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DRESSMAKING BOOK

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-L \yX\JLj VV \yJ\JLy • — The Butterick Company presents a

message of encouragement and inspiration to women and girls individually

and collectively, regarding the making of one's own or another's clothing.

Are you an amateur, filled with desire to achieve results you have seen

your friends achieve, yet fearful about using a pattern and unacquainted with

the behavior of materials} If so, Butterick comes to you with ready help to

show you how to choose and use a pattern, and to unravel the mystery of

fabric habits, and the puzzle of technique.

Are you a business girl, who in your leisure moments, would enjoy the ex-

perience of making a garment for yourself, yet bothered and perplexed

when confronted with some problem of fitting yourself? Butterick brings

to you the easy solution of your difficulties.

Are you a venturesome high school girl, who wants to surprise mother,

friends and teacher with a garment made "out of class"? And are you per-

plexed over the choice of color in your fabric, line in your pattern, and

general form of the whole? Butterick is right here with some pages dedicated

to the very points which trouble you.

Are you a home-maker who feels an urge to have something smarter in

style, and better in workmanship than your budget will permit you to buy

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


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what will meet and dissipate all your difficulties of selection whether it be

pattern, cloth or technique.

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Are you a teacher guiding the pupils under your care in the principles of

fine design and workmanship, looking about for new ideas, new methods and

equipment? Butterick comes to you supplied with all you need and all you

need to do is to peruse the content of this book to find answers to all your

questions.

Are you a skilled dressmaker looking for new methods, new equipment,

new ideas? You, too, will find them clearly illustrated and described within

the pages of Butterick's new Dressmaking Book.

Are you a woman with the native ability to design and construct your

own and another's clothing? Do you not sometimes feel you'd like to hear

and see what some one else thinks and does about this subject which seems to

be your primary interest? You, too, will find much within the Butterick

Dressmaking Book to stimulate and inspire you in your work.

So to you all;—amateur, business or high school girl, homemaker or teacher,

dressmaker or native genius—Butterick dedicates the content of its new Dress-

making Book in the sincere hope that you will find it useful.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


THE BUTTERICK PATTERN

THE Butterick Company stands as the pioneer in

pattern making in the United States. The begin-

ning of this great business unfolded many years

ago in the thought of Ebenezer Butterick, a man's

tailor up in a little town in Massachusetts.

It all came about in this wise:â₏�Ebenezer's

wife was having difficulty in putting together a

dress for their baby son; she voiced the lament,

"If we only had patterns to make our children's

clothes, how much easier life would be!" Ebe-

nezer translated his wife's lament into a pattern

for a man's shirt, which he followed later

with patterns for a baby's first dress and a

boy's suit, both eagerly received.

The neighbors bought the pat-

terns eagerly and before a great

while a man with a horse and

buggy was hired to go about the

countryside and sell the patterns.

The farmers' wives demanded

patterns of clothes for themselves;

business became so brisk that in

1864 a sales office was opened at

192 Broadway, New York City.

Then came the first little maga-

zine showing Butterick patterns,

called "The Ladies Quarterly Re-

port of Broadway Fashions."

Soon, however, a quarterly was inadequate to

meet the needs of the avid pattern users, so, in

1868, "The Metropolitan Monthly" was issued,

and in 1875 it was merged with the Quarterly

under the name of "The Delineator," the oldest

but one of women's magazines in the United

States and Canada. The "Butterick Fashion

News" which we know so well today, first came

out as an illustrated pamphlet sent to merchants

for gratuitous distribution to customers.

The Butterick pattern business gradually

spread all over the world and today some of its

treasured possessions are time-mellowed notes

on crested stationery from nobility in other

countries asking for patterns for such garments

as "knickers for a little boy," "dolls' clothes,"

and a catalogue of "ladies' coats."

In 1908, the rapidly expanding Butterick Com-

pany issued The Butterick Fashion Magazine. It

was issued to fill a demand for

a book that is "all patterns and no

stories." Then as now the Fashion

Magazine contained illustrations

of seasonal styles, more compre-

hensive than the Fashion News.

The inclusion of articles on sew-

ing problems, fabrics, accessories,

and needlecraft, seemed to fill a

long felt need which has not dimin-

ished through the years.

After the World War, with its

impetus to home sewing, the Del-

tor was added to Butterick pat-

terns. This clearly illustrates step-

by-step instructions which carry the garment

from the fashion illustration to the faultlessly

fitted and finished costume. Butterick, the pioneer

among patterns, is responsible for the ease with

which a woman can make her own clothes and

wear them smartly.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


THE BUTTERICK

PATTERN

The Making of the Pattern

In the making of these modern guides to good

dressmaking, each detail is worked out for you with

needle, thread, and material, on a living person, so

that Butterick may make sure the garment is not only

correct in theory, but also comfortable and smart in

appearance.

The Idea Back of the Pattern

The first step in making a pattern is the idea; this

is created in the mind of a skilled designer, and

worked out by a corps of trained assistants:—de-

signers, practical dressmakers, and tailors who

create, test, and criticise from many points of view

until the garment is satisfactory from every aspect

of style, fit, comfort, and suitability.

The Fashion Centers

The Butterick corps of designers keep in close

touch with the work of all the famous style centers

here and abroad. They have access to exclusive

sources of new fashions, and they check up by con-

tinuous observation the way new styles are adopted

and adapted.

Buy the Pattern First

It really is best to buy your pattern before buying

the material for a costume, and for two good rea-

sons:—By doing so you may select the best kind of

fabric for which the pattern is designed, and also

the correct yardage for the garment you have chosen,

all of which information is on the pattern envelope.

Material on Hand

Should you by any chance have on hand some

lovely material, do not select your pattern in a hap-

hazard way, but look for a design which will en-

compass your type of fabric. If the material hap-

pens to be a soft, sheer fabric, look for a pattern

which pictures such fabric and, moreover, mentions

it on the list of recommended fabrics on the en-

velope. If it happens to be a bordered fabric, a

plaid, stripe or print, choose a pattern which recom-

mends and pictures such material.

ADVANTAGES OF

BUTTERICK PATTERNS

Butterick Patterns

Butterick Patterns have a definitely cut outline

and are ready to use.

Perforations

Three definite kinds of perforations; the larger

perforations indicate the placing of each piece of

the pattern on the correct grain of the material;

medium triple perforations indicate the placing of

the edge bearing the perforation on a fold of the

material; the small perforations indicate the sewing

or seam lines. These perforations are of the utmost

importance in the construction of your garment.

Notches

Notches are of importance also, and should be

carefully regarded; cut notches into the seam if the

material does not fray; should it fray, cut notches

outside the seam; it is better still to mark notches

with a few small running stitches on the seam.

Seam Allowance

Butterick has a unique seam allowance,—a special

"outlet" seam of % inch on the under-arm, shoulder

of the waist, and hip seam of the skirt, and at the

waistline in some designs. The allowance on other

seams is % inch, which gives freedom in finishing

seams. The "outlet" seams are very important to the

home sewer, being useful in adjustments in size, and


Sequence in Numbering Pieces

Careful attention is given to the numbering of

the pieces of Butterick Patterns so that in assem-

bling parts of garments the worker can follow a

regular sequence; for instance,—bodice pieces,

front and back, will be numbered 1 and 2. Picking

out numbers in sequence will guide one in pinning

parts together.

Size Range

Butterick Patterns are generally issued in both

odd and even sizes. If you measure 33 or 35 bust

for example, you can buy a size 33 or 35 pattern.

If it were not for Butterick odd sizes, you would

have to buy an even sized pattern and adjust it

to fit.

The Dehor

Butterick originated and patented the Deltor,

which carries full instructions for every step in the

construction of your garments, and Butterick in-

structions have always been considered the most

thorough and reliable. There are several important

characteristics of the Deltor, which are well worth

taking note of:—

It shows how to alter for length without disturb-

ing the lines or balance of the pattern.

It shows how to cut each and every size in the

various widths of material recommended for the

garment.

It explains clearly how to make, finish and trim

your garment.

A most important characteristic is sequence of

instruction. In the Deltor is indicated the proper

time to do each step, and insure that there will be

no later difficulties if the sequence of the Deltor is

followed.

The Envelope

The envelope contains a list of recommended

fabrics, which govern the yardage requirements.

For instance, if the pattern is designed for striped

material, it will be so stated and layouts for striped

fabrics will be found in the Deltor. But if stripes

are not recommended, layouts for stripes will not

be provided.

Since these fabric recommendations are given

after careful study of the design in relation to

material, they should be followed for the most

satisfactory results. The cutting diagram, quantity

table, and each step of the sewing instructions

represent hours of work on the part of experts,

and will save you endless time and trouble in

assembling your garment. Trust the Deltor and

you will find dressmaking an absorbing occupa-

tion crowned with happy results.

\

When a fabric, such as fur, requires special han-

dling, the Deltor shows you what to do with it in

such graphic sketches that you go through the oper-

ation smoothly and emerge with a professional result.

Outside

In patterns that indicate hand embroidery, the application

of a transfer pattern is shown with such clarity that there

can be no misunderstanding. These are small details but

they contribute enormously to the service of the home sewer.

SIZES 30-38

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EQUIPMENT

The following description of an ideal arrange-

ment for a woman who does, or has much sewing

done at home, need discourage no one; all one needs

is to begin with what is at hand and enjoy the fun

of adding a bit here or there, until a fine workable

arrangement is established.

A room if possible set apart for sewing, in which

tools and equipment may be kept ready at hand for

a few moments or hours of work.

A cupboard in which to hang unfinished garments

and store equipment.

Chest of Drawers in which to keep unfinished

parts of garments; pieces of material and general

supplies for sewing—tape, thread, needles, and pins.

Long Mirror in which to see an entire garment for

line, color, form, and balance.

Cutting Table—Large, smooth, hard surface; high

enough to stand by comfortably when cutting gar-

ments; foot-rest attached to use when sitting. A

drawer in table is a great help to hold needles, pins,

scissors, tracing wheel and so on. If large table not

available, folding cutting boards of heavy cardboard

are for sale, 40 inches by 54 inches and 40 inches

by 70 inches.

Sewing Machine—A standard make with a fi *J

equipment of tools and attachments.

Dress-Form—Padded to fit individual measures, a

great help in working for one's self.

Sleeve Form—Also padded to measure for in-

dividual.

Pressing Boards—Regular ironing board, firm

and steady; folding type for storing; sleeve board;

small seam board. Needle Boards (2) for pressing

velvet, corduroy or napped surfaces, one with wood-

en, the other with cotton cloth back. Irons—Reg-

ular iron for pressing. Steam Iron—Supplies

steam for pressing; must be carefully used.

Tailor Cushion—Oval shaped

cushion 12 -14 inches long by

6 inches deep — stout un-

bleached muslin stuffed hard

and firm with scraps of wool cloth; used to press

arm-holes, curved seams. Small Tailor Cushion—

Same as larger—used to shrink fulness out of top

of sleeves and other parts.

Iron Wire Stand on which to

invert an iron for steaming vel-

vet or cloth. Tea kettle with at-

tachment for steaming gowns.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


SMALL EQUIPMENT

Shears—For cutting garments;

good steel, medium size, bent

shears considered best.

Pinking Shears—For pinking

seams when finishing them, not

when cutting cloth, unless on crisp cottons or other

materials that do not fray. Many women like to cut

with pinking shears but

care must be used so that

finished seam will not be too narrow.

Small Scissors—

For clipping bastings; ripping; fine sewing.

\

Buttonhole Scissors—For cutting buttonholes.

Razor Blade—For ripping.

Thimble—Good metal; fit well.

Tape Measure—Good one, stitched; sateen best.

Pins—Dressmakers', good points, by box.

Pin-cushion—Wool cloth, stuffed with curled hair.

Needles—Milliners' for basting; ground downs for

<Yry fine sewing, sharps for general sewing and

dressmaking.

Emery Bag to remove rust from needles.

Tracing Wheel to mark seams on cotton and linen.

Carbon-paper—White or yellow for tracing seams.

Tailor's Chalk for marking seams.

Stiletto for forming eyelets.

Bodkin for drawing tape or ribbon through casings.

Safety Pins—Large, for fastening to end of belt

when drawing it to right side.

Tailor's Square—Makes good skirt marker.

Skirt Marker—Any good type.

Soap—Piece hard dry white soap to rub r^

on material (cotton or linen) when

drawing threads for hemstitching; also

on heavy seams to help them pass under

presser-foot easily on machines.

Press Cloths—Two heavy cotton cloths

(boiled to expel sizing), and one light [_

weight cotton cloth (cheese cloth).

Paraffin for smoothing irons.

Salt for cleaning irons.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


TAKING YOUR

MEASUREMENTS

Before you buy a pattern it is wise to be measured

carefully rather than assume that if you wore a size

sixteen last year you will do so this season. The

position of the tape measure and the exact manner

of taking the necessary measurements are important.

Butterick patterns are cut so that no allowance is

needed for fullness. Each pattern is cut to permit

perfect freedom of motion, so if you make additional

allowance for the style of the garment, the result

will be much too large for you. Remember, too,

that every Butterick pattern provides wide seams on

certain edges so that a little additional size is always

possible for fitting.

Place tape around

Taking Individual Measures:

waist before taking measures.

Length of Back: From the socket bone in the

neck, to lower edge of tape at waist.

Length of Front: From hollow in neck to lower

edge of tape at waist.

Under-Arm Measure: From hollow under arm

to lower edge of tape at waist.

Bust Measure: Stand behind figure; take measure

around fullest part of bust, an easy measure.

Waist Measure: Taken around waist, a comfort-

ably snug measure.

Neck Measure: Around the base of the neck, an

easy measure.

Width of Back: Across broadest part of back

between shoulders.

Width of Front: Across chest about 2 inches

below hollow of neck.

Note:—Place thumb under the arm and first

finger on bone at shoulder in taking width of back

and front; this locates point from which to take

measure, as hand forms an arm-hole curve from

center of which to take measure.

Sleeve Measure: Girth:—Around fullest part of

arm near top.

Hand: Around hand, over knuckles, fingers ex-

tended.

Armhole Measure: Around arm over bone in

shoulder.

Length of Sleeve: From bone in shoulder to point

of elbow when arm is bent and down to bone in wrist.

Buy Your Pattern in accordance with the measure

printed in the upper right corner of the pattern

envelope. Frocks, coats, and blouses, are bought

primarily by bust measure. If the tape measure

shows your bust measure is 36, you need a 36 bust

pattern for these garments. Skirts, Panties, Petti-

coats are bought by hip measure primarily.

For further help in the selection of patterns see

other measurements on the back of the pattern en-

velope, and the four figure classifications discussed

on the opposite page.

Dress Form: A great help in making one's own

clothing. Get a standard make of form, a size smaller

than your bust measure.

Buy a Butterick French lining pattern your bust

measure size.

Cut lining out in heavy unbleached muslin; have

it fitted; stitch and press all seams, leaving the back

open, one edge turned on seam line, the other open

as an extension.

Pad form with tissue paper or cotton batting to

fill out lining; have it smooth and firm; sew back

opening by hand when smoothly padded.


FOUR PATTERN CLASSIFICATIONS

FOR FOUR FIGURE TYPES

Butterick patterns are divided into four classifica-

tions to fit four definite figure types. Your particular

classification will do two things for you: first, fit

you with little or no alterations; second, flatter you

because its lines have been designed specifically for

your type of figure. If you are looking for fit and

chic, buy patterns in the classification that cor-

responds with your figure. Each type is described

individually on this and the following page.

However, if you like a particular design not in your

classification, there is no reason why you should not

buy it if you get it in the correct bust measure.

