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N STUDIO 1 UNIVERSAL DESIGN L DESIG A I R UST D IN

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Return Brief

Table of Contents

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References 2 Return Brief

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Spectrum of Abilities

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Trio of Concepts

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt1

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt2

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Final Concept

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What Next?

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References Bradley, N., & Dunlop, M. (January 01, 2005). An Experimental Investigation into Wayfinding Directions for Visually Impaired People. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 9, 6, 395-403. Habel, C., & Graf, C. (2008). Towards audio-tactile you-are-here maps: Navigation aids for visually impaired people. In Workshop Proceedings You-Are-Here-Maps. SFB/TR8 Spatial Cognition and University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Breisgau), Germany (pp. 1-10). Rayoung, Y., Sangmi, P., Sonali, M., Zhenan, H., Clint, N., Hyeon, J., Erik, H., ... The proceedings of the 13th international ACM SIGACCESS conference / Computers and accessibility (ASSETS ‘11). (2011). Supporting spatial awareness and independent wayfinding for pedestrians with visual impairments. ACM, 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701, USA. Standards Australia (Organization), & Standards New Zealand. (2009). Design for access and mobility: Part 4.1. Sydney, N.S.W: Standards Australia.

The Vision Navigational flooring is envisaged to be a combination of architectural feature, haptic navigation and general navigation tool. The intention is to replace the tactile paths that are ‘dumb’ i.e. static, with flooring that is beautiful architectural flooring and is ‘smart’. It needs to be haptic but will be configurable and perhaps even responsive and interactive. Navigational flooring would provide embedded navigation information that serves not only the blind user but also everyone who needs to find their way somewhere in a big confusing built space. The flooring solution should seek to interface or communicate with the typical haptic assistive tools, such as, the guide cane in combination with a digital device (phone or otherwise) that can provide audio information. The design should also seek to interface with visual tools to offer the possibility of ‘live maps’ and navigation of internal spaces to people via their phones, in different languages and with different visual and audio offerings. The vision is that the flooring will create an interactive floor plan that can be easily configured to help people using a given space. The design should also seek to provide visual information directly from the tiles possibly through the use of light. This could be used in a variety of ways like: branding and advertising space; information provision; or, warning of use by a blind user (i.e. to give way). Finally the flooring should look beautiful, coming in multiple materials, colours and textures that have a high quality architectural and visual appeal.

Design Goals The design of the Navigational flooring will seek to achieve the following design objectives that are based on the design vision described above. These design objectives have been arranged into ‘Must Have Features’, ‘Highly Desirable Features’ and ‘Possible Features’. Must Have Features: • Can be aesthetically designed in multiple looks, colours, materials and textures. • Provides configurable haptic information (like static tiles) • Incorporates a broader haptic language (beyond the dash and dot) • The ability to communicate visually, audibly and via feel (haptic). Highly Desirable Features: • Interacts with ‘guidance’ stick (via BT or RFID or induction?) • Provides real time navigation information, via mobile or electronic device that outputs information audibly and/or visually. • Provides real time haptic guidance i.e. if the user chooses a secondary path to a feature the haptic path is generated in real time and disappears in real time (in communication with the guidance stick only). • Provides proximity warning to people around a ‘blind user’ via light. • Provides information and branding space via the lighting. Possible Features (pending study of technical feasibility): • Generate their own power (via flexure or piezoelectric or solar if outside)

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Table of Contents


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Sources: http://www.guidedogs.com.au/content/upload/images/news/national_walk_to_school_day.jpg http://www.healio.com/~/media/Images/News/Print/O%20and%20P%20Business%20News/2012/09_September/iStock_000019567337Small.jpg http://www.clemson.edu/campus-life/campus-services/sds/images/walk-roll-2010/ryan.jpg http://salmonberryschool.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/DSC_0007-199x300.jpg

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HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

