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“The Gonzales Immortals” Commemorative Edition During a Gonzales City Council meeting in January, 2013, plans were announced for the annual Gonzales County Day at the State Capitol — and Council members were also apprised of an advisory from Land Commissioner Jerry Patterson querying Gonzales’ interest in taking part in the ceremonies surrounding the return of Travis’ famed “Victory or Death” letter to The Alamo. Of The Alamo’s 188 defenders, nearly one in four were from Gonzales. It was 32 men from Gonzales who responded to the Travis Letter, riding into the besieged mission in the pre-dawn hours of March 1, 1836 — the only reinforcements received by the embattled defenders. The response from the Gonzales community — where many residents are either directly descended from or related to the 41 men from Gonzales who died at The Alamo — was overwhelmingly enthusiastic. The Travis Letter returned to The Alamo on Feb. 27, and The Cannon newspaper was there to cover the event. We also asked for and received permission from the GLO to distribute copies of the special Immortal 32 Commemorative created to honor the men of Gonzales who died at The Alamo. Two days later, on March 1, The Cannon was again on-hand at very somber ceremonies to honor the nine original garrison members and the “Immortal 32” Gonzales Rangers of the Alamo Relief Force, and again received permission to distribute free copies of our Commemorative. As the name of each of the 41 men from Gonzales was read, a related member of the Gonzales delegation of more than 200 people present answered roll call with “Here!”


Salute to the

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Gonzales Immortals

The Cannon Thursday, February 28, 2013

Travis’ ‘Victory or Death’ Call for Aid

Martin’s Post-Script Since the above was written I heard a very heavy Cannonade during the whole day think there must have been an attack made upon the alamo We were short of Ammunition when I left Hurry on all the men you can in haste When I left there was but 150 determined to do or die tomorrow I leave for Bejar with what men I can raise and will be there Monday at an events Albert Martin Gonzales Feb. 25

Smithers’ Post-Script Nb...I hope Every one will Rendevu at gonzales as soon as possible as the Brave Solders are suffering do not deglect the powder. is very scarce and should not be delad one moment” L Smither

(front page) Commandancy of the Alamo-----Bejar Fby. 24th 1836 To the People of Texas & all Americans in the world-----Fellow citizens & compatriots-----I am besieged, by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna ----- I have sustained a continual Bombardment & cannonade for 24 hours & have not lost a man ----- The enemy has demanded a Surrender at discretion, otherwise, the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken ----- I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, & our flag still waves proudly from the wall ----- I shall never Surrender or retreat Then, I can on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism & every thing dear to the American character, to come to our aid,

(Second Page) with all dispatch ----- The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily & will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this can is neglected, I am deter mined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country ----- Victory or Death William Barret Travis Lt. Col. Comdt P. S. The lord is on our sideWhen the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn--We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels & got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves--Travis


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The Cannon • Gonzales Immortals Salute

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Gonzales supplied the only response to Travis’ famous appeal for aid About 4 PM on 23 Feb 1836, Launcelot Smithers left the Alamo and made the 76-mile ride to Gonzales where he announced the arrival of the Mexican army in San Antonio de Bexar with a note from Alamo Commander, Col. William B. Travis, to alcalde Andrew Ponton appealing for reinforcements. On the same day of arrival of the message, Acting Commissioner and Aide-de-Camp to the Provisional President of the Republic of Texas Byrd Lockhart completed the muster of 23 into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. The Gonzales Rangers were officially attached to Col. Travis’ command within the provisional Republican Army. That company, along with several other individuals, joined the Gonzales Alamo Relief Force on Feb. 24 and thereafter are often listed as members of the company even though no official muster roll is available. On Feb. 24, Smithers wrote from Gonzales: Gonzales, Feby, 24 1836, To all the Inhabitants of Texas: In a few words there is 2000 Mexican soldiers in Bexar, and 150 Americans in the Alamo. Sesma is at the head of them, and from the best accounts that can be obtained, they intend to show no quarter. If every man cannot turn out to a man every man in the Alamo will be murdered. They have not more than 8 or 10 days provisions. They say they will defend it or die on the gorund. Provisions, ammunition and Men, or you suffere your men to be murdered in the Fort. If you do not turn out Texas is gone. I left Bexar on the 23rd. at 4 P.M. By the Order of W.V. Travis. L. Smithers. Later that day, the passionate and alarming appeal of Colonel Travis in his own handwriting to all people of Texas and all Americans left the Alamo for Gonzales, carried by Captain Albert Martin, who first delivered it upon his arrival on the 25th to Smithers, who carried it on to San Felipe on the 27th. It is believed that Smithers may have left the original copy with Alcalde Ponton while moving on to other sites with ex tracts or copies. Ponton distributed copies or the essence of the letter to other muncipalities in Texas where broadsides and flyers were made for distribution as well as printing in the Materials used in this special commemorative have been freely borrowed and adapted from several sources with the deepest appreciation, including the Sons of DeWitt Colony archive online at Texas A&M University; the Handbook of Texas online; the Daughters of the Republic of Texas; the Texas State Archives; and the Gonzales Memorial Museum. The Cannon thanks all these organizations for their cooperation and invaluable access.

George C. Kimble of the Gonzales Rangers. The senior officer accompanying the relief force was courier Capt. Albert Martin who had delivered the appeal to both Smithers and Gonzales. The force was guided by Alamo courier John W. Smith, a resident of San Antonio de Bexar. According to Dr. John Sutherland, the group consisted of 25 men who left Gonzales and increased to 32 with those who joined along the way, in particular near Cibola Creek. On Feb. 29, the group prepared to find a way into the Alamo through the surrounding Mexican forces. Dr. John Sutherland relates the story that “On reaching the suburbs of the city they were approached by a man on horseback who asked in Marker honoring the “Immortal 32” English, ‘Do you wish to go into at the Gonzales Memorial Museum the fort, gentlemen?’ ‘Yes’ was the newspapers The Texas Republican reply. ‘Then follow me,’ said he, at and Telegraph and Register on 2 the same time turning his horse into the lead of the company. Smith Mar and 5 Mar, respectively. On the back of the letter, Capt. remarked, ‘Boys, it’s time to be after shooting that fellow,’ when he Martin penciled in Since the above was written I heard a put spurs to his horse, sprung into very heavy Cannonade during the whole the thicket, and was out of sight in day think there must have been an attack a moment, before a gun could be made upon the alamo We were short of got to bear on him.” After being shot at by Alamo ammunition when I left Hurry all the men you can in haste. Albert Martin (signed). sentries, the gates swung open When I left there was but 150 determined and the Gonzales force made their to do or die tomorrow I leave for Bejar dash into the fort at 3 a.m., Tueswith what men I can raise [illegible] at all day, March 1, 1836. The Gonzales Alamo Relief events [illegible] Col. Almonte is there the troops are under the Command of Gen. Force was the only organized force in Texas which effectively respondSeisma An additional note by Smithers ed without question to the appeals was handwritten sideways to the of Travis to aid their doomed colleagues in the mission. Some were above: Nb I hope that Every One will single men, but most were husRondevu at gonzales as soon poseble as the bands and fathers of large famiBrave Solders are suffering do not neglect lies. Concern for families short and this powder is very scarce and should not long term safety, loyalty to the be delad one moment L. Smither According to Dr. John Suther- Constitution of 1824 as Mexican land in his personal memoirs, The citizens, the hatred precipitated Fall of the Alamo, he also left the by their betrayal by the centralAlamo under order from Travis ista dictatorship of Santa Anna, between 3 and 4 p.m. on Feb. 23 the committment to Texas Indeand arrived in Gonzales at 4 p.m. pendence and suspicion that the on Wednesday, Feb. 24, with cou- Alamo might be a lost cause in the larger war of independence caused rier John W. Smith. Two earlier appeals from Travis great personal conflict in making to Col. Fannin at Goliad had re- the choice to join the Relief Force. Fathers and sons, some in their sulted in an aborted start toward San Antonio with his force of 350 teens, argued over who should go men when Fannin heard of the approach of Gen. Urrea’s army. He opted to plan to oppose Urrea’s force rather than respond to the Alamo. His delay led to his force being surrounded and taken prisoner on March 20. On direct orders from Santa Anna, Fannin’s surviving force was marched onto the open prairie at La Bahia (Goliad) on March 27 and massacred. Responding to Col. Travis’ appeals, the main contingent of the Gonzales Alamo Relief Force departed the town square of Gonzales at 2 p.m. Saturday, Feb. 27, led by commanding officer Lieutenant

