Mine, Mine, Mine! Ours PSA_31 DAVID SPITTLER
Mine, Mine, Mine! Ours PSA_31 DAVID SPITTLER ARCHITECTURAL THESIS: 2012-13 BACHELORS OF ARCHITECTURE CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY SAN LUIS OBISPO TOM DI SANTO, ADVISOR
ÂŠ 2013 David Spittler All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the copyright owners. All images in this book have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists concerned. Errors or omissions will be corrected in future editions. Printed and bound in the United States. First Edition. 2013
“What defines a character of a city is its Public Space, not its private space” -UN-HABITAT Executive Director Joan Clos i Matheu
Abstract Third Place Social Senses The Icon
Self-Organizing Entities Paintings & Carvings Form Analogue Site Analogue
Metropol Sevilla Kap 686 Skatepark Barclays Center Oslo Opera House
Context Transportation Services
Concept Drawings Renderings Site Model
The Peopleâ€™s Bookshelf Landscape Intervention Watercolors (+Poetry)
5 9 15 19
21 25 27 33
39 41 43 45
47 49 51
52 64 67 75
79 83 85
Preoccupation ABSTRACT [Exploring Happiness] “The sources of individual happiness include the set of social interactions through which individuals are interconnected.” 1 Many factors go into the happiness of a country’s citizens. Money is definitely part of it, but once the basic human needs of food, shelter and basic amenities are met, its effects drop off rather sharply. A social environment and sense of community are two huge factors that come into play after the effects of money drop off. People use buildings and city environments to facilitate these factors and unfortunately many projects in the United States tend to be less social and less community oriented then in other parts of the world. This lack of social interaction in large part accounts for why the US, the world’s richest country, is not also the happiest. Some of the top 5 happiest countries for example, Denmark and The Netherlands are actually socialist societies. Their political policies are constructed to foster a better sense of community and a high degree of social equality. Countries like these are deeply rooted in community and are happier because of it. However, in America, where currency is king, social activities and public gathering space seem to be diminishing, losing out to the highest bidder. Buildings and exterior spaces are built to the bottom line and it shows. Public gathering spaces are diminishing to the greed of developers trying to make a buck regardless of how it effects the community. 5
(1)Jeffrey D. Sachs: Director, The Earth Institute, Columbia University in the World Happiness Report (2) John F. Helliwell: Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of British Columbia. World Happiness Report Shaun White. Alexanderplatz. Berlin. Germany
“GNP by itself does not promote happiness”1 Top 10 Happiest Countries 1. Denmark 2. Finland 3. Norway 4. Netherlands 5. Canada 6. Switzerland 7. Sweden 8. New Zealand 9. Australia 10. Ireland
Top 10 GNP 1. United States 2. China 3. Japan 4. Germany 5. France 6. United Kingdom 7. Italy 8. Brazil 9. India 10. Canada
11. United States
“The sources of individual happiness include the set of social interactions through which individuals are interconnected.”
THIRD PLACE “In the absence of informal public life, living becomes more expensive. Where the means and facilities for relaxation and leisure are not publicly shared, they become the objects of private ownership and consumption.” 1 Privately owned spaces are becoming much more common and it is bringing our community interaction to an all time low. A social activity like for instance, skateboarding is banned from not only streets but whole towns. In fact it is almost never allowed on or around buildings and is never designed for. This privatizing attitude is rampant in the United States culture and it is crippling the possibility of creating a vibrant community. The US has a lack of engaging public space which in turn makes its citizens more private. Urban Sociologist, Ray Oldenburg understands this privatization and describes it as a lack of “third place”. The term, coined by Oldenburg refers to the third place you feel comfortable to live in after your home and your work, the first and second places. The first two are imbedded into our daily lives but the third place is where we have a choice.