The Dehor, the individual dressmaking chart includ-

ed in every Butterick pattern tells and shows you

exactly how to shorten or lengthen the pattern before

you lay it on your material.

shown in the counter catalogue it will be wise for

you to look first for patterns in this classification.

These patterns are designed for the young figure.

They are not only cut in small sizes, 12 to 20, with

bust measures from 30 to 38, but they are designed

to give zest to the young in years or the woman with

a lithe young figure.

The smallest size is made for the Miss who is ap-

proximately 5 ft. tall. There is a gradual increase in

the height up to the largest size, which is made for

figures 5 ft. 6y2 inches tall.

So if you have a young figure and like young looking

clothes, you will find Junior Miss Patterns the smart-

est sort to fit your figure and your fashion require-

ments.

• • • •

The wide seams on certain edges of Butterick pat-

terns are there to take care of slight variations from

the average in bust, waist, hip or arm measure and

to adjust the pattern for a better balance and in

fitting the garment to your figure.

• • • •

It is better however to buy patterns in the classifica-

tion to which your figure belongs. It avoids altera-

tions or reduces them to a minimum. In addition, you

gain the advantage of lines designed by experts to

do full justice to your particular type of figure.

For women who prefer a conservative styling of

fashion trends, Butterick provides an exclusive serv-

ice — patterns that cut in bust measure only —

every two inch bust from 34 to 48, 50 or 52.

The proportions are those of an average figure, but

special consideration is given to the larger bust sizes

in designing.

To offer you a wider selection of styles we have in-

cluded in this department certain Butterick Women's

and Misses' designs, the character of which we con-

sider suitable to larger sizes.

We recommend this classification, if the styling of

the other groups seem too youthful for you.

This classification is designed for the average figure.

Although some of these patterns are made as small

as Size 12 or 30 Inch Bust, they seldom rim larger

than 44 Inch Bust.

For sizes above 36 Bust the patterns are made for

women and misses about 5 ft. 6% inches tall. The

smallest size in this classification is made for figures

1Y2 inches shorter than size 36. There is a gradual

increase in height up to size 36.

If your measurements come within the range given

for Women and Misses in the Table of Measurements

These patterns have been designed for women who


CHOOSING YOUR

PATTERN AND MATERIAL

Any woman who loves clothes (and who doesn't?)

finds the choice of pattern and fabric an exciting

project. However, it is one that takes a good deal of

care and judgment since so many factors enter into

it. Individualists may care for clothes that are not

in the prevailing mode but most of us feel more com-

fortable wearing clothes that are in fashion. This

means studying current magazines, going to fashion

shows when possible, and watching what other wo-

men are wearing in smart places.

Right here the Butterick service is waiting to safe-

ly guide your choice of style and line, and also give

wise hints as to the proper fabric suited to the pat-

tern and to the lines of the figure.

You need have no fear that, having found your

lines, you will not be able to follow in some measure

the season's trend; there are always possible modifi-

cations which permit us to keep to the general line

and yet adapt the new to ourselves.

Butterick recognizes four figure types upon which

designs are created, and patterns made.

The Average Figure with good proportions, will

in most cases find Women's and Misses patterns best

for her; she will virtually have no limitation since

her figure presents no particular problem.

The Junior Miss Figure has more leeway; she

is either very young or has a young figure. Extreme

silhouettes, short skirts (when in vogue), peasant

styles, gay plaids, stripes, and prints are suitable for

this type. If you are short as well as slight, have a

care not to dwarf your height with bulky fabrics,

too large prints or intricate designs.

Shorter Woman's Patterns with Larger Hip

may meet your need to appear more slender. But-

terick's idea of a slanting line from underarm seam

to draw side seam toward the back, gives an illusion

of a narrow back, and slender hips. Decorative in-

terest in the bodice is found below the shoulder and

above the bustline to make bust appear smaller.

Stitched down pleats, and center skirt panels also

draw the eye of the beholder in a vertical line.

Women who require patterns that cut in larger

sizes, and prefer a conservative styling of fashion

trends will find the above slenderizing principles

embodied in her pattern classification, and she should

follow the same general rules outlined for shorter

women with larger hips.

Easy fitting is essential in modifying outlines.

Narrow, self belts help this continuous long line.

Lustrous fabrics have a tendency to throw enlarging

high-lights on the figure, and so are not for you.

The too tall, too slender woman can minimize her

height, and add to her apparent girth, by choosing

patterns with broken lines, such as wide belts, deep

yokes, boleros, flounces, cross-tucks, or horizontal

stripes that all add to the illusion of greater weight.

Larger Measures. When the hip measures from

2 to 3^ inches larger than the corresponding mea-

surement on the pattern, for your bust measure, buy

the pattern by the hip measure. This will necessitate

alteration in the upper part of the garment, but

preserve the lines of the lower part.

Correct pattern lines will help materially in modi-

fying undesirable outlines; study your figure, esti-

mate its good points and bad, and select your pattern

from designs which cover your needs.

These designs you will find within the pages of

your Butterick Advance Fashion Forecast, Butterick


FACTS ABOUT

FABRICS

cottons and linens if you want to be sure of colors

that last and garments that fit. Ask for crease-resist-

ant and permanent-finished cotton, linen, and rayon

(particularly spun rayon) if you want to avoid con-

stant pressing and starching respectively.

Stick to the recommendations on pattern envelope

so that you will not be tempted to buy:

Sheer wool for pattern designed for silk.

Crisp fabrics for pattern intended for soft effects.

Wiry materials for garment full of gathers.

Nap fabric for tucked design.

Your pattern in hand, the occasion for which you

will wear the garment, and the chosen view clear in

your mind, you are now ready to buy your material.

It is well to select material from the types recom-

mended on the pattern envelope because every But-

terick pattern is designed and made for certain kinds of

fabric. This will assure effective results in your work.

Knowing Fabrics

Your adventure in dressmaking will be happier if

you become acquainted with your fabrics, not tech-

nically through laboratory experiments but prac-

tically so that you know their names, something of

their texture, and behavior in different situations.

Of course, you know that the five chief fabrics

derive their names from the fiber of which they are

woven or knit: wool, silk, linen, cotton, and the

man-made fiber, rayon. You are also aware that

rayon is making constantly wider inroads into the

textile field and that it is being mixed with the

other fibers to such an extent that it is impossible to

tell the content of a given piece of material. There-

fore, it is wise to go fabric shopping armed with

definite goals.

Points to Remember When Buying Fabrics

Buy at reliable stores that stand back of their

merchandise.

Look for manufacturers' labels of guarantee.

Wool: Ask for pre-shrunk woolen. Some stores

have a sponging service; a local tailor will perform

this service; see page 20 for doing it yourself.

Silk: Ask for pure dye silk if you want unweight-

ed silk; ask for properly weighted silk if you want

the body that weighting gives for specific purposes.

Cotton and Linen: Ask for dye-fast, pre-shrunk

Points to Remember When Sewing Fabrics

Wool: Use a loose tension, long stitch, sewing

silk to match; some use mercerized cotton thread.

Baste loosely woven woolen fabrics firmly to avoid

stretching.

Silk Jersey: Baste finely; stitch with fine needle,

loose tension, medium stitch, and sewing silk. To

avoid pulling use paper under fabric while stitching

on silk or rayon chiffon or metal cloth.

Silk or Rayon, crinkled crepe or matelasse,

baste firmly; stitch with medium needle, thread and

tension. Taffeta, fine needle thread, medium stitch.

Velvet: (silk or rayon) Pin with needles, baste

with silk thread, avoid marking; use fine stitch to

prevent slipping. Overcast seams.

Nets and Lace: Require special care. Use fine

thread, short stitch, and mercerized thread to match

fineness of fabric. Overcast seams.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

11


TESTING AND

ALTERING PATTERNS

Patterns

Patterns for blouses and one piece dresses and

coats should be bought by the bust measure; skirts

should be bought by hip measure.

Testing Patterns

Patterns should be tested before cutting into the

cloth; the safe way for the inexperienced worker is

to pin the pieces of the pattern together, following

the line of perforations; do not pin sleeve into arm-

hole as that would be apt to tear the pattern. Slip

pattern and sleeve on; pin at shoulder, neck and

waistline front and back. Note how much, if any,

needs to be added to or taken from the length of the

pattern; also whether it seems too snug or easy or

"just right."

Altering Pattern: To Shorten

If the pattern needs to be shortened, draw two

horizontal lines across front and back of blouse pat-

tern indicating the amount to be taken out; pin

tucks in the pieces, bringing lines together; correct

the under arm seam line as indicated in illustration.

Shorten skirt part below hip line.

To Lengthen

Draw line across sections of pattern and cut

across; separate the pieces the necessary amount and

pin pieces of paper to pattern to extend it. Lengthen

skirt part below hip line.

12

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


To Shorten One Piece Sleeve

Draw lines for tucks on same principle as in the

dress, marking above and below the elbow; pin

tucks to place.

To Lengthen One Piece Sleeve

Draw lines across above and below the elbow;

cut across; cut strips of thin paper and pin to place

adding what is necessary to the length.

To Shorten Two Piece Sleeve

Follow the same method as in the one-piece, plac-

ing tucks at two points in sleeve.

To Lengthen Two Piece Sleeve

Carry out the same idea as in the one-piece sleeve,

slashing at two points in the same way.

Kimono Waist and Sleeve

Lengthen or shorten applying method for plain

waist and sleeve.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

13


Making Room for Larger Arm

If arm is only a little fuller than average,

out" seams will take care of it.

'let-

Arm Much Larger

A. Arm much larger than average, its full length;

slash sleeve pattern from top almost to bottom and

separate edges at top.

Arm Large in Upper Part

B. Arm large in muscular section between elbow

and shoulder; lay pattern on paper and outline top;

slash a little on back of center and spread pattern

as in b; place darts to take up resulting fulness.

Arm Consistently Large

C. Arm consistently large above elbow, make nec-

essary adjustments by cutting and spreading pattern

as in c.

Blouse—With Large Armhole

Depth of armhole precludes shortening or length-

ening blouse at usual point; tuck must needs change

size of armhole; tucks or slashes in sleeve must meet

those in blouse and be of same depth. Shorten or

lengthen sleeve at hand.

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Square Shoulders

If wrinkle is very slight, correct by using the

let-out seam at the shoulder; let it out at the arm-

hole; if this wrinkle is pronounced, take up the

shoulder seam at the neck as much as is necessary

to remove wrinkle. This will make neck too tight;

clip neck-line at intervals to free it, and later cut it

away.

Sloping Shoulders

Cause a diagonal wrinkle from neck toward shoul-

ders; if garment has an open neck and wrinkle is

slight let-out shoulder seam at the neck end; taper

alteration to regular line at arm-hole. A high or

pronounced wrinkle, take up shoulder seam at arm-

hole as much as is necessary and taper it off to line

at neck; this decreases the size of arm-holes; clip

them slightly at intervals under the arms; later trim

extra cloth away.

Round Shoulders

Garment hangs in wrinkles from shoulder blade

to under-arm seam and draws across the back; rip

under arm and shoulder seams and take up the shoul-

der edge of the back at the arm-hole, enough to make

back hang straight; taper off to nothing at neck;

ease shoulder edge of back to front; rebaste under-

arm seam with back as much higher than the front

at the armhole as shoulder was raised; trim off

excess material.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

15


Over Erect Figure

Hie garment will wrinkle at the upper part of the

back on this figure; take up the shoulder edge of the

back at the neck; taper alteration nothing at arm-

hole; neck will be too high; clip the neck at inter-

vals, and trim off edges, back and front.

Large Bust

Large in proportion to rest of the figure will cause

garment to stand out in front, below bust, and draw

in wrinkles, downward toward under-arm seam. Rip

under arm seam to within 2 inches of arm-hole, if

there is no dart, take one deep enough on front to

raise garment the necessary amount; if there is a

dart, rip it, and make two darts, one above and one

below the fullest part of the bust; what is taken up

in dart, must be taken from back, at lower edge if

garment is plain, if not, then at neck and arm-hole;

re-cut as shown.

Flat Bust

Causes wrinkles at center front, through bust and

makes lower part hug in; if there is an underarm

dart, rip side seam and let out dart; the excess

length may usually be cut from lower edge; if con-

struction will not permit, recut front as shown.

16

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Flat Bust with Shoulder Dart

Let out dart as much as is necessary on armhole

side, so line is unchanged; this will make shoulder

too long; lay pattern on; re-cut armhole; the front

from shoulder to bottom of armhole will be too long;

find out how much by pinning up front shoulder; lay

pattern on, and re-cut shoulder and neck edges.

Larger Hips than Average

Cause wrinkles across back and front and draw-

ing up of garment out of line; Butterick "Outlet"

seams will take care of this irregularity if it is slight.

Where the hip measure is two to three and one half

inches larger than the corresponding measures on

the pattern envelope, it is much wiser to purchase

a pattern for the hip measure and make alterations

in the upper part of the garment.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

17


Prominent Abdomen

Lower edge of garment cut for average figure will

poke out at lower edge. If it is a one-piece garment,

open underarm seam to 7 inches below waist line

and take a dart deep enough to straighten front of

garment; taper dart carefully to nothing on front;

trim off extra length on back at lower edge.

Or open underarm seam to within 2 inches of arm-

hole and place one or two darts sufficient to straighten

front; baste seam; trim off extra length on back at

lower edge.

Skirt Alteration—Prominent Abdomen

Allow front higher and taper to side seam; extend

a trifle on back; this change makes waist smaller,

so add at side seam and center back. Alter circular

skirt in same way, raising waistline in front—add

to waist measure in center back.

Shortening Circular Skirt Pattern

If less than three yards wide, lay pattern on table;

measure width around bottom, slash pattern and

spread, so when shortened it will be correct width.

18

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Altering Pattern for Panties or Shorts

Pin seams, turn hem; try pattern on.

Shorten by means of tucks about 7 or 8 inches

below the waistline.

Lengthen by means of slashes at the same point as

for shortening. Set strips of thin paper in slashes to

secure the proper length.

Altering Pattern for Pajamas or Slacks

Pin parts of pattern together; turn hem; try pat-

tern; if it is too long, alter by taking a tuck about

7 or 8 inches below waist, and also in the leg above

the knee.

If pattern is too short, reverse the process; slash

at the same points below waist and above knee, and

insert strips of paper to preserve the contour and

give the desired length.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

19


PREPARATION

OF MATERIAL

Straighten ends of cloth before cutting:—Many

cotton fabrics may be torn to secure a straight thread

to work on. To tear material, clip selvedge; place

thumb of left hand on top of material and right

thumb underneath, tear quickly straight across; this

prevents material from twisting.

Straighten fabrics which cannot be torn by draw-

ing threads where possible, or squaring yard-stick

with selvedge and drawing line across with tailor's

chalk.

Cotton and linens today are so generally commer-

cially pre-shrunk that there is seldom anything for

the home sewer to do with them in preparation for

cutting.

Cotton or linen fabrics do occasionally appear

which are not pre-shrunk; they may be taken care

of at home. Lay piece of white material in yard

folds; sew tapes through the folds on the selvedge;

lay material if white in its folds in tub of hot water;

let it remain several hours. Drain but do not wring

it; hang to dry by tapes; when nearly dry, remove

tapes and iron on the wrong side, moving iron with

the grain of the material.

The purchase of pre-shrunk material saves the

price of extra yardage to allow for shrinkage, plus

the work involved and the time consumed in doing

it at home or the expense of having it done for you.

Wool fabrics are usually pre-shrunk when sold;

this sponging is not, however, always to be relied

upon especially for tailored garments.

A local tailor would probably do the sponging

for a small fee.

It may, however, be done at home as follows:—

Thoroughly saturate a sheet, which has been folded

to the width of the cloth, with cold water; lay

material out smoothly on table and sheet upon it;

roll both together and leave for several hours, or

all night; press with not too hot an iron, using a

heavy press cloth.

