly probably D. possibly 2. A. take B. provide make D. do 3. A. prefer B. offer prepare D. choose 4. A . íìn d in g B. number íìgure D. otHcome 5. A. standards B. procedures conditions D. regulations 6 . A. piece B. portion helping D. amount 7. A. examined B. caten taken I). invcbtmaicd 8 . A. take B. contain consume D. use 9. A. vievv B. knowledge understanding D. opinion 10. A. increased B.expanded raised D .added 11. A. criticize B. instruct order D. tell 12. A. nutritional B. healthy mental D. physical 13. A. kill B. effect destroy D. aíTect 14. A. behaviors B. styles attitudes D. habits * 15. A. prevent B .cancel stop D. delay

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

III. ID E N T ÌF Y T H E

______________________

1. They asked me (A) vvhat did happen (B) the last night. but í was (C) unable to (D) tell them. 2. The (A) tẹst administrator ordered (B) that we (C) not to open our books until he told (D) us to do so. 3. (A) Ọur new neighbors (B) had been living in Arizona (C) for ten years (D) before moving their present house. 4 . 1(A) would attend (B) the meeting last week. but I had to (C) makc a spcccli ai siill (D) another meetinp. 5. We (A) arg_supposed to reađ all o f (B) chapter seventh and (C) ansvver thc questions (D) for tom om nv's class. . Mexican (A) |.umping beans are (B) actuallv seeds (C) in \vhich contain moth larvae (D) \vhose activity causes the seeds tojum p. 7. Science tìction is any (A) íìction dealing with the íuture or vvith (B) so imaginative subjects as interstellar travel, (C) Ịịíe on other planets. (D) ortime travcl. 8 . Approximately íìfty percent of the (A) packáge (B) utilized in the United States are for (C) foods and (D) beverages. 6

9. Studies (A) o£.either Vision and physical optics (B) beiĩan aimost (C) as earlv as civilization (D) Itselí. 10. (A) Becạuse the expense of (B) traditional fuels and the (C) concem that they may run out, many countnes (D) have been ìnvestigating altemative source o f povver.


IV. SIIPPLY THE APPROPRIATE FORMS OF WORDS IN THE BRACKETS (15 points) 1. 2.

Such a kind man would n e v e r___________hurt his friend’s feelings. (INTEND) The scenery along the coast was _ (BREATH E)

3.

Because of a c a r ___________, she didn't get to the airport in time for hcr lliyhts (BREAK)

4. 5.

T h e ________ need assistance from the whole society. (PO V ERTY ) Her bedroom i s ___________decorated with her íavorite souvenirs from her trips (PLEASE) 6 . We are otTering many special price ___________ on priniers ihis month (REDƯCE) 7. Students hatc their classmates vvho g e t____________treatmem lìoni ihcir icachcrs. (PREFER) 8. Explosives a r e ___________\veapons. (Ỉ)IK) 9. Three o f th e ___________tried to escape through the window. (C A PTTR E ) 10. We were all surprised at h e r___________to help. (REFU SE) 11. Health care was ___________ in ancient time. There was no hospital or doctor then. (EXIST) 12. What the teacher docs first is to ch eck __________ o f the students. (ATTEND) 13. The company went bankrupt on account of ineíTicient _ (M ANAGE) • 4 . ___________ are built to entcrtain and educate people about marine life (AQUATIC) 15. The educational program we are launching is t o __________ teenage girls in rural arểas. (POVVER) V. READ T H E FO L L O W IN G PASSAGE AND C H O O SE TH E BEST ANSNVERS T O T H E Q C ESTIO N S. (10 points) The dcvelopmcnt ol jazz can be secn as part ol the largcr conlinuum o! American popular music, espccially dance music. In thc twcnties. jazz became the hottest nevv thing in dance music, much as ragtime had at the tum o f the century, and as \vould rhythm and blues in the fifties, rock in the fifties, and disco in the seventies. But two characteristics distinguish jazz from other dance musíc. The llrst IS ìmprovisaúon. the changmg of' a musical phrase according to the player's inspiration. Like all artists, jazz musicians strive for an individual style, and the improvise or paraphrase »s-a jazz m usician's main opportunity to display his or her individuality. In early jazz, musicians often improviscd melodies collectively, thus crcating a kind ot polyphony. There was little soloing as such, although some Ne\v Orleans players particularly comet player Buddy Bolden, achieved local fame for their ability to improvise a solo. Later the idea o f the chorus-long or multichorus solo took hold. Lo u is Arm strong's mstrumental brilliance,

demonstrated through extended solos

was a major iníluence in this development. Even in the early tvventies hovvever some jazz bands had leaturcd soloists. Similarly, sliovv orcheslras and Ccirnival bands often included one or two such "get-off' musicians. ưnimproved, completely structuređ jazz does exist. but thc ability o f the best jazz musicians to crcatc nnisic of great cohesion and beauty during performance has been a hallmark « r thc nuiMc and its major source o f inspiration and change.


The second distinguishing characteristic o f ja z z is a rhythm ic drive that w as

initially called "hot" and later "swing". In playing hot, a musician consciously đeparts írom strict meter to create a relaxed sense o f phrasing that also em phasizes the ụnderlying rhythms. ("Rough" tone and usè o f m oderate vibráto also contributed to a hot sound.) Not all jazz is hot, hcnvever. many carly banđs playcd unadorned published arrangements o f popular songs. Still, the proclivity to play hot distinguished the jazz musician from other instrumentalists. 1. The passage answers which ol'the following questions? A. Which earlyjazz musicians most Iníluenced rhythm and blues music? B. What are the differences bet\veen jazz and other forms o f music? c . Why is dancing closely related to popular music in the United States? D. What instruments comprised a typical jazz band o f the 1920's? 2. Which o f the following appeared beforejazz as a popular music for dancing? A. Disco B. Rock c . Rhythm and blues D. Ragtime 3. According to the passage, jazz musicians are able to demonstrate theư individual artistry mainly by? A. creatmg musical variations vvhile períbrming B. preparing musical arrangements c . reading music W!th great skill

D. being able to play all types o f popular music 4. Which of the following was the function o f "get-off’ musicians line 12? A. Assist the other band members in packing up after a performance B. Teach dance routines creatcd for ne\v music c . Lead the band D. Provide solo períbrmances in a band or orchestra 5. Which t\vo types o f music developed around the same time? A. jazz / rock B. dance / rhythm & blue c . rock / rhythm & blue D. jazz / dance 6 . Louis Armstrong was mentioned as an iníluential musician o f A. "hot" or "swing" jazz c . structured jazz B. chorus long jazz D. soloing jazz 7. The word "consciously" in line 16 is closest in meaning to A. carelessly B. easily c . periodically D. purposely 8.

The word "unađomed" in line 18 is closest in meaning to A. Iovely B. plain c . disorganized

D. ìnexpensive

9. Which o f the following terms 1S defined in the passage?

A. "improvisation" (linc 4) B. "polyphony" (line 7) c . "comet playcr” (line 8 ) D. "multichorus" (linc 9) 10. The topic o f the passagc is developcd pnmarily hy means o f A. dividing the discussion into two major arcas B. presentmg contrasting points o f vievvs c . providing biographies of íamous musician D. describing histoncal events in sequence


VI. SIỈPPLY EACH BLANK WITH ONE S llT A B L E VVORI). (15 poinls) Illiteracy is the condition o f being ( I ) _________to read and vvrite. Illiteracy is a ls° ( - ) __________ to describe the conđition o f being ignorant or unknowledgcahle in a particular subject or field. Computer illiteracy is ( 3 ) ________ inability to use a Computer p rogram m in g lan gu age.

Most o f us ( 4 ) _________use computers know how to send emails, or hovv to create a new folder. But we know ( 5 ) ________ about programmine languages. the artiíĩcial languages useđ to write instructions that can ĩ>e executed by a Computer. Even in technologically ( 6 ) ________ countries, a very small percentage of Computer users are able to read or vvrite this kind o f Computer language. Should we (7)

________ the eflort to leam a Computer language, especially when these are so complicated? The answer is ( 8 ) ________ . Because o f Computer illiteracy. uscrs arc at the (9) _________ o f software manufacturers. Our society hecomes more dependent on iníbrmation ( 1 0 ) _________ , and in a few years' ( I I ) reading and vvriting a Computer language will be

as essentiál (12)

using

a human language. Com puter users will not be able to survive ( 1 3 ) ________ they know the cod e - the set o f detailed instructions that tcll a Computer \vhat to do. In thc

(14) • survival and professional success vvill presuppose knowing cverylhing about the machines \ve (1 5 )________ with. VII REVVRITE THE FOLLOW ING SENTENCES VVITHOUT CHANGING THE M EANING . IN SOM E QUESTỈONS, YOlJ HAVE TO USE THE GIỸEN W ORDS W ITH O lĩT CHANGING THEIR FORMS IN ANY WAY. (15 points) 1. Thanks to her mother's encouragement, she entered the beauty contest. Had it........................................... .7........ ........................................................................... 2. She’11 probably pass the high school entrance examination. (STANDS) 3. 4. 5.

She was just as good as they had thought. She quite deíìnitely cam e........................................................................................ The “cnvironmentally Iricndly" label on this produet is misleading. Despite what is printed................................................................................................ She vvas aíraid to scream becausc shc didn’t want to \vake up the neighbors. (FEAR)

. When you arrive. you will be met by the Head o f the Sales Department. O n........................................................................................................................................... 7. People estimate that the company manufactured more than 5,000 small planes last year. More than 5,000 small planes....................................................................................... 8 . There have been fewer people who consume Chinese Products. (DECREASE)

6

9.

They brought me two laptops. but neither vvorked satisfactorily. (WHICH)

10. Do phone us when you am ve at the airport, even if it's very late. However................................................................................................. 11. Jane seems to come to the pertbrmance lat. It looks....................................................................................................


1 2 . 1 could

hold a big party due to my M om's help Had it................ .................................................................................. 13. Success depends on hard \vork. The harder.................................................... 14. Fiona was so disappointed that she could not keep on xvorking. Such....................................................... 15. Although Richard is competent in his work, he does not kncnv how to dcal with this Client.

Competent...............................................................

ĐÁP ÁN GỢI Ý CHUYÊN ĐÈ 1: PHONETICS Dạng bài 1. Choose the >vord whose underlincd part is pronounced differentlv from the others. Identify your answer bv circling the corresponding letter B, c or D. Exercise 1 !. B (is pronounced /ìd/, all the others are pronounced /d/) 2 . D (is pronounced /id/, all the others are pronounced /d/) 3. B (is pronounced /t /, all the others are pronounced /d/) 4. c (is pronounced /t /, all the othcrs are pronounced /d /) 5. D (is pronounced /t/, all the others are pronounced /d/) 6. A (is pronounced /d/, all the others are pronounced /t /)

7. D (is pronounced 8 . B (is pronounced 9. A (is pronounced 10. D (is pronounced 1 1 . c (is pronounced 1 2 . c (is pronounced 13. B (is pronounced 14. A (is pronounced 15. D (is pronounced 16. A (is pronounced 17. D (is pronounced 18. c (is pronounced 19. B (is pronounced

/t /, all the others are pronounced !á!) /id/, all the othcrs arc pronounced /d/) /d/, all the others are pronounced /id/) /id/, all the others are pronounced /t/) /d/. all the others are pronounced /t /) /id/, all the others are pronounced /d /) /id /, all the others are pronounced /d /) /id/, all the others are pronounced /d /) /d/, all the others are pronounced /id /) /t /, all the others are pronounced /d /) /t /, all the others are pronounced /d /) /t/, all the others are pronounced /id /) /id/, all the others are pronounced /d /)

20. c (is pronounced /id /, all the others arc pronounced /t /)

Exercise 2 2 1 . c (is pronounced 22. B (is pronounced 23. D (is pronounccd 24. c (is pronounced 25. c (is pronounced

/z /, all the others are pronounced /iz/) /z /. all the others are pronounced /iz /) /ez /. all the othcrs are pronounced /eiz /) /z /, all the others are pronounced /s /) /z /, all the others are pronounced /s /)