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and who should remain with family (see King and Kent). Patriotic mothers and impending widows, some pregnant (Kimble) and one blind mother of multiple small children (Millsap), agonized, but consented and encouraged husbands to go to the aid of their neighbors. Of the members of the Gonzales Alamo Relief Force who can be clearly verified as DeWitt Colony residents, the oldest was Andrew Kent at age 44, 4 were over 40, 5 aged 31-40, 14 aged 21-30 and four (Fuqua, Gaston, Kellogg and King) were teenagers, the youngest of which was 16. San Antonio historian Charles Merritt Barnes related that “....One, a lad of but six teen, was the bravest of them all, for he fought after his weapo’s were useless. He died throttling an antagonist, not relaxing his grip on the latter’s throat even when death seized the boy. He and his foe died together ... they had to tear the boy’s hands from the throat of his assailant” when the bodies of the defenders and Mexican Army casualties were being separated for disposal. Records show at least 17 had been engaged in prior military engagements in service of Texas, primarily in the Battles of Gonzales, Concepcion and Bexar. Several more were couriers not present in the final moments of battle. By any estimate, participation of the DeWitt Colonists in the Battle of Gonzales and the Battles to remove the centralistas from San Antonio de Bexar, the ancient capital of Texas, culminating with the Battle of the Alamo was larger per resident than any other single municipality or district of Texas. Members of families of the Municipality of Gonzales, who comprised only about 4% of the total population of Texas, accounted for 20% of the casualties at the Alamo. Put another way, over 4% of the total population of the DeWitt Colony, among them some of their most productive landholders, ranchers and farmers as well as merchants and civic leaders, died in the Alamo.

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Thursday, February 28, 2013

The Cannon • Gonzales Immortals Salute

The Gonzales Memorial marker at The Alamo

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The Cannon • Gonzales Immortals Salute

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Gonzales Immortals: The Garrison

The following Gonzales men died defending the Alamo, were in the garrison when it became under siege, and died there with their colleagues from the Gonzales Alamo Relief Force which forced its way into the garrison through surrounding Mexican lines.

Daniel Bourne

Daniel Bourne, 26, born in 1810 in England, a resident of Gonzales and Private artilleryman in Capt. Carey’s Company. Bourne and two brothers came to America from England and Daniel went on to the DeWitt Colony. He was in Capt. Parrott’s artillery company and remained in Bexar in service of the company.

George Brown

George Brown, 35, born 1801 in England, a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Alamo garrison. He came to TX from Yazoo, YazooCo, MS.

Jerry C. Day

Jerry C. Day, 20, born 1816 in Missouri, was a Gonzales resident and Private rifleman in the Alamo garrison. He was the son of Jeremiah Day, a wagoner for the Texas army between 18361838 who signed the Goliad Declaration of Independence 20 Dec 1835. Son Jerry C. Day is referred to as Jeremiah C. Day in some records. Day participated in the Siege and Battle of Bexar in Dec 1835, was discharged from the service on 14 Jan 1836, but re-enlisted and joined the Alamo garrison. Service bounty of 320 acres was approved for his heirs 15 Oct 1845.

Almaron Dickinson

Almaron Dickinson (Dickerson) came to Texas from Tennessee. His exact birthplace and date are uncertain, one source says Pennsylvania, another Tennessee. Some sources list him as 26 when he died in the Alamo, others as 28 and still others as 36. He is said by one source to have been 21 when he married in TN in 1829. He was likely born between 1800 and 1810. Dickinson was a blacksmith, Mason and resident of Gonzales and artilleryman in the Alamo garrison. He and wife Susannah Wilkerson arrived in the DeWitt Colony in 1831 and received a league of land on the east bank of the San Marcos River below the Old Bexar Road in CaldwellCo on Callihan Creek, east of Plum Creek and current Lockhart. The Dickinsons are thought to

have arrived with a party which were part of the Tennessee-Texas Land Company contract which included many other prominent DeWitt Colonists, several of which received neighboring land grants. Dickinson also acquired property in inner Gonzales town in 1834 where he set up his blacksmith shop and went into partnership with George C. Kimble in a hat factory. Almeron Dickinson was among the 27 Gonzales men under Bart McClure who responded to an attack by Indians on traders at the Castleman place 15 miles west of Gonzales. Dickerson was among the original 18 defenders of the Gonzales cannon and was in charge of the cannon during the confrontation. Dickinson was an aide to General Edward Burleson during the Siege of Bexar in early Dec 1835. After the battle his family joined him in Bexar where they set up residence in the Musquiz house on the southwest corner of Portero Street and the Main Plaza. When Mexican troops arrived in San Antonio on 23 Feb 1836, Dickinson moved the family into the Alamo from the Musquiz house. According to his surviving widow Susannah Dickinson who was present during the siege, near the end, Lt. Dickinson rushed into the chapel where she was hiding saying “Great God, Sue! The Mexicans are inside our walls! All is lost! If they spare you, love our child,” he kissed Susannah and returned to the battle where he died and his body was burned with the rest of the defenders. Some reports suggest that he left his Masonic apron with Susannah and instructed her to display it appropriately if it would aid her survival.