20

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


HINTS ON

CUTTING

Grain of Material

Refers to the lengthwise (warp) and crosswise

(woof or filling), threads in the cloth; thereby we

have a lengthwise and crosswise "grain" and by

folding cloth so the lengthwise and crosswise threads

are parallel, we have a bias. Large perforations on

each piece of the pattern indicate the proper placing

on cloth.

Unless patterns are placed on material with proper

reference to the "grain", the finished garment will

not be properly balanced, thus destroying the order

and harmony of the design.

Attention must be paid to the pattern or design of

the cloth. Plaids may have an up and down or a

right and left, or an even repeat by reason of the

arrangement of the bars of color therein.

Stripes may also show a distinct right and left or

even repeat by reason of the same.

Floral designs may also be found to run in one

direction thus making an up and down.

Surface, nap and pile also bring out up and down,

the first due to the finish applied in manufacture,

the second due to yarn, weave and finish; the third

to weave. By brushing the hand over the surface

of the cloth we determine the "up and down." Ex-

cept in pile fabrics, patterns are placed, so that the

"smooth way" will run downward in the garment.

Pile fabrics may be cut either way according to color

effect desired.

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BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


HINTS ON CUTTING

Straighten end of material before placing pattern;

this may be done by tearing or drawing a thread,

or squaring with yardstick (see page 20), or in

heavily woven material by following a crosswise

thread of the cloth itself.

Press pattern and material (if it is at all creased),

before cutting any one piece.

You can see by the way the stripes carry across

this blouse with front closing, and over into the

sleeve as well, how you will look when you have

followed the instructions about placing your pattern.

You can perhaps imagine how inharmonious it would

seem if those stripes missed out in meeting on the

closing line, or did not carry through the sleeve.

Use good, sharp shears, thumb through the small

bow, fingers through the large bow. Cut long, even

strokes to the end of the shears.

In laying out a pattern on an irregular plaid, all

pieces must lie in the same direction.

Place corresponding notches on the same stripe in

material to make them match in garment.

You can also see in the little jacket, what it means

to carefully regard the placing of a pattern, so the

corresponding notches in front of jacket and arm-

hole are on a stripe. You will have such a comfort-

able sense of balance, which helps to make the wear-

ing of smart clothes enjoyable.

It is most important to have corresponding notches

on armhole of front and sleeve touch a stripe, not

between two, when placing a pattern for cutting

stripes or plaids; likewise corresponding notches

on a skirt.

Do not forget the rule for placing patterns for

stripes and plaids.

22

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


PLACING PATTERN -

CUTTING GARMENT

If you desire to make a skirt of striped material,

having the stripes meet diagonally down the center

front, be sure to purchase a pattern designed for this

type of cutting, and also a striped material having

an even repeat.

You will note that the Deltor shows you how to

place your pattern so that the corresponding notches

on the pieces of the pattern touch a stripe, not fall

between two stripes.

When your pattern has been tested, and adjust-

ments made, arrange the pieces of your pattern on

the material as shown in the Deltor you have chosen

for your width of material and size.

Pin each piece of the pattern to place, following

the layout exactly; do not place pins on or across

sewing lines.

If a part of the pattern is laid with one edge

on a fold, pin the edge that lies along the fold. In

pieces not on a fold, be sure the large perforations

marking the grain line, follow the grain line as

shown in the layout. Place all pieces of pattern be-

fore cutting any part out.

In cutting, use long sharp shears, and cut exactly

along the edge of the pattern. No need with a But-

terick pattern to "allow for a seam." All seams are

provided for; if you add to these you will have a

garment too large for you; only one exception to

this rule—if you have a material which frays badly,

add 14 inch to take care of the finishing.

Notches:—May be clipped in or cut out beyond

the edge of the seam; the safest way is to mark

notches with two or three running stitches.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

23


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MARKING

SEWING LINES

Tailor Tacking or Tailor Basting

Deltor recommends as an accurate and safe meth-

od of marking on the cloth, seams, darts, tucks, pleats,

place for pockets, and bits of decoration indicated

by the perforations in the pattern.

Where there are two sizes of perforations, use dif-

ferent colors of thread. Mercerized thread will not

pull out. Use a long double thread, no knot; take

two small stiches in each perforation, through both

thicknesses of cloth; leave a loop at least 1% inches

long; repeat until all lines are marked. Lift pattern

from the cloth; carefully lift one section of cloth

from the other, as far as the loops will permit; clip

the loops, leaving a correct sewing line on each

piece; mark center front and center back with un-

even basting. Mark arm-hole and neck-line with

running stitch; also prevents stretching.

Tracing Wheel

Seams on cottons, and linens may be traced direct-

ly through the pattern. Run tracing wheel in direct

lines, straight ahead; do not see-saw it. Do not

trace on table as it will mar it, have a piece of

smooth unvarnished board for this purpose.

Wool materials may be traced by using white or

yellow carbon paper; place pieces of garment on

carbon paper; trace lines through pattern; remove

pattern; turn material and trace again through lines

obtained from carbon paper.

A clever device for tracing seams is a chalk board,

made of very heavy cardboard which does not have

a polished surface; mix a paste thick as paint with

water and blue carpenter's chalk; paint two coats

of mixture on board, letting first dry before putting

on the second, cover board with heavy cotton Brus-

sels net, which keeps chalk board intact and prevents

cutting fabric with tracing wheel. Use chalk board

same as carbon paper.

24

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


ASSEMBLING PARTS

OF GARMENTS

Refer to the pattern; follow carefully the num-

bers and notches on each piece of the pattern; and

the Dehor directions for assembling parts; there

will then be no confusion.

Each piece of the pattern is numbered; begin with

number one and look for number two; look at the

layout on Deltor to identify the parts; bring corre-

sponding notches together; pin seams, having tailor

tacks or tracings exactly meet and pins at right

angles to the seam; (the last to insure straight lines

of basting and lessen possibility of pricking the

fingers). Keep work on table while pinning parts.

Straight and Bias Edges

Lay straight edge on the table and bias edge on

top to prevent stretching the bias. If there are two

bias edges lay the less bias edge on table, the more

bias edge on top.

Baste narrow strip of silk or seam binding to V

neck of dress to prevent stretching; hold neck easy

on binding.

Baste sleeve in armhole to have idea of complete

garment.

Turn hem-line marked on pattern and pin; place

pins perpendicularly to give better effect of hem.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


FITTING GARMENTS

First Fitting

Put garment on, right side out; see that it is well-

placed, center lines front and back in correct posi-

tion. Grain of material should carry straight around

figure at bust and hips. Garment should be easy

fitting over bust, hips and across shoulders. Look

garment over carefully to see:—first, the general

effect of the whole; the length of sleeves, shoulder

seams, and of entire garment. Note location of

pockets and other bits of decoration.

Shoulder

Loose at shoulder, take up seam; if direction needs

to be changed rip seam; adjust and re-pin.

Bust and Hips

Loose; take in outlet seam; tight, let out outlet

seam; place pins carefully so as not to lose direction

of the line.

Armhole Seam

Generally set at bone in shoulder, carry down in

straight line until it turns under the arm; rather

straight in back; if it curves toward center of back,

hinders free arm-movement beside forming a poor

line. Rip if necessary and re-pin.

26

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Sleeve

Lengthwise thread of sleeve should fall straight

from top of shoulder, down over the top of shoulder,

else sleeve will draw. Deep diagonal wrinkle across

top; drop top of sleeve, or raise under the arm. Note

position of elbow in cup provided by fulness; raise

or lower as needed; loose at wrist, with long thread,

baste a new line; loosen basting to take sleeve off;

draw up again and mark new line.

Neck Line and Collar

If shoulder seam has been altered, collar will need

fitting; make any change in neck line while collar

is off.

Length of Garment

If planned for straight lower edge (straight plaited

or gathered), changes in line would necessarily be

made at waistline; gored or circular types line

would be marked with tailor square or skirt marker.

Godets, or circular flounces;—length marked at low-

er edge; straight skirt sections or pleatings must be

on a thread.

Alterations

Make any slight changes or corrections; baste parts

together again and hem line. Try on to confirm the

work done; it is then ready for stitching parts and

pressing. Make all changes found necessary in the

fitting; mark changes very carefully with pins or

tailor's chalk; rip corresponding seams and mark

same alterations on these by laying two correspond-

ing parts exactly together, and tailor tack, trace on

carbon paper or chalk board.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


.

HAND AND

MACHINE

SEWINC

History tells us that at remote periods, wearing

apparel was made of crude fabrics, and through

processes of hand sewing and with the use of bone or

sinew needles, and thread made of skins.

Today, fabrics are manufactured in a variety of

forms and textures, and tools, likewise.

Hand Sewing

Hand sewing today has its place in the process of

garment construction as fundamentally as in earlier

periods.

It may be employed as a permanent sewing, or as

a preparation for machine sewing.

Hand sewing would seem not to be as strong as

machine sewing, but in some forms and for certain

purposes, when carefully executed, its durability is

unquestioned.

Familiarity with the various stitches used in hand

sewing, their formation and use, renders the process

of dressmaking simple and interesting.

Machine Sewing

Machine sewing definitely has its place in the

process of dressmaking—because of the greater

speed by which the work may be accomplished, its

firmness, strength, and durability; its decorative

quality when employed on tailored garments.

The woman who does considerable sewing would

find a sewing machine a necessity. Where electricity

is available, the foot-power machine has no chance

of placement. Portable machines are useful when

there is limited space, but whenever possible, the

table type of machine is preferable.

Proper use and care of the sewing machine, as well

as all tools and equipment, add to the speed, the

interest and unbroken continuity of one's work.

Hand and machine sewn seams need to be pro-

tected at the ends, so they will not rip. Knots, addi-

tional stitches, tying or sewing ends of thread are

devices to accomplish this purpose.

A knot is made by winding the end of the thread

around the end of the first finger, (left hand) with

a short end of thread extending; with the thumb roll

this end of the thread around the loop of thread and

with the end of the second finger, draw the loop

together forming the knot.

A back-stitch (p. 32) will catch and cover the

loose end of thread at the beginning of a seam, and

one stitch upon another at the end will secure the

sewing.

Enough thread should always be left at the start

and finish of a machine stitched seam to permit tying

the threads or threading a needle and sewing them

to the cloth. Another method is to stitch back on the

seam by machine both coming and going; then it

cannot rip.

28

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


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WHAT NUMBER THREAD?

WHAT SIZE NEEDLE?

Black and

White

Thread

Mercerized

Colored

Thread

COTTONS AND LINENS

Hand

Needles

Machine

Needles

Machine

Stitches

per Inch

8

Heavy coating, suiting weaves, canvas, drilling,

duck, ticking, tarpaulin

3

Coarsest

8

10

12

4

16

20

24

Duck suits, awning goods, denim, porch furniture

covers, bed tickings

4

5

Coarse

10

12

30

36

Medium

Muslin, heavy cretonne, khaki, madras

5

6

Medium

Coarse

12

40

50

60

70

Medium

Cotton prints, cambric, gingham, percale

6

7

Medium

14

80

90

For

Sheers

Lawns, dimities, voiles, other light weight summer

fabrics

8

9

Medium

Fine

16

18

100


BASIC CONSTRUCTIVE

Running Stitch

The simplest form of stitch used in hand sewing.

It is used for various processes—basting, seaming,

tucking, gathering, shirring, gauging, slip-stitching.

To make:—Take up on the needle, a few threads

of the cloth; then pass the needle over the same

number or more, and continue to the end of the

line of sewing.

Basting

A process in which running stitches are used to

hold two pieces of cloth together while they

permanently sewed.

are

Even basting

Used where there may be some strain on the seam

before sewing. Pass the needle over and under an

equal number of threads of the cloth; make a longer

stitch than for seaming.

Uneven basting

An excellent guide for stitching seams. Use a long

stitch on the upper side of the cloth and a short

stitch on the under side.

Dressmaker basting

Holds cloth firmly; also fine guide for stitching.

Take a long stitch and two or three shorter stitches

on the upper side of the cloth.

Diagonal basting

Fine for basting linings and interlinings to outer

cloth. Take a short vertical stitch on the under side

of the cloth and then a long stitch diagonally on the

upper side of the cloth.

30

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


STITCHES

Top basting

Used in basting two sections of a garment together,

one having the edge folded back and laid upon the

other, as lapped seams, sleeves into armholes, and

sometimes pipings and ruffles under a folded edge.

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Slip basting

Use of slip-stitching to firmly hold folded edge of

garment section which has been top basted and which

is to be stitched from the under side.

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Gathering

Used to draw a larger piece of cloth in to fit a

smaller. Running stitch, even when gathers are

pulled; uneven if gathers are stroked. Double thread

for one row; single thread for two rows. Do not

remove needle from cloth while gathering; push

cloth off the eye of needle when crowded.

Stroking gathers

Draw the thread up until folds of cloth are close

together; place a pin on which wind the thread;

hold cloth between the thumb and finger of left hand;

with the eye of the needle, or a blunt pointed needle,

stroke each gather to place; continue until all are

stroked. This helps to keep gathers smartly in line.

Shirring

Method of using gathers for ornamentation; two

or more rows of gathers, spaced as desired; the run-

ning stitches used in shirring do not need to lie

beneath each other. Draw the threads up; fasten and

steam the fabric as you would velvet to take out

little bubbles which may appear.

Gauging

Method used when there is a very large amount

of material to be brought into a small space; take a

long stitch top side of cloth, a smaller on the under

side; stitches on each row must lie directly in line

with the corresponding stitch on the row above.

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BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

31


Backstitching

Strongest stitch used in hand sewing. Baste seam

carefully; use small knot; slip needle between two

thicknesses of cloth, and through upper side; take a

small running stitch; pass needle back over running

stitch, down through cloth and over twice as much

space as running stitch; bring needle to upper side

and down through cloth at end of running stitch;

repeat.

Fasten thread on under thickness of cloth, taking

one stitch on top of another; pass needle through

stitch to form a loop knot.

Half Backstitching

Stitches appear like running stitches on right side.

Same principle as backstitching; pass needle under

three times as much cloth on wrong side and come

only half way to end of last stitch on right side.

Fasten and join thread same as in backstitching.

Combination stitch

Used where not as much strength is required as in

backstitching, as fells or French seams. Appears on

right side like three stitches together, a space, three

stitches again and space; on wrong side appears like

running stitches.

Begin and fasten same as backstitching; take two

running stitches; bring needle to right side of cloth,

as if to take another; pass needle back to last run-

ning stitch and through to wrong side of cloth and up

through the same hole through which needle passed

last. Take two running stitches and repeat.

Overcasting

Diagonal stitches over raw edges of seams to pre-

vent ravelling of threads.

Trim the edges; conceal knot between edges, or

under one thickness of cloth; hold seam over first

finger, use thumb to push it along as work proceeds;

point needle toward left shoulder and make diagonal

stitches. Be sure the stitches are not tight and keep

them twice as far apart as they are deep.

Overhanding

Makes flat, strong, invisible seam on undergar-

ments, bed linen, hems on table linen. Fold edges of

cloth; baste folded edges together; hold between

first finger and thumb; point needle toward chest;

take straight stitches right side cloth, slanting

stitches on wrong side. Do not use a knot; sew over

end of thread.

32

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Hemming

Folded edges, such as hems, facings and fells are

held in place by hemming. Baste folded edges care-

fully; conceal knot under fold; take up threads in

cloth and also in fold, use a slanting stitch; fasten

thread, one or two stitches under side fold.

Vertical Hemming

Sometimes used in sewing gathers to a band. The

stitch is taken perpendicularly; put needle into

cloth directly under the point in fold in which it

was brought out.