(1) Ray Oldenburg. Professor Emeritus Department of Sociology University of West Florida. Project for Public Spaces (2) Shaun White. Alexanderplatz. Berlin. Germany
THIRD PLACE The third place can range from bars to plazas to coffee shops and that idea is that they are public gathering spaces designed for people to feel comfortable and hopefully engage in community interaction. While many formally beautiful buildings and spaces are being developed, a poor understanding of how people will socially interact with them is crippling. An increase in privatization of public space and a lack of engaging social space and “third place” is a major contributing factor to the flat line of social happiness in the United States. While GNP or general affluence is obviously a factor, social trust, interaction and a sense of community play key roles in improving happiness. A sense of community is not developed over night and there are many factors that contribute to it. First, there are many types and scales of communities, which are constantly interacting. These different levels of community need to be addressed in different ways, a general understanding of community is not enough. With our increasingly private home lives, it is important to understand how communities interact internally as well as how communities interact with other communities. An exploration of “third place” is essential to the creation of a community atmosphere on an internal, personal scale. Internally, a third place acts to unify local neighborhoods and communities by giving people a place to engage each other. Third place also gives community members a place to feel safe and comfortable and build strong community bonds.
(3) Kruezburg Coffee Shop, San luis Obispo, CA (4) Lee Hardy, Imagine Better Biking. Eastown.org
THIRD PLACE (5) Duhigg, Charles. The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New York: Random House, 2012. (6) Barceloneta Beach, Barcelona. Spain
Externally, the third place can act as an entry point into that community, a place where people from other communities can get information, get acquainted and feel welcomed to a previously unknown neighborhood. This is essential to the growth and prosperity of not only one but also both communities involved. Cities and towns are begging for places for people to gather easily, inexpensively, regularly and pleasurably. Creating informal public gathering spaces, or alternatives to the private TV lifestyle, engages our community and gives people the option to live together outside of the home. America has become too comfortable with its private lives and needs to break out of that comfort zone because, in the words of Charles Duhigg
“Greatness happens outside your comfort zone.” 5 Because the bay area has grown synonymous with innovation and greatness it would be foolish to hinder this trend. Transforming the privatized community to a more public engaging community not only makes people happier but also increases innovation and greatness. Through exploration of our social senses in “third places” and breaking out of our comfort zones by reestablishing programmatic norms, we can build engaging communities and increase the overall level of life satisfaction and in turn happiness and success of the community.
SOCIAL SENSES By exploring interaction through the social senses of vision, touch and hearing a project has potential to connect communities in many unexpected ways. A combination of visual, auditory and physical interaction elevates the potential for a project to move the user and create community in new and exciting ways. To begin, vision is our favored sense and it is typically how we first interact with something. It is also how we recognize buildings outside of physically being their, for instance with images online. The initial reaction is important because it sets the mood for the entire experience. For this reason the form of the building or space is very important for grabbing the users attention. The auditory experience is also important when it comes to setting the mood. To understand its importance, think about having dinner at a restaurant that is way too loud. The experience of the meal can be completely changed. The noise level directly relates to how social the space is, quite for a more intimate meal and loud for a social occasion. One can also think about a concert and how the music has the potential to unite thousands of people. Music is very powerful in this way should not be ignored. For these and many other reasons, a multitude of different noise levels is essential to community interaction on different levels. There is a need for quite intimate spaces for people to feel close and comfortable and there is also a need for louder public spaces for people to feel part of a larger community.
(1) Music Wallpaper 9754. imagesci. com
SOCIAL SENSES (2) Joe Copeland. trueendeavorsblog.com (3) Peter Zumthor, A Way of Looking at Things. Thinking Architecture.
“Architecture has its own realm. It has a special relationship with life. I do not think of it primarily as either a message or a symbol but as an envelope and background for life... for the concentration of work, for the silence of sleep” 1 While being moved by the sensual qualities of a space can be internal and private, the collective experience of a space brings people together. A shared experience links people together in a way that can build trust and a sense of community. This sense is trust and community is exemplified in the idea of “third places”. By having that trust and sense of community, people are able to feel comfortable to establish there own third place in the community, outside of their home and work. Also creating spaces that are designed for interaction can give its users a better sense of community and elevate their level of happiness.