26. D (is pronounced 27. A (is pronounced 28. A (is pronounced 29. A (is pronounced 30. B (is pronounced 31. c (is pronounced 32. B (is pronounced 33. A (is pronounced 34. B (is pronounced 35. D (is pronounced 36. c (is pronounced 37. B (is pronounced 38. A (is pronounced 39. D (is pronounced 40. c (is pronounced Exercise 3 41. D (is pronounced 42. A (is pronounced 43. A (is pronounced 44. c (is pronounced 45. D (is pronounced 46. c (is pronounced 47. A (is pronounced 48. D (is pronounced 49. B (is pronounced 50. A (is pronounced Exercise 4

/s /, all the othcrs are pronounced /z /) /z /, all the others are pronounced /iz /) /iz /. all thc others arc pronounced 's /) /ziz /, all the others are pronounced /siz /) /z /, all the others are pronounced /s /) /z /, all the others are pronounced /s /) /s /, all the others are pronounced /z /) /s /, all the others are pronounced /z /) /s /, all the others are pronounced /z /) /s /, all the others are pronounced / iz /) /z /, all the others are pronounced /s /) /iz /, ali the others are pronounced /z /) /s /, all the others are pronounced / z/) /z /, all the others are pronounced / z/) /z /, all the others are pronounced /iz /) / ô /, all the others are pronounced / 0 /) / 8 /, all the others are pronounced / ô /) / ò /, all the others are pronounced i 0 /) / 0 /, all the others are pronounced / õ /) / ỗ /, all the others are pronounced / 0 /) / 0 /, all the otliers are pronounced / ỗ /) / õ /, all the others are pronounced / 0 í) / ỗ /, all the others are pronounced / 0 /) / 0 /, all the otliers are pronounced / õ /) / 0 /, all the others are pronounced / ỗ /)

51. A (is pronounced / 1 /, all the others are pronounced / ti/) 52. c (is pronounced / tj /, all the others are pronounced / k /) 53. B (is pronounced / k /, all the others are pronounced / tí /) 54. c (is pronounced / k /, all ihe others are pronounced / tí /) 55. D (is pronounced / tj /, all thc olhers are pronounced / k /) 56. c (is pronounced / í /, all the others are pronounced / k /) 57. A (is pronounced / í / , all the others arc pronounced / l.í/) 58. B (is pronounced / k /, all the others are pronounced / 1} /) 59. D (is pronounced / í /, all the others are pronounced / tj /) 60. A (is pronounced / tj /, all thc others are pronounccd / k /) Exercise 5 61. c (ìs pronounced / í /, all the others are pronounced / k /) 62. B (ispronounced / k /, all the others are pronounced / s ỉ ) 63. A(is pronounced / s /, all the others arè pronounced / 1 /) 64. A (is pronounced / s /, all the others are pronounced / k /)


65. D (ìs pronounced 6 6 . c (ìs pronounced 67. A (ìs pronounced 6 8 . B (ìs pronounced 69. D (is pronounced 70. B (ìs pronounced Exercise 6

/ s /, all the others are pronounced / k /) / k /, all the others are pronounced / J/) /dj /, all the others are pronounced / g /) /dj /, all the others are pronounced / g /) /g /, all the others are pronounced / dj /) /dj /, all the others are pronounced / g /)

71. D (is a silent letter, all the others are pronounced / b/) 72. c (is pronounced / b /. all the others arc silent letters) 73. A (ìs a silent letter, all ihe others are pronounced / b/) 74. B (is a silent letter. all the others are pronounced / h /) 75. D (ìs a silent letter, all the others are pronounced / li /) 76. c (is pronounced / h /, all the others are silent letters) 77. c (is pronounced / k /, all the others are silent letters) 78. A (is a silent letter, all the others are pronounced / k /) 79. A (is a silent letter, all the others are pronounced / ] /) 80. c (is pronounced / h /, all the others are silent letters) 81. B (is pronounced / n /, all the others are silent letters) 82. D (is pronounced / p /, all the others are silent Ietters) 83. B (is a silent letter, all the others are pronounced / p /) 84. A (is a silent Ietter, all the others are pronounced I si) 85. c (is pronounced / 1 /, all the others are silent letters) 8 6 . D (is pronounced / 1 /, all the others are silent Ietters) 87. c (is pronounced / w /, all the others are silent letters) 8 8 . A (is a silent letter, all the others are pronounced / w /) 89. A(is pronounced / w /, all the others are silent letters) 90. B (is pronounced / Ị /. all thè others are silent lctters) Excrcise 7 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97.

D (is pronounced / z/, all the others are pronounced / s /) B (ìs pronounced / Ị /, all the others are pronounced / s /) A (ìs pronounced / z /, all the others are pronounced / s /) c (is pronounced / z/, all the others are pronounced / s /) A(is pronounced / z/, all the others are pronounced / s /) B (is silent letters, all the others are pronounced / f /) c (is pronounced /f/, all the others are silent letters)

98. B(is pronounced / 1/, all the others are pronounced / 1/ /) 99. A (is pronounced / tí /, all the others are pronounced / 1 í) 100. D (is pronounced / n /, all the others are pronounced / Q í) Exercise 8 101. B (ìs pronounced / i:ei /. all the others are pronounced / i: /) 1 0 2 . c (ìs pronounced / /: /, all ihe others are pronounced / 3 U /) 103. B (ìs pronounced / J/, all the others are pronounced / Ị /)

< 255


104. B (is pronounced / e /, all the others are pronounced / eI /) 105. B (is pronounced / ÍI /, all the others are pronounced / el /) 106. D (is pronounced / Ị /, all the others are pronounced / u:/) 107. A ( 1S pronounced / í /, all the others are pronounced / aí /)

108. B (is pronounced / sí /, all the others are pronounced /ju : /) 109. D (is pronounced / aỉ /, ali the others are pronounced /í: /) 1 1 0 . c (is pronounced / J:d/ /, all the others are pronounced / Idl /) Exercise 9 111. D(stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 112. A(stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the íĩrst) 113. B(stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íĩrst) 114. B(stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íìrst) 115. A (stress is put on the first syllable, in all the others it is puton thesecond) ! 16. D (stress is put on the ílrst syllable, in all the others it is put on thesecond) 117. A (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others Ít is put on the third) 118. D (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is putonthesecond) 119. D (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is putonthesecond) 120. B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the tìrst) Exercise 10 1 2 1 . c (stress is put on the third syllable. in all the others it is put on the second) 122. B (stress is put on the tìrst syllable, in all the others it is pi.1t on the second) 123. B (stress

is put on the

fírst syllable, in all the others it 1S putontheseconđ)

124. B (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is putơnthesecond) 125. c (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is putonthe third) 126. D (stress is put on the fĩrst syllable, in all the others it is puton thesecond) 127. c (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is puton thesecond) 128. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íirst) 129. A (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 130. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the iìrst) Exercise 11 131. D (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 132. A (stress is put on the second syllable. in all the others it is put on the first) 133. B (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on thc second) 134. c (stress is puton tìrst the syllable, in all the others it is put on the sccond) 135. c (stress is puton the second syllable. in all the others It 1S put 1)11 ihe IÌM) 136. D (stress is put on thc third syllable, in all thc others it is put on thc sccond) 137. D (stress is put on the tìrst syllable. in all the others It IS put on the sccond)

138. D (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others Ít is put on the second) 139. D (stress is put on the ỉìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 140. B (stress is put on the third syllable, in all Ihe others it is pul on thc second) Excrcise 12 141. c (stress is puton the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 142. B (sừess is puton the íĩrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the third) 256


!« : D

!! p !

0n ĩ ' firs' s y " í ! ' : ! " * "

*Ị

m

o n .h e se c o n d )

44. D (stress s pu on the second syllable, in alì the òihérs ,t is pú on Ihe firs, : Ầ r

:

:

T .m *h e E

" * 5

?

" a

'™ • * «

H 2 pu.

z z

s

46. A (stress is put on ,he second syllable. in ãll thè othẽrs ít is put on the íirst

48 A ( T z í p“! ° n !íe z m. í f h b k - ■" * 1'he «■ r

T

A, z

»

te rd s

z

* “ Pul « ì * 5

! p!í ° " ' ĩ e ỉ ? ! y! ,b. ' in * ' h e • * » « » P“ < ° n 'h e second)

! pu. 0n

ĩ r

p“' ° "

ĩ a sy!!able- in a" the 0,h™ * » P“t on the second) e

yllable' " a"

' • » P“ ° "

151 B (stress Ịs put o„ the second syỊỊable, in all the others it is put on the first) : * ủ n «

s pu' on lhc K cond sỹllable. in all the othẽrs ii ,s puì on the lìrst ! ! ess ! pu! ° " !h'

R

? pu! ° " c firs‘ sy!!“ ble- m a" the oth«

, r : r í

sy!!able- in a" ,h' “ ã ® * « » m m the sÊCond) " “ pũ' « • the second)

! p“! ° " !he firs' sy!!able' in a" ,he ° ,hers » is P“ ' ° " t te second

D ! ress ! pu! 0 0 ' hc llrsl SyllaW c- m 311 lh t

il is put o n Ihc secon“

57 B stress s put on the second syllable, m all Ihc olhers ú IS put on thè t a 58. D stress s put on Ihe ỊỊrst syllable, m aU the othcrs lt is put on the sềcónd 59. c s|ress s put on the lira syỊUbte, i„ all the others ; ; ^ u, “ ■“ 160. A (slress IS pul on (hc r.rsl syllable, in all Ihc others it is put on the secondl 161.0 (sựess is put on the f,rst syllable, in all ,he olhers it is put on the second) 62. A (stress s put on thc r.rst syllable. m all the others it is pũt on thè second ■ L

ĩ.

stress s pu! ° n í c firs‘ sy lla b le: ln a " ,h e others H « í ' õ n th è se c o n d )

77 ■ <stress ' s Pul on lhc sẹcond syllable. in all the olhers it is put on Ihe firsl «

D Í T SS í f pu! 0n í c n rsl s y lla b le - in a " lh e o lh er s " » put õ n Ầ e se c ò n d )

“ • ® slress '! pu' on ' he firs' *ỵ"»N« in all the o.hcrs i, is put on ,he second 67 c s.ress s put on the second syllable, in all ,he others ĩt is put on the 6 8 . A stress s put on the tìrsl syllable, in ,11 the Olheís i. is put on the secónd ™ ' . stress 5 pu! ° " lhc SWMd syllable- '» a" ,he ã i s pũt on Ihc r™ 170. A (slress |S put o„ thc second syilahlc. in all the others i, is pũ õn he n râ Excrcisc 15 171. B (stress is put on the second syllable, in a» the others Ít 1S put on the tìrst)

n ỉ ' í í stress

ĩ

pu! 0n the nrst syllable' in a11 the others il is put on the second ■n stress put ° " !!" th,rd SyIIable’ in 311 the others il Ịs put on the second) 74. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íĩrst) 75. A (stress 1S put on the sccond syllable, in all the others it is put on the íìrst 7

m l ĩ ess !s pu! ° n the f:rst SyllabIe’ ,n aI1 the others it is put on the second) 77. D stress s put on the íirst syllable, in all the others it is pũt on the thìrđ •

^ SỊreSS ' s put on the seconđ syllable, in all the others it is put on the íìrst)

n n ĩ ?

! pu! 0n í e í rst sy!.la b le- in 311 the others it » put on the se cô n d

180. B (stress is put on the first syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 181. B (stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the íìrst)


182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189.