Andrew Duvault

Andrew Duvalt/Duvault, 32, born 1804 in Ireland, was a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in Capt. White’s infantry company. He came to TX from Missouri, joined the service on 28 Oct 1835, participated in the Siege of Bexar and became an infantryman in the Bexar Guards. He was in Gonzales after 2 Feb 1836 and enrolled during the muster of the Gonzales Rangers in Feb 1836. Whether he returned to the Alamo prior to entry of the Gonzales relief force or accompanied them to the Alamo is uncertain. Duvalt is not listed on the Gonzales memorial among the immortal 32, but as a Gonzales resident who died there. In 1854 his heirs received 320 acres bounty land for service.

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John Harris

John Harris, 23, born 1813 in KY, a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. John participated in the Siege of Bexar, received 640 acre bounty for the service and was a member of the Bexar Guards. He was at home in Gonzales when the Alamo was surrounded and was mustered into the Rangers on 23 Feb 1836. Similar to Duvalt, it is unclear whether he entered the Alamo with the Gonzales relief force or returned to the Alamo separately. He is listed in Citizens of the Republic of Texas as born 1813 in TN and the son of Sidon J. Harris. In Alamo Legacy, author Ron Jackson relates a family legend from a descendant of Siden B. Harris that says that Sideon B. Harris was an uncle of Alamo Defender John Harris. In this account, Harris was a cousin of Davy Crockett who came to Texas with him as a member of the Tennessee Mounted Volunteers.

William J. Lightfoot

William J. Lightfoot, is most commonly listed in Alamo biographies as 25, born 1811 in VA, a resident of Gonzales and 3rd Corporal in Capt. Carey’s artillery. He participated in the Siege of Bexar in the same unit. A Lightfoot was listed as 3rd Corporal on the roster of the Alamo garrison under Lt. Col. James Clinton Neill before he left the Alamo command on 14 Feb 1836. Some sources erroneously suggest that Lightfoot was the son of Elijah and Rebecca Ligon Lightfoot. According to Joe Lee (HCR 62, Box 14, Evant, TX 76525), Elijah Lightfoot was born 28 Oct 1810, married Rebecca Ligon on 11 Oct 1831 and died in Pittsburg,Tex on 12 July 1891. Lightfoot researchers suspect that William J. Lightfoot and John William Lightfoot are the same person and a brother of brothers William Webster, Wilson T. and Henry L. Lightfoot who served in the Texas Revolution including the Battle of San Jacinto. Wilson T. Lightfoot was the executor of Alamo Defender William Lightfoot’s estate. Brothers John William and Wilson T. Lightfoot were in Austins second colony in current Bastrop County in 1830 while their brother Elijah came to Texas much later. According to descendant Cynthia Orth, family bible record indicates that John William Lightfoot was born 8 Sep 1805. His parents, father named Henry Taylor Lightfoot, were in Washington or MercerCo, KY at the time. Wilson T. Lightfoot married Sara Scott in Ft.

BendCo, TX in 1840. His widow married David Welch Brydson/Bryson 29 Jan 1852 and eventually moved to WashingtonCo. TX.

Marcus E. Sewell

Marcus E. Sewell, 31, born in England in 1805, a shoemaker, resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. It is believed he entered the Alamo on 1 Mar 1836 as part of the relief force, although he may have been in the garrison before the beginning of the siege. Sewell is not listed among the original immortal 32 on the memorial to the Gonzales relief force, but is listed among Gonzales residents who died in the Alamo.

William D. Sutherland

William DePriest Sutherland, 17, was born 10 Aug 1818. Some records indicate he was born in Alabama where he is thought to have lived with his uncle in Tuscumbia after his parents left for Texas in 1830. However, according to researcher Don Ricketts of Danville, VA, he was born in AndersonCo, Tennessee (near Knoxville) where his grandfather John Sutherland operated a ferry over the Clinch River. This John was one of the first Trustees for the Town of Danville, Virginia. During the 1820’s some of the family moved to Alabama and then to Texas. William DePriest Sutherland was named for Mary DePriest Sutherlin (frequently spelled this way in Virginia). Sutherland was in Texas by 1835. He was a private in the Alamo garrison and died there. Although a resident of the Navidad River in current JacksonCo and not within the DeWitt Colony per se, because of proximity he and the Sutherland family interacted more with DeWitt Colonists and its main settlement Gonzales than the Austin Colony settlements at San Felipe and near the coast. William was the son of George and Frances Menefree Sutherland and nephew of John Sutherland, who was a courier and surgeon for the Alamo garrison. William Sutherland is thought to have joined his relatives in Texas after attending LaGrange College in Tuscumbia, AL where he remained after his parents left for Texas. He and his father attended the meeting at Millican’s Gin on 17 Jul 1835 which called for resistance to the dictatorship of Santa Anna.

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Thursday, February 28, 2013

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The Cannon • Gonzales Immortals Salute

Gonzales Immortals: The Gonzales Rangers

Isaac G. Baker

“At dawn on the first of March, 1836, Capt. Albert Martin, with 32 men Isaac G. Baker, 21, was born 15 (himself included) from Gonzales and DeWitt’s Colony, passed the lines Sep 1814, probably in Lawrence of Santa Anna and entered the walls of the Alamo, never more to leave County, Alabama. He was a Private them. These men, chiefly husbands and fathers, owning their own homes, in the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. According voluntarily organized and passed through the lines of an enemy four to to land records, he arrived single six thousand strong, to join 150 of their countrymen and neighbors, in a in the DeWitt Colony 13 Aug 1830 fortress doomed to destruction. Does American history, or any history, and received title to a quarter si- ancient or modern, furnish a parallel to such heroism? ... They willingly tio of land on the Guadalupe River entered the beleaguered walls of the Alamo, to swell the little band under in northwest Guadalupe County. He also owned 4 lots in the west Travis, resolved ‘never to surrender or retreat.’ In after many years it outer town Gonzales between the was my privilege to personally know and live near many of their widows Guadalupe and San Marcos Rivers and little ones and to see the latter grow into sterling manhood and pure in the outer Gonzales town tract womanhood. I never met or passed one without involuntarily asking upon near those owned by his father Mo- him or her the blessings of that God who gave the final victory to Texas.” ses Baker and brother John Baker. —John Henry Brown in History of Texas On the Gonzales County Tax rolls of 1839, J.D. Clements (husband of Rachel Baker), brother-in-law and son-in-law, respectively, of Isaac Baker and Moses Baker is listed as administrator of their estates. Various historical entries vary in respect to the age of Isaac Baker. The entry in his brother John Baker’s journal giving Isaac Baker’s birthdate as 15 Sep 1814 notes that he fell in the Alamo fighting in the cause of Texas 6 Mar 1836 at “age 20 years, 6 months and seven days.” If the birthdate is correct, the calculation should have been “21 years, 6 months, 22 days.” If birthdates and land records concerning Isaac Baker’s arrival are correct, he would have been under 16 years old at the time of his arrival prior to that of his parents. This date would place him at age 17 when he received title to his land grant in 1832. Heirs of Isaac Baker received bounty warrant 4038 for 1920 acres in DeWittCo for service 24 Feb to his death on 6 Mar 1836 and donation certificate 451 for 640 acres in GonzalesCo for having fallen in the Alamo.