THE ICON The reference to an iconic site by the CEO of the team introduces a challenge to the project unlike the rest. To create an icon, a project must not only look visually stunning, but it must surpass expectations and push the boundaries of innovation and technology. True icons of the past have been major feats of architecture and have innovated past the current level of technology. The Pyramids at Giza were the largest construction ever created at the time and were unimaginable for the level of technology available. The Eiffel tower was created as the largest steel tower in the world at the time and was considered an incredible engineering feat. The Sydney Opera House utilized engineerings firm Arup to structurally analyze the iconic shells of the project which developed a new method of understanding complex geometry. All of these projects pushed the boundaries of what was possible and because of that they have become iconic projects. They were also the first or the best of the time demonstrating that iconicism is also about timing. Even though initial reactions to the projects might not have been the best, it was simply because they were new and the community had never seen something like it before. The new and awe inspiring quality of the projects are a major part of why these projects are iconic and if a project is going to be iconic it needs to have those qualities. Where many project fall short of iconic is in their repetition of other well known projects. When a project has similar qualities to other icons, it brings the iconic qualities of both projects down to a level of symbolism. Instead of knowing a building as a icon you understand that style in a symbolic way similar to the colonnade in ancient Rome. The colonnade may have been iconic when it was first used but not it is simply a symbol of ancient Rome. In other words, it doesn’t remind you of a certain project, it is symbolic of that style. 19
(1) The Syndey Opera House. Architect: Jørn Utzon Structrual Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners (2) Great Pyramids of Giza Khufu’s Horizon Constucted: 2560-2540 BC
Introspection SELF-ORGANIZING ENTITIES The introspection charrette began with an investigation of Swarm Theory and Self Organizing systems. Using the Locust plug-in for Grasshopper I was able to create a system of self-organizing entities roughly contained within a boundary condition.
â€œSelf-organization is a process where some form
of global order or coordination arises out of the local interactions between the components of an initially disordered systemâ€? 1 By giving the entities 3 simple swarm theory parameters, they are able to self organize into an infinite number of different permutations. The first parameter is to wander which means the entities will wander in random directions until they hit the boundary condition. The second condition is to avoid which means the entities will avoid certain points based on the entities distance from them. The third and final parameter was to seek which means the entities have an attraction force to certain points based their distance from those points. Using these 3 parameters or forces a group of entities is able to self organize. Because the entities always begin with random wandering, the system will never produce the same formal iteration.
(1) Stuart Kauffman (1993), Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution Oxford University Press. (2) Self-Organizing permutation 1. Outside the box
SELF-ORGANIZING ENTITIES (2) Self-Organizing permutation 2. Explore the limits if the box. (3) Self-Organizing permutation 3. Localized exploration.
By recording the location of the entities every 2 seconds and interpolating those recorded points I was able to create a visual history of the entities self-organizing. To portray the idea that this system will never produce the same formal iteration I developed 3 different iterations exemplifying 3 different understandings of containment. The first iteration is roughly held by the boundary and the entities break the boundary condition. The second iteration explores within the boundary condition to its extents. The third iteration stays to one end of the boundary condition and doesnâ€™t explore much at all. The 3 iterations demonstrate how initial random acts of self-organizing systems have the potential to develop completely different forms.
PAINTINGS & CARVINGS Utilizing the forms developed using Swarm Theory, I created a series of paintings and carvings that attempt to abstract the self organizing entitites. The blue piece is 3 color layered painting. By applying a layer, letting it dry and applying another layer you can achieve layers that dont blend together. Then by carving away at the paint you can see the different layered colors that are hidden below. The predominantly grey piece is artists Linoleum, carved to make a stamp. The stamps were not as successfull as the Linoleum itself. The color is left over from the failed stamping process. The tall piece is an acrylic painting on a semi-transparent piece of acrylic found in a junk yard. The predominantly yellow piece is a watercolor. The different media adds to the infinite possibilities that self-organizing systems can produce.