D (stress is put on the second syllable,in all the others it is put on t A (stress is put on the íĩrst syllable, inall the others it is put on the s c (stress is put on the second syllable,in all the others it is put on t c (stress is put on the second syllable,in all the others it is put on B (stress is put on the second syllable.in all the others it is put on D (stress is put on the fourth syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) c (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others II 1S put on the lirsi) A (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others Ít is put on the second)

190. B (stress is put on the iìrst syllable, in all the othcrs It IS pul on thc ì»ccond)

Exercisc 17 191. c (stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 192. A (stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 193. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the fưst) 194. c (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the fưst) 195. c (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is pul on the lìrst) 196. A (stress is put on the second syllable. in all the others it is puton 197. A (stress is put on the íirst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 198. B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the first) 199. D (stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 2 0 0 . c (stress is put on the fưstsyllable, in all the others it is put on the second) Exercise 18 2 0 1 . c (stress is put on thè first syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 202. B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the othcrs it is put on the thírd) 203. A (stress is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 204. A (strcss is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on ihc second) 205. B (stress is put on the first syllable, in all the othcrs it is put on thc second) 206. D (sừess is put on the second syllable, in all the others ú is put on the third) 207. D (sữess is put on the íìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 208. B (stress is put on the thưd syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 209. D (stress is put on the íirst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 210. B (stress is put on the second syllable. in all the others it is put on the first) Exercise 19 2 1 1 . B (stíẽss is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the third) 212. B (stress IS put on the second syllable, in all the others Ít is put on the first)

213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220.

A (stress is put on the iìrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) A (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the third) B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others Ít is put on the iìrst) B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íirst) D (stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the first) A (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the tirst) c (stress is put on the third syllable. in all thc others it is put on the íìrst) D (sừess is put on the íirst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second)

Exercisc 20 221. D (stress is put on the íirst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second)

t


222. B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the first) 223. A (stress is put on the r.rst syllable, in a!l the others it is pũt õn the th.rd) 4.

B (stress 1S put on the fĩrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second)

225. c (stress is put on the first syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 226. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íĩrst) 227. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íĩrst) 228. c (stress is puton the third syllable, in all the others it is put õn the second) 229. c (stress is put on the first syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 230. c (stress is puton the f.rst syllable, in all the others it is put on the sẽconđ Exercise 2 ] 231. A (stress is puton the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 232. A (stress is puton the first syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 233. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the olhers it is put on thelìrst). 234. B (stress 1S put on the íĩrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second)

235. A (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íĩrst) 236. D (stress is put on the íìrst syllablc, in al! the óthers it is pũt on the sccond) 237. A (stress is put on the íìrst syllable. in a!l the others it is put on thè sẽcond) 238. c (stress is put on the second syllable. in all the others it is put on the iìrst) 239. D (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íirst) 240. A (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the first) Exercise 2 2 . W ord stress 241. c (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the third) V 242. D (stress 1S put on the íĩrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 243. c (stress 1S put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the íìrst)

244. D (stress is put on the íĩrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the sẽcond) 245. D (stress 1S put on the íĩrst syllable, in all the others it is put on the second) 246. D (stress IS put on the íirst syllable, in all the others Ít is put on the second)

247. D (stress is put on the third syllable, in all the others it is put on the ĩirst) 248. B (stress is put on the second syllable, in all the othcrs it is put on the first) 249. B (stress 1S put on the second syllable, in all the others it is put on the fưst)

250. c (stress IS put on the íĩrst syllable, in ail the others it is put on the second)

CHUYÊN ĐỂ 2: VOCABULARY PHÀN 1 : W O R D -FO R M A TIO N Bài tập cơ bàn [xercise 1 . honestly 2. observatory 3. Umdentifíed 5. competitive 6 . signature 7. impatient 9. appealing 1 0 . recycle ixercise 2 . surroundings 2 . scenic 3. surgery

4. imaginary 8 . unsolved

4. unconvincing


5. shorten 6 . industrialized 9. clarity 1 0 . ìrresponsible Exercise 3 2 . partially 1 . familiarize 4. co-author 3. pig-headed 5. discouraged 6 . additives 7. misbehaved 8 . classifying 9. indefensible 1 0 . odourless Exercise 4 2 . uníriendly 1 . failure 3. carelessly 4. straighten 7. unreliable 8 . conclusion 6 . once 5. plentiíul 9. iniprisonmcnt 1 0 . championship Exercise 5 2. dishonest 3. performance 4. collections 5. alive 1 . insulĩicient 7. đying 8 . upbringing 9. pregnaney 1 0 . unemployment 6 . lives Exercise 6 2. unbelievable 3. wooden 4. spacious 5. solution 1 . tightening 6 . slippery 7. pertormance ?. shocking 9. pleasant 1 0 . rcstoralion Exercise 7 2 . valuable 3. illness 4. ữecdom 1 . happiness 6 . inspection 7. miserable 8 . application 5. íriendship 1 0 . (un)suitable 9. impatient Exercise 8 3. disagreement 4. Iife 1. empỊoyees 2 . excitement 6 . useless 7. helpless 8 . cnlhusiasm 5. reality 1 0 . solution 9. Naturally Exercise 9 3. pollution 4. deíorestation 5. criers 1. imauination 2. products 9. Iroublcsomc 10. slioi tauc 6 . consumption 7 . (đis)appearancc 8 . upbringing Exercise 10 l.jam m ed 2. permission 3. Unlbrtunately 4. dccisive 5. unattractive 1 0 . loss 6 . intrequency 7. chaotic 8 . embarrasses 9. exceptionally Exercisc 11 5. VVilhngnc 1. consideratron 2. íìnancial 3. publicity 4. secondary 1 0 . tolerant 7. extension 8 . coincidental 9. nursery 6 . novelists Exercise 12 5. scoređ 2. exhibitions 3. completely 4. exhausted 1 . global 7. disappointing 8 . occupation 9. interesting 1 0 . dangerous 6 . interested Exercise 13 4. íriendly 5. heat 1 . satisfied 2 . íìsherman 3. ílight 6 . knovvledge 7. creator 8 . solution 9. wisedom 1 0 . addicted Exercise 14 1 . famous 2 . pride 3. noisy 4. childhood 5. succcss 7. innocent 8 . increasingly 6 . failure 9. ignorancc 1 0 . rcspectíul


Exercise 15 I. violation 2 . death 3. leaderíhip 4. harmful 5. addictíon 6 .citizenship 7. gifts 8 . illegal 9. sight 10. childish Exercise 16 l.adulthood 2 . friendship 3. beautiful 4. warmth 5. hopelul 6 . wooden 7. mysterious 8 . homeless 9. Kingdom 1 0 . frightens Exercise 17 1. unlucky 2 . impolite 3. disagreement 4. biodiversit 5. revvrite 6 . anti-war 7. misunderstand 8 . prejudge 9. Under-developed 10. bilingual Exercise 18 1. Instability 6 . undoubtedly Exercise 19 1. helpful 6 . effectively Exercise 20 1. vveakened 6 . horrified

2. outnumbered 3. disabled 7. grovvth 8 . carelessness . enjoyable 7. friend!ier

2

3. monthly 8 . loveliest

4. unable 9. poorly

5. survival co-opẽrate

10.

4. happily 5. Hopefully 9. sympathized 10. loosen

2. classiíy 3. apologizing 4. criticize 7. ìndẹpendent 8 . dishonest 9. careless

Bài tập nâng cao Exercise 1 1. politely 2 . entertainment 3. interesting 5. expensive 6 . dangerous 7. robberies 9. protection 1 0 .completely Exercise 2 1. traditionally 2 . valuable protessionals 5. illness 6 . disadvantage breath 9. seriously 1 0 .tavourite Exercise 3 l.joumalist 2 . famous 3. variety 5. builđing 6 . organization 7. neighbourhood 9. amusing 1 0 .írightened Exercise 4 1. inspector 2 . tcacher 3. decision 5. íreedom 6 . íriendly 7. noisy 9. miserable 1 0 . ữequently Exercise 5 1 . unemployment 2 . energetic 3. diffĩculties 5. unsuitable 6 . qualiíìcations 7. impossible 9. Solution 1 0 .patience Exercise 6 1. exciting 2 . wonderful 3. admiration

5. iesscned 1 0 . unable

4. happily 8 . surprisingly

4. mlbrmation 8 . natural

4. anger 8 . invitation

4. peacelul 8 . marriage

4. application 8 . disappointment

4. combination


. development 6 . fifth 9. enthusiastic 1 0 . successíul Exercise 7 2 . advertisements 1 . life/ lives 6 . useful 5. discussion 1 0 . helpful 9. agreement Exercise 8 2 . sensitive 1 . reduction 6 . criminals 5. risky 1 0 . death 9. possibility Exercise 9 1 . actor / actress 2 . erỳoyable 6 . humorous 5. reaction 1 0 . nervous 9. terriíĩed 5

Exercise 10 1 . normally 5. poisonous 9. explanation Exercise 11 1 . aưival 5. endless 9. violence Exercise 12 1 . courageous 5 . thought 9. curiosity Exercise 13 1 . attraction 5. description 9. addition Exercise 14 1 . discoverỳ 5. tired 9. darkness Exercise 15 1 . strength 5. intention 9. caring Exercise 16 1 . theft 5 . accidentally 9 . suggestions

8

3. attractive 7. truthíul

4. immediately 8 . realistic

3. motorists 7. murderers

4. vanous 8 . conclusion

3. security 7 . laughter

3. warmth . ideal 6 . comíortable 7. photography 1 0 . boredom 2

4. períbrmances 8 . unsuccessĩul

4. tasty 8 . arguments

. invention 6 . pleasure 1 0 . behaviour

3. astonishment 4. weekly 7 . economical 8 . harmiul

. equipment 6 . skillful 1 0 . amazement

3. inexperienced 7 . competitions

2

2

2. expectations 6 . íashionably 1 0 . length ■ 2 . alarming 6 . anxiety 1 0 . unvvise

4. ditĩerent 8 . religious

3. disorder 7. pressure

4. connection

3. hungry . ability 6 . surroundings 7. satisfaction 1 0 . independent

. painful 6 . advice 1 0 . reliable

4. training 8 . height

3. original 7. ìmpressive

2

2

. crowded

7. populanty

8. possession

4. threatening 8

. truly

3. o\vner

4. valuables

7. Insurance

8

. sensible


Exercise 17 1. lucky 5. healthy 9. íoolish Exercise 18 1. predictions

5. Creative 9. consideration Exercise 19 1. improvements 5. automatically 9. Central Exercise 20. 1 . responsibility 5. endanger 9. loss

. employment . injury/ injuries 1 0 .unreasonable

2 6

3. jeaiuusy 7. logical

4. daily 8 . relation/ relationship

. signature 3. personality 6 . imaginative 7. ambitious 1 0 .believable

4. cheeríul 8 . Apparently

6

. Admittance 3. personal . safety 7. Protection 1 0 .practical

4. importance 8 . existence

. tendency 3. carelessly . informative 7. education 1 0 .choice

4. shortage 8 . lầilure

2

2

2 6

PHÀN 2: CONFUSING WORDS Exercise 1 1. let 2 . rented 3. hired 4. hired 5. let 6 . renting 7. Hire 8 . hire 9. let 10. let Exercise 2. 1 . work 2 . occupation/ proíession 3 .jo b 4. duties 5 Tasks 6 . profession 7. business 8 . Occupation 9 . task 1 0 job Exercise 3 1 . solution 2 . eíĩect 3. consequences 4. results 5. results 6 . result 7. effect 8 . consequences 9. effects 10. consequences Exercise 4 1 . trip 2 . route 3. tour 4. ílight 5. cruise 6 . travel 7. joum ey 8 . voyages 9. trips 1 0 .joum ey Exercise 5 1. fìne 2 . income 3. donations 4. profìt 5. Tip 6 . change 7. allowance 8 . loan 9. charge 1 0 .currency 1 . debt Exercise 6 1 . staff %2. clients 3. team 4. crevv 5. crew 6 . Colleagues 7. employees/ staff 8 . team 9. crew 1 0 .employee Exercise 7 1 . visitors 2 . customers 3. guests 4. host 5. customer 6 . customer 7. guest 8 . visitors 9. host 1 0 .guests Exercise 8 1 . habit 2 . routine 3. common 4. normal 5. usual 6 . common 7. normal 8 . normal 9. routine 1 0 .usual


Exercise 9 1 . see ó.see Exercise 10 1 . make 6 . making Exercise 11 1 . lives 6 . live Exercise 12 1 . take 6 . taking 1 1 . fetch Exercise 13 1 . go 6 . come7. Go Exercise 14 1 . lend 6 . Borrow Excrcise 15 1 . big 6 . Bi^ Exercise 16 1 . raising 6 . raise Exercise 17 1 . speaks 6 . say Exercise 18 1 . expect 6 . Waiting Exercise 19 1 . match 6 . match Exercise 20 1 . only 6 . Alone

2

. look 7 . looks

3. watch 8 . see

4. Watch 9. look

5. see 1 0 . see

. do 7. made

3. ma ke 8 . made

4. makes 9. doing

5. do 1 0 . docs

2

. 2

. live 7. Life

3. lives 8 . life

4. life 9. life

5. live 1 0 . lives

. bring 7. Take 1 2 . fetch

3. takes 8 . brings

4. come 9. take

5.bringmg lO.Take

2

4. coming, come 5. g 1 0 . going, come

2. gone, come 3. come 8 . come 9. go 2

. borrovv 7. lend

3. lend 8 . borrow

4. lend 9. lend

5. Borro\\ 1 0 . lend

2

. great 7 .B ig

3. tall 8 . high

4. high 9. big

5. tall 1 0 . great

2

. arisen 7. raised

3. rose 8 . rose

4. risen 9. anse

5. arising lO.risen

. told 7. said

3. talk/ speak 8 . tell

4. say 9. said

5. tell 1 0 . tell

2

2. looking forward to 7. looking forward to

4. wait 9. \vaiting

3. wait 8 . wait

5.e 10.