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“Currently 18.5% of the population has a disability while the disability rate for Australians aged 15-64 years, those of ‘prime working age’, is 15%. The likelihood of living with disability increases with age. In 2009, the disability rate among 15-24 year olds was 6.6% and the rate was higher for successively older age groups, with 18% of 45-54 year olds, and 31% of 55-64 year olds living with disability in 2009. 3.4 million (15%) have a physical disability - including respiratory disorders (e.g., asthma), neurological disorders (e.g., MS, cerebal palsy or epilepsy), musculoskeletal disorders (e.g., arthiritis or spinal injuries), immunological disorders (e.g.,HIV/AIDS) diabetes, kidney disease or cancer. Over 700,000 Australians have an intellectual or developmental disability. Around 300,000 Australians have substantial vision impairment, with around 20,000 being totally blind. • ABS statistics show that overall incidence of blindness and vision impairment for Australians growing from the current number of 292,700 to 421,600 people in the next 15 years. Deafness has been defined as the second biggest health issue facing Australia today, with an estimated 1 in 6 Australians affected by hearing loss. There are approximately 30,000 deaf Auslan users with total hearing loss. • 90% of people born with hearing impairment are born into hearing families. • By 2050, it’s projected to be one in every four Australians who will have hearing loss. More than 90,000 people have a mental health disorder. • Mental health problems and mental illness are among the greatest causes of disability, diminished quality of life, and reduced productivity. People affected by mental health problems often have high levels of morbidity and mortality, experiencing poorer general health and higher rates of death from a range of causes, including suicide.”

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(Extracted from: http://www.and.org.au/pages/disability-statistics.html)

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General Overview of Disabilities in Australia

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Spectrum of Abilities


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Virtual Haptic Flooring Product Concept Details

Aesthetic Top Layer

Layer of NFC Tags Piezo Harvesters, Central Processor and Connectors

Semi-Flexible Base

How Would it Work? The intent of this concept was to create a ‘smart’ floor system that was a very flexible and capable sensing and communicating arrangement. Using this broadly capable interface as a platform many services and products could be developed to interact with and serve people of all abilities. This concept if realised would be highly universal as a solution because services or ‘apps’ could be developed to provide all sorts of information and services. To demonstrate how this approach could work consider the following case studies.

Person with Visual Impairment The floor could be set up to interact with a guide cane that had a NFC reader in its tip and a small vibrating element in the handle. ‘Virtual’ tactile paths could be set up by programming NFC array to trigger the canes vibrating response to certain areas of the floor. These vibrating responses could be more complex than the ‘physical’ tactile paths as the vibrations would be detected by the users hand. Person with no Visual Impairment The floor could be set up to provide people with no visual impairment, or minor visual impairments, a simple source of way-finding guidance via their smart phones. This would be of particular use for people who don’t speak the predominant language. This type of interface would also help businesses and services in big spaces to be easily and consistently found.

The intent of this product concept is to do away with ‘physical’ haptic or tactile interfaces completely. Replacing it with a purely electronic/digital interface utilising passive short range sensors like Near Field Communication (NFC) tags. Each floor element would have an array of NFC tags, a small central processing chip and other sensors as necessary. Each element would be connected to the neighbouring element forming a large floor network. Using this network arrangement the whole floor system could power itself via the four piezo electric power harvesters in the corners. I envisage the product being constructed in four layers: 1. An aesthetic upper layer that could be made from a large number of different flooring materials. 2. A layer of NFC tags, some set and some programmable. 3. Central controller chip, sensors, piezo electric harvesters and connections. 4. A semi flexible, perhaps recycled rubber or plastic, insulator base. Semi flexible to allow the small movements necessary to actuate the piezo harvesters.

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Trio of Concepts


Trio of Concepts Surface with Embedded NFC Tag

Pixel with Embedded NFC Tag

Layer of Linear Piezo Actuators Layer of Linear Piezo Actuators

Product Details

Aesthetic Top Layer of Pixels

Layer of Push to Actuate Linear ‘Buttons’ Base Made from same Material as Pixels

*Note: the lower brown layer is included to model a rough ‘ground’ surface

Product Details *Setup as a Directional Pathway

*Setup as a Warning Strip

The intent of this concept is for a physically configurable tactile tile. The tile is made up of four elements: 1. A series of pixels made from an aesthetic architectural material. 2. Some or all of the pixels would have an NFC tag embedded in it. 3. A series of ‘push to actuate’ high strength lockable toggles that push each pixel up by 10 mm to create tactile patterns. 4. A base made from an aesthetic architectural material.

*Setup as a Directional Pathway

How Would it Work?

How Would it Work? These tiles would be laid out in the same manner as standard tactile tiles. However, each one is capable of being physically configured with tactile words i.e. direction, warning etc. In addition the embedded NFC allows the communication of additional information to all users, whether or not they are visually impaired.

*Setup as a Warning Strip

This flooring would be deployed as a continuous surface as opposed to a set of tiles. Its design would allow programmable deformations using piezo electric actuators that deform the outer surface in a controlled manner. Embedded NFC tags add a layer of user information like the two other concepts. This combination of NFC and mini actuators would allow the integrated programming of physically tactile paths with powerful metadata for way-finding and points of interest.