(1) Artists linoleum carving University Press. (2) Acrylic Painting (2) Watercolor Painting (2) Layered Painting Carving
FORM ANALOGUE [PARAMETRIC BALANCE]
FORM ANALOGUE [PARAMETRIC BALANCE] Using the introspection paintings as a starting point, the form analogue is a three dimensional exploration of the potential of form finding using self-organizing systems. The problem with exploring self organizing systems and swarm theory in architecture is that is doesn’t always directly relate to something tangible. At some point the designer needs to abstract these theories and bring them closer to the realm of architecture.
(1) Material selection line drawing perspective University Press. (2) Side perspective (2) Back perspective
Using the self-organizing system that I developed for the paintings I was able to develop a one-of-a-kind three dimensional form. By abstracting the recorded history of the self organizing entities I was able to create an infinite number of swooping interpolated curves. Using my learned designers intuition I was able to choose the iterations that had the most potential for a form I was looking for. By using the “patch” command in rhino I was able to create surfaces out of any number of curves. I could use one curve or I could use all the curves and a new surface would come of each. This new system developed a whole new batch of iterations and the potential for three dimensional surface exploration. Rockite Cement
1/16” laser cut Basswood
FORM ANALOGUE [PARAMETRIC BALANCE] Because this is architecture, not art, I wanted to figure out a system for this surface in physical form. I also wanted to use the latest digital fabrication technologies in this systematic approach. After much research, I decided to attempt develop a friction fit waffle structure using Grasshopper for Rhino. This is a slotting system of parts that requires no adhesive or hardware to hold together. When choosing the materials to work with, I wanted something warm with a more human quality to it. Many of the digitally fabricated projects today seem cold and lack a level of humanity. This lead me to choose wood, a warm material that helps bring a human quality to this digitally fabricated form. After developing this system in grasshopper, I realized that this form by itself was not quite enough. The form was very cloud like and interesting but it needed another element to ground it in reality. Because the form was so light and airy feeling, it needed something bold and solid to hold it down and give it balance. I chose a strong solid element made of concrete to give it the balance it needed. The concrete element was designed to carry the weight of the wood and hold up the entire structure. It was also designed to friction fit into the wood waffle system. This worked flawlessly on the computer however in reality the weight of the “cloud” was slightly off balance and a small amount of glue was needed to keep the wood and concrete together in the correct form.
Let’s go bigger
SITE ANALOGUE [TOWERS IN THE CLOUD]
1.16 1.34 2.50 0.50
PLYWOOD [DIGITAL FABRICATION] 8’
a10 a5 a15.1
a14.1 a14 a3
B1 B2, B2.1 B3, B3.1 B4 B5 B6 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14, B14.1 B15, B15.1 B16 B17 B18 B19 B20, B20.1 B21, B21.1
A1 A2 A3, A3.1 A4, A4.1 A5 A6 A8 A9 A10 A11, A11.1 A12, A12.1 A13, A13.1 A14, A14.1 A15.1 38
Case Studies CASE STUDY [Metropol Sevilla] Architect: J. MAYER H. Architects Location: Sevilla, Spain Year:2004-2011 Program: Plaza, Archeological site, Farmers market, Elevated plaza, Multiple Bars and Restaurants “ The Metropol Parasol actually is a device for revitalising the Plaza de la Encarnación, for years used as a parking lot and seen as a dead spot between more popular tourist destinations in the city. “
CASE STUDY [Kap 686 Skatepark] Architect: Metrobox Architekten Location: Cologne, germany Year:2011 Program: Public Skate Park â€œPeople flow through the built-up urban landscape, each like a water droplet in a river. The skaters have made this flow of people into a game. Quiet, long drawn-out stretches with large radiuses alternating with jumping at obstacles, like the flowing and spraying of water in a river. â€œ