2

. matchesí 7. suit

3. íĩt 8 . suit

4. lìt 9. fit

5. suit 1 0 . match

. lonely 7. alone

3. alone 8 . lonely

4. lonely 9. only

5. Single 1 0 . alone

2

CHUYÊN ĐẺ 3: COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS MỘT SỐ MÀU CÂU TRONG GIAO TIÉP CÀN CHỦ Ý Exercise 1: Choose the best response (A, B, or D) to each of the following. l .D 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. A 6. D 7. A D A ll.D D D

c

8. c

9.

10.

12. c

13.

14.


15. c

16. B

22. B 29 c 36. c

23.D 30. c

43. B 50. B 57. D

17. A 24 A 31 c 38 A

37. A 44. A

18. c 25. A

45. B 52. D 59. A

51. c

58. c

19. D

20. D 27. A 34. B 41 D 48. c

26 . c

32. c

33. D

39. c

40. A 47. D 54 D

46. B 53. A

21. D 2S. D 35 B 42. A 49. D 56. D

55. c

60. B

CHUYÊN ĐÈ 4: GRAMMAR (NGỮ PHÁP) CÁC CHUYÊN ĐÈ NGỮ PHÁP NÂNG CAO PHÀN 1: CÁC THÌ TRONG TIÉNG ANH - ẼNGLISH TENSES Exercise I. 1. have been waiting 2. has been vvorking, retums, w on’t have seen

3. see, vvill be, has been improved went 4. didn't you tell, could, w ouldn't have needed

5. Ieft talking, will be / is 7. saw, was living, told, was thinking 6 . is

8. had arrived, did w e discover, had been. had wasted

9. am thinking 10 . am smelling, smell 11 . have you been leaming 12 . arrived, had bcen playing 13. had ever gone 14. vvas vvaiting, heard 15. had been lecturing 16. traveled, slept 17. met, \vas acting 18. had been broken, was íìnally caught 19. will have completed 120. arrive, will have studied Exercise 2

I.c 16.c

2

.c 7. c

II. D 16. B I Exercise 3

12. A 17. D

. am

5. have becn leaming 8 . havejust taken il. are Corning

14. don't speak

3. A 8 .C 13. D 18. B . came . didn't understand 9. pass 1 2 .ha ven‘t seen 2

6

4. A 9. B 14. A 19. D

5. B 10

.c

15. B 20

.c

3. haven’t met 7. has been improved ] 0 . vvill move 13. ha ve never been

4. started


Exercise 4 4. have had 3 . have been 2 . ha ve been trying 1 . received 8 . \vent • 7. ha ve been 6 . spent 5 . has been staying 1 2 . am sitting 1 1 . is 1 0 . ha ve had 9. watched 16. am \vriting 15. have decided 1 4 .leaves 13.have been sitting 2 0 .are you getting 19. get 18. am going to take 17.am getting Exercise 5 1. He has been playing íootball for ten years. 2. He started to mvestigate / investigating the case a week ago. 3. When are Peter and Sarah getting married? 4. This is the most romantic story I have ever read. 5. We have been cooking for the party for four hours. 6 . Not until he got home did he remember about the gun. 7 It’s ages since I last went to an Indian restaurant. 8 . Nancy hasn’t come here since 1986. 9. This is the íĩrst time I have visited Japan. / I ’ve been to Japan. 10. When did Helen and Robert get married? 11. We haven’t had a conversation for a long time. 12. Thanks, but I've already eaten: 13 I’ve never read such an interesting book before. / I’ve never rcad a more interesting book before. 14. r-ve never played water-polo beĩore. 15. Since heanng the results, Mary has felt more confident. Exercise 6 1 . is always criticizing 2 . are meeting 3. does not go 4.

am thinking o f visitins

. 6 . .7 . 8. 9 . 5

does your plane land am having dinner he is becoming more never eat spicy food is workmg 1 0 . does that green jacket cost

Exercise 7 1 By the time I decided to go on a diet, I had put on ten kilos. 2. They waxed the car aĩter they (had) vvashed it. 3 Beìore Lisa sat on the sofa to watch Tv, she (had) made a sandwich. 4 We left for the airport as soon as we had packed our suitcase. 5 When I entered the lecture hall, the lecture had started. 6 . It was the ĩirst time I had tasted Chinese ibod. 7 He had never read a science-íìction book before. 8 . Âfter Norm an took / had taken that package, he realized it was the wrong one.


9. While Mark vvas parkmg his car, he noticed the vving-mirror was broken. 10. As Judy was walking down the Street, he saw an accident 1 1 . I'm about to work. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1.6.

The Council intends to close the old swimming pool They are planmng to have a big wedding in the summer. The economy is on the pomt o f collapsing. My grandíather is about to die. You are due to am ve at the hotel at 7.30 in the evening.

PHẢN 2: S ự HÒA H Ợ P GIỮ A CHỦ N G Ừ VÀ ĐỘNG TÙ (SUBJECT AND VERB CONCORD) Exercise 1: Give the right form of the verb in brackcts to complete the following sentences. l is 7. are 13.vote 19. is

Are 3. seem 8 . have 9. appears 14. is 15.has 20. are 2

4. are 10. are 16. hopes

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer (A, B, 1 A

A B

'.c B

.D .B A

T A 2. A 10. D 18. A 26. A 34. B 42. c 50. B

s

3. nB 11. A 19. c 27. A 35. c 43. A

4

4 .C 12. B 20. D 28. c 36. c 44. B

5. has 6 .presents 1 1 . is 12. votẽs 17. hope 18. plans

c or D) to complete each sentences below 5. B 13. A 2 1 .B 29. c 37. D 45. B

_

6. c 14. D 22. B 30. c 38. A 46. D

7. c 15. A 23. c 31. D 39. c 47. B

8. c 16. B 24. c 32 A 40. B 48. c

PHÀN 3. CÂU CHỦ ĐỘNG VÀ BỊ ĐỘNG TRONG TIÉNG ANH (ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH) Exercise 1

A 6 D

2. c 7.C 12. c 17. A

3. A 8. D

4. c 9. c

5 D 10. B

11A 13. B 14. D 15. B 16. c 18. B 19. D 20 .A Exercise 2 1- He is oíten taken for his brother. 2- A terrible mistake seems to have been made. 3- He recommends that new tires should be íĩtted 4- He suggested that tenants should be allovved to buy their houses 5- You are supposed to make lea. 6 - He is known to be armed. 7- He has been seen to pick up the gun. 8 - You are kno\vn to have been in town. 9- Your father is thought to have been a spy in VVorld War II / It is thought that your father was a spy in World War II.


10- He is believed to have special knovvledge. 11- This needn’t have been done. 12- He likes to be called “Sir”. 13- This switch isn’t to be touched / mustn’t be touched. 14- It has to be seen to be believed. 15- He doesn't like being laughed at. 16- This watch needn’t be vvound / doesn’t need to be wound. 17- He shouldrTt have been told. 18- Don’t speak until you are spoken to. 19- This can't bc đone. 20- He hátes being made fun of. 21- The Government was thought to have Ìgnored their opinions. / It was thought that the Government had ignored their opinions. 22- He was given artiíĩcial respừation. / Artiíĩcial respiration was given (to) him 23- Before printing was invented, everything had to be written by hand. Exercise 3 1It is said that he is a good doctor. 2I was not told about it. 3 - I don’t like being asked stupid questions. 4- She doesn’t like being laughed at. 5- The boss had all these letters typed (by his secretary). 6 - They had their house repaired (by the vvorkers). 7^ don’t want being thoughl o f as a burden. 8It is said that elephants nevcr íorget. 9- People thought that his wife had been killcd. /Itis thought that his \vifc had bcen killed. 1 0 - 13 is believed to be an unlucky number. 11- The strike is expected to begin tomorrow. 1 2 - I remember having been gi ven / being gi ven that shirt on my birthday. 13- He recommend that second hand clothes should be used. 14- I was made to leave soon. 15- You are supposed to do your homevvork before class-time. Exercise 41 . was slovvly being íìlled

2. was ìnvented

3. was advised to

4. was opened with

5. has been dealt with

6. \vas announced

7

. was heard o f PHÀN 4:

8

. was paid to

CÂU TRỤC TIÉP VÀ GIẢN TIÉP TRONG TIÉNG ANH (DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEEC H IN ENGLISH)

Exercise 1 1. Shc told me it was pouring with rain do\vn there. 2. She said that she would come and see me on Friđay if that was all right. 3. The treasurer told the meeting that the club had lost quite a lot ot' money the month beíore / the previous month.


4.

She promised me that she \vould have fimshcd writing the report by the time I got there.

5. c lare said that she had enịoyed herselí'the night before. 6 . A young man wantcd to knovv what the most interesting sights were 7. A German stuđent asked if I hađ a town plan. 8. A French couple wonđered \vhere they cóuld stay. 9. Carol asked how long the film lasted. 10. A Japanese man asked ít there were guided tours 11. A tourists wanted to know which way the castle was 12. Peter invited Nick to stay 1'or lunch. 13. Tim advised Martin to see a doctor. 14. Louise apologized (to me) for causing so much trouble. 15. Andy suggested going out for the day. 16. Tracy offered lo do the washing up. 17. Pat reminded Jane lo post the letter. 18. 1 he travel agent admitted making / having made a mistake 19. Steve wamed Mike not to touch the electric wires 20. My bank manager wantcd to know lí I was taking much money with me to Irance. Exercise 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Mrs. Stone suggested inviting Jane to dinner that night. A student ìnquired where Mount Everest was The robber threatened to shoot the girl if she screamed The man complaineđ that he had been standing in the / that queue for two hours. The đoctor advised Mrs. Bent to stay in the shade and vvcar a hut. Tom 's sister vvamed him that he vvould bum him seir if he kept playing with matches. / lom s sister \vamed him not to plany vvith matches 7. Chris apologizeđ to Harry for \vaking him up that moming. 8. Kerry agrced with Tracey that they ought to iet the others know. 9. Sue promised to pay her mother back by the end ol' the \veek. 1 0 . Michael relused to lend Graham his car Exercise 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Hc boasted that he could spcak six languagcs ílucntly He suggested going to the cinema that eVening. The teachcr shouted that they should stop that noise in thc classroom. 1 he man claimed that thc car I was drivmg was his property. The boy admitted breaking the window with his catapult. The man protestcd that they / he couIdn't take him to prison and said that he knew his rights. 7. His tìancee whispered that she would ahvays love him. 8. He agreed that if the \veather was bad. they coiildn’t go. Exercise 4 1-

to tell him the time 4- much the bike cost 7- was being a bit silly

. to open the vvindovv 5- would help me 8 - wouldn't arrive until 2

3 - to get to the cinema 6 - have the car for $500. after eight.