John Cain

John Cain/Cane/Kane, 34, was born in PA. He was a Private and artilleryman in Captain Carey’s Company. He also owned 2 or 3 lots in inner Gonzales town. He took part in the Battle of Bexar and received a land certificate for 640 acres. John Kane was a voter in Gonzales for delegates to the independence consultation of 1835 in San Felipe. He was a part of the Alamo garrison, was at his home in Gonzales when the Alamo was surrounded and returned to his post with the Gonzales Rangers.

George W. Cottle

George Washington Cottle, 25, was born in 1811 (some records say 1798) in Hurricane Twp, LincolnCo, MO and a member of the Gonzales Rangers. He was granted a league of land on Tejocotes Creek and the La Vaca River 28 miles from Gonzales in Fayette County near where current Gonzales, Lavaca and Fayette County lines come together (near David Burket’s League). On his league are some of the headwaters of the Lavaca River. The Cottle family owned multiple properties in the inner and outer Gonzales town tract. They had a home at the

corner of St. Louis and St. John Streets. He came to the DeWitt Colony with parents Jonathan and Margaret Cottle from MO on 6 Jul 1829 together with sister and brother Louisa and Almond. His uncle Isaac Cottle (m. Mary Ann Williams) and family also emigrated to the DeWitt Colony where they received a league of land east of Gonzales in Mary Ann Williams name just north of the land granted to Mary Ann’s brother, Allam B. Williams. George Washington Cottle married their daughter, his cousin, Eliza, on 7 Nov 1830. They had a daughter Melzina and four months later the marriage was annulled by bond signed by George Washington, Eliza and Eliza’s nex t husband, James Gibson. George Washington married second Nancy Curtis Oliver on 21 Jun 1835 according to GonzalesCo marriage records. They had twin boys born after his death at the Alamo.

David P. Cummings

David P. Cummings, 27, was a surveyor by trade born in Lewiston, MifflinCo PA. Not a permanent resident of Gonzales, he came to TX by boat from New Orleans in Dec 1835 and went by foot to San Felipe where he sold a rifle for $30. He was the son of David and Elizabeth Cathers Cummings of Harrisburg, PA who claimed to be friends of Sam Houston. David Cummings, a Harrisburg canalman sent a case of rifles with his son to the TX cause. He traveled to Gonzales and then Bexar where he joined the Alamo garrison in Jan or Feb 1836. While surveying land on the Cibolo Creek, he was met by the Gonzales Ranger force and entered the Alamo with them. He was cousin to John Purdy Reynolds who died in the Alamo with him.

Squire Damon

Squire Damon (Daymon), 28, was from Tennessee and a Private artilleryman in Captain Carey’s Company. He took part in the Battle of Bexar and remained there under Carey. After 2 Feb 1836, he went to his home in Gonzales where he joined the relief force.

Jacob C. Darst

Jacob C. Darst, 42, was a farmer born 22 Dec 1793 in WoodfordCo,

KY, a Private in the Gonzales Rangers and son of David and Rosetta Holman Darst. David Darst was born in ShenandoahCo, VA 18 Dec 1757 and died in St. Charles Co, MO on 2 Dec 1826. Darst married Rosetta Holman, who was born in Maryland about 1763 on 4 Jan 1784. Rosetta Holman was the daughter of Henry Holman who was killed in WoodfordCo, KY by indians in 1789. They had 7 children, one of whom was Jacob Darst. Darst’s Bottom in St. CharlesCo, MO was named for the family. Jacob Darst left MontgomeryCo, MO with two of their nine children Jacob and Abraham in 1830 and according to land records arrived in the DeWitt Colony 10 Jan 1831. Jacob Darst first married Elizabeth Bryan (17961820) on 25 Mar 1813 in CharlesCo, MO. Elizabeth Bryan’s father David Bryan (1757-1837) was a first cousin of Rebecca Bryan Boone (1739-1813), wife of Daniel Boone. Jacob and Elizabeth Bryan Darst had a daughter Nancy Darst. Nancy married Cyrus Crosby and they had a daughter Mary. Nancy and an infant child were captured by Comanches in their raid on the coast in 1840 and her baby’s brains dashed out because it refused to stop crying. Nancy Darst Crosby was later killed by her captors during their defeat at the Battle of Plum Creek.

John Davis

John Davis was a Private and rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. A John Davis who arrived in the DeWitt Colony in 1830 received title to one quarter sitio as a single men on the west bank of the Lavaca River between subsequent towns of Hallettsville and Petersburg on 28 Oct 1831. Lack of clarity and controversy surrounds the identity of John Davis in DeWitt Colony records of which there were clearly more than one individual. A John Davis was described by author A.J. Sowell in Indian Fighters of Texas as an Indian fighter who left Kentucky and a twin brother as a teen. Alamo defender John Davis has been confused with Alamo defender, John Gaston, whose stepfather was George Washington Davis of Cuero Creek and who may have used the surname Davis at some time. Most researchers believe that the John Davis who died in the Al-

amo is distinct. A John Davis was a voter in the election for delegates from Gonzales to the Texas Consultation of 1835 and also in Capt. Gibson Kuykendall’s Company in the rear guard of Houston’s Army camped at Harrisburg during the Battle of San Jacinto. The heirs of the John Davis who was killed in the Alamo received tracts of 1920 and 640 acres in Erath County for his service.

William Dearduff

William Dearduff, b. about 1811, 25 or older, arrived single from Tennessee 20 Mar 1830 and received title for one fourth sitio in the DeWitt Colony on 5 Nov 1831 with arrival date on 20 Mar 1830. His grant was on Sandies Creek north of current Cuero. He owned four lots, a block, in the northwest outer Gonzales tract near the San Marcos River. Dearduff was a private in Robert McAlpin Williamson’s Rangers at one time and joined the Gonzales Rangers on 24 Feb 1836. He was the son of Henry and Edna Thornhill Dearduff of GreeneCo, OH. Edna Thornhill was the daughter of William Thornhill, an officer in the Revolutionary War from Virginia. His sister Elizabeth Dearduff George Rowe petitioned the probate court of Gonzales on 25 Jun 1838 for administration of the estate of her late former husband James George and brother William Dearduff. She collected $12.50 backpay for service.