CASE STUDY [Barclay’s Center] Architect: AECOM & SHoP Architects Location: Brooklyn, New York Year:2004-2012 Program: Basketball Arena/Concert Hall/ Ice Hockey Rink, Concessions, Box Office, Restaurant, 4 Clubs, Practice Court “ Its rusted, reddish-brown exterior consists of 12,000 grainy weathered-steel panels, each one a little different, devised by the latest computer modeling: a digital-age extrusion of hard-core industrial glamour. ”
CASE STUDY [Oslo Opera House] Architect: Snohetta Location: Bjorvika, Oslo, Norway Year:204-2007 Program: Opera House The conceptual basis of the competition, and the final building, is a combination of three elements – The wave wall, the factory and the carpet. “The wave wall” The dividing line between the ground ‘here’ and the water ‘there’is both a real and a symbolic threshold. This threshold is realised as a large wall on the line of the meeting between land and sea, Norway and the world, art and everyday life. This is the threshold where the public meet the art. “The Factory” A detailed brief was developed as a basis for the competition. Snøhetta proposed that the production facitities of the operahouse should be realised as a self contained, rationally planned ‘factory’. This factory should be both functional and flexible during the planning phase as well as in later use. “The Carpet” The concept of togetherness, joint ownership, easy and open access for all. To achieve a monumentality based on these notions we wished to make the opera accessible in the widest possible sense, by laying out a ‘carpet’ of horizontal and sloping surfaces on top of the building. This carpet has been given an articulated form, related to the cityscape. Monumentality is achieved through horizontal extension and not verticality.
Site Analysis CONTEXT [SAN FRANCISCO, CA]
CONTEXT [PEIR 30/32]
1. 5 Miles
TRANSPORTATION [FERRY & MUNI]
80X 82X Bus T Metro
6 within 0.5 miles 28 within 1.0 mile 107 within 1.5 miles
1. YMCA 2. YMCA 3. YMCA Embarcadero
1. John Yehall Chin Elementary School 2. Chinese Education Center Elementary School 3.Gordon J Lau Elementary School 4. Chinese Central High School 5. Notre Dame Des Victoires School 6. Kumon Math And Reading Center 7. Enterprise For High School Students 8. KIPP: Knowledge Is Power Program 9. Youth Chance High School 10. Fec Middle School
2 3 2 4
1 9 3
PSA_31 Public Surface Arena
+ The Hills of San Francisco
+ The Bay Area Fog
Bridge Connections of the Bay
= The Technology Hub
Inspired by the San Francisco and its surrounding cities, PSA_31 aims to translate the tangeble and intangle aspects of the bay area that make it what it is. From the hills of San Francisco, to the fog, to the bridges that connect the bay area to the technology hub that it has become, PSA_31 delivers a form that is truely bay area born.
CONCEPT [PUBLIC SPACE] A new type of public space designed around the idea of “Our” space rather then “My” space depends on 4 key aspects or ingredients: Access and Linkages, Uses and Activities, Comfort and Image and Sociability.
+ Access & Linkages
Access & Linkages
+ Uses & Actvities
Uses & Activities
+ Comfort & Image
Comfort & Image
CONCEPT [PUBLIC SPACE] 1 Access & Linkages Measurables: Traffic data, Transit usage, Pedestrian activity, Parking usage patterns Intangibles: Proximity, Connections, Readability, Walkability, Convenience, Accessibility 2 Uses & Activities Measurables: Local business ownership, Land-use patterns, property values, rent levels Intangibles: Fun, Active, Vital, Special, Real, Useful, Indigenous, Celebratory, Sustainable 3 Comfort & Image Measurables: Crime statistics, Sanitation rating, Building conditions, Environmental data Intangibles: Safe, Clean, Green, Walkable, Sittable, Spiritual, Charming, Attractive, Historic 4 Sociability Measurables: Number of women, chidren & elderly, Social Networks Evening use, Street life Intangibles: Diverse, Stewardship, Cooperative, Neighborly, Pride, Friendly, Interactive, Welcoming
OUR PUBLIC SPACE [FEATURES]
Extends the pedestrian waterfront access by 1/2 mile
Access to Concourse Level
Brings people to the Warriors arena as well as the YMCA youth arena
Main Access Slope
Secondary Access Slope
The public plaza is divided into pedestrian areas, skate areas and shared areas. This improves public interaction without forcing any unwanted interaction.