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HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

The intent of this concept is for a physically re-configurable continuous surface. It would be laid out in a multi-step process allowing it to account for very rough ground surfaces. The floor would be made up of four layers: 1. The base would be a semi-flexible material that could be laid out, level and then set in place. 2. A layer of piezo electric linear actuators to create the deformations in the surface by pushing upwards by up to 10 mm. 3. A layer of NFC tags embedded in the floor surface with one tag per piezo actuator 4. Highly flexible surface that is laid over the underlying array and then smoothed and allowed to set. This layer would need to be flexible enough to allow the actuators to deform it.

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Pixellated Path & Haptic Mesh Surface


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Starting Exploration and Ideation Through consultation it was decided that the first step in exploring the possibilities of the three concepts was to experiment with the physical tactile language. This ideation process would consider the inherent form of the tactile elements i.e. size, shape or smoothness; whilst, also experimenting with different ‘words’ or arrangements of tactile elements. This experimentation would start with sketches and 3D models and then progress to full-scale prototypes that could be interrogated and compared in terms of their tactile performance. This starting point in exploration would provide significant understanding and insights to help develop any of the three concepts further. The expectation was for the exercise to provide: • Understanding of the current tactile language’s physical form and which elements of this form were critical to its utility. • Empathy and insight into the users experience of trying to interpret, understand and follow tactile information. • Understanding and insight into the ‘sensitivity’ of communication via tactile flooring and guide canes.

Overview of AS/NZS 1428 Part 4.1 AS/NZS 1428 is the standard for the “Design for access and mobility” this standard has multiple parts that deal with all elements of access and mobility architecture and infrastructure. Part 4.1 of this standard is focused on the “Means to assist the orientation of people with vision impairment – Tactile ground surface indicators” The standard is arranged into three sections and five appendices: • Section 1 - Scope and Application • Section 2 - Criteria and Application for Tactile Indicators • Section 3 - Criteria and Application of Directional Tactile Ground Indicators • Appendix A - Information on Design and Installation • Appendix B - Raised Pavement Markers • Appendix C - Kerb Ramps, Medians and Multiple Entry Points • Appendix D - Typical Examples of Tactile Ground Surface Indicators for Bus Stops and Tram/Light Rail Stops • Appendix E - Laboratory and On-Site Measurement of Luminance Contrast

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt1


New AS/NZS 1428 Style Tactile Forms Drawing upon the lessons learnt through 3D visualization of tactile shapes and forms along with the understanding of the intent and content of AS/NZS 1428 Part 4.1 I developed a set of new ‘tactile’ words to add to the extant language. The intention was to design these new words and then prototype and test them in comparison to the standard AS/NZS 1428 words. The design of these words maintained the design language and complied with the important functional requirements of the AS/NZS 1428 standard. To keep it simple and have clear outcomes from testing I focused on designing three new indications that would integrate with the overall design vision. Bi-Directional Indicators The intent was to create a clear tactile indication that would distinguish one direction from the other on a directional tactile pathway. The basis for the design was the existing directional TGSI design, to which I added half circle shapes at a wide spacing for one direction and a tight spacing for the second direction. These spacings would provide a ‘low frequency’ tactile response and a ‘high frequency’ tactile response.

Junction Indicator The intent was to provide a clearer, more functional and more intuitive indication of a junction. Using the directional indicator form I put a bend into it and then grouped four together to generate a fourway junction. One Way Danger Indicator My idea was that it could be useful to have some form of indicator that would deliberately and clearly state to the user that a path should be used in one direction only i.e. that there was only one safe direction to walk in. I used a one way valve as inspiration and sought to make it difficult to follow going the wrong way but easy to follow going the other way.

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HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt1


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Setup for Testing To test these new forms I decided to prototype them out of cardboard which was approximately the right height (4-5 mm). The benefit of this approach was that the prototypes could be easily and quickly generated at home

to a high fidelity by printing out the form onto paper sticking it to the cardboard then cutting it out. To explore the current tactile language I created a series of AS/NZS 1428 TGSIs that I would install onto my test bed permanently. These standard forms would also provide a clear baseline for comparing my new forms

against. I set up a test bed of two 1200 mm x 600 mm particle boards and then permanently installed the AS/NZS 1428 pieces. I then installed the new design TGSIs onto the board with double-sided tape. The next step was to test them.

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt2


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Redesign post Test 1 As noted in the observations of the test, the half circle ‘high/ low frequency’ design approach was problematic. To finalise this portion of the testing I refined this idea by testing a different geometry concept I had for the bi-directional indicator. The new concept was to use a serrated or ratchet geometry built on the finding of test one that the geometry needs to be smooth in the ‘desired’ direction of travel. That is, the geometry could cause the user to have trouble following one side of the ‘channel’ forcing them to follow the easy side of the ‘channel’. Test 2.1 and 2.2 would test two geometrical variations of a serrated geometry, one relatively smooth the other significantly more aggressive.