Blind Hemming

Used where an invisible finish is desired—on

silks, rayon, or wool. Take up thread of cloth on

under side, (not to show through on right side), and

then a few threads in the fold.

Slipstitching

A running stitch; used where an absolutely invisi-

ble sewing is desirable: Use a running stitch; take

up a few threads in the fold of the hem and only a

portion of thread in the cloth. It is not a strong

sewing, but for exquisitely fine work, it is desirable.

Whipping

Term applied to plain hemming or overcasting

stitch when sewing a rolled hem, sewing lace to a

rolled or finished edge; also used as method of

gathering a rolled edge.

Hold strip to be rolled, wrong side toward you,

turn edge slightly and roll between thumb and finger

of left hand, only an inch or two at a time; the

stitches must pass under the roll, not through it.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

33


Blanket Stitch

Used to finish edges of blankets or other woolen

edges which do not fray, but which would make

thick edge if folded.

At left hand end of cloth, pass needle up through

cloth 14 inch from edge, hold thread under thumb;

form a loop and pass the needle down through cloth

again and up from under cloth and over thread;

repeat.

Buttonhole Stitch

Let needle come out % inch below the edge of the

cloth; leave needle in cloth and pass the double

strand of thread around point of needle (from right

to left). Draw needle through cloth and the thread

up close so as to form purl or twist right on the

edge of cloth. Repeat stitches rather close together.

Catchstitch or Herringbone Stitch

Used to hold raw edges of flannel or other woolen

hem or seam. Work from left to right, between two

imaginary guide lines; let needle come out at the

left hand end of cloth upper line and pass to right

on under line enough to give slant to stitch; pass

from right to left on upper line and take stitch from

right to left on lower line at correct distance to give

proper slant; repeat until the end of the work.

Fagoting

Baste folded, straight or bias strips of material or

ribbon to paper, then interlacing them with thread,

which may be of same or other color. Pass needle

up from under side of the left hand strip, and mov-

ing forward diagonally, bring it through edge of

right hand strip; pass needle back of thread in tak-

ing stitch in left hand edge. Continue.

Ladder Fagoting

Worked same way, except needle must be passed

under cloth to keep lines of fagoting straight.

;:4

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


SEAMS

Plain Seam Pinked

Used where material is firm and not sheer. Press

seam together or open. Pink edges before pressing,

with pinking shears, pinking machine or by hand

with plain shears.

Plain Seam Overcast

Use where material not sheer enough for seam to

be visible on right side, and where edges of seam

fray easily.

" "SU" 'I

Bound Seam

Use—When silk or wool material frays, seams

may be bound (either open and pressed, or together)

with the taffeta ribbon called "seam binding"; this

should match in color the material of the garment.

Heavy cloth seams may be bound with silk bias

binding, which comes ready folded.

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Plain Seam Edges Turned

Silk seams are often pressed open and the edges

folded back and sewn with running stitches.

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French Seam

A seam within a seam. Used on undergarments,

dresses, bags. Place wrong sides of cloth together

matching seam markings; baste; stitch % * Vi incn

outside tracing according to thickness of cloth; sew

with a running combination or machine stitching,

remove basting; trim seam to % inch or less; turn

to wrong side, crease seam flat; baste and stitch so

as to cover raw edge of seam.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

35


False French seam

Used in lingerie and silk blouse and dresses.

Stitched as plain seam; trim edges and turn them

in to each other and sew with running stitch or by

machine.

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French fell

Make plain seam; trim one thickness away; fold

other edge over to line of stitching and hem to

machine stitching. This seam is sometimes called a

false French seam.

Tuck seam

Top sewn seam. Used for panels in skirts, yokes

in blouses and waists; sections of sleeves. When

basting, keep folded edge of upper piece directly on

marked sewing line of under. Stitch desired distance

from edge of seam.

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Stitched fell

Used where flat finish is desired — skirts, middy

blouses, children's clothing, undergarments. Stitch

a plain seam on right side of garments if desired

for decoration; trim away one thickness of seam;

fold in edge of other thickness of seam and stitch

to garment, having a smooth narrow seam.

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Hemmed fell

Same principle as the stitched fell, except the

folded edge is hemmed by hand. This seam may be

placed on either the under or upper side of garment.

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Overhanded fell

Same as hemmed fell except the cloth of the

garment is folded back in line with the fold of the

fell; then the edges are overhanded together.

3G

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


*~~* i tj nil "Tlin^lfrn ui-nuu

Flannel f eU

Seams in flannel or albatross garments. Stitch

plain seam, cut away one edge; fold wider edge

without turning it in; finish edge with catch-stitching.

Rolled seam

Used on very sheer materials where an invisible

seam is desired. Roll edges together very carefully

to avoid "puckers"; put needle under the rolled

edge when hemming.

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Edge stitched or cord seam

Plain seam; remove bastings; turn seam toward

front of garment; baste close to folded edge; stitch

on right side of garment ^48 incn from edge; trim

raw edges to % inch and overcast.

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Welt seam

Same principle as cord seem; stitch right side

of seam any desired width; trim under side of seam

narrower than top side to reduce thickness and

prevent mark on right side of garment when pressing.

Curved seams

Sleeve seams which curve at the elbow, kimono

or other, should be clipped and raw edges overcast,

or pinked; they may be pressed open or together.

Crossed seams

Stitch and press first seams; stitch seam which

will cross these, and before pressing trim away first

seems at corner so as to reduce the thickness of

seam, to avoid clumsiness.

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BUTTERiCK DRESSMAKING BOOK

37


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mtftmjymnwim'ifmiM HyT^^Mf^«M*l^nMlm^t.w*^w»"^^^|H^l.V"^^y^lTH'"*•

Lapped seam

Lay one piece of garment directly on top of the

other, wrong side to right side and sewing lines

directly on top of each other; turn edge of seam on

right side and baste carefully; turn and baste seam

on wrong side. Stitch both edges of seams. Seam has

somewhat same appearance as the stitched fell.

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Strap seam

A method of decoration on tailored garments; a

plain seam simply covered with a strip of cloth

the width desired; turn in edges of strap, baste and

press before placing over seam. Straps of broad-

cloth or some equally closely woven material some-

times are placed using the raw edge, instead of

turning the edge in.

Slot seam

Fold the edges of both pieces on the sewing lines;

have these edges come together; place a lengthwise

or crosswise strip of material on the underside;

stitch any desired distance from the edge as in a

tucked seam.

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Fagotted seam

Each edge of seam is folded back from sewing

line, one half the distance the edges are to be apart

when finished. Baste to strips of paper and then

fagot them, diagonal or ladder fagoting.

Hemstitched seam

Used for seams of sheer dresses, Georgette, chiffon,

organzine, or organdie. Baste seam very carefully;

have thread same color as material when taking it

to the hemstitcher; trim seam when finished on edge

of hemstitching or cut through center to form a

picot edge.

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33

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


HEMS

Marking hem straight edge

Fold garment on line decided upon as the correct

length; pin; cut a notch in a piece of cardboard

indicating the depth of hem desired; place end of

cardboard at folded edge of garment; the straight

edge of notch will indicate the depth of hem; trim

hem evenly, proceed with type of finish desired.

Marking hem curved edge

Proceed same as for straight edge. Mark at straight

edge of notch; trim edge evenly. Decide on type of

finish to use.

Plain hem

Mark; turn edge in and run turned edge by hand

or stitch by machine; lay to garment and blind hem

or slip stitch according to the strength and dura-

bility needed.

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Plain hem with binding

Measure and mark same as usual; then baste to

top of hem either taffeta seam binding or bias bind-

ing on edge of hem; either run by hand or stitch

on machine; lay hem to place and blind hem. When

using taffeta seam binding or Prussian binding, hold

it quite easy as you sew it on, so it will not shrink

up when garment is pressed and pucker the hem. Use

Prussian binding only on wool garments. Shrink it

before using.

—«?

Plain hem single fold

Used on materials which do not fray, on curved

or straight edges. A straight hem may be pinked or

edge left plain. For all three methods, catch-

stitching is used for a finish. A pinked hem may be

slipstitched.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

39


Hem — circular garment

Mark hem in usual manner; gather the fulness

at top of hem, illustration shows even gathers, draw

up gathers and fasten thread; then if garment is

woolen, drop the top of the hem and shrink out the

fulness; then finish with taffeta or bias binding. Ful-

ness may be laid in small pleats, but in no case

may these extend to the lower edge of the hem as

that would spoil the line with points here and there.

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Faced hem

When short of material, or wish to lengthen a

garment, a facing is acceptable. It should be exactly

the grain of the garment. Cut facing the correct

depth and baste to garment, right sides together;

stitch and turn, leaving a bit of garment below fac-

ing, so it will not show. Complete as in plain hem.

Faced hem — circular garment

When cutting garment, allow for hem plus seam

allowance; mark finishing line as usual; cut ^4 inch

below it and set piece up on garment for a facing,

finish in usual way.

Reversed hem

This hem provides an attractive finish for a straight

skirt, provided the material is alike on both sides,

especially when piped in contrasting color or bias

of the same. When stitching the seams of the skirt

let them come down a little below the top of the hem,

the depth of which must have been decided previ-

ously. Clip seams; turn the material to right side

and stitch; then place hem and finish as desired.

40

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Napery or damask hem

Used for table linen, napkins, cloths, towels. Fold

a narrow hem; turn it to the wrong side of the

article and overhand the two folds.

Open hem and press flat.

French hem

Used in sewing lace on undergarments; making

collars and cuffs and fagoting bands to edges of

garments. Fold a very narrow hem to the right side

of the garment; fold back to wrong side; crease; sew

along the fold of the hem where it meets the fold of

the cloth, with an overhanding stitch, encasing lace

edging; this keeps hem on wrong side of garment.

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Rolled hem

A very general way of rolling a hem, is to roll

between the thumb and forefinger of left hand a

tiny roll of the edge of the material, about an inch

at a time, and sew it with whipping stitches.

Another method is to machine stitch on the raw

edges of the material, trim it away close to the

stitching, roll it a little at a time.

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Quick rolled hem

A quick method of rolling a hem is to turn a

tiny raw edge and sew it with the stitch used in

hemming velvet; sew only a short distance and draw

up thread and you will have an attractive rolled hem.

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Shell hem

Used on collars, cuffs and lingerie for decoration.

Fold hem and baste; take two stitches one atop of

the other over the hem, slip needle under hem to

next point and take two more stitches; continue to

end of space.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

41


X| •

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Hem with Mitred Corners

Used for handkerchiefs, collars and cuffs and for

household articles. Both hems are folded and

creased; open them up and cut the triangular piece

Ys inch below the point at which the creases crossed;

fold hems again; place one edge of mitre flat and

turn other under and sew with fine hemming stitches.

The mitre may he seamed and turned with the hem,

if so desired.

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Hem with Square Corner

Used on tailored garments—finish of hem and

facing. Fold hem and mark line of fold; cut from

hem at bottom of garment, twice the depth of the

hem less the allowance for seams; refold hems, lap-

ping front over hem at lower edge; hem or slip

stitch the overlap and overhand the end of the hem.

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Hem for Square Necked Dress

The material must first be clipped at the corner

before turning the hems the desired depth; then

stitch a triangular strip of cloth across the ends of

the hems; then complete the square corner by fold-

ing over the set-in piece and the hems. Finish hem

as desired.

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Shaped Faced Hems

A decorative note may be added to a garment by

the use of shaped faced hems of same or contrasting

material, turned to right side and finished at top

with feather-stitching or other decorative stitch.

.12

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


TUCKS

Tucks are folds taken in material, used in various

sizes and combinations as decorations, or to hold

fulness in place, where a flat finish is desired. Tucks

may be put in lengthwise, crosswise, bias or curved

lines; sewed by hand (running stitch) or by machine.

Marking

Measure from lower edge of hem, allowing the

space desired below edge of tuck, plus three times

the width of the tuck; prick mark with needle on

cotton cloth; with tailor's chalk on silk or wool.

Measure from stitching of first tuck, space desired

between tucks, plus twice the width of the tuck;

prick, crease and stitch; repeat. A cardboard gauge

is a great help in marking tucks, both width of tuck

and space between indicated by notches.

Pin Tucks

Take up only a thread or two in fold; sometimes

laid on right side; at other times on wrong side of

garment. May be hand run or by machine; wider

tucks are sometimes stitched on the under side of

garment at shoulder to add fulness below.

Shell Tucks

Sew running stitches then two stitches over tuck

to form shell as in shell hem.

Curved Tucks

Used for yokes and curved edges:—Cut from

folded paper one-half the outline of the desired

curve; unfold; lay on material to mark desired posi-

tion for outside tuck; mark for tucks; gather the

under side of each tuck to make it fit the upper side;

adjust gathers evenly; baste and stitch or run by

hand. Leave end of thread to be fastened later.

Cluster Tucks

Tucks are often arranged in groups or clusters

as a chief note of decoration.

Tucks on Bias

Handle carefully so as not to stretch or twist bias.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

43


ART OF PRESSING

A good pressing equipment plus careful handling

insures smartness in one's attire.

Cotton and linen need no press cloths; they may

be pressed with a steam iron. Press all seams in a

section of a garment before attaching it to another

section.

Press Cloths

A safe way to press other fabrics than cotton and

linen, is to put a heavy press cloth in water, saturate

it thoroughly and wring it as dry as you can, so no

water drips from it; place it on the ironing board,

and press it until only slightly damp; this allows

the moisture to permeate the padding of the ironing

board; draw the section of the garment to be pressed

over the board; place press cloth over it and press

carefully with not too hot an iron. There is no

danger of water spotting in this method; in fact

clear water spots may be removed in this way.

Sleeve Seams

May be pressed on regulation sleeve boards or on

small seam boards.

44

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Tailor Cushions

Large and small tailor cushions each have a use;

shrink fulness at top of sleeve or elsewhere on

smaller one; press armholes on larger cushion, gar-

ment and sleeve wrong side out; also curved seams.

Pressing Pile Fabrics

Place needle board having wooden base on ironing

board; draw section of garment over it, pile side

down; place the flexible needle board on top of

garment, needle side down and press cloth on top

of it; press carefully. The needles keep the pile

side from flattening out. Never use the flexible board

instead of the wooden base board, as it pushes

needles down into cotton-backing.

Steaming Pile Fabrics

An iron wire frame for inserting the iron is invalu-

able for steaming velvet. Insert iron; lay damp press

cloth over it and draw wrong side of fabric over it,

moving press cloth with it to produce steam. Handle

carefully until dry to avoid spotting. A small gadget

attached to the spout of a tea-kettle makes a good

piece of equipment for steaming large pieces of pile

fabric or dresses.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING B.OOK

45


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PLEATS

Marking

Use two colors of thread, one to indicate the fold

of the pleat, the other the line to which it is laid

when basted; use tailor tacking.

Side Pleats

Mark as above and fold edges of pleats and baste;

then lay fold edge to marks for placing; baste to

place. Side pleats may run in one direction around

a skirt or in both directions by laying a box-pleat

in center front.

Box Pleats

Use same method of marking as side pleats; baste

folds; press, lay pleats to place and baste.

ff

Inverted Box Pleat

Set in seams, front or back; baste in regular way;

box pleat is on wrong side of garment; stitch part

way down on right side or leave free.

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Set in Inverted Box Pleat

Section of garment cut away to admit pleated

section; clip corner; turn in edges and baste; press

edges and pleated piece; set in opening and baste to

place; stitch turned edge by hand.

Side Pleat in Seam

Stitch seam; lay pleats; baste; press; stitch at top

to hold in place; trim seam diagonally; clip seam

at top of hem and pink or overcast edges of pleat;

press seam open in hem.