Restaurants & Retail
To further active the plaza, it has been lined with local retaurants and retail. This will activate the plaza in the throughout the day & night.
OUR PUBLIC SPACE [FEATURES]
The public surface connects the site with new BART station, allows access to the Sky Room and elvates the public plaza.
The Embarcadero consists of 3 levels of transportation, the sidewalk, the street and the Muni public transportation system.
Street (Car & Buse trafďŹ c)
Muni (Public Transit)
1 Warrior’s Arena 2 YMCA Youth Arena 3 Public Plaza 4 Skate Plaza 5 New Bart Station/ Market 6 Restaurants & Retail 7 Red’s Java House 8 Surface Access 9 Underground Service Area 10 Special Service Parking
1 4 9
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
100 FT. 200 FT.
1 Warrior’s Arena 2 YMCA Youth Arena 3 Public Plaza 4 Skate Plaza 5 New Bart Station/ Market 6 Restaurants & Retail 7 Concourse 8 Main Access Slope 9 Secondary Access Slope
CONCOURSE LEVEL PLAN
100 FT. 50 FT.
1 Warriorâ€™s Arena 2 YMCA Youth Arena 3 Public Plaza 4 Skate Plaza 5 New Bart Station/ Market 6 BART to Arena Bridge 7 Upper Level Concourse 8 Surface Access
1 4 6
3 DN DN
UPPER LEVEL PLAN
100 FT. 200 FT.
1 Public Elevated Surface 2 Sky Amphitheater 3 Public Plaza 4 Skate Plaza 5 New Bart Station/ Market 6 BART to Arena Bridge 7 Restaurants
6 4 3 1 5
100 FT. 50 FT.
DRAWINGS [SECTION & DETAILS] 1 Warrior’s Arena 2 Restaurants 3 New Bart Station/ Market 4 Sky Amphitheater
+43 FT. +25 FT.
100 FT. 50 FT.
LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE
18” x 6” GLUE LAM BEAM
ELEVATED PUBLIC PLAZA REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB
B2 D3 A2 C3
EXPLODED BUILDING DETAIL A4
LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE SKIN
GLUE LAM WAFFLE SYSTEM
CONCRETE PUBLIC SURFACE
GLASS AND STEEL FACADE SYSTEM
SITE MODEL [3D PRINT]
Extras THE PEOPLES BOOKSHELF Inspired by Bjarke Ingles Group’s design for the People’s Building in China, the people’s bookshelf is an exploration of simplicity and balance. The chinese character for people is Ren. If you catch the bookshelf at the right angle you just might see the Symbol. Designed using only one 4’x8’ sheet of plywood and 5 1”x2” pine posts, the project has a minimal impact on the environment. Also reclaimed plastic was used in the exploration of the shelf design.ty.
LANDSCAPE INTERVENTION [CLIFFHANGER]
WATERCOLORS (+ POETRY) POET TREES Poetries Poet Trees Look at all these Poet Trees’ yellow, orange and purple trees Lining the forest like families They stick together when times are hard Like a nerdy kid with a library card And the leaves on the trees in your yard But stop me now before I’m disbarred Poet tree’s are for everyone Sit back and watch like a home run Or engage and rage, like a ski run These tree’s that I’ve seen, weigh a metric ton This quarter is coming to the end of its run So come on everybody lets have some fun
TOWERS Reflections in the water make the towers seem taller shrouded by a cloud a wooden creepy crawler reminds me of my days growing up as a toddler In the bay area where I first became a scholar It reminds me of the fog surrounding all the buildings if only it connected the poeple from building to building it would be like a dream you could see through the ceiling it might look like a banana when its half way through peeling
I would like to give a special thanks to Tom Di Santo for all his advice and wisdom over the course of the year. This thesis wouldnâ€™t have come together without him.
DAVID SPITTLER ARCHITECTURAL THESIS: 2012-13 BACHELORS OF ARCHITECTURE CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY SAN LUIS OBISPO TOM DI SANTO, ADVISOR