PHẢN 5: CÂU ĐIÈU KIỆN - CONDITIONAL SENTENCES Exercise 1: Give the right form of the verb in brackets to complete the follo>ving sentences. 3. had dropped/ would ha ve told I . is 2 . wouldn’t have lost 6 . will give 4. had/ vvould sell 5. finishes 9. vvould bclieve 7. would play/ didn’t rain 8 . will arrest 1 2 . were having 1 0 . hạs ll.w illc o m e 15. knew 13. was íalling 14. had 18. xvould bc taking hudn't bccn 16. will make 17.are 2 0 . would be/ hadn't given 19. would be coming/ hadn’t insulted 2 2 . wouldn’t have talked/ weren’t 2 1 . would have accepted/ didn't take % 24. couldn’t speak/ hadn’t lived 23. wouldn’t be/ hadn’t hađ/ hadn’t been 26. would be g o in ^ hadn’t just had 25. would be helping/ hadn’t spent 28. woulđ be/ weren’t giving 27. wouldn’tb e / weren’t 30. wouldn’t have won 29. would be going/ hadn’t broken Exercise 2 I I . I wouldn’t have got wet if I had had an umbrella with me. 1 2 . Unless you leave me alone, r i l call the police, 13. If it is snowing, we w on't go to school. 14. If Jack hađn’t helped me, I wouldn’t have been able to move the table. Ị 5. If you didn’t drink too much coffee / drank less coffee, you could sleep. 16. If you press this button, the machine stops. 17. If you make me some coffee, r i l give you one o f my biscuits. 18. Unless you had told me about Sue’s hair, I wouldn’t have noticed. 19. Should you see Peter, tell him he should be here at 8.00. 2 0 . If you were to ask me to marry you, I wouldn’t accept. Exercise 3 1. (If I had knovvn) his address in London, I would have visited (him). 2. (You have to) speak slovvly, or else the audience w on’t (understand you). 3. (Angela), lf you were older, you would be able to get (a motorbike). 4. (I w ouldn’t mind) being transferred to another city on condition that they offered.. 5. (If he)'đecides to go shopping, I might go (with him). 6 . ( 1 0 you don’t want to go to a restaurant, we can have (dinner hcre). 7. (10 they had not been weanng seat belts, they could have been seriously injured. 8 . (I) would travel (all over the world íf I had enough money). Exercise 4 1. Unless the weather is good, we won’t go away. 2 . I would have bought a new shirt if I had had money. 3. Were they to offer/ If they were to offer you the job, would you accept? 4. If you should be in London / Should you he in 1 ondon. comc and see me 5. If you happen to have any free time, could you give me a rmg? 6 . If it hadn’t been for you, I would have given up years ago. 7. But for Pauline’s interest, the prọịect would have been abandoned.


If you were to finđ some buried ừeasure, what would you do? 9. If a detective hadn’t recognized him. Dick wouldn’t be in prison now. 10 . If it hadn’t been for the mghtwatchman, the tìre w ouldn't have been brought under control. Exercise 5 1. Jeremy wishes hc hađ accepted / hadn’t rejected 2. The politician spoke as though he had won the election. 3. It’s about time you got a haircut. 4. I would rather Betty didn’t borrow my clothes without asking me first. 5. I wish govemments wouldn t spend so much money on nuclear weapons 6 . You had better see the dentist today. 7. Jim vvishes he could participate in the debate. 8. Susan prefers to read magazines rather than watch Tv in the evening. 9. It would have been better if you have waited for us. 1 0 . It’s time for him to study hard. 11. We wish we hadn’t Ieft the party so early. / we vvould rather not have le f t... 1 2 . If only we had hired a car during the holiday. 13. W e’d rather go shopping than stay at home. 14. I wish I knew ho\v to play the piano.

15. Mr. Smith would sooner I had finished the reports yesterday but I couldn’t Exercise 6 1. not to work —* not vvork 2.

V

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

had tidied —» tidied for the children —> the children not T o m —»7001 have visúed —» visited had lived —♦ lived V to fix —* fix

8

9.

10. V

PHẢN 6: CÂU GIẢ ĐỊNH (SUBJUNCTIVE) Exerclse 1: Choose the best answer (A, B, c or D) to complete the following sentences.

l.B

2. B

3. A

4. D

5. A

6. c

11. c

12. A

13. A

14. B

15. A

16. D

23. A

24. c

25. c

21. c

22. c

7. c

8. A

9.A

10. c

17. D

18. c

19. A

20 À

Excrcisc 2: Glvc the right form of the verbs in brackets to complete thc following sentences. 1. remember 2. read 3. be repaired 4. focus 5. not enter 6 . apologize 7. attend 8 . be sitting 9. think 10. drive 11. be taken 1 2. reduce 13.beallowed 14. not regulate 15. not swim 16. monitor 17. put 18. be invited 19. send 20. work


PHÀN 7: MỆNH ĐẺ QUAN HỆ (RELATIVE CLAUSE) Exercise 1

l.c

2.B 12. B 14.A

3.C 4.D 5.D 6.B 7.D 8.B 9.A 11. c 13.A 15.C 16.B 17.D 18.D 20.C 21. D 22.B 24.B 25.A 26.C 27.D 29.A 30.B 31.D 32.A 33.B 34.D 35.B 36.A 38.D 37.C 39.C 40.A Exercise 2 ì . giving —♦ given, who his —* whose 2. to whom —►whom/ vvho/ tliat / o 3. students, are —» students. \vlio are 4. who we met them —» vvho/whoin/that/0 \ve met 5. Jones that —» Jones. vvho 6 . telling —►told; a man lived —►vvho lived / living;saved —* who saved 7. pcople since I came here who some o f them are from my country —* people. some o f whom are from my country, since I came here. 8 . was fishing —> íìshing 9. People can —►People \vho can 1 0 . whom they went —» vvho went 1 1 . people which —+ people who / vvhom / that / o 1 2 . sport in whieh I am intcrested in it —*• sport which / tliat / o I am interested in. 13. Mr. Peterson. he —* Mr. Peterson, who 14. \vho is trying —* vvho are trying 15. anyone who he wants —» anyone vvho vvants / anyone wanting Exercise 3 1. The hotel, which \vas miles from anyvvhere, was full o f guests who had gone there to admire the scenery. 2. The book 1 lent you vvas written by a friend o f minc \vho lives in Prancc. 3. The woman whosc je\vels were stolen was interviewed by a poiice officer who \vas staying in the same hotel. 4. The_goal \vhich \von the match was scored by a teenager who had comc on as a subtitute.. 5. The boy I vvas sitting ncxt to in the exam told me the answers

23.C

6.

19.B

28.C

My wallet, which contained over £100. \vas found in the Street by a schoolboy w h o r e t u m e d it / w a s r c t u m c d b y a s c l i o o l b o y \ v h o fo u n d it in th e S treet.

7.

My friend Albert, whose car was slolcn last week, has dccided to buy a motorbike. 8 . Carol, who is a vegetarian. enjoyed the meal I cooked for her last week. 9. The train I got on didn’t stop at the station I wanted to go to. 10 . The book I read was the hook you recommended to me. 11. The ship, which had iunorcd the waming messages sent to it. hit an iceberg and sank.


12. The postman, who realized I was on holiday, left the parcel you had sent me next door. 13. The dog I used to ovvn never barked at people who camc to the door. 14. The woman I bought my car from lives in the house you can see over there. 15. The beach we went to on the first day of our holiday was covered in seavveed w h ic h s m e l l e d a lo t.

16. My neighbours, vvhose small children make a lot o f noise, never apo!ogize. 17. The walllet I lost last week \vas found by a workman who was digging a hole in th e S tr e et o u t s i d e t h e h o u s e .

18. Slamming the car behind, Carol drove off in the car her father had given her a s a p r e s e n t.

19. At the end o f thc Street, which was crovvded with shoppcrs there was 3

building (which/ that / O) Tom had not noticed beíore. 20. The people who have just moved in next door have the same sumamc as the p e o p l e w h o h a v e j u s t m o v e d o u t.

21. Thejoumalist will intervievv the old man whose house was brokcn into last night. 22. I listened to George patiently until he started insulting me, at which point I to ld h im a f e w h o m e tr u th s w h ic h h e d i d n ' t l ik e .

Exercise 4 Murder at the station 1-vvho 2 . who / that 3. whom 4. which / that / o 5. \vho 6 . which / that / o 7. whose 8 . vvhich 9. who 1 0 . which 1 1 . \vhich ' that / o 12. Which 13.which / that / o 14. vvhose 15. who Shcrlock Homes 1. whose 2. who / that 3.who / that 4. vvhich / that / o 5. that / vvhich/o 6 . vvhcrc 7. who 8 . why / o 9 whosc Exercise 5 1. Brenda is the kind o f person that I like. 2. The whole summer was sunny and \varm, which was a changc. 3. Jean \vas the kind of person \vhose advice I asked for. 4. There was not a single house in the Street vvhich had escaped undamaged.

5. 6. 7. 8.

That was when I realizcd I had left my wallet at home. I don’t really approve o f what he’s saying / he's proposing. It is an event vvhich I’d rather forget. There is only one o f her books \vhich I ha ve not read.

PHÀN 8 : M ODAL VERBS (ĐỘNG T Ừ KHUYẾT TH1ÉU) Exercise 1: Choose the corrcct complction (A, B, c or D) for cach sentc-nce bclo\v. I.B 2. D 3. B 4. A 5. c 6. B 7. D 8. c 9. D 10. Ã II . D

12. c

21. D

22.

31. A

32. B

13. c

14. D

15. c

B

23.

A

33. B

34. c

35. D

16. A

24. c 36. D

17. A

25. D 37. c

18. c

19. D 20 ' A

26. c 27. 38. A

A

39. B 40 ' D

28.

B


Exercise 2 1 . (They) might not visit us (at the vveekend). (Karen,) vvill you help me (with the vvashing up?) 2 . 3. (It) can’t have been (Tim who called you because I saw him outside). 4. (Bruce) must have gone (to the dentist since he has a tem ble toothache.) 5. (Would) you mind if I borrovved (your tape recorder this aĩtemoon?) 6 . (You) are not allovved to walk (your dog in the park.) 7. (You) could have bought (that watch from another shop.) 8 . (Garry) was not able to remember (where he had put his vvallet.) 9. (You) should not have driven Ợhrough the red light.) 1 0 . (Our children) never used to tell (him.) Exercise 3 may have been attending 1. shouldn’t be watching 2 . 3. might have been washing 4. must be waiting 5. shouldn’t have left 6 . could be visiting 7. should watoh 8 . must have throvvn 9. should be working, shouldn’t be wasting / shouldn’t waste 1 Q. might be travelling 1 1 . might ha ve boưovved 1 2 . must be playing 13. must not ha ve been expecting / must not have expected 14. might ha ve been vvashing, may have already left Exercise 4 I think you had better give up smoking immediately. 1. We should get there by 5.00 2 . 3. Do I have to bring my passport? 4. The cat must be in the house somewhere. 5 Yơữ don’t need to have / don’t have to have an aerial with this radio. 6 . It’s very convenient if you are able to drive. 7. You can’t be the thief. Norman is bound to be late. 8 9. All students are to report to the main hall at 9.00. 1 0 . You ought to know better. Exercise 5 Helen must feel rather lonely. 1. 2 . You can’t park here. 3. Harry should take a holiday. 4. Brenđa can’t be over thirty. 5. Do I have to have a driving liscence for a motorbike?


r . What do you think I should do/ 7. Mary can stand on her head. 6

. You don’t have to come with me if you don’t want to. 9. Anybody can break into their house. 10. The dentist will see you soon. He shouldn’t be long. 8

PHẢN 9: INVERSION AND EMPHASIS IN ENGLISH (ĐAO NGŨ VÀ S ự NHÁN MẠNH TRONG TIÉNG ANH) Exercỉse 1: Rewrile each o f the sentonces belo», using ,hc »ord s given in the brackets, so that the meaning of each one has an emphasis I O ff went my brother without saying a \vord. 2 . O ff he went without saying a word. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Along the corridor were her toys. On a hill stands the castle. Now is your change to speak out Seldom have we fished so much here In no way are they responsible for what occurred last night On no accọunt should you take these pills when you drink alcohol. Not once did she offer us her help.