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HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

3.

Test 1 generated a large amount of understanding and insight about the whole exercise of trying to create a navigational flooring design that would effectively serve the visually impaired as much as the non-visually impaired. Two key takeaways from the test was the success of adding bi-directional information to the directional path and the junction arrangement.

Agressive

To run the test I used an analogue for a guide cane (a long piece of dowel) and simply closed my eyes and tried to navigate the test path I’d setup. I videoed the whole test to record my experiences and to ‘see’ how I went, all the way through the test I spoke aloud to express my experience and to remark on insights in real time. This is a method I would employ in continued development next semester. In the test I started by ‘finding’ the start of the path; then I got a feel for the AS/NZS 1428 standard warning indicators and direction indicators; next, with a clear sense of how the standard indicators ‘feel’, I interrogated the last half of the test path to experience my first prototypes. Initially I could only fit the directional and 4 way junction prototypes onto my test path and it was my intention to run the test again with the one way warning indicator arrangement. However, the results of the first test run meant that testing of the one way warning path was unnecessary. There were some very clear and immediate outcomes of this test: 1. The physical tactile language must be simple this is due to the lack of sensitivity of detecting things using a cane and to maintain the current level of intuitive understanding inherent in the design. That is, all tactile words must be easily ‘worked’ out by feel. 2. Any secondary textures added must also conform to the

rules of simplicity, intuitive meaning and consistency. Any changes in directional geometry must not affect the ease of following the desired direction. The half circle low frequency and high frequency geometry worked in theory but caused the cane to get stuck when trying to follow it thus making this geometry unsuitable for this purpose. Any ‘virtual’ representation or replacement of the physical tactile indicators must find a way to deal with the lack of physical form. This physical form is a larger part of feeling the words than I previously imagined. The four-way junction worked very well and would not require much change before continuing to test it. It felt obvious in meaning and even if there was no digital metadata to help navigate would fulfil its purpose of indicating a junction. Junctions could easily have variations on the number of exits without affecting their performance. It was clear that, even without testing, the one-way path indicator arrangement was going to be too complex and of too little use to continue testing. A final realization and insight from this empathetic test that was underlined through further secondary research, was the need for any concept developed to continue to provide some minimum amount of ‘physical’ tactile information in its solution. This simple form of indication is in itself a masterpiece of universal simplicity that has no need for electronics and, in Australia at least, is a consistently applied language of our built environment.

Smooth

Test 1 and Outcomes

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt2


Test 2.2

Test 2.1

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Smooth Serrations (Test 2.1)

Agressive Serrations (Test 2.2)

Test 2.1 and 2.2 Setup and process for test 2.1 and 2.2 was the same as for test 1. I got the two serrated designs laser cut this time to save effort and replaced the test 1 designs in the test path with the 2.1 version and then the 2.2 version. Again I videoed each test and tried to talk through the whole experience. This recording process will prove useful as a reference and reminder of those experiences as I continue development next semester. The focus of test 2.1 and 2.2 was really zoomed in on the performance of the bi-directional indicator geometrical performance so the outcomes and insights from the testing were not as great as test 1. The outcome of the tests showed clearly that the serrated

form is highly successful in communicating bi-directionality in the path construct. The more aggressive pattern was more effective as it very clearly indicated that there was an intended direction to follow the path. It should be noted that I used the Australian/British left hand rule in determining path directionality. This was a great result that will form part of the final design for this semester and will be part of ongoing system integration, testing and development next semester. HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt2


(Rayoung, Y et al 2011) This study is focused on developing a phone or hand held device based navigation system for the visually impaired. The system uses GPS (outdoors), WiFi (indoors) and a compass. This study is interesting as it focuses on creating a system of information for its device that provided spatial information and POI to aid navigation rather than ‘turn by turn’ information. The POI and spatial information is crowd sourced.

(Rayoung, Y et al 2011) “TP3 [the system tested] allowed participants to gain serendipitous information about their surroundings to which people with visual impairments are not usually privy. While users may still follow directions from starting point to destination, they can use TP3 to learn about what they pass along the way.”

(Rayoung, Y et al 2011)

(Rayoung, Y et al 2011) “For individuals with visual impairments, travelling to a new environment can be a particularly challenging experience.” “...they often need to plan ahead extensively in order to obtain and memorise directions, and many seek assisstance from others...” “Additionally, travelers may miss the chance to serendipitously discover new information about their environments, such as new points of interest, and special events.”