46

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


CODETS

Godets

Godets are insets, attached to seams or slashes to

add fulness to a skirt at lower edge. They may ex-

tend to the upper part of the skirt or stop at any

desired height; they are usually cut as a wide or

narrow segment of a circle or the variation of the

same.

Godet in Slash

Join edges of godet, to edges of slash, right sides

of godet and skirt together; baste, stitch and press

seam. Attach to seam in same way.

Godet in Shaped Opening

Clip upper edges of opening and turn back to form

a good line; baste and press; place edge of godet

beneath the turned edge of skirt; baste and stitch to

place; finish inside edge with overcasting.

Godets in Sleeves

Sometimes fulness at lower end of a close fitting

sleeve is secured by inserting a godet, especially in

the bracelet or elbow length sleeve.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


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DARTS

Darts are used to take out fulness, where not de-

sired; to throw in fulness where needed; and to bring

sections of garments into correct grain. Begin to

stitch darts at pointed end.

Neck Line Darts

Take up fulness at collar line, and distribute

enough across back to make garment set easily.

Shoulder Darts

Take out excess fulness at shoulder; also swings

to correct grain and throws fulness into bust section

of garment.

Under Arm Darts

Lift sections to proper grain and throw fulness in

bust.

Waist Darts

Take out fulness above waist and bring out the

nipped-in waist curve.

Skirt Darts

Take out fulness at waist to fit skirt at waist line.

Gathered Darts

Sometimes used below hip line to take care of

fulness in lower part of skirt, which section is gath-

ered and taken in to dart; face with bias strip and

baste upper edge of dart to gathered section; stitch;

press.

.1S

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


FLOUNCES

RUFFLES

AND

Circular Flounces

They may be shallow or deep; full or scant, or

part straight and part circular.

Finish lower edge of flounce; mark line on gar-

ment on which to place flounce; clip upper edge

depth of a seam and place on garment; baste and

stitch to place; let flounce fall into place.

Circular jabots, or flounces for ends of sleeves

may be placed in the same manner by way of deco-

ration.

Ruffles

Ruffles are gathered or pleated and attached to

garments in various ways. Gathers must be stroked

and adjusted to fill a given space and equally dis-

tributed through the space. Pleated ruffles may be

attached in the same manner as gathered ruffles.

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Ruffles may be placed far enough from the edge

of the seam, that the edge may be turned in and

hemmed to the stitching.

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Bias binding may be used to finish edge; open one

edge, baste to seam; stitch through binding ruffles

and garment; turn binding up on garment and blind

hem, plain hem or machine stitch depending on the

type of garment and material.

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Ruffles are sometimes set under a tuck. Baste

ruffle to edge of garment and lay tuck over seam,

baste and stitch on the edge; this serves in place of

a binding.

Ruffles may also be hemstitched to the garment.

Turn in edge of garment and top baste it to the

ruffle; then the ruffle is machine hemstitched, bastings

removed and raw edges on wrong side trimmed close

to hemstitching.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

49


***OU**H /1** t7Ztferrt77/r \ i /* nraA*v9?

PLACKETS

Plackets—Hemmed Plackets

Infants Wear or Undergarments:—A narrow hem

on each side of the opening; the hem folded under

on one side to form a lap and backstitched diago-

nally at lower edge to prevent tearing down.

Wide and Narrow Hem Plackets

A narrow hem one side and a wider hem on the

other side, the wide hem overlapping the narrow and

also stitched diagonally at lower end, forming a

pleat at lower end.

Continuous Bound and Faced Placket

Used for children's garments, underwear, and light

weight materials:—Cut a lengthwise strip of mate-

rial the same as for a bound placket; fold strip in

center of length; baste extension to place; then cut

material away on the other side leaving enough to

turn in on raw edge; lay this side back on the gar-

ment to form a facing; baste and stitch.

'I * **jl**+t\ilt/"

50

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


SLIDE FASTENERS

A.

Inserting Slide Fasteners

(1 ) Mark opening with line of basting the length

of metal of fastener plus % inch, baste piece of

material 1^2 inches square to lower part of opening,

stitch %6 inch each side of basting on patch only.

(2) For opening, slash along basting line to

within %0 of an inch of bottom, then diagonally to

corners; turn patch to wrong side to form facing for

lower edge.

(3) Close slide fastener; turn down upper edges

of binding, set opening of garment to binding, close

to fastener; stitch to place.

(4) Turn in edges of facing; hem to the binding

of slide fastener, on wrong side.

B.

(1 ) On upper and under back part of opening,

trim one half of seam away.

Stitch a strip of bias material 1 inch wide to front

edge of opening; turn to inside and baste.

(2) One half seam allowance at back edge is

turned under and stitched to tape of fastener close

to metal.

(3) Front is lapped over back edge of opening,

and pinned securely; turn to wrong side; stitch tape

to front close to metal.

(4) Shield sewed to back edge of opening.

c.

(1 ) Apply fastener before belt is put on.

Mark seam line on back and front of placket with

basting, face front with selvedge material; sew fac-

ing on front seam allowing % inch back from actual

seam; fold; baste and press.

Extend back seam of skirt, % inch further than

actual seam so under front seam will lap and hide

fastener.

(2) Keep slide fastener closed while working;

stitch back part of opening to tape of fastener, close

to metal; place fastener y2 inch below top, so belt

may be placed.

(3) Lap front of placket over back edge of open-

ing so as to conceal fastener. Top-stitch through all

thicknesses % inch from seam. Attach belt.

(4) Shieldââ&#x201A;Źâ&#x20AC;?strip of material 2 inches wide and

length of fastener; fold and stitch; apply to garment

to cover fastener.

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BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

51


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BINDINGS

Cutting Bias Strips

Fold the material so the warp (lengthwise) threads

lie parallel to the filling (crosswise) threads. Cut

through the diagonal fold which gives a true bias.

Measure the depth needed for the strips by placing

right sides together until ends meet and bias edges

are at right angles to each other; stitch, press, and

trim off extending points,

V

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Continuous Bias Strip

When a quantity of bias stripping is needed, mark

the lines for cutting the necessary number of strips;

join the ends of the strip by slipping one side above

the other exactly the width of a strip, the other lines

of marking should meet; the bias may then be cut as

a continuous strip.

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Bias Binding

Used for finishing and protecting raw edges of

garments. Cut strips desired width; place right side

binding to right side of garment; stitch; fold bind-

ing over edge of garment; turn in edge of binding

and hem to machine stitching; be careful not to

stretch bias as it would cause wrinkles in the binding.

Double Bias Binding

Used on sheer fabrics; cut four times the width

desired, plus twice the seam allowance; fold binding

through center and press; all double bias bindings

need to be stretched,—heavy material by pressing,

but sheer material as the binding is put on; in cut-

ting allow in width for the narrowing of the binding

when stretching it. Baste raw edge of binding to

right side of garment; stitch; fold binding over edge

and hem folded edge to machine stitching.

52

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


A Continuous Bound Placket Facing

Cut a lengthwise strip of material, 1^ inches wide

and twice the length of the placket. Stitch all around

opening; right side to right side; fold on stitched

edge; turn in raw edge of facing, baste to place and

stitch or hem by hand. One edge forms the extension,

the other is folded back, the upper edge caught in

belt, the lower edge backstitched to keep facing firm.

Bias Tape Binding

Comes already folded; place over edge of seam

and baste through both edges; stitch by machine, or

open out and use as facing.

Binding Shaped Edges

To prevent bindings from standing out or cupping,

in basting binding to place, ease it on outward swing-

ing angles or curves, and stretch it on inward swing-

ing angles or curves, forming a pleat at indentation.

Binding Scallops

Single binding on heavy material, double binding

on sheer material. Place binding to scallops, right

sides together; sew, easing binding just slightly on

the curve and stretching it at the corner of scallop;

turn binding to wrong side; fold.edge in forming a

tiny pleat at the corner; hem to stitching.

False Binding

If a binding is desired on circular skirt, and there

is no material from which to cut bias strips, make a

pin tuck, wrong side of skirt % inch from lower

edge; press tuck downward; turn in edge of skirt;

press; hem turned edge to tuck and press flat.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

53


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PIPINGS

Piping

Made of same or contrasting material. Cut neces-

sary number of bias strips of desired width to give

length needed; seam, press, fold through center and

baste. Place piping on right side of part of garment

to be finished, raw edge of piping to raw edge of

garment; baste and stitch far enough from folded

edge of piping to make an attractive finish; turn

piping over and baste folded edge of garment; press

and overcast raw edges of piping and tack occasion-

ally to garment.

Piping and Facing in One

Prepare same as other piping except it is not

folded through the center, but one edge wider than

the other. When placing on garment have the wider

space serve for a facing, which slipstitch to garment.

Corded Piping

Cut bias strip wide enough to cover cord and allow

seam; fold through center; draw cord through and

sew close to cord, or put it in with corder foot on

machine; baste piping to edge of garment, right side

to right side; baste and stitch close to cord; turn

piping and baste along edge; press; overcast raw

edges, or turn them in and sew with running stitches

and tack occasionally to garment.

Corded Piping and Facing

The corded piping if cut wider may also serve as

a facing. This makes a very satisfactory as well as

decorative finish for neck-lines.

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Corded Seam

Baste piping to place on one section of garment:

baste; lay folded edge of other section close to cord;

baste and stitch to place. One needs to consider

service in using this type of decoration. If silk is

not strong, the frequent wearing will cause cord to

cut through the silk.

54

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


CORDINCS

Corded Piping Edge Finish

Make piping; turn in raw edge and sew with run-

ning stitches; turn in and baste edge of garment to

be finished; place piping on folded edge of garment;

baste and slipstitch or top stitch to place; tack inside

edge to garment.

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Shirring on Cord

Fold material over cord; sew with running stitches

close to cord; do not fasten threads; let them hang

loose, so when the cord is drawn up, the threads can

be drawn also to take out the bubbles in the threads.

When shirring on two cords for banding, draw the

inner cord a bit tighter than the outer to properly

fill the space, and avoid buckling.

Cord Used to Fill Tube

Fold and seam bias strip of material; trim seams

and press; sew a bodkin to the end of the cord and

tack to one end of seam in tubing; run bodkin in at

same end of tube; push bodkin through tube and it

will draw cord through while turning tube right

side out.

Cording is also made by stitching a wider seam

and sewing bodkin to end of seam and turning the

tubing right side out, the seam filling just like a

cord but softer and more pliable.

Cording for Loops and Frogs

Use wool yarn, cord, or the seam to fill the tube

formed by stitching a casing in a bias strip. Draw

bias strip over wool or cord and sew close to cord

to form a casing; pass heavy thread through the eye

of a bodkin; sew thread fast to seam in the end of

the tube and pull cord through to turn cording right

side out. When using seam for cord; draw seam

through with bodkin in same way as cord.

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BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

55


FACINGS

Facings

Generally speaking, facings should be cut either

on the same grain as the section of the garment to

be faced or on the bias.

Facing Straight Skirt

Cut facing same grain as deep as desired; seam

strips except last for joining; baste to skirt, right

sides together; join last seam, stitch; fold on seam

line, letting edge of skirt drop a little below so facing

will not show on right side; baste; stitch by machine

or blind hem. Facing may be turned to right side

and upper edge finished with bias piping.

Bias Facing Sharply Curved Edge

Ease bias edge in when basting facing to place in

order to prevent facing from cupping to allow for

larger curve on other edge; baste and stitch; clip

edge of seam; turn facing to other side and finish in

same manner as others.

Facing—Shaped Lower Edges

Cut facing same grain as the edge of garment to

be faced, sloping the lower edge to conform to line

of garment, pointed or scalloped; baste right sides

together, stitch; clip seams at upper part of points

or scallops; turn to wrong side; baste; press; finish

upper edge with machine or some decorative stitch.

56

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


BANDS, FOLDS,

STRAPS, BELTS

Bands, Folds and Straps

Bands, folds and straps are usually cut on bias;

occasionally crosswise; belts are usually lengthwise,

sometimes for decorative purposes bias or crosswise.

Care must be taken in cutting bias bands, folds or

straps from twilled material, to have the grain at

right angles to the edge of the strip, else the effect

will be displeasing, sometimes seeming to change

the color.

Milliner's Fold and Tailor's Strap

The milliner's fold would be cut on the bias, the

tailor's strap crosswise or bias. They are folded

alike, edges held together by different stitches, and

pressed according to type of material, cloth or velvet.

The tailor's strap is basted to garment, and stitched

both edges; the milliner's fold is slip-stitched

through center to garment.

Bands

The raw edges of bands are turned, basted and

pressed, then applied to the folded edge of the gar-

ment and stitched by machine. To miter the corner

of a band, fold it to fit the space it will cover and

take out a triangular piece in the seam, which may

be trimmed if material is thick, or pressed flat when

not heavy.

Belts

May be of double material, lined with webbing or

stiffened with crinoline and lined with silk; they may

be separate or attached to the garment with French

tacks, or by thread or material straps.

A belt of double material is stitched along one

side and across one end, drawn through to right side,

edges basted and pressed. Slip-stitch the unfinished

end, attach buckle and a strap for a slide; work

eyelets in the other end. P. 70.

A belt lined with webbing must be cut wide enough

to cover webbing and turn in raw edges for finishing.

A stiffened belt must be cut wider than stiffening,

the edges turned and catch-stitched to stiffening, and

lining placed and hemmed to material.

Belts for skirts are usually,of webbing; lay the

wrong side of the top of the skirt on the edge of the

webbing; cover raw edge with seam binding; turn

skirt over, baste turned edge and stitch by machine;

hem lower edge of seam binding to belt; press, and

sew hooks and eyes to belt.

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BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

57


SLEEVES

One Seam Sleeve

Pin seams together, pins at right angles to seam,

and perforations and notches meeting.

Gather or dart the fulness between the notches to

give freedom at the elbow; also gather or dart the

fulness at top of sleeve according to the directions

on pattern.

Stitch; press seams on sleeve board or small seam

board; pink or overcast edges. Finishes for hand

are on page 60.

Two Seam Sleeve

Pin and baste front seams first; then fold over

upper part of sleeve at the bottom, pinning from top

of sleeve to upper notch and from bottom of sleeve

to lower notch; gather or dart the fulness at the

elbow according to directions in pattern. Stitch both

seams; press on sleeve board or small seam board:

pink or overcast seams.

Gather, dart, or pleat the fulness at top of sleeve

between notches; stitch seams, leaving back seam

open 3 inches from hand; press seams on sleeve

board, or small seam board; and pleats or darts on

tailor cushion.

Kimono Sleeve

When a kimono is closely fitted, a gusset is often

placed in the sleeve for freedom and to protect the

sleeve from tearing out under arm.

Cut a slash (at right angles to the seam) about

2y2 or 3 inches in length (about at the top of the

under arm.) Insert a square of material in the

opening thus made; baste square in place, tapering

seam at corners; overcast closely or cut a second

gusset, and use it as a facing; sew to place; press.

58

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


SETTING IN

SLEEVES

Gather, Pleat or Dart

Gather, pleat or dart the fulness at the top of the

sleeve. Hold wrong side of waist toward you; draw

upper part of sleeve into armhole; pin to armhole

seam, being very sure that notches in the sleeve meet

the corresponding notches on the garment; if sleeve

is gathered, draw fulness up to fit the armhole curve

and wind thread around pin.

Baste

Baste sleeve in armhole with small even basting.

Stitch

Stitch, overcast edges of seam and fasten ends of

gathering threads at top.

Press

Press armhole and top of sleeve, wrong side

toward you, on tailor cushion; turn armhole seam

toward neck of garment when pressing; use damp

cloth between sleeve and iron.

Stiffening

Crisp silk or cotton material may be used for

stiffening; cut it by top of sleeve pattern, twice depth

needed, and fold across; gather into top of sleeve

before stitching sleeve in armhole.