10 . Not until I saw her weeping did I become aware o f what vvas going on I I Little did we realize the dangers that were avvaiting us ! 2. So tired was he that he slept for íburteen hours. 13. Such was my delight that I bought everyồody a drink. 14. To such an extent do I love him that I woulđ evcn give my life for him 15. Not only do they supply us vvith food, but also with drinks. 16. No sooner had we eaten it than we had a terrible stomach-ache. 17. Hardly had I gone to bed when the telephone rang. 18. Not only did she take him to the zoo, but to the cinema as well. 19. No sooner does the day break than the cock crows. 20. Only when he bought her some flowers did she agree to go out with him. 2 1 Should you need a good make-up remover, please let me knovv. 22. Were I to win the first price in the nationa! lottery, I \vou!d no longer work. 23. Had you not Aoođed the engine, it \vould have started at once 24. Should my parents need me, I will/shall never let thêm down. -5. Were I in your place, I would try to be more assertive Exercise 2: Finish the second sentence so that the meaning has asimilar meaning >vith an emphasỉs. I 2. .3. 4. 5. 6.

In no way should you consider him as your vvorst enemy On no account must you upset your parents Across the bridge li ve Mr. and Mrs. Adam. So scared vvas I that I could not even scream In iront o f us was the horriíic view o f the massacre Behind those mountains lies the canyon.


7. 8. 9. 10. I I. 12. 13.

Only then diđ he become avvare o f the dangers o f the jungle. Scarcely had she begun to study when her boyíriend rang the bell. No way will I go trekking with him. Such was my terror that I couldn’t move. No sooner had I svvitched the dishwasher than it broke down. No sooner had he seen her than he fell in love with her. Had we known that you were interested in buying the block o f llats, we would have sold it to you. 14. Dovvn the road went your mother. 15. Down the road she went. 16. Only in hot countries is this disease common. 17. Never again will you have such an opportunứy. 1 8 Not only did vve vvrite to her many times, but telephone her twice, too. I1). No sooner had he leamt about his mother's incurable disease than he cricd his eyes out. 20. Not only have we put aside some money, but also have stocked up with a lot o f groceries from the shop next door. 2 1. Neither did I use suntan lotion. 2 2 . Up flew the wood pigeon. 23. Should you increase our vvages, we will work overtime. 24. Hardly had she taken everything out of the picnic basket vvlien It began to rain. 25. Were you to buy a new car. which of these would you choose? 26. Under no circumstances should you. press both button at once. 27. Not once did Jean offer her boss a word of apology. 28. Only later did I realize who he was. 29. At no time did he suspect that the money had been stolen. 30. Nothing but a full refund did he need/ insist/ \vould satisfy him.

PHẢN 10: CONECTIVES: CÁC TỪ NÓI Exercise 1: Choose the best ansvver (A, B, c or D) to complete the sentences below. 7. B 4. B 5. D 3. B 2. A 14. B 12. D 13. D 11 10 8. B 21.c 19. D 20 15. A 16. D 17. B 1 8 .c 26. D 27. B 28. B 29. A 30. B 22. A 23. B 24. A Exprcisc 2 R ovrite the scntences bclow with the conncctors givcn ĨI1 brackcts. 1. He can’t be a basketball player because he's too short. 2. Much as I approvc o f parties. I cannot let you give one lonight. 3. You have not períormed your duties. Consequently, you will be expelled from the club. 4. ■Although í ran as fast as I could, I was ahvays in the same place,’ she dreámt. 5. He is crying his heart out ovving to his father’s death. 6. Thcse are the rules. Nevertheless, there are exceptions/Thcre are exceptions, nevertheless.

l.B

9.A

.c

.c

25. c

6.C

.c


7. ỉ don't lo ve you; \vhat’s more, I don’t want to see you again/I don't love you and, w hat’s more, I don't want to see you again/ 8 . Majorca is a paradise for tourists; hence its popularity. 9. His death was due to a heart attack. 10. Our business is going from bad to worse; as a rusult, we will have to close dovvn/Our business is going from bad to worse, and we will have to close down as a result. 11.Many people are dying in the third \vorld every day on account o f lack oi' 1'ood. 12. Time is pressing on, so w e’ll have to work harđ at it. 13. Even if you hate them, you’ll have to live with them. 14. The unemployment rate has incrcased. Thus we will/shall have to take strict measures. 15. We \vill not buy you the bikc we promised, since you have failed all your exams. 16. They lost the battle through lack o f discipline. 17. Happy though he was, he felt loncly at times. 18. Clever as he was \vith his hand, he couldn't fix it. 19. I bought a padlock, but it was not big enough for the gate. 20. He consented to all her wishes. for he could not live vvithout her. 21. We have considered your proposal thoroughly. However, we (are afraid to tell you that) we cannot assent to it. 22. The reason (\vhy/ that) \ve didn’t wait for them was that we vvere in a hurry. 23. Nobody dare to dissent from the decision o f the prime mimster. All the same she did. 24. I didn't dro\vn thanks to her. 25. In spite of her telling/having told him that she \vould alxvays be truc to him she wasn \J In spite of ihc taci (that) she had told him that she \vould always be true to him, she \vasn’t. 26. Despite being snowing heavily, they \vent on climbing/Despite the heavy snow they went on climbing/Despite the fact (that) it was snowing heavily, they wcnt on climbing. 27. All the same, he was not lìned. 28. Even though (I know) you don't love mc, r u marry you. 29. In adđition to her being well-trained for the post, shc is beautiíul. 30. These iầiry cakes are homemade. Besides, they have the best quality ingredients. Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in brackets. 1. You vvill have to carry, (let’s) say, a hundred pounds. 2. Except for the people next door, everybody in the neighbourhood islovcly/ Evcrybody in the neighborhood is love, except for the people next door. 3. You should attend to your guests. Aíter all, you are the hostess/You're the hostess(,) after all. 4.

Summing up, something must be done to put an end to violence on the streets and drug trafficking

5. 6.

Apart írom being a very good guitarist, he sings beautiíully. I hey lost all their money in a shady business, not to mention the loan they took out of the bank.


7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

The way I see it, you should put your cards on the table. She likes many romantic poets, like Coleridge, Wordsworth, Byron and Keats. Nobody/No-one except you can make me happy. They abandoned him to his fate, for they had Ịittle coníĩdence in him. They couldn’t reach the peak as a result o f the heavy snovv. The country's economy is getting better and better. A case in point is the stabilization (or ‘stabilization’) o f inf!ation/the stabilization o f inflation is a case in point/As a case in point. we can mention the stabilization o f inflation/We can mention the stabilization o f inílation, as a case in point Needless to say, all applicants must identify themselves beíòre the interview. Personally, I found his remarks unnecessary. W e’ll have to hurry, since time is short. Your days are numbered, which is why w e’ll grant you a íavour. In conclusion, we made a substantial profit last year. To my vvay o f thinking, you shouldrTt argue with them about politics. I can't carry my belongings, let alone (carry) yours Money is what makes the vvorld go round, that is to say(,) the more money you have, the more powerful you become. Hatred creates even more hatred. To Put it another way, the more you hate somebody, the more they will hate you. He is the most important person in this company. that is(,) he is the boss On the whole, military Service is a waste of time and money. I đon't mind what time you arrive home. Above all (else), I want you to amve safe and sound. He had presented several television shows; but, first and foremost, he is a joum alist. Broadly speaking, this play may be divided into four main parts. By and large, Eivissa is one o f the best holiday spots in the world. She told me that the grammar exercises were as easy as íalling off a log; but, as a matter o f fact, I found them very diffĩcult. The weather íorecaster said that today would be quite hot; but, in (actual) fact, it is quite chilly. I don’t want to see them any more. In actual fact, I hate them. They said that they had done all the work; but, in point o f fact, they had donc nothing. She told me that she vvas as poor as a church mouse, but actually she was loaded. Regarding your application for the job as a sales representative, we are glad to iníòrm you that it will be offered to you. In regard to your brother, he is the most qualiíĩed person for the post. As for air pollution, the govemment should take stronger measures to combat it. Apropos (of) what he stated yestcrday, we consider it the most appropriate altemative. As far as the decline in the country’s exports is concemed, the govemment should act at once. In a nutshell, we must do somethmg to stop burglars.


39. We want you to \vnte to us regularly; but. above all else, don’t forget to telephone us 40. On the one hand, it rained heavily that vveekend; on the other, I felt trawẽỉ1 most ol the time PHÀN 11: TÍNH TỪ (ADJECTIVE), TRẠNG TÙ (ADVERB) VÀ CÁC CÁCH SO SÁNH. Exercise 1: Put the adjectives in the brackets into the correct order to have a meaningíul noun phrases. I . a rectangular modem cream 2 . pretty long silken 3 . dreadíul old pink 4. tmy new Central Processing

5. tíred local camera

6. beautiíul vast green

7. large Greek vegetable 8 . good-looking middle-aged black pop 9. two-hour traffic jam 10. dangerous gloomy New York I I . a brand-new mustarđ American sports 1 2 . íantastic (and) delightful/delightful (and) ĩantastic 13. pretty and elegant/elegant and pretty 14. hoưible lilac toilet 15. an enourmous round sky-blue 16. wonderful colourĩul 17. an old red and w hite breakdown

18. pretty brown and turquoisc leather

19. a long-distance obstacle 21. dreadful tangerine and lime silk 23. a modem peach ìce 25. cheap black and yellovv íootball Exercỉse 2

. magnificent country 22. expensive Catalan 24. an oval blue Chinese dining

I.crying . frightened II. boring 16. achmg Exercise 3

6

2 0

2. buming 3. excited 4. smiling 5. Fnghtemng 7. advancing 8 . approvmg 9. approved 10. Blovving 12. cleaning n .c le a n e d 14. closed 15.crowded 17. disappointed 18. broken 19. trembling 20. interesting

lc le a n 6 . coníĩdently Exercise 4

2. safely 7. well

3. honest 8 . angrily

4. thoughtfully 9. angry

l.fa ste r 2. more beautiĩully 3 .th eh ard est 5. the most sensitively 6 . more peaceíully 7. the latest Exercise 5

5. good 10. carefully

4. earlier . the most íluently

8

1. The more ìce-cream he eats, the íatter he gets, and the fatter he gets, the more ice-cream he eats. 2. The more he reađs, the more he íorgets, and the more he íorgets, the more he reads. 3. 4.

The more she ignores him, the more he loves her, and the more he loves her the more she ignores him.

The more shoes she buys, the more shoes she wants, and the more shoes she wants, the more shoes she buys. 5. The more money we spend, the more írìenđs we have, and the more íriends we have, the more money we spend. 6 . The more I sleep, the more từed I am, and the more tired I am, the more I sleep.