Charles Despallier

Charles Despallier, 24, born 1812 in LA with residence in Rapides Parish, was a Private rifleman, raider and courier. Charles was the second son of Frenchman from Natchitoches, Bernardo Martin Despallier and his wife Maria Candida Grande. His older brother, Blaz P. Despallier fought in the Siege of Bexar, was wounded and died of cholera shortly after. Bernardo Despallier received a military appointment from Louisiana Governor Carondelet in 1794 and moved from New Orleans to Nacogdoches where he met and married wife Candida Grande. They were betrayed by representatives posing as deserters of Spanish Governer Salcedo on the road outside San Antonio, captured and executed. He was a companion of James Bowie mentioned in a letter to James B. Miller in Nacogdoches from Bowie on 22 Jun 1835 at Labaca Rutches Plantation, In a letter from Sam Houston from Gonzales 13 Mar 1836 to H. Raguet in Nacogdoches reporting on the Alamo defeat, Houston mentions the now controversial intelligence that “our friend Bowie, as is now understood, unable to get out of bed, shot himself as the soldiers approached it. Despalier, Parker, and others, when all hope was lost followed his example. Travis, ‘tis said, rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, stabbed himself.”

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The Cannon • Gonzales Immortals Salute

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Gonzales Immortals: The Gonzales Rangers

William Fishbaugh

William Fishbaugh/Fitzbaugh/Fishbach/Fishbaigh was a rifleman in the Gonzales Ranging Company listed from AL on the Alamo Memorials. He was a member of Major Robert McAlpin (“Three-legged Willie”) Williamson’s Ranging Company while stationed in Gonzales and volunteered to join Travis’ command on 24 Feb 1836. A William Fishbaugh was listed as a deserter as of 23 Nov 1834 from Co B, 3rd US Army Infantry. He was a frequent customer of Joseph Martin’s store between 19 Mar and 1 Oct 1835. Items purchased on credit and for which his estate paid off with interest in 1841 from the ledgers of Joseph Martin give a glimpse into his lifestyle. In March for $11.75, he bought a pair of pantaloons, roundabout coat, shoes, shirt, hat, two handkerchiefs, suspenders and a pound of tobacco. Early April he bought shoes and a vest for $1.12 and early May another pound of tobacco, 2 pairs of shoes, socks, side combs and four scains of thread for $5.37. Fishbaugh was a voter for the representative from Gonzales to the Consultation of 1835.

John Flanders

John Flanders/Flandres, 36, was born 1800 in NH (memorials say MA), arrived in Texas in 1832 and at one time a resident of the Austin Colony. He was a Private in the Gonzales Rangers. In 1839 his estate was certified to receive one third league in Harrisburg County on Carpenter’s Bayou, a branch of Buffalo Bayou as bounty for service by the Republic of Texas, the tract was bought for $120 by a W.D.C. Harris of Houston from administrator of the Flanders estate, Allen Vince. In 1851, Flanders heirs received an additional 1920 acres of land “for having fallen with Travis in the Alamo.”

Dolphin Ward Floyd

Dolphin Ward Floyd, 32, born 6 Mar 1804 (some records say 1807) in NashCo NC, a farmer and resident of Gonzales, member of the Gonzales Rangers who came to the DeWitt Colony in 1832 or 1833 from Alabama. Floyd purchased lots 3 and 4 in block 16 of inner Gonzales town on St. Michael St. and four lots south of East Avenue in outer town east of Water St. on 24 Dec 1833. He was the son of Thomas Penuel and Mary Sarah Beckwith Floyd. He had a sister Sarah and brothers John, Penuel and Thomas B. in AL who had lost contact until a letter from Thomas B. reached Dolphin Floyd’s remarried widow, Esther Berry House Floyd Clark in 1855. Floyd married widow Esther Berry House (1808-1870) in Gonzales on 26 Apr 1832. She was the daughter of one of the earliest residents of DeWitt Colony, Francis Berry (1760-1853) who came with a family of six from MO in 1825. They had children John W. Floyd and Elizabeth Whitfield Floyd (m. William Kilpatrick Hargis), the latter born on 16 Apr after Dolphin Floyd’s death while the family was fleeing east on the Runaway Scrape. Widow Esther Berry House Floyd later married Capt. John Clark of Kentucky in 1838 who was listed as agent for Dolphin Floyd and Isaac House, both deceased husbands of his wife Esther on the Gonzales Tax Rolls of 1838. Floyd County, Texas was named in honor of Dolphin Floyd. Floyd’s horse was commandeered to carry messages and requests for reinforcements from the Alamo on to San Felipe de Austin from Gonzales.

Galba Fuqua

Galba Fuqua, 16, was born in Alabama, a Gonzales resident and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. The Fuqua family are said to have originated with French immigrant William Fuqua (Farqua) (married Jane) to the American colony of Virginia as early as 1685. According to descendant Gerald Duvall, William Farqua came to America fleeing Catholic persecution, had a son Ralph Fuqua who had a son Joseph, the father of Silas, Benjamin and Ephraim Fuqua. Both Ralph and Joseph served in the American Revolution against the British. Galba Fuqua was the son of Silas and Sally Taney Fuqua. After wife Sally’s death between 1825 and 1828, Silas went to Texas with his children where he died in 1834.

G.P.B. Gaston who were married in Lexington, KY in 1814. John Gaston’s stepfather was George Washington Davis (1797-1853) who married widow Rebecca 8 Oct 1820 in Cincinatti, OH. John Gaston was said to have served as lookout on the Guadalupe River for movement of the Mexican force under Lt. Francisco Casteneda who demanded delivery of the Gonzales cannon from the settlers. The family moved to TX from JeffersonCo, KY in 1831 and received a league of land on the east bank of the Guadalupe River north of Cuero in the DeWitt Colony. John’s stepfather, G.W. Davis was one of the original 18 in the Gonzales cannon confrontation, a delegate to the TX Consultation of 1835 and holder of multiple public service positions in Gonzales.

James George

James George was a resident of Gonzales and rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. According to Adina de Zavala in History & Legends of the Alamo & Other Missions in & Around San Antonio, James George was Sargent under Lieutenant George Kimble of the Gonzales Rangers as they left Gonzales in relief of the Alamo. According to some records James George was born in 1802 in VA and was the son of William and Elizabeth Bland George, descendants of Henry George, one of the founders of the Jamestown Colony of VA. The research of other descendants contend that James was not from the line of Henry George of Jamestown. It is thought that James George may have been born in Pennsylvania, but the exact site has not been located. James George’s father was Robert George, thought to be an Irish immigrant in the period 1794-1796 who was naturalized in 1805 and died in 1806. He was at one time a resident of CumberlandCo, PA. James George’s mother is thought to have been named Mary. He had an older sister named Jane, a younger one named Elizabeth and a younger brother named John.

Thomas J. Jackson

Thomas J. Jackson was born in Ireland, a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. DeWitt Colony land grant records show he entered the colony 6 Jul 1829 with a family of four and received a sitio of land. His league was southeast of Gonzales next to his father-in-law Jonathan Cottle’s league on the west bank of the Guadalupe River. On 18 Sep 1830, he registered his mark and cattle brand in Gonzales witnessed by Gonzales District (San Felipe Ayuntamiento) Comisario James B. Patrick “....his ear mark a swallow fork in the right ear, and a half cross in the left ear and his brand the letter T and J united which he says is his true mark and brand and that he has no other.”