Pads or Stiffening

Sleeves which have much fulness at the top need

to have fulness kept out and up in position. This is

done by means of small pads or stiffening set in to

the armhole seam.

Pads

Pads thicker than the stiffening are needed for

heavier material. Two pieces of material are neces-

sary, about 9 by 2% or 3 inches; shape corners,

stitch pieces together on curved edge; turn right side

out, use sheet cotton batting to pad them with, thin-

ning it out at the edges; make pad from % to 1/2

inch thick; sew pads to armhole; sleeves are stitched

and pressed, center of pad to shoulder seam.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

59


SLEEVE FINISHES

Taffeta Seam Binding

A closely fitted sleeve may be finished at the hand

by folding one edge of the opening (upper) on the

sewing line, and leaving the other edge as an ex-

tension.

Turn the edges of the sleeves, baste and press;

baste taffeta seam binding to the edge and hem the

outer edge to the folded edge of the sleeve; blind

hem the inner edge to the sleeve. Sew snap fasteners

to the opening.

Bias Binding; Loops and Buttons

Before placing bias binding, make and baste loops

to place along seam line of upper side of opening;

unfold one edge of binding; baste to place for a

facing; stitch in seam line; turn binding to wrong

side; baste along folded edge, and blind hem upper

edge to sleeve. Mark for buttons on extension side

of opening and sew them to place.

Wrist Band Finish

A full sleeve placket may be finished with a con-

tinuous binding.

Stitch the band across the ends; place right side

of band to right side of sleeve; distribute gathers to

fit the band, and baste to place and stitch; turn in

under edge of band and hem to machine stitching.

Make bound buttonhole in one end of band (page

71), and sew button on other end.

Cuff Finish

Cut slash for opening on line indicated; finish

slash with tiny bias binding; stitch cuff, turn it right

side out and baste edge; press; baste cuff to sleeve

right side to right side; also baste a strip of bias

material to cuff for a facing; stitch; turn facing to

wrong side of sleeve and hem to sleeve; press.

Sleeve: Frill Finish

The shirring for this type of finish may be done

with the new elastic thread which may be wound on

the machine bobbin and which shirs as you sew.

CO

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


SHIRT SLEEVE

AND CUFFS

Cut Slash

Cut slash according to pattern; also pieces for

over and underlaps and cuffs.

Sew the underlap piece to the back edge of the

slash, with seams to the right side; crease the seam

on the lap; baste down entirely covering the join-

ing; stitch.

Join the overlap piece to the front edge of the

slash in the same manner. Adjust the overlap so it

will conceal the underlap, and baste it to place.

Stitch all around the overlap, following the shape

of the point. At the top of the opening, the stitching

should cross the lap and catch the underlap securely

holding the opening in correct position.

A continuous overlap is sometimes used to finish

the slash. This would be made as the continuous

bound placket as shown on page 50.

Cuffs

Two types of cuff are used for this sleeve, one of

which buttons over, the other is made to use links

and simply brings the two ends of the cuffs together.

The cuff for the link closing is cut twice the depth

of the buttoned type.

An interlining is generally used to give the cuff a

little more body, but not to stiffen it. Baste inter-

lining to the under piece of the cuff on the wrong

side; baste the other section of the cuff to this; stitch

seam; trim off seam at the corners; turn up other

edge of cuff and baste; then turn cuff right side out.

Gather sleeve at hand, and baste cuff to place, let-

ting underlap extend for a button fastening and

folding it back for a link closing. Stitch all around

edge of cuff, single or double row.

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

61


NECKLINE

OPENINGS

Facing—Slash Opening

Cut material same grain as part to be faced and

2 inches deeper; baste to garment marking slash

line; stitch full Vs incb each side slash line, letting

stitching run to a point at lower end of slash; also

around neckline to turn of rever, cut slash; turn

facing to wrong side of garment; baste turned edges;

press; turn in inside edge and stitch by machine or

blind hem.

Facing Round or Square Neck

In either case cut piece for facing same grain as

the portion of garment; shape the upper edge to

conform to contour of neck of garment, the lower

edge similarly, and desired depth; baste facing to

garment right sides together; stitch; clip curved part

of seam at back; turn to wrong side; crease folded

edge and baste; press; turn in edge of facing and

sew with running stitches to itself—then tack or

blind hem to garment.

Facing V Opening

A bias facing is suitable for this type of opening;

cut and join enough strips to complete facing; baste

to neck of dress; hold a bit tight through very bias

part of neck line; make mitered seam at center

lower edge; stitch; clip seam at back of neck; turn

facing to wrong side; baste along folded edge;

press; turn in edge of facing; sew with running

stitches to itself; tack or blind hem edge to garment.

Binding Dress Front Opening

Place a bias or straight piece of cloth on right side

of dress over marking for slash. Baste through slash

mark; stitch % inch from this mark on sides and

across bottom. Cut slash and clip to stitching at

corner; turn binding to wrong side garment, making

small pleat at lower edge right side; tack pleat and

press; trim and hem binding to machine stitching.

62

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


COLLARS

Straight, Standing Collar

Stitch facing to front of garment, right side to

right side; stitch ends of collar; trim corner; press

seam; baste and stitch inner edge of collar to facing,

outer edge of collar to neckline of garment; press;

turn collar and facing right side out; baste turned

edges; turn and hem edge of collar to stitching; turn

inner edge of facing; stitch to self and tack to gar-

ment.

Round Collar

Baste collar to neck of garment, right sides to-

gether; baste folded bias binding also to neck; stitch

through; remove bastings, turn collar and binding;

baste turned in edge to stitching and hem to place.

Curved Collar

Baste collar, two right sides together; stitch; turn

seams; trim seam at corner to avoid thickness; turn,

baste edges; press; baste collar to neck of dress,

notches matching; hold neckline a bit snug when

placing collar, so it will not buckle. Baste bias seam

binding along edge; stitch, turn, baste and blind hem

binding to dress.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

63


POCKETS

Patch Pocket

Stitch a piece of linen tape to the wrong side of

the garment exactly on the line where top of pocket

will come.

If pocket is plain, stitch hem at top; if the pocket

has a facing at top, stitch facing to the wrong side

of the pocket, and turn it over to the right side, baste

and stitch to place.

Turn in edges of pocket on three sides, and baste.

Place pocket in position on the garment and baste to

place; stitch pocket all around edge of three sides

and 14 mch inside to cover the seam to prevent dust

collecting on raw edges. The tape at top prevents

pocket from tearing material of garment.

Set in Pocket

Mark line indicated on pattern for slit; cut pocket

1 inch wider than slit by 10 inches in length; place

pocket on garment, right sides together; let upper

edge of pocket be l1/^ inches above mark for slit;

stitch all around slit ^.6 incri from marking; cut

slit; turn pocket to wrong side of garment; baste

carefully around edge of slit, allowing pocket mate-

rial to form a narrow piping; stitch along lower edge

of slit; fold pocket and stitch at top of slit; stitch

seams on sides of pocket; overcast all raw edges;

finish ends with arrowhead tacks; press.

64

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Pocket with Welt

Mark on garment with colored thread the loca-

tion and length of slit for pocket; baste lining to

welt; stitch seam, turn, baste and press; stitch on

right side $4 incn fro"1 edge.

Cut slit for pocket and diagonally at corner Vs

inch; cut two pieces for pocket, 1 inch longer than

slit and as deep as desired; baste welt to lower edge

of slit; baste one piece of pocket on top of welt and

second piece on upper edge of slit, right sides to

right sides.

Turn pocket and welt through to wrong side,

baste, press and sew ends of welt invisibly to

garment.

Turn garment to wrong side; stitch the pocket

seam and overcast edges.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

65


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Welt Pocket — Diagonal Slit

Cut welt with square or rounded corners; line and

finish as before.

Cut two pocket pieces deep enough to reach upper

end of welt; cut slit; baste raw edge of welt to lower

edge of slit; lay one piece over welt; slash slit line;

stitch seam around the slit.

Pocket pieces are then drawn through to wrong

side; baste carefully all around edge of slit; fasten

ends of welt to garment.

Baste under piece of pocket to place; stitch and

overcast edges.

66

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Lap Pocket

The lap, either a shaped, or rectangular piece, is

prepared in the same way as the welt, and often

stitched on the outside which gives a tailored effect.

Cut slit for pocket, % inch diagonally at corners;

cut pocket in one piece and baste a strip of cloth

like garment on each end of the pocket, turn in edge

of cloth; stitch and press.

The lap is stitched to the upper edge of slit on the

right side; one end of pocket is stitched to the lower

edge, letting folded edge extend as a piping; stitch;

turn seam up on wrong side, baste, and press; pull

other end of pocket through to wrong side, baste to

seam of lap and stitch; press; stitch triangle at end

of slit to pocket; stitch and overcast seams of pocket

and press.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

67


FASTENERS

There are all sorts and kinds of fasteners today,

tiny or large, traditional as Thanksgiving or modern

as tomorrow. Half the zest of your clothes consists

of the imagination you put into finishing details.

Here you have pictured a few of the fasteners at

your disposal. Of course, buttons rank among the

most reliable and most interesting of the collection.

They come made of mother-of-pearl, metal, composi-

tion, glass, wood, celluloid, and even the hulls of

nuts and peach stones sawed into circles with en-

crusted edges, waxed and buffed to a lovely lustre.

You will find them used functionally to fasten your

garments or decoratively as a trimming. You may

use them singly or linked for the smartest of your

sports clothes. Studs rival buttons for the classic

shirts that need a masculine touch.

The indispensable hook and eye, hump and plain,

is used not only as a firm closure concealed by

plackets, but has also come out into the open as a

decorative fastening in giant size and in brilliant

colors. These ornamental hooks and eyes are usu-

ally made of plastic for street and casual clothes:

sometimes, they appear in metal or rhinestones for

festive wear.

Snap fasteners hold up their honorable traditions,

but are now faced with a definite rival in the form

of slide fasteners or zippers, as they are popularly

known. These, too, are used both functionally for

all sorts of purposes and fabrics—from delicate

sheers to sturdy work clothes—and in various ma-

terials. The simplest zippers are made of metal;

vivid plastic zippers, two-toned, mosaic, rhinestone

studded, are used to stab a costume with contrast.

On the opposite page, you find helpful hints on the

application of this rich variety of fasteners.

68

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


FASTENERS

Hooks and Eyes

Edges of garment meeting; set hook so end comes

1 s inch from edge of garment, and the eye so it just

peeps over the edge; this makes an exact closing;

sew both with over and over stitches and tack at ends

to the cloth; fasten with two or three buttonhole

stitches so they will not need to be replaced shortly.

Where edges lap, the eye should be set back from

edge; place hook to meet the eye. A straight eye

is better here than the rounded eye.

Thread loops are used instead of metal eyes on

sleeves, collars and neck finishes.

Snap Fasteners

(Ball and socket.) Mark position for them care-

fully; use gauge for marking; sew with over and

over stitch like hooks and eyes, through holes in the

edges; pass needle from one hole to another on

under side of cloth; set socket part of fastener on

the garment, so that in fastening, pressure will come

from ball part of fastener. Fasten with buttonhole

stitches.

Buttons

Buttons may have two or four holes or a shank

with which to sew them on to the garment. Place a

pin over the button; conceal knot under button;

bring needle up through one hole and down through

another; enough stitches to hold button firmly, in

last stitch pass needle through hole and between

cloth and button; withdraw pin, pull button up full

length of thread and wind thread around to form a

neck; pass needle through cloth to under side and

fasten thread securely with two buttonhole stitches.

Garments may be protected from tearing by sew-

ing a small button under the larger button, or a

piece of fabric in the process of sewing the button on.

Link Buttons

Used to fasten neck of blouse, open jackets; or

cuffs. Pass needle back and forth through the but-

tons, leaving loops long enough to operate buttons

easily; work over loops of thread with blanket

stitches closely packed together.

Shank Buttons

Take fold in cloth; turn button to one side; sew

over the shank keeping thread easy so as to let the

button spring back into place, fasten thread securely.

Fabric Buttons

Made over wooden molds or pressed by machine.

Get the mold desired size, cut piece of fabric in

circle larger than mold; gather the edge of fabric

and draw up close under button; this serves as a

shank to sew it on by.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


BUTTONHOLES

Buttonholes are of two kinds,—worked and bound.

There are three types of worked buttonhole,—fan

end, bar end, and tailor; two kinds of bound

buttonholes,—plain and tailored.

Worked Buttonhole

Mark position for buttonholes by pattern; also for

buttons; and when fitting garment the length of but-

tonhole needs to be Vie incn more than the diametei

of the button. Stitch around the mark for button-

hole; cut; or first cut buttonhole and overcast edges;

hold slit diagonally across cushion of first finger of

left hand, begin at right hand end and work right

to left with buttonhole stitch all around slit; take

three or four stitches across end as deep as button-

hole stitch; work over these threads with blanket

stitch edge toward end of buttonhole and into cloth.

Bar at each end for bar end buttonhole.

Tailored Buttonhole

Cut with punch a small round hole at end of slit,

or small clip at end and shape with stiletto; this

makes it easier to slip it over coat buttons; work

same as other, holding a cord at edge of slit and

work buttonhole stitch over it. Make cord by twist-

ing several strands of silk thread together. Finish

with bar at end.

70

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Bound Buttonhole

Mark line of fold on closing edge of garment;

baste a lengthwise strip of material to wrong side

of front along line of fold, for a stay for button-

holes; mark position of buttonhole through stay.

Cut strip for binding 1% inch wide and V&-94 incn

longer than slit; place strips, right side to right side

over the mark for buttonhole; stitch % inch each

side of slit and across the ends; cut slit to within 14

inch of the end and clip diagonally to corners of

the stitching.

Turn strip to wrong side of garment; baste along

slit, stitch across ends.

Turn front of garment to place; baste, cut slit

over buttonhole, turn in edges and hem.

When the garment is not turned over to make a

fold, or if the front is not faced, turn edges of bind-

ing in to the stay piece and hem to make a neat finish.

Bound Buttonhole with Welt

Made the same as a plain bound buttonhole, except

a wider seam is taken when stitching the binding to

place; the binding is drawn over seam without fold-

ing seam to under side; this forms the welt; be

careful to stitch across triangles at ends of button-

hole.

Quickly Made Bound Buttonhole

1. Mark line for buttonhole.

2. Cut strip for binding, 1 inch longer than but-

tonhole and 2 inches wide.

3. Crease binding through center; pin crease to

line for slit.

4. Measure % inch from crease toward each edge

of binding; fold material on itself; stitch a !/8 inch

tuck.

5. Cut buttonhole and diagonally at the end as

in other buttonhole.

5. Draw binding strips to wrong side; stitch

across ends of binding to hold them in place; the

tucks stitched in the binding form the piping for the

buttonhole.

Tailored Bound Buttonhole

The method of making this buttonhole is the same

as the other with one exception; when catch-stitching

the binding to place, at the outer end of buttonhole,

pull material away from the slit and sew it firmly;

this gives an end similar to buttonhole which was

punched at the end.

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BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

71


Loops for Buttons

Corded loops (p. 55) may be used on an edge

already bound or finished, «r on a bound and faced

opening. Prepare loops (p. 55).

Loops with Facing

Prepare cording and facing; place loops on right

side of garment; baste facing to place, right side to

right side; stitch; turn loops to position facing to

place and hem.

Bound Opening

Place binding right side to right side; loops on

wrong side; stitch; turn binding to wrong side and

hem; turn loops over and tack to place.

Blanket-Stitched Loops

Soft flexible fasteners for sleeves and necklines:—

Sew a number of strands of thread such as you would

for bar tacks, except they are left loose so as to form

a loop; blanket stitch closely over the strands, so as

to form a firm soft edge.