Exercise 6 l.C 2.B 3.A 4.D 5.D 6 .C 7.B 8 .A 9.C 10.B Exercise 7 1. I've never eaten a better meal. 2. Fish costs just as much as meat in some countries. 3. I’ve never had such a good time. 4. The more you run, the íìtter you get. 5. W ednesday is the earliest the doctor can see you, I’m afraid. ổ. I must have a rest, I can’t go (on) any íurther. 7. Home computers aren't as expensive as thev used to he. 8. Sue knows more Italian than I do. 9. Leaming to drive isn’t as difficult as I thought it vvould be. 10. John isn’t a better skater than Barbara. 11. Peter can’t run as fast as Jill (can). 12. This joum ey didn't last as long as I thought it vvould. 13. I arrived later than I expected. 14. Y ou’11 ha ve to work harder / faster. 15.1 ha ve an elder brother. 16. Martin didn’t think the íirst part o f the nim was interesting 17. Paula has been working less carefully than betbre. 18. This is the earliest train. 19. This pub is the nearest. 20. C an’t you offer a better price? Exercise 8 1. Your car didn’t cost as much as mine did./ Your car cost less than mine did. 2. You are better at Matti than I am. 3. Kcith is a littler taller than Nigel. 4. Bill \vas growing angrier and angrier. 5. Sally did her best. 6 . This fílm w asn’t as good as I thought it \vould be. 7. I've never driven along such a bumpy road (before). 8 . The-more you eat, the fatter you get. 9. George said it was the best he could do. 10. This year’s exam was just as difficult as last year’s exam. PHÀN 12: CẨU TRÚC ĐỘNG TỪ: VERB STRƯCTƯRES Excrcise 1 I. going / to go 1 1 . to give 2 to leave / leaving 1 2 . playing 3. lecturing / to lecture 13. doing 4. swimming / to swim 14. to do 5. seeing / to see 15. to do 6 moving / to move; racing / to race 16. carrying


7. driving, taking 8 . to drive, take 9. to tum 1 0 . being Exercise 2 in looking 2 . about leaving 3. o f doing 4. for being 5. to having 6 . from completing 7. about having 8 . o f studying 9. for heiping 1 0 . on knovving Exercise 3 1 . not to be 2 . cleaning 3. (o take 4. to leave 5 to talk / talking 6 . waiting. doing 7 to stay, paint 8 . quitting, opening 9. to take 1 0 . looking, to answer Exercisc 4

17. watching 18. to do 19. to inlbrm 2 0 . not listening . by dravving 2 1 . in clarifying of living 2 2 . o f stealing 13. for not going 23. o f taking, keeping 14. in searching 24. to vvearing 15. for making 25. to eating, sleeping 16. for not wanting 17. for washing and drying 18. to going 19. from speaking 2 0 . to going 11

12.

1 1.

postponing 1 2 . \vatching, listening 13 . to rcad 14. lo go, camping 15. singing 16. to take. to pay

17. to stand 18. not to wait 19. to explain 2 0 . holding, feeding, changing

1. They made me study hard \vhen ị \vas at school. Taking thejob means moving to Paris. 3. I appreciate your giving me a lift. 4. Why don’t you try using honey? 5 I don't mind looking after the baby for you. 6 . I demand to see the manager. 7. Sally encouraged Jack to apply for the job. 8 . Do you happen to knovv where the Hilton is? 9. You are not allowed to park hcrc. 10 Pauline oíĩercd to carry the bag lbr John. Exercise 5 1. A 2.A 3.A 4.C 5.B 6 .C 7.D H.ỉi Exercise 6 1. Jack denied cheating in the exam. 2. I co u ld n ì help laughing at W endy’s letter. 3. I regret to tell you that you have not been appointed to the post. 2.

9.1)

10.C


. 5. 6 . 7. 8 . 9.

I stopped running to drink some vvater. Luckily Peter avoided paying a íìne. I suggest taking the train. D on’t forget to tum o ff the lights when you leave. I can hear someone talking upstaưs. Dereck appears to have íorgotten the meeting. 1 0 . My neighbour threatened to call the police. 1 1 . I regret not going to university. 12. W inning the football pools enabled us to buy a new car. 13. He risks missing the plane if he waits. 14. This clue led me to believe you vvere the murderer. 15. Do you have to pay exưa to use the hotel svvtmming pool? 16. This appears to be the right Street. 17. Jean managed to íìnish all her work on time. 18. They invúed me to stay with them in Florida. 19. It’s no use calling Jim as his phone is out of order. 20. A1I students are required to leave a cash deposit.

4

PHÀN 13: MỘT SỐ THÀNH NGỬ VÀ NGŨ’ ĐI VỚI GIỚI TỪ Exercise 1 1 . in stead o f 5. on behalf o f 9. Because o f Exercise 2 1 . costs 6 . strike Exercisc 3 2. 1 . in bed 6 . out o f doors

2. Regardless of 6 . Apart from 10. According to

3. In case o f 4. in favour of 7. As for 8 . by means of 1 1 . in common vvith 1 2 . in iro n to í

. words 7. secret

3. impression 8 . stock

2

5. fail breath

4. hurry 9. retum

10.

on time 3. in all 4 . out of reach 5. by chance 7. al prescnt 8 . in common 9. on thc svay 10. on business

Exercise 4 4. practice 3. public 2 . him selí 1 . proíìt 9. detail 8 . whole 7. particular 6 . sight— Excrcise 5 3. without a doubt 2 . on holiday 1 . in tvvo 6 . in diíĩiculties 7. by heart 5. by sight 1 0 . on sale 9. in pain Exercise 6 7.C 8 .A 5.A 6 .B 3.C 4.C I.D 2.B Exercisc 7 4. From 3. on 2 . in 1 . on 1 0 . on 9. in, by 8 . on - on 7. In 15. in 14. on 13. by

5. average 1 0 . force 4. out o f work 8 . in tum

9.B 5. in 1 1 . on

10.B 6

. by 1 2 . in


Exercise 8 1. in, On 5. on, on

2 6

. by, in . for, on

3 .o u to f ,u p to 4. on, by 7. in my, in the

CHUYÊN ĐÈ 5: READING (ĐỌC HIÉU) I Exercise 1: Read the paragraphs below and the summary which follows l.pollution 2. ill 3. laws 4. smoke 5. lungs 6 . lead 7. brains/ health 8 . exhausts 9. climate 10. Aoods Exercise 2: Read the íolltm ing passage and fill in each gap with only ONE appropriate word ’•so 2- like 3. means 4. television 5. widens / broadens which / that 7. to 8 . every 9. watching 10. than Exercise 3: Read the following passage and the decide which option A-, B, or D best fìts each space. l.A 2. D 3 .C 4 .C 5. D 6.c 7.A 8. A 9 .c 10. B Exercise 4: Read the folIowing passage and ansvver the questions. 1. The process o f making something dirty is pollution. 2. A word or phrase with thc same meaning as the air, water and land we live is environment. 3. The air surrounding the earth is called atmosphere. 4. Resources could be best replaced wealth, goods or Products pcople can use. 5. A difficultỵ which needs attention and thought is problem. Exercise 5: Read the following passages careíully, then choosc thc ONE bcst Q n K ivo r í A R r^ 1n e n n /ik ____ ___________________________ Ị VrtV.il IC S I1 U II J B. Elements that make 6. A. VVinterthur Winterthur an unusual museum 2. B. specializmj> in 7. D. c \o l\in u 3. B. The house was repaired 8. D. past ownership ^ c. Winterthur does not look like g A. Paragraph 2 explains a term thai was a typical museum mentioned in Paragraph 1 . 5. c . brought together 10. D. lines 10-12 6.

c

Exercise 6: Read the passage bekrn then State >vhether the follo\ving sentences are TRUE or FALSE. *• True 2. False 3. False 5- True t 6 . True 7. False Exercise 7: Read the followỉng passaị ansner (A, B, c or D) to cach quest on Ọ# 1 2 • 3 4 5 Key c B B A c ans>ver (A, B,

c 7-A

2 8

c or D) to .B .B

each questỉon 3. c 9. A

.D 10. A

4

4. False 8 . False

6 B

5. B

7 D

1

6.

[)


Excrcise 9: Choosc from sentences A -H the one which fits each gap 1-6. Thcre is onc extra scntcncc yoú do not nced to use. (12 points) Q#

ỉ 1. 1E

1 2

.

3. 1F

1 4. iG

5.

6

c

1 ịA 1 Key ỉ B Exercisc 10 You are going to read an article in which four people describe their best teacher. For questions 1 —15, choose frọm the people (A - D). The people may be chosen more than once.

1. A 2. A 3. B

4. À 5. B 6. D

10. B

13. A

11. c

12. c

14. c

7. A 8. A

8. c

9. A

15. D

CHUYÊN ĐÈ 6: NVRITING (VIẾT) A. .\lake all the changes and additions nccessary to producc from thc íolloning sets of words and phrascs that togcthcr m akea co mp le to lettcr. Exercise 1 Dcar Madam/sir 1 . 1'd like to express my concem about the increasing number o f karaoke bars in the city 2. Therc are a lot o f reasons that I object to these places 3. Pirstly. the owners takc too much money from those people who comc to sinu 4. Secondly, they caưse too much noise to the neighborhood 5. Thirdly, there are a number of pupils who play truant just to go to those places to sing. 6 . Last but not least, these bars do harm to the appearance o f the city because of their ugly ílashing light. 7. I wa'nt to say that I am not an old fashioned person. 8 . I hope that the authority will take this matter into careful consideration 9. I don’t mean to ban them but there should be an effective way to control this kind of entertainment places 1 0 . I am looking forward to seeing the city council doing something about this matter Your truly, Jon B roun Exercise 2 Dear Hoa, 1. I am vvnting to introduce to you a language school \vhere you can improve your Engiish. 2. Instead'õflcam ing on your own. as you are doing novv, you should leam to speak Eniỉlish vvith others. 3. The Academy o f Languaue offers you a good and friendly environment to practice your English. 4. They also have \vell-qualified teachers. 5. There are classes at different levels in the aftemoon and evening, and courses beiỉin in the first vveek this November. 6. If you are interested, you can phone 38765432 for íurther information. Best o f luck!

Mai Exercisc 3 Dcar Mom and Dad,


. came/ has doubled/ have been built 6 . writing 3. to lie 7. to be done 4. stolen 8 . should have done Question 3: (lOpoints) 1 . o ff 5. into up / with 6 . with 2 . 3. over 7. on / off 8 . upon 4 for Question 4: (10 points) 1.popular 6 . activists 2. income 7. nationuide 3. effectively 8 . existen 4. usually 9. persuasively 5. appliances 10. unprcdictable Qucstion 5: (10 points) Ì.D 2.B 3.D 4.B 5.C 6 .A 7.B 8 .C 9.D 10.A Question 6: (15 points) Part a: 1 .number ó.lầmous 2.holiday 7.other 3.capital 8 .sightseeing 4.mos't 9.trip 5.from 10.flights P a rt b: 1.They are more important in the life of the people than in other countries. 2.They are proud o f their traditions and caretully kcep them up. 3.An English lầrruly preters a housc vvith a gardcn. 4.Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement painted green in imitation o f grass and a box of f!owers. 5 . It is not kept (except by clerks in banks,all shops and 1'actories are Nvorking). Question 7_:_(7 points) Part a: 1. A. Not -> D on't 2. D. with a car -> in a car 2

3. D. the -» 0 4. D. doesn't he -> does he 5. A. that —> which P art b: 1 . It was such a cold day that \ve decided not to go out. 2. Please tcll me if you take any books from my room. Question 8: (lOpoints) 1. If a lJFO was seen.vvhat would be đone? 2 . 1 wish I could sing beautiíully, so I couldjoin them now.


1. I am ved in Hanoi at 5 o clock yesterday moming I am staying in a nice hotel. 3. It is not far (rom the City center. 2.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I have already seen Uncle H o’s Mausoleum and some places interesting here Tomoưcnv I am going on a trip to Ha Long Bay. I have never been there before. I am so excited aboul the tnp that I can't sleep. I will be back on Sunday. Nov 10,h. I vvill tel! yoư more about the trip \vhcn 1 am in Mue. 1 0 . I hope you are well. Yours, Mai Exercise 4 Dear Mary, i .I t i s a longtim e since I last hear from you. 2. How are you getting on? 3. Would you like to come and stay with me in my cottage in the countryside? 4. You and your family are warmly welcomcd if all of you want to visit us 5. What about coming at the end o f the next month? 6 . Write to me and let me kno\v if you can come. Love, Yours. Daisy. Excrcisc 5 Dcar Marry, 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6 . 7. 8.