John B. Kellogg II

John Benjamin Kellogg II, 19, born 1817 in KY and a resident of Gonzales. He was a Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. His father, John Benjamin Kellogg I (d. Oct 1836), received Lots 4 and 5, Block 10 in inner Gonzales town on 25 Sep 1834. In 1835 John B. Kellogg II married Sidney Gaston (1816-1836) in Gonzales, the former wife of Alamo defender Thomas R. Miller and sister of John E. Gaston

who also died in the Alamo. Sidney Gaston was the daughter of Rebecca Warfield Gaston Davis and stepdaughter of George Washington Davis of Gonzales. Pregnant Sidney Gaston Kellogg is thought to have left Gonzales in the Run Away Scrape with her in-laws, John B. Kellogg I and family. She lived with them in WashingtonCo, TX where she died six months later. Six days after John Kellogg II’s death in the Alamo, they had a son, John B. Kellogg III.

George C. Kimble

George C. Kimble (Kimbell, Kimball), 33, born 1803 (some records say abt 1810) in PA, a resident of Gonzales and Lieutenant and a commanding officer of the Gonzales Rangers. He came to the DeWitt Colony in 1825 from NY where as a single man he received one fourth sitio of land which was on the east bank of the San Marcos River in CaldwellCo. He owned a hat factory on Water Street south of the Fort in inner Gonzales town together with Almeron Dickerson. On 26 Jun 1832, he married widow Prudence Nash. They had a son Charles Chester (b. 1834) (photo below from Alamo Legacy by Ron Jackson, original from Linda Halliburton, Luling, TX, 4th greatgranddaughter of George C. Kimble) and twin girls Jane and Amanda born in June after the death of their father in the Alamo. Twice widowed, Prudence Nash Kimble also had three children from her first marriage. Family legend says that the Kimbles lived on property in Gonzales town owned by Prudence’s former husband Nash who had died from an accidental shooting in Gonzales. According to family historians, pregnant Prudence was washing clothes in icy creek water with 2-year old Charles Chester nearby when husband George announced the plans of the Gonzales Rangers to answer Travis’ appeal for aid to the surrounded Alamo garrison in San Antonio. Among them were business partner Almeron Dickinson and his wife and child. His parting words indicated that he felt he probably would not return.

William P. King

William Phillip King, 16, born 8 Oct 1819, a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. He was the son of John Gladden King (1790-1856) and Parmelia (Milly) Parchman who married abt 1818 in GilesCo, TN. John King received a league of land arriving on 15 May 1830 with a family of nine. His league was on the east bank of the Guadalupe River in GuadalupeCo northwest of Gonzales and southeast of Seguin. John G. King is also listed in the Gonzales relief force in older records. Son William King is said to have joined the force so that his father could look after the family, some of which were ill, during the emergent crisis. According to Lord’s A Time To Stand, young William King approached the Gonzales relief force among which was his father John King as they passed by the King place north of Gonzales on the way to San Antonio. After some emotional discussion, father John agreed to allow son William to take his place in the force to which Capt. Kimble agreed. Father John King remained with the family on the homeplace. William King was the youngest member of the Alamo defenders. King County on the lower plains of west TX was named in his honor.

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John E. Garvin

John E. Garvin, probably born sometime between 1794 and 1806 in Abbeville, AbbevilleCo, South Carolina or ElbertCo, Georgia. He was a Gonzales resident and Private artilleryman in Capt. Carey’s Company. He received one fourth sitio on the Guadalupe River southeast of Gonzales as single settler in the DeWitt Colony arriving 20 Feb 1831. Dates on his land grant records including arrival in the colony coincide with those who arrived with the TennesseeTexas Land Company which included colonists Mathew Caldwell, Silas and Spencer Morris, Michael Gillen and Almeron and Susannah Dickinson. Garvin enlisted in the artillery unit of Col. Neill in Bexar 14 Feb 1835. A series of promissory notes written while on duty in Bexar indicate that Gavin was conscientous about paying off obligations back home in Gonzales.

John E. Gaston

John E. Gaston, 17, born about 1819 in KY, resident of Gonzales and Private in the Gonzales Rangers. He was the son of Rebecca Warfield Gaston (1796 WashingtonCo, PA-1846) and

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Gonzales Immortals: The Gonzales Rangers

Jonathan L. Lindley

Jonathan L. Lindley, 22, born 12 Feb 1814 in SangamonCo, IL was a surveyor for early Texas colonists and resident of Gonzales. He was a Private artilleryman in Capt. Carey’s artillery company of the Alamo garrison. He was the third child and oldest son of Samuel Washington Lindley (b. 1788 NC). Lindley is said to have come to the DeWitt Colony from IL in 1833. According to descendants, after the death of his first wife Mary (Polly) Elizabeth Hall abt 1809 shortly after the birth of first child Sarah, he married Elizabeth Whitley with whom he had his remaining children except Amanda. On 3 May 1835 single Jonathan was granted a quarter league of land in the William Pace survey in PolkCo, TX. He participated in the Battle of Bexar on 14 Dec 1835 after which he as many others returned home for Christmas hoping that the Revolution was over. Lindley joined Capt. Carey’s Company in the regular Texas Army in the fall of 1835. Lindley was at home in Gonzales when he joined the Gonzales Relief Force to return to his post at the Alamo. His heirs received 1280 acres bounty for service in PanolaCo, TX near Carthage.

Albert Martin

Albert Martin, 28, born 6 Jan 1808 in Rhode Island, a resident of Gonzales and storeowner. He was the son of Joseph S. and Abbey B. Martin. He came to the DeWitt Colony in 1835 from Tennessee via New Orleans after his parents and older brothers, one of whom has been suggested to be Gonzales merchant and mill owner, Joseph M. Martin. He and his father are referred to in a letter of 18 Sep 1835 from Edward Gritten in San Antonio to political chief of the Brazos Wyley Martin concerning the “action between the Steamboat and the Mexican Schooner here on the 16th.” Capt. Albert Martin was a leader in the confrontation in Gonzales over the Gonzales cannon in Sep 1835 and participated in the Battle of Bexar. Due to a minor injury, he was in Gonzales in

Dec 1835 and returned to the Alamo sometime after that. On 23 Feb 1836, he served as emissary from the Alamo to meet with Mexican Gen. Almonte who rejected the suggestion that he meet Col. Travis in the Alamo for negotiations. On 24 Feb 1836, Col. Martin was the courier who carried Travis’ appeal to Texans and the world for aid and delivered it to Launcelot Smither. He joined the Gonzales relief force to the Alamo.