“Participants made heavy use of distance reports to determine if they were getting closer to or further away from target POIs and to determine whether to maintain their current course or go back.”

(AS/NZS 1428 Part 4.1) A.1 (a) Make use of aids and environmental indicators, available to them for wayfinding in the community.

“In particular, as these participants came closer to their targets, they engaged other travelling skills to determine if they had reached their destination, such as feeling the wall for a door or a Braille sign, listening for sounds, or relying on their guide dog.”

(AS/NZS 1428 Part 4.1) Appendix A People with a mobility impairment may find that TGSIs (Tactile Ground Surface Indicators) affect their balance or interfere with the use of their mobility aid. People who use wheelchairs may have difficulty manoeuvring on TGSIs.

(Bradley, N et al 2005) “Visually impaired participants were less frustrated, and required less mental and overall effort when being guided by condition 2 directions consisting of a reduced amount of textual-structural and textual area/street information and incorporated sensory, motion and social contact information.”

(Habel, C et al 2008) This study focused on the idea of tactile-audio ‘you are here’ maps. The paper is poorly written and in many ways the ideas are weak. However the idea of ‘you are here maps’ is quite a good one that could be integrated into my concept.

(Habel, C et al 2008) “ [speaking of the visually impaired]...lankmarks are no longer of visual nature, but of auditory, olfactory or haptic nature...sources of noise...or specific patterns become more important and should be represented in a map.” (Bradley, N et al 2005) This study explored what information visually able and disabled people used to navigate. This table was a summary of a previous connected study but provided interesting insight into the information that my designs should consider.

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HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

(AS/NZS 1428 Part 4.1) A.1 (b) Detect tactile ground surface indicators, either tactually through their feet or long cane and for those people with any residual vision via the luminance contrast criteria being applied to the TGSIs and the surrounding pavement/ flooring.

(Habel, C et al 2008) “In our opinion by providing YAH maps, visually impaired people can be guided in way finding and simultaneously be supported in acquiring survey knowledge.”

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Exploration and Reflection on Concepts Pt2


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New Language

The AS/NZS 1428 standard language would be available along with the additional ‘words’ so that the designer of the internal flooring space has maximum flexibility from one system.

Multiple Materials & Forms

Intelligent & Programmable The product will be offered in multiple forms and multiple complexities. The heart of the solution will be language and intelligence. The language will be physically tactile and digitally tactile. Maintaining the minimum tried and true physical form that already exists but with added words and meta data programmed into NFC tags.

Sensors, Power and Light At the higher end of complexity would be the inclusion of sensors to augment the information in the NFC tags these could provide a powerful ‘smart’ surface platform that could be used for many things. Piezo electric harvesters would be added to generate each pavers power and a simple lighting array could be added to enhance the surfaces’ ability to communicate.

The product could be offered in a number of materials and forms. This would enable the simple retrofit of existing floors with new indicators with NFC all the way to a fully sensing floor made of plain tiles and tactile tiles. The fully sensing floor would provide maximum navigation utility.

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Final Concept


New Language

Intelligent & Programmable

• Continued exploration, testing and refinement of a concise but expanded language.

• Testing of NFC tags in this application, trial programming and development of virtual tactile language.

• Collaboration, co-design or just help and advice from Vision Australia.

• Development of a concept for a guide cane product interface. If there’s time perhaps a rough mock up.

• Testing of a virtual language to create multifaceted tactile experience i.e. physical pathways with metadata, in combination with virtual pathways and navigation.

• Development and mock up of the broader system data possibilities i.e. for POIs, for Navigation and for serendipitous exploration and discovery of new spaces.

• Integration of You-Are-Here posts.

Multiple Materials & Forms

• Selection of material types that care both reasonably easy to manufacture at scale and are high quality architecturally desirable materials and finishes, to be used for the top layer of tiles and tactile indicators. • Selection of materials for the other elements of the sensor tiles. • Concepts of material types and manufacturing processes for the You-Are-Here posts and guide cane interface.

Sensors, Power and Light

• Investigation into piezo electric power generation and the feasibility of its implementation into this product. • Investigation into additional sensors that could provide added benefit to the full sensing tile i.e. pressure sensors. • Investigation into the use of light in the full sensing/ powered tile solution. Lighting could be used for many applications from guidance and warning to advertising and communication.

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HDID692 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN STUDIO 1 - UNIVERSAL DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FOLIO DAVID MOORHEAD 1756036

• Development of a concept for integrating You-Are-Here posts.

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What Next?

Universal Design Concept Folio - Semester 1 2013