I \vas very happy to get your lcttcr yesterđay. I hadn t knovvn you arrived back in Vietnam Did you have a good time in London? I am looking forward to hcar all about it. Thank you for inviting me to have dinner with you next Saturday I am alraid I w on’t bc abie to come I am going to attend my aunt's vvedding party. What about next Sunday?

9. II possible ỉ will come over your house for dinner next Sunday. 10. \Vrite to me soon. From love, •Tom Exercise 6 Dcar Sir or Madam. I.-I have seen your Foreign Language Ccntcr’s advcrtiscment in the Victnam 's Ncws 2 .1am interested in improve my lỉnglish spcaking at your Languagc C cntLT. 3. I \vould like to have some more inlbmiation about the course o f speaking English 4. Could you please tell me about the schedulc and fcc o fth c COUI SCS?


5. Will I be tested before joining in the classes? 6 . I am looking forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Minh Hoa Exercise 7 Dear Sir, 1 . 1 am writing to you about the fans in my room which I askeđ your company to ìnstall. 2 . 1 am not satisíled because o f the poor quality of the fans provided by your company. 3. The fans do not work well because when they run at high speed, they make a lot of noise. 4. This really makes me find difficult to sleep at night. 5. Furthermore, they are not the electricity-saving fans which I neeđ to buy. 6 . 1 would like your company to be responsible for all the repair work. 7. If possible, I would like to have other new electricity-saving fans with high quality. 8 . 1 look forward to hearing from you and to getting a quick resolution of these problems. Yours faithfully, Minh Tri. Exercise 8 Dear Mai, 1. I am w nting to tell how sorry I was to hcar that you faiied in that examination. 2 . I know that you had tried your best and \vorked very hard but that examination was too difficult. 3. I think you shouldn’t be too disappointed now. 4.

There are many other examinations Corning and many new challenges will come

to you, too. 5. I hope you will succeed in the next year’s examination. 6 . You have 2 weeks off, don't you? 7. Why don’t you visit us in the countryside? 8. We will have a lot o f fun here and you will reíresh after a harđ examination. 9. Please write to me or phone me if you can come. 10. We are looking forward to seeing you soon. Exercise 9 Dear N4fs. Jenny, 1. On behalf of our class. I would like to express our greal gratitude to you tor helping us to organize our English Speaking Club. 2. You see our English Speaking Club wouldn't have been held successtully but i'or your great help. 3. The English Club stimulated the spirit of English leaming among us. 4. All o f us had a lot o f fun and leamed a lot from each other in the Club. 5. We hope get more assistance from you in the future to hold the activities of the Club regiilarly. 6 . I look forward to hearing from you soon/ Yours sincerely, Mai


1. larn, writ,„g to you to apply for a pm -tim e job which yo., are advertising

Labor

2. You say you need a tutor to help your daughter wúh Math and Chemisoy o f Grade 9 am in grade 1 1 now and I am very good at Math and Chemistry

«

" : x rZ l Z y worklng “ a ' u,or ,

5' ; : r s ™ 6

n

t r ecome a ,eacher m,he ru,ure 50

- ° rdEr “ —

a“ » «

. Furthermore, I am gentle. patient and hardvvorking.

7.

Mhink I can mcet your demands and help your daughter to study thesc subjccts

8'

T r„ ri “

9.

Ihvould prefer to work on Monday, VVednesday and Friday aitem oons, from 2 p.m

10.

I look forward to receiving your reply Yours faithfully, Nguyen Minh Hieu

„'„h„es m om ,ng

bu' 1

am f re e " 0,her , t a “

B- Free w riting *

W riting a letter

Suggested \vriting Question 1 : Dear Claudia, I'm looking forward to your am val. I \ c been missing you a lot smcc thc last time we savv in France IVe been thinking a iot about our time Ithất wc are g( íng to share L T ỉ »0n í ere 3 u ys t 0 g ™ e to ™y flát. One n f th em is hv time anrl } t pest A W 0 U n t rècommêncl ìt bècause It vv.ll take you a long l ^ m u c h l í s ve^ uncomfortabIe. If I were 7 o ú , I would takè à taxi. ĩ doesn^ ĩ more than a bus and it s much safer and niore comíbrtable. And herc IS a nu ,e r í hat y °u can ca]I the airport 04 848484 Be care ul! don’t lake taxis outs.de the a ^ o r t b e c a ^ e A ẹyalw ays want to tak e advantage o f nge p e ò p t Now I areJ r spl " g Why don t ỵoũ bring soft clothes However you rỉust bring a ramcoat beacau* ith a s been rammg a lot. If you want to ask z more . n t a a t ôn or need some advice you can send £ an e-mail or give me a nng See you in a ĩew weeks. With love, Mai Lan Question 2 Dear Mr Hung, I have just rẹad your advertisement published in "Our Hobby Today" on Saturday 23 May. I would like to apply for it. aaiuraay


First o f all, swimming is one o f my favorite activities. I used to s\vim in the club named ‘ Young Generation' in Hanoi and I won a few competitions. Secondly, I vvọuld like to become a professional swimming trainer in the future. Thirdly, I have two nephe\vs at the age o f 8 years old. I have taught them ho\v to su im. No\v. they can swim very well. So. I am used to being with childcn and l eryoy being with thcm. Moreover, 1 have leíì my high school a few weeks ago. I haven t dccided lo study al any colleges or universities yet. 1 would like to work before attending my university. I vvốuld really want to work; consequently I think that 1 have enough cnergy and motivation to do this job well. I feel that I have the right experience and good ability to do this job. í am looking forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Minh Hoa Q uestion 3 Dear Anne, I vvas very happy to receive your letter yesterday. I would like to thank you a lot for your great assistance. I am planning to take an English speaking and listening course in London but I haven’t decided which center or language institute I should attend. I \vould like to improve my English. You see in Vietnam I can improve my Enalish grammar and reading but it’s too difficult for me to improve mv speaking and listening. I am awardcd a scholarship of u s s 2000, bul I think It ISI1 I cnouglì lor mc to spend becausc everything is so expensive in London. i gucss the best place to stay is in ạ house vvith a host family, but if you've got a better idea, let me know. I am going to stay tor two months. I am casygoing and tidy and I think 1 can share ilic room vvith someone else. The problem IS that I'm not surc li I can attord all ilic cxpenditurc. That's one o f the things that I am \vorried most. I hope to have some more iníormation from you and get some your sdvice. I look forward to seeing your reply. With love, Mai Q uestion 4 Dear Sir/ Madam, I sa\v yõur job advertiscment on the noticeboard of my local language school. I am interested in vvorking as a Film Club Organizer. I think I could do thc work very \vell. First o f all, I am intcrestcd in tìlms. I have \vatched a lol o f lìlms and have quite good command o f cincma. I m also a lan ot CniỊlish and American lilms. Secondly, I used to run an English spcaking club in my school. Ih u s I tliink I am capahlc I)f running a club. Furthcimorc, I havc bcen studying l-nglish Ibr (ì ycars and I have passed the TOEFL examination with 500 marks. In addition. I am strict. hardvvorking and Creative. Thus, I think I can help to organi7C many activitics for thc C lub

For the above rcasons. I \vould 11ke to be interviexved li)r a job as a c lub Organizer. Please contact me by 0986153453 or email me at hieutn(a:tzmail.com. I look for\vard to hearing from you. Your faithfully, Minh Hoa.


Questỉon 5 Dear Sir, I am vvriting vvith regard to your advertisement in Vietnam News in which you offer an English course that meets my ovvn expectations. I am interested in leaming English for my job in the future. I have been leaming English for 7 years ạt my secondary school. Despite the fact that I am quite goođ at grammar and use o f English but I íìnd listening and speaking extremely diíTicult. Although I have tried my best to speak English with my friends, my teacher and listen to English CDs quite often, my speaking and listening have not beến much improvèd Apart from this, I would like to practice taking English speaking and listening tests at International levels. I am also fond o f reađing English stories. In addi.tion I enjoy participating in many different activitĩes in order to practice using English Thús I vvould like to have a twelve-month intensive English course, four classes a \veek òn Monday. Wednesday, Friđay and Sunday. I would prefer to start on M ondăy 'thjs week. Please email me at minhhieu2008(ft)gmail.com if possible. I look for\vard to your reply. Yours íầithíully, Minh Hieu

ĐÁP ÁN MỘT SỐ ĐỂ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI ANH VĂN ĐÊ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI TỈNH KHỐI 9 ĐÁP ÁN VÀ BIÉU MÀU CH Á M ĐIÈM BẢNG A HSG T ỈN H N G H È AN 2011 Tổng điểm toàn bài 80 / 4 = 20 điểm. Trong đó mỗi câu đúng HS được 1 điểm Bài luận 12 điểm. SECTION A: PHONETICS I. Pick out the word w h o se ............ 1A 2 .C 3 .B II. Identiíy the word whose stress pattern............

4. D

5. A

1D 2 .c 3. A 4. B SECTION B: VOCABI LARY AND GRAMMAR. /. Choose tlie b est .............. 3 .C 4. D 5. A //. Supply the correcl verb forms.

6

.B

8

.B

.D

9

.D

4. buying / having bought 5. hasn't visited ; left 6 . sitting

. did; has been destroyed 3. are always talking

2

III. Supply the correcí word form s 1 . refusal 2 communication 3. thoughtless 4. neighborhood 5. knowing

7. c

5

. decision 7. politely 8 Uníòrtunately 9. successful 1 0 . advice 6

10

.c


Line 1 2

3 4

Mistake Actual know íinding for

Correction Actually Knovvs to find To

Line 5 6

7 8

Mistake Very because of Whether Bad

Correction too because if badly

SECTION C: READING I. Read the passage .............

l .A

2.C

3. B

4. c

5. D

//. Fiỉỉ in ea ch ............... l.u se d 2. for 3. money 4. his 5. was 6 . who / that 7. and 8 . out 9. Street 10. at SECTION D: W RITING 1. Complete the second.................... 1 .1 haven’t written to him for three months. 2 . It is such a dirty restaurant that no one wants to eat there. 3. The roof o f his house was blown off by / in the huưicane. 4. Hovv many competitors took part / participated / joined in the game yesterday? 5. If you don’t pay the money back to me, I vvill call the police. 6 . John advised Jane to try her best to leam English. 7. It came as no surprise to me (to hear) that you did very well in your exam //. CƠM POSITION

Grammar & Vocabulary 30% THE END.

Style 40%

Content 30%

ĐÁP ÁN VÀ BIÊU MÀU CH ÁM ĐIẼM HSG TÍNH G IA LAI 2010 PartTvvo: Phonetics (1 điểm) I. l . c . 2 . A. 3. D. 4. B. 5. B. (mỗi từ 0,1 đ) II. l . c . 2. D. 3. D. 4 .C . 5.A. (mỗi từ 0,1 đ) Part Three: Vocabulary and Grammar ( 6 điểm) I. 2 điểm (mỗi câu 0,2 đ) l.c. 2 . A. 3. B. 4. B. 5. D. 6 . A. 7 .C . 8. B. 9. B. 10. c. II. 1 điểm (mỗi câu 0,2 đ) 4. D. I .B .. 2. D. 3. D. 5. B. III. 2 điểm (mỗi câu 0,2 đ) 4. A l.D 2 .C 3. B 5. D 7. D 6 . B 8. B 9. B 10. L) IV. 1 điểm (mỗi từ đúng 0,2 đ) (chú ý đây là kiểm tra từ vựng nên nếu sai chính tả thì không có điêm) 1. surprisingly 2. ìndependent 3. disappointment 4. unsuccessíully 5. Marriage


Part Four: Writing: (4 điểm) 1. 2 điểm (mổi câu 0 , 2 điểm) 1 . 1 ’m afraid that w e’ve run out o f eggs. 2. We are/feel excited about our new house. 3. Ellen couldn’t aíĩord (to buy) the ticket. 4. Why don t you look up this \vord /look this \vord up m thcdiclionary'* 5. This íìlm 1S not as frightening as the las