Loops of Braid

Loops of braid or corded loops may be sewed to

finished edges of garments. When loops are placed,

edges of garment are brought together and position

of button marked with pins.

Corded Frogs

Shape frog as desired; fasten with tiny stitches on

wrong side, where one cord laps another; leave one

loop loose for fastening garment. Two frogs may

be placed opposite each other and loop from each

fasten on button. Frog shaped cording may be used

on finished line of coats through which to pass tie-

ribbon from arm-hole seam.

72

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


DECORATIVE

STITCHES

Horizontal-Vertical Motifs

Very decorative motifs may be worked out with

either horizontal or vertical arrangement of stitches;

a row of running stitches of one color may be inter-

laced with stitches of another color; also vertical

stitches with a similar interlacing.

Chain Stitch

Used in line formation; pass needle up through

cloth at end of line; hold left thumb over loop of

thread, put needle back in hole through which it

came; bring it out a short distance in advance and

over the loop of thread; make each stitch the same

way.

Checkered Chain Stitch

Use two threads of contrasting color in one needle.

Hold one color to the left and bring needle out as

in regular chain; hold one color to the left and bring

needle out at point being worked; hold the first

thread under the thumb; keep other to the right;

make first loop of chain and second thread disap-

pear; as needle passes up again, push first colored

thread to right, keeping the other to left; make

second loop of chain.

Outline Stitch

Used where fine distinct line of decoration is

desired. Bring needle up through cloth at lower end

of line, take a stitch above this point the length

desired; keep thread to right; bring needle out to

left of stitch taken just below end of stitch; pass

needle forward again taking another stitch and com-

ing out beside it just below end to left; repeat until

line is finished; fasten thread on wrong side with a

few back stitches. For a wider line of decoration

lay several rows of outline stitch close together.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


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Feather, Briar or Coral Stitch

Really a variation of the blanket stitch, in that

stitch is taken in the same way, in vertical line,

throwing stitch first to left, then to right of the

line; it may be varied by throwing two or more

stitches to left and same to right.

French Knots

Used as line decoration, to fill in spaces or center

of flower. Bring needle up from wrong side of cloth

where knot is to be; wrap thread around needle one

or more times, holding it near cloth; put point of

needle back in the cloth near the point it came out.

Draw thread close to form knot.

Satin Stitch

Use padding stitches to bring design into relief,

these to be in opposite direction from satin stitch;

work from left to right, holding unit so stitch may

be worked vertically; put needle in each time exactly

beside the preceding stitch. An attractive form of

satin stitch may be carried out in border designs,

with pleasing effects of firmness and stability.

Bermuda Fagoting

A form of open work which is sometimes used on

sheer materials. It is not necessary to draw threads

for this decorative stitch; it can be made to follow a

line in any direction regardless of the thread of the

material.

To work:—Use a very large needle, a No. 1 or 2

carpet needle and No. 150 or 200 thread. Tie one

end of the thread to the eye of the needle; the stitch

proceeds toward the worker. Then take a short stitch

diagonally from right to left; tie the end of the

thread in this first stitch, put the needle into the first

hole, take a stitch straight toward you; bind with

two more stitches in same holes; then put needle into

second hole and bind it to the third with two stitches;

put it again into the second hole and take a stitch

straight toward you; bind second and fourth holes,

then third and fourth holes; make next straight stitch

from third hole; repeat as before.

7-1

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Cross-Stitch

Simply one stitch crossed over another, forming a

square. Design may be worked free hand where

thread of material is definite, or over stamped design

or over Penelope canvas. Stitches must always be

crossed in the same way and in same direction. Work

from right to left; pass needle up at lower left hand

corner; doivn at upper right hand corner; up at

upper left hand corner, and down at lower right hand

corner, which completes one cross stitch. Repeat.

Blanket Stitch

May be worked in a variety of ways and combina-

tions; it is both decorative and practical as an edge

finish. The method of making the stitch is described

on page 34.

Scalloped Edges

Pad the scallop to give a raised appearance to the

work; outline the edges of the scallops with a line

of fine running stitches; fill in the centers also with

running stitches; use darning cotton or the thread

used for scallops to fill in spaces; darning cotton is

less expensive and fills in quickly.

The stitch used to work scallops is really a blanket

stitch, set very close together in exact vertical lines,

working from left to right; no knot; conceal end of

thread in padding stitches and work over it. Cut

material away close to scallops at lower edge.

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UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

75


Hemstitching

Decide on width of hem; measure up from edge

twice its width plus % inch; draw threads at this

point, the number to be drawn depends on weight of

material, depth of hem and size of article or garment.

When threads are drawn, baste hem to place.

Single Hemstitching

Hold wrong side of hem toward you, and the open

spaces over cushion of first finger of left hand; con-

ceal end of thread under fold of hem; pass needle

from right to left behind a group of four or five

threads; draw thread down close to hem; then pass

needle again back of same group, and needle througli

fold of hem (not in cloth back of hem); repeat.

Double Hemstitching

Repeat the same work of single hemstitching; turn

article around and work on opposite side of drawn

threads; pass needle back of same group of threads,

which makes straight bars of threads.

Diagonal Hemstitching

First row, same as plain hemstitching; turn article

as in double hemstitching, but pass needle back of

half of each group of threads, making a zig-zag line

of bars.

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16

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


TACKS

Bar Tack

Used at the end of pockets. Pass needle up through

cloth at end of outer row of stitching and down

through cloth at end of other row; repeat four or

five times; bring needle up at the end of this bar

and put it down on the other side; repeat keeping

stitches close together until bar is covered. Some-

times a small bar tack is placed at the ends of first

tack.

Arrowhead Tack

Used at end of pockets on middy blouses, shirt

waists and hold pleats together on skirts. It is worked

on lines of an equilateral triangle /\ ; pass needle

through center of triangle with running stitches com-

ing up at B; pass needle up to A and out at the left

of A; then down to C; across underneath from C to

B and repeat as before.

Crow's Foot Tack

triangle at center of each side; begin at

B; pass needle to A; bring it out to left of A; down

to C; out to right of C and across to left of B; up

at right of B and up again to A. Repeat.

French Tack

Used to hold belts or girdles, jabots and other

bits of decoration in position. Take several loose

stitches connecting two parts of garment; work over

these close blanket stitches; use the eye end of the

needle to pass through loops.

Double Overcasting

Contrasting colors are used to finish edges with

this attractive arrangement of simple overcasting

(page 32). One row of overcasting is made in the

usual way; the second row is worked from left to

right, needle coming out at lower end of stitch in

first row.

Crossed Overcasting

First row same as usual; the second row from left

to right, needle coming out so as to cross threads

in center.

rxxxxx

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

77


SMOCKING

Smocking is a decorative way of holding and

arranging fulness in garments for children or adults.

The material is gathered very regularly, then

drawn up to a space equivalent to one quarter what

it was when plain. Ornamental stitches are worked

on the gathers.

The material is first marked or charted on the

wrong side, to make gathering regular. Mark by

rows of dots about */8 t0 % mch apart, determined

by weight of material and amount to be gathered.

Mark rows of dots % to % inch apart.

Use strong thread for gathers; when rows are

completed draw threads up to one quarter original

width. Turn to right side and straighten gathers.

First stitch used is always the outline stitch; it

may follow in various arrangements. Single and

double cable stitch are also used; in fact one may

introduce stitches according to one's individual

liking or the suitability to the garment.

73

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


EMERGENCY

HELPS

Stocking Darn: To darn a stocking or other

knitted wear, trim away the ragged uneven edges,

but not more material than is necessary.

Thread a darning needle with double strand darn-

ing cotton. The stocking is then drawn over a

darning ball to keep the edges even and firm.

Do not use a knot; begin the stitches far enough

from the hole to escape the thin part, catch the

needle in the knitted loops of the stockinette moving

it in the direction in which the loop turns, and skip

every other loop. In the second row, pick up the

loops skipped in the first row, and drop the others.

Leave a loop at the end of each row of darning to

allow for shrinkage of the darning cotton, and

stretching the stocking in putting it on.

Continue darning until you have completely cov-

ered the hole and the surrounding weak parts.

Darn across the other way of the stocking which

corresponds to the woof threads, being careful to

catch all loop stitches at the edges of the hole to

prevent drop stitches. When the darn is completed,

clip the thread at the end of the darn.

Dress or Garment Darns: A lengthwise tear

or crosswise tear may be repaired by darning across

the torn part using very fine stitches but not drawing

the thread tight, and omitting the loop used in stock-

ing darning.

A Diagonal'Tear will need to have two sets of

threads crossing each other, each set following the

warp and woof way of the cloth.

"A Barn Door Tear" may be repaired by having

sets of threads covering each side of the tear and

there crossing each other at the corner.

dm

nViV

UTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

79


LACE

Lace Overhanded to Edge

Hold lace }4e Ă&#x201A;°f inch from raw edge of under-

garment; use very fine thread and overhand very

closely; it is a durable finish when carefully done.

Lace and Entre-deux

Decoration for undergarments; both edges being

finished, simply overhand with fine thread.

Lace Insertion

Baste insertion to garment; sew with fine hemming

stitches on right side; trim material away on wrong

side, leaving a very narrow edge which roll and

whip carefully.

80

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Gathering Lace

Best way to whip over edge with fine thread not

too long space at a time and draw up whipping

thread. Sometimes gathered by drawing up thread

in lace; this may weaken lace unless thread is per-

fectly loose.

Joining Lace

Lap ends so design is completely matched; then

sew with all buttonhole stitches in very fine thread

or with hemming stitches and frequent buttonhole

stitches; cut material away beyond the sewing on

both sides; a durable join.

Embroidered Edging

Set in using edge for a facing or gather and set in

as a ruffle.

Corners Embroidery

Lace:—match the design if possible; if not cut out

a motif of design and lap and join; if this not prac-

tical, join in seam, trim and whip edges close. Em-

broidery:—Miter corner as you would a band or hem.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

81


TAILORING

Tailored Coat of Wool

Notched Collar and Revers:—A strictly tailored

type of garment suitable for a suit or top coat. Di-

rections for making this type of garment are appli-

cable to both a suit jacket or a long coat.

Testing Pattern

Work according to the directions on p. 12 for

testing paper pattern; make necessary alterations in

pattern. If a careful worker feels a greater sense of

security in cutting coat in muslin before cutting

cloth, it is perfectly correct to do so.

Cutting Coat

Determine the up and down of cloth and place

pieces of pattern accordingly; cut all parts of the

coat; mark center front, center back, armhole, neck,

hand hem line, all seams, placing of pockets, and

buttonholes with tailor tacking.

Interfacings

Cut an interfacing of very thin unbleached muslin

for the front of the coat, collar, armhole and across

shoulders; these help to keep coat in shape during

its term of service; use pattern of front facing to

cut interfacing and pattern of back and front of

coat for armhole and back interfacings. As shown

in the illustration, some tailors cut the interfacings

to extend to the armhole on front and back of coat,

and under-arm seam, as far as 2 inches below

armhole.

32

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Assembling Parts of Coat and Basting

First baste interfacings to place on the wrong

side of the front and back of the coat, and also

to the under side of the collar.

Study the numbers of the pieces so you have the

consecutive order of arrangement as denned on the

Dehor.

Pin the back and front of the coat together, being

careful to watch notches, and seam lines meeting;

pins at right angles to seam; baste carefully for

fitting.

Baste sleeve seams; gather fulness at the top be-

tween the notches, two rows, or baste darts in place

if that is the mode of controlling fulness, and design

of the sleeve.

Two seam sleeves are more often used on strictly

tailored coats. It is important that the basting be

carefully done.

Basting Sleeves

Place the larger piece flat on the table, small piece

on top; keeping it on table prevents twisting sleeve

while pinning; pin front seam first; fold over larger

piece so seam lines meet top and bottom; distribute

fulness at elbow; use small stitches; place sleeve in

armhole; match notches; pin to place; gather, pleat

or dart fulness at top; baste sleeve to place.

A one seam sleeve must also be carefully'basted

that there be no twist to the material as the work

progresses.

Pin the seams together so that the cross lines at

the top and lower edge meet; have seam lines meet in

the length of sleeve, pins at right angles to seam;

baste and stitch seam; press.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

83


Fitting Coat

Coats require two or more fittings; the first when

the interfacings have been basted to place; the sec-

ond, after padding collar and revers, placing facing

and basting sleeve to place.

Follow general rules for fitting; as given in Dehor.

If the general lines are good, make any slight alter-

ations that are necessary, pinning carefully to pre-

serve good lines; pins in this process are parallel

to the seams. Remove coat and mark alterations as

indicated by the pins; rip seams and make changes

on the opposite side to correspond to the new lines.

If sleeve has been changed in any way, repeat these

changes on the other sleeve.

Second Fitting

Try coat on; check all alterations; look it over

carefully; make further change if necessary.

Mark line at lower edge of coat; also at lower edge

of sleeve.

If fulness appears at the armhole on back of

coat, this may be taken out by gathering the armhole

just where the fulness shows, drawing the gathering

thread until fulness is held in and then shrinking the

fulness out over the tailor cushion. This is better

than trying to take it up by lifting the shoulder

seam, which will throw the grain of material out

across the back.

Padding Collar

Rows of machine stitching are placed from edge

of collar which joins the neck of coat to the line

which marks the turn of the outer part of the collar;

on the rest of the collar, use regular padding stitches.

Padding Revers

Mark with basting, the line on which revers will

turn; to pad, begin at the line of basting and make

rows of diagonal basting stitches catching a thread

or two of cloth of coat; continue up and down

revers; hold interfacing easy so rever will roll.

84

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Stay Tape

It seems there is not a great deal to say about

this very important bit of the necessary supplies

for real tailoring.

It is a narrow, thin linen tape used to prevent

the stretching of the edges of a strictly tailored coat.

Strictly tailored means made after the fashion of a

man's custom made coat.

The tape must be shrunk before it is put on the

coat; this is done by immersing the tape in very hot

water, and pressing it while it is wet.

Baste the tape along the line of the turn of the

revers, neck line, and down the front of the coat,

but always inside the seam line, so it will just es-

cape being caught in the machine stitching when

stitching the facing to place.

Hold it close when basting it along bias edges,

so the bias will not be stretched.

Hem both edges of the tape to the interfacing at

the revers line; hem only the inside edge down the

front; the outer edge must be loose until after the

facing is stitched to the coat, and the seam pressed,

when it will be hemmed to the seam.

Stay tape is fine for staying the edge of a diag-

onal or curved slit for a pocket on a tweed or any

heavy cloth coat; it can be basted on the inner edge

clipped to spring to the curve, and yet hold the bias

with its straight edge.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

85


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Collar

Baste seam of collar right sides together; ease out-

side to make it roll; stitch seam; trim off corners;

press seam open; turn right side out, baste turned

edges, letting cloth extend a bit as in revers.

Turn in edge of underside of collar; baste and

press it; place it on neck line of coat and hem it

closely with small stitches to coat. Turn in edge of

upper side of collar and edge of cloth facing so

they just meet; slip-stitch these edges together; hem

the remainder of lower edge of collar to lining when

it is placed.

Facing

Place cloth facing to coat, right sides together, ease

facing a little from neck to waist, so it will roll with

rever. Hold normal way from waist to lower edge;

stitch seam, trim edges and extra material at point

of the revers to prevent thickness; press seams open;

hem edge of stay tape to seam to keep it flat and

front of coat in shape.

Turn facing right side out and baste edges closely,

letting a little of facing to show on the coat side from

neck to waist, so that when revers turn back, none

of the underside will be visible; do the reverse from

waist down.

Pockets

Various kinds of pockets and the method of making

are to be found on p. 64. The illustration suggests

types of pockets often used on coats.