Jesse McCoy

Jesse McCoy, 32, born 1804 in Gyrosburg, Tennessee, a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. He was son of John and Martha Dunbar McCoy who were among the first settlers of the DeWitt Colony at Old Station on the Lavaca. Jesse McCoy arrived with his parents in the DeWitt Colony on 9 Mar 1827 from MO where he received one fourth league. His tract on which he paid his first installment “At Gonzales, this 4th of July 1835, we having been appointed by the Ayto of Gonzales as Commissioners of the State for collecting the State dues for lands under the 25 art of the law of the 24th of March, 1825 certify that we have been paid the sum of three Dollars and ninety cents and 5/6 in full of first installments in Jesse McCoy’s Quarter of a league of land deeded to him by the Commissioner Jose Antonio Navarro.”

Thomas R. Miller

Thomas R. Miller, 40, born in Prince EdwardCo, VA (some records say TN) in 1796, a resident of Gonzales where he was a merchant, farmer and town clerk (sindico procurador). He was a Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. He was oldest of seven children of Armistead and Susannah Redd Miller of Prince EdwardCo, VA. He sold his holdings in VA (some records suggest Tennessee) and came to the DeWitt Colony as a single man in 1830 where he received one fourth league on the east bank of the Guadalupe in northern DeWittCo. He obtained additional properties in Gonzales town. His

They Answered Travis’s Call William P. King John Gaston Descendants of John Gladden and Parmelia King father and mother of William King

Alsey Sylvanius and Parmelia King Miller brother-in-law and sister of William King

store and home were on block 3, lot 3 in the inner town facing Water Street south of the Fort. He also owned a large piece of land on the San Marcos River in the west outer town. In 1834, Town Council meetings were held in Miller’s house in Gonzales and he was a road surveyor for the town. He was sindico procurador of the Gonzales Ayuntamiento of 1834. On 3 to 14 Nov 1835, he was a member of the Texas Consultation, a group of Texan delegates to decide on the course of action in response to the Santa Anna dictatorship in 1835. Miller was among the Old Original Eighteen defenders of the Gonzales cannon.

Isaac Millsaps

Isaac Millsaps (also spelled Milsaps in some records), 41, was a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. The record below from CockeCo, TN archives indicated that Isaac was a native of Tennessee and the son of Thomas and Bathsheba Millsaps. Isaac and wife Mary Blackburn Millsaps arrived in Texas 10 Mar 1835. On 1 Feb 1836, he and fellow Alamo defender Andrew Kent were election judges for the “Precinct of Upper Lavaca,” which was designated for the purpose of electing two delegates to the Texas Independence Convention which convened on 1 Mar at Washington-on-the-Brazos. Alamo defender William E. Summers was also among the eight voters. Andrew Kent and Isaac Millsaps were neighbors in Lavaca County. Mary Millsaps was blind. In the confusion following the Alamo defeat, she and their seven small children were left on the homestead on the lower Lavaca River as the area was evacuated and settlers took flight along with Houston’s army toward East Texas on the Runaway Scrape. David Boyd Kent from the neighboring Andrew Kent family noted their absence and informed General Houston who sent a squad of men which found blind Mrs. Millsaps and the children hiding in the brush near their home.

George Neggan

George Neggan, 28, born 1808 in SC, a resident of Gonzales and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. From Bounty and Donation Land Grants of Texas 1835-1888, pg. 497: NEGGIN, GEORGE (HEIRS) Received Bty Wnt 790 for 1920 acres from AG on 25 Mar 1851 for “his having fallen at the Alamo.” 288 acres in Hopkins Cty were ptd to the heirs on 23 Mar 1875. Pat 99 Vol 15 Abst 715 GLO File Lamar Bty 133. Upon UB Wnt 29/390, two surveys, 149.6 acres and 151 acres in Hopkins Cty were ptd to the heirs on 25 Mar 1873. Pats 259-60 Vol 14 Absts 71617 GLO File Nac Bty 653, and 121.16 acres in Hopkins Cty were ptd to them on 24 Sept 1889. Pat 466 Vol 16 Abst 1176 GLO File Lamar Bty 133, and 134.5 acres in Smith Cty were ptd to them on 25 June 1918. Pat 18 Vol 17 Abst 752 GLO File Nac Bty 653. Two surveys, 88 acres and 367

acres in Hopkins Cty were ptd to the heirs on 23 March 1875. Pats 100 and 101 Vol 15 GLO File Lamar Bty 133, but these Pats were canceled. Several other surveys on this wnt were made but not ptd. See GLO Files Nac Bty 427, 715, 717 and Rob Bty 1217.

William E. Summers

William E. (F.) Summers, 24, born 1812 in TN, a resident of current LavacaCo south of current Hallettsville and Private rifleman in the Gonzales Rangers. Land grant records indicate he received a labor of land on 1 May 1835 (vol. 67, pg. 512) just south of the Andrew Kent league on the Lavaca River. Henry C.G. Summers received the league of land next and south of William’s tract on the same date (vol. 67, pg. 600). On 26 Feb 1836, Summers and Isaac Millsaps, neighbors of Andrew Kent, came to the Kent home south of Hallettsville and the three departed for Gonzales. Summers, along with fellow Alamo defenders Kent and Millsaps, was among the eight voters in the “Precinct of Upper Lavaca,” which was designated for the purpose of electing two delegates to the Texas Independence Convention which convened on 1 Mar at Washington-on-the-Brazos.

George W. Tumlinson

George W. Tumlinson, 22, born 1814 in MO, a resident of Gonzales and Private artilleryman in Capt. Carey’s Company. He was the son of James and Elizabeth Tumlinson. He joined the Texas artillery under Capt. Almeron Dickinson on 20 Sep 1835. He was in the Siege of Bexar, discharged and re-enlisted on 14 Dec 1835 into Capt. Carey’s Company. Tumlinson was at home in Gonzales when the Alamo was surrounded and joined the Gonzales relief force to return to his post.

Robert White

Robert White, 30, born 1806, was considered a resident of Gonzales and was Captain of an infantry company in the Bexar Guards. He along with Capt. Almeron Dickinson and other members of the Alamo garrison considered themselves sufficiently established as residents of San Antonio de Bexar to petition the provisional government of Texas to elect two delegates to the Convention of 1 Mar 1836 in addition to the Bexar delegates Ruiz and Navarro. He was a Lieutenant in the Siege of Bexar and promoted to Captain 4 Feb 1836. It is unclear whether White was in the Alamo from the beginning of the siege or was at home in Gonzales and returned with the relief force.

Claiborne Wright

Claiborne Wright, 26, born 1810 in NC, a resident of Gonzales and Private in the Gonzales Rangers. He was the son of James and Patsy Stigall Wright. He enlisted in the Texas army 10 Nov 1835, was in the Siege of Bexar and discharged on 13 Dec 1835.

Frederick Ezell and Zillah Miller Houston niece of William King and her husband

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Thursday, February 28, 2013

From the New Orleans True American, March 29, 1836, Courtesy of Genealogy Trails:

Highly Important from Texas!

The most painful excitement was occasioned in this place on Wednesday by a rumor that the fort at St. Antonio, in possession of the Texans, had been stormed by the Mexican army and the garrison put to the sword. Yesterday the news, even in its most revolting features, was fully confirmed. They were all slaughtered! Our late fellowcitizen, Col David Crockett, it will be seen, was among the slain. Subjoined are all the particulars that have come to hand of this melancholy affair. We learn by the passengers of the schr. Cumanche eight days from Texas that the War has assumed a serious character—on the 25th Feb. the Texan Garrison in Bexar of 150 men, commanded by Lt. Col. B. Travis was attacked by the advance division of Gen. Santa Anna’s army consisting of 2000 men who were repulsed with the loss of many killed, (between 500 to 800 men,) without the loss of one man of the Texans—about the same time Col. Johnson with a party of 70 men while reconnoitering the

westward of San Patricio was surrounded in the night by a large body of Mexican Troops—in the morning the demand of a surrender was made by the Mexican Commander unconditionally, which was refused; but an offer of surrender was made as prisoners of war, which was acceded to by the Mexicans— But no sooner had the Texans marched out of their quarters and stacked their arms, that a general fire was opened upon them by the whole Mexican force— the Texans attempted to escape but only three of them succeeded; one of whom was Col. Johnson. Between the 25th of February and 2d March the Mexicans were employed in forming entrenchments around the Alamo and bombarding the place; on the 2d March, Col. Travis wrote that 200 shells had been thrown into the Alamo without injuring a man - on the 1st March the Garrison of Alamo received a reinforcement of 32 Texans from Gonzales, having forced their way through the enemy’s lines, making the number in the Alamo consist of 182 men. On the 6th March about midnight the Alamo was assaulted by the whole force of the Mexican army commanded by Santa Anna in person, the battle was desperate

until day light when only 7 men belonging to the Texan Garrison were found alive who cried for quarters, but were told that there was no mercy for them—they then continued fighting until the whole were butchered. One woman, Mrs., Dickson, and a negro of Col. Travis were the only persons whose lives were spared. We regret to say that Col. David Crockett and companion, Mr.Berton and Col. Bonhan, of SC, were among the number slain— Gen. Bowie was murdered in his bed sick and helpless. Gen. Cos on entering the Fort ordered the servant of Col. Travis, to point out the body of his master; he did so, when Cos drew his sword and mangled the face and limbs with the malignant feeling of a Cumanche savage. The bodies of the slain were thrown into a mass in the centre of the Alamo and burned—the loss of the Mexicans in storming the place was not less than 1000 killed and mortally wounded, and as many wounded, making with their loss in the first assault between 2 and 3000 men. The flag used by the Mexicans was a blood-red one, in place of the constitutional one. Immed-iately after the capture, Gen. Santa Anna sent Mrs. Dickson and the servant

to General Houston’s camp, accompanied by a Mexican with a flag, who was bearer of a note from St. Anna, offering the Texans peace and general amnesty, if they would lay down their arms and submit to his government. Gen. Houston’s reply was, ‘’true sir, you have succeeded in killing some of our brave men, but the Texans are not yet cornered.” The effect of the fall of Bexar throughout Texas was electrical. Every man who could use the rifle and was in a condition to lake field, marched forthwith to the seat of war. It is believed that not less than 4000 riflemen were on their

way to the army when the Cumanche sailed, determined to wreak their revenge on the Mexicans Gen. Houston had burnt Gonzales, and fallen back on the Colorado with about 1000 men. Col. Fanning was in the Fort at Goliad, a very strong position, well supplied with ammunitions and provision, with 4 or 500 men. The general determination of the people of Texas is to abandon all their occupations and pursuits of peace, and continue in arms until every Mexican east of the Rio del Norte shall be exterminated.

Tragedy turns to Triumph at San Jacinto The fall of the Alamo precipitated the Runaway Scrape, as the Texian colonists fled eastward toward the Sabine River. Sam Houston and his rag-tag army used their knowledge of the terrain to successfully evade Santa Anna’s advancing columns before turning to fight April 21, 1836, on the banks of the San Jacinto River near what is now Deer Park. The results of that battle were reported in a letter written by Colonel Hockley of the Texas army, published by the National Banner and Nashville Whig (Nashville, Tennessee) on May 20, 1836: Thursday Night, 10 O’clock Important from Texas New Orleans, May 9. By the arrival of the steamer Swiss Boy, yesterday, we received the annexed, for which we are indebted to the kindness of Capt. Walker, who came passenger by the above boat. It was written by Col. Hockley, of the Texian army, to a friend in Natchitoches— Sir: I have but a moment to give you an account of our victory. Our spies having taken a courier and officer on the 19th, who informed us that Gen. Santa Anna and his army were across the San Jacinto,

at this point. We immediately took up our line of march, and reached that place on the morning of the 20th; the day was passed in reconnoitering the enemy. Some few shots during the time having been exchanged between the artillery without much effect on either side—on the morning of the 21st, the enemy commenced maneuvering, and we expected to be attacked in our camp, as they had received a reinforcement of 500 men, which made them 1200

[i.e., 1,360] strong; but they settled down and continued throwing up a breastwork, that they commenced at the first news of our approach. We commenced the attack upon them at half past 4 o’clock P.M. by a hot fire from our artillery, consisting of two ordinary 4 pounders. The enemy returned our fire with a long brass 9 pounder. Our first fire having carried away their powder box, caused their loud shouting to cease. We marched up within

175 yards, limbered our pieces and gave them the grape and canister, while our brave riflemen poured in their deadly fire. In fifteen minutes the enemy were flying in every direction, and hotly pursued by us. They left 500 [i.e., 700] of their slain behind them. Never was there a victory more complete. Gen. Cos was taken, and killed by a pistol ball from one of our men, who instantly recognized him. Gen. Santa Anna was taken the next day about ten miles from the place of action, by some of our spies, who, on being brought forward, immediately requested to see Gen. Houston. I happened to be passing at the time he was conveyed to Gen. Houston, who was laying on his bed in his tent, having been wounded in the action, and heard them say “we surrender into your hands Gen. Santa Anna, Governor of the Republic of Mexico.” He was then ordered to call in his aids, who were nearly all taken, amongst whom was Allmontie [i.e., Almonte]. There was then propositions made, of which you will have the details by express.

Houston was wounded in the ankle by a musket ball in the early part of the engagement, but remained on his horse until it terminated. There is a list of the names of the Mexican prisoners, which shall be transmitted to you by express; they amount nearly to 600, among whom are six women. —Advertiser Col. A. Houston of the Texas army has arrived in the steamboat Caspian, and confirms the news of the glorious victory of Gen. Houston… Gen. Santa Anna made the following proposition: that his army should lay down their arms, Texas independence acknowledged, the expense of the war to be paid by Mexico, Santa Anna to remain as a hostage. Gen. Houston had issued orders that a further advance of the Mexican army should be the signal for the slaughter of Santa Anna, and all the prisoners. The reports of the terms of peace were not official but supported by a great number of letters from officers of the army. —Bulletin


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