R6

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Sleeves

Two-seam sleeve with buttons and buttonholes:—

When seams are stitched and pressed, place a 3 inch

bias strip of muslin for interfacing; let it extend

^4 inch below the line for turning lower edge of

sleeve; tack to seams; at lower edge below turning

line, sew with long and short stitch just catching

thread on wrong side of cloth.

Make bound buttonholes through cloth and inter-

facing; turn in facing on back of sleeve; catch-

stitch to muslin; finish extension; press and sew

buttons to place; turn up lower edge of sleeve, catch-

stitch to muslin and press.

Lining Sleeves

Stitch lining seams; press and tack seam of lining

to seam of sleeve; draw lining over sleeve; turn and

slip-stitch lower edge to sleeve.

Shrinking Fulness Top of Sleeve

Place sleeves in armhole; draw gathers to place;

fasten; Try coat on to see sleeves are correct; re-

move sleeves; shrink out fulness over end of sleeve

board or small tailor's cushion; sleeve wrong side

out and wet press cloth over it while shrinking.

Fasteners

Fasteners for tailored coats are of importance;

they must of necessity be of a type to be in keeping

with the coat you are engaged in making.

There is nothing smarter for tweeds, and other

heavy wool fabrics than the very attractive bone or

composition buttons; in less weighty fabrics the fab-

ric button of the coat material may find its place.

Then there are metal buttons too to brighten dark

woolens.

You will find two hole, four hole and shank but-

tons all trying to engage your attention as you go

button hunting, bone and metal, and the tiny little

smoked pearl one to sew back of the large button

to prevent tearing your coat.

Worked buttonholes are used mostly today on

men's coats, and bound buttonholes on women's,

unless one desires to have the very mannish type.

Loops and frogs present another type of fastener

from which to choose, if they happen to be of your

liking. See pp. 70-71.72.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

87


Lower Edge of Coat

Place a 2 inch bias strip of muslin, letting it

meet the line for turning; catch-stitch to seams; sew

along lower edge as in sleeve; let it slip under

facing; lower edge of coat and edge of facing are

slipstitched; turn up rest of lower edge of coat

and catch-stitch to muslin if lining is to be hemmed to

coat; if not, finish edge of coat with seam binding

which hem to muslin; press.

Interlinings may be of silk for coats which are

not to be worn in very sharp weather. Warm inter-

lining is to be had in flannel, all wool or part cotton

and wool; also in lamb's wool often quilted on cheese

cloth or similar thin cotton fabric; this makes a very

warm, cosy interlining but will fill up the coat more

than flannel. Interlinings are not put all the way

around the sleeves as this would thicken them too

much and one would not feel the cold on the under

part of the arm.

Cut the interlining by the coat pattern; do not

baste the parts together; each piece is placed sep-

arately, and tacked to the seams with a long and

short stitch, or with catchstitch.

If extreme warmth is desired, a second layer of

interlining is placed across the back, the front and

on the sleeve.

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK


Coat linings are usually of silk or rayon. They

may be of the color of the coat, or some contrasting

color; it is wisdom to buy good lining for the coat

especially if it is to have hard wear.

All final pressing must be done before the lin-

ing is put into the coat. A local tailor would do

this final pressing just as you are ready to prepare

the lining, which will give the coat a professional

appearance.

Cut the lining by the coat pattern, allowing for

the pleat at the center back, iy2 inches. Lay pleat at

neck in center back and feather stitch it four inches

below neck; the rest of the pleat is left loose after

the lining is in place.

Stitch any seams in the lining except the shoulder

and underarm seams.

Place the lining to the front of the coat first; ease

it a bit both up and across to allow for pull in

putting coat on and off; tack to underarm seam and

turn in edge of lining at facing and baste.

Place back lining in coat; tack to seam in back if

there is one; baste to place; turn in edge of back

lining at underarm seam, baste and blind hem to

front lining.

The lining is tacked and hemmed at shoulder seam

in the same manner as the other seam.

Baste lining around armhole; hem lower edge of

collar to lining; turn lower edge of lining on finish-

ing line and baste it to itself; finish the edge with

seam binding. It is better to keep the lining loose

at the lower edge to avoid any pull or unnecessary

fulness.

Baste and stitch sleeves to place, but do not stitch

through the sleeve lining; when sleeve is stitched

in, press seam over tailor cushion using a damp cloth,

being careful not to touch silk lining with cloth;

turn in seam of lining and hem to sleeve seam, gath-

ering lining if necessary.

When padded sleeves are in vogue, patterns for the

pads will be found with the pattern, pad one piece

of pad with cotton batting; turn over the edge of the

lining and catch it to the batting; face the pad with

another piece of lining; tack pads to seams of sleeves

at the armhole.

When a very stiff and outstanding effect is de-

sired, canvas is sometimes used for padding; in this

case a bit of wadding not as thick as in the soft pads

will tone the harshness of the canvas,

' ■———mm^mmm^mlmi^f^m^^l^pm^',

BUTTERICK DRESSMAKING BOOK

89


THUMBNAIL SKETCHES OF THE

N OW that the mystery of patterns and stitches and

seams has been solved, we have come to the point

in our adventure where we can wear and enjoy the

clothes we have made. Since many Butterick patterns

seek their inspiration from the Paris couture, Holly-

wood, and our own group of prominent American

designers, it might add to the zest of your dressmak-

ing to know something about these designers who

feed our fashion appetites.

I. PARIS DRESSMAKERS

ALIX (pronounced Al-eex), probably the most

talented and truly artistic of the young Paris dress-

makers, remains a woman of mystery. Petite, dark

and very shy, she continues to be indifferent to what

other dressemakers are doing and cannot be per-

suaded to talk about herself.

She was "discovered" by smart buyers when she

was making, at home, canvas models of her clothes.

It was learned that she had served her apprenticeship

under Premet, and that she was a distinguished sculp-

tress in her own right.

In direct contrast to her retiring personality, her

clothes are daring in their use of line and fabric.

She has a fondness for fine silks, rayon jersey, and

exotic fabrics that mold on the figure or swirl and

sway in sculptured folds.

She is fascinated by Oriental art and often uses

some exotic Oriental silk embroidered with bizarre

motifs in making up her collection.

Second in importance to her belief in sculpture is

her conviction that the modern woman must above

all dress to fit her individuality. This has resulted

in a series of clothes which are often difficult to

adapt because they emphasize so strongly the per-

sonality for whom her clothes were designed.

Her passion for perfection has given her clothes

a distinction. She even has a metal studio on her

premises in which she designs the dull silver and

copper ornaments that decorate her clothes.

BALENCIAGA (pronounced Bah-len-see-ah-gah)

was recognized as one of the foremost dress designers

of Spain when he left his war-torn country to open a

dressmaking establishment in Paris. In August 1937,

he opened an impressive white salon and presented

a collection . . . one week after the American

buyers had departed. One buyer who had stayed

on wandered into his shop, saw the possibilities in

his clothes and launched them in America.

Although his immediate success may sound aston-

ishing, the reasons for it become immediately appar-

ent when you see his clothes. He designs wonderfully

wearable afternoon dresses which are dear to the

heart of American women. He does very little ex-

primenting with color . . . most of his successes are

shown in black . . . and counts on superb cutting to

give character to.his clothes.

Balenciaga is equally recognized as a designer of

youthful evening dresses . . . lovely, simple, naive,

and still with just a touch of sophistication.

M. Balenciaga designs all of his clothes himself,

relying on no outside assistance. An essentially shy

man, all his showmanship goes into his clothes and

his customers rarely see him.

Not perhaps as creative as some of the other de-

signers, he has, so far, established himself as a de-

pendable designer who can be counted on to turn out

a good, wearable collection of clothes.

MADAME BRUYERE (Broo-yair) startled the

fashion world in 1930 with a collection of clothe3


GREAT PARIS AND AMERICAN DESIGNERS

noted for the subtlety with which she combines the

elegant with the simple. Her lace dresses are a

sensation. She shuns bias cuts and kimono sleeves,

and her creations, while a triumph of fitting, are

always easy to wear.

She is partial to moulded bodices, full skirts, much

lace, intricate embroidery, and dropped shoulders.

THE HOUSE OF CREED, like the house of

Worth is now in its third generation. Unlike the

house of Worth, Creed had the honor of catering to

Queen Victoria as well as Queen Alexandra, Queen

Christian, the Empress Elizabeth of Austria, and

the Archduchess Ferdinand of Austria.

Although Creed's tailleurs are considered classic,

there is no ancestor worship involved in the designing

of modern clothes. The latest fabrics, colors, and

innovations all go into the faultless designs. The

fabrics which Creed uses most are the famous Rodier

wools that for generations have spelled perfection.

Blouses made from bright, light Rodier wool are an-

other specialty of the house.

When Creed designs an evening dress, it is always

sure to be interesting in cut and design. Several

years ago he launched the trend for tailored evening

gowns. Recently he has added beach wear to his

collections, beautifully cut slacks and suspender

shorts, cut like slacks, but knee-length with cuffs.

THE HOUSE OF HEIM (Hime) has gained

prominence for three things: Furs, clothes for young

girls, and beach clothes, as well as for clothes de-

signed for his large, smart Parisian clientele. Strictly

a family establishment, there is one exception—

Madame Lyolene who designs the clothes for Jeune

Filles. Heim is the only establishment besides Lan-

vin who designs clothes for young girls.

Heim's most famous achievement in the field of

couture was his revolutionizing influence on beach

clothes, and it is he whom we must thank for printed

pareos, sarongs, gay cotton swimsuits, and bright,

odd play clothes, that have taken America by storm.

Heim, like Patou and Lelong, is publicity conscious

and publishes a bi-annual booklet which he names

"Revue Heim," to which famous Parisienne writers

lend their talents and for which the smart women for

whom he designs clothes allow themselves to be pho-

tographed.

JEANNE LANVIN (Lan-van, with the n's muted)

began her career at the age of thirteen as an appren-

tice in a large dressmaking establishment. Her

career terminated when she was married, but when

friends saw and admired the clothes she made for

her little daughter, they urged her to start in busi-

ness for herself; this she did in 1890.

Lanvin's dressmaking background has given her

a sound sense of the individuality of clothes, and

details carefully worked out are an important cre-

ative contribution to her collections. Rich embroi-

deries, intricate sleeves, appliques of scintillating

brilliance are all important to her. In fact, the use

of gold and silver appliques and glittering sequins

is recognized the world over as the "Lanvin touch."

She adds to this an unswerving sense of line, color

and fabric.

Today her clothes are bought by people who like

fine workmanship, good line, and intricate detail.

Impeccable taste is the keynote of her collections,

which have a glamour all their own . . . especially

for tall, slim women of distinction. For this reason,

perhaps, Lanvin has a large theatrical clientele.


THUMBNAIL SKETCHES OF THE

pation with fabric and finishing as well as the excel-

lence of his designs.

CAPTAIN EDWARD MOLYNEUX (Moll-ee-

no) is an Englishman, a Captain in the English

Army and a designer of clothes of young distinction.

Molyneux came to Paris to study painting but soon

became more interested in designing. He worked,

before the War, as apprentice and designer for Lu-

cille, one of the great houses of that period.

There is an axiom, "You can choose a Molyneux

dress with your eyes shut and be nearly 100% sure

of success." Molyneux made the trousseau for

Princess Mary of England; and among his clients,

famous for their chic, are the Dutchess of Kent and

Gertrude Lawrence.

Molyneux's clothes are never startling nor con-

spicuous. You are impressed by a woman in a Moly-

neux dress as a smart woman rather than by merely a

smart dress.

You can count on Molyneux clothes never to be

eccentric in color, never to change suddenly in sil-

houette . . . and always to be wellbred and beautiful.

ROBERT PIGUET (Ro-bear Pee-gay) is ranked

with the geniuses of the young Paris couture. His

knowledge of the Greek classics in sculpture led him

to the discovery that the most beautiful line of a

woman's body was from her arm to her hip and

gave him the impetus to design clothes to bring out

the beauty of her figure.

Born of an aristocratic family, Piguet hires most

of his salesmen from his own social circle—countess-

es, duchesses, marquises. And for them he creates

his clothes, sophisticated, youthful, aristocratic.

He excels in perfect finish, and the simplicity of

line that is so hard to capture because it belongs to

his intimate knowledge of sculpture. Above all, he

believes in revealing rather than concealing the

body; the subtle way in which he manages this is

genius. An example of this is his "background"

dress—the simple costume that the individual makes

her own by the addition of varying accessories.

Although he excels in the sculptured dress, he can,

unlike Alix, create smartly tailored frocks and suits

that reflect the modern tempo, and bouffant dresses.

MADELEINE DE RAUCH (Mad'layn d'Roash)

a prominent sportswoman was one of the first of the

Paris couture to appreciate the need for functional

sports clothes for women. She originated the culotte

skirt. Today she creates many of our best func-

tional and spectator sports designs as well as more

formal types. Never spectacular, her designs depend

on fine lines, fine fabrics, and fine taste to provide a

perfect setting for discriminating women. As a result,

clothes from Madam de Rauch are usually in good

style for several years.

MARCEL ROCHAS (Mar-sell Roash-ah) holds

today a position in the Paris Couture on a par with

Schiaparelli. Both are famous for their originality.

But where Schiaparelli dresses the modern woman of

fashion, Rochas dresses the gay, sophisticated young-

er set of Paris. And his following is also great in

the United States and South America.

With a few exceptions, Marcel Rochas' greatest

successes are in his sports clothes which are young,

trim, and colorful. His use of color amounts to

genius but it is not easy to copy as each shade must

be exactly right. He combines woodsy green, mus-

tard, and purple into harmony and sometimes blends

as many as five colors.


GREAT PARIS AND AMERICAN DESIGNERS

simple, slim silhouette but is without convention in

her use of fabric and color.

MADELEINE VIONNET (Vee-oh-nay) designs

clothes which seem to be the essence of simplicity, yet

defy the copyists. They are cut and draped so in-

tricately that they must be completely taken apart

before it is possible to see how these seemingly sim-

ple clothes were put together in the first place.

She began as a cutter and fitter, first with Callot in

London and then as "premiere" with Doucet. When

she opened her own house and became a designer she

perfected the science of cutting and fitting. This was

in 1914, and when the war forced her to close she re-

opened in 1919. Her clothes follow the structural

lines of the body, fit marvelously well, and stay in

fashion season after season.

Vionnet gave us the bias cut dress, the first simple-

appearing dress that was not simple in cut. It brought

an entirely new technique to the fashion world. This

dress was also the first slipover dress without fast-

enings. It made possible the uncorseted figure.

Today she is the greatest of the traditional dress-

makers. She uses simple fabrics that drape and

cling, and marvelous, subtle colors.

In her own salon, she inspects every dress before

it goes out and stamps on its label her own finger

print to assure the customer that it is an original.

II. AMERICAN DESIGNERS

As a class, American designers are young. It was

not until 1932, when Lord & Taylor sponsored a

group of native designers, that they were given any

public recognition. Today, although Paris is still

the acknowledged fountainhead of fashion, American

designers are taken seriously on both sides of the

Atlantic. They fall into several groups: the design-

ing retailers, the wholesale designers, and the Holly-

wood designers. There are now so many important

ones in each group that we can only give you sketches

of the most prominent.

1. DESIGNING RETAILERS

HATTIE CARNEGIE is one of the most famous

designing women in America. Her enterprises are

many: a smart retail shop in New York for custom

clothes, ready-to-wear, Paris imports and copies;

retail resort shops; a wholesale business; and her

own factories. She believes in Paris, visits it fre-

quently, designs in the French manner for her clients;

she also believes in Hollywood, sells her wholesale

clothes in California shops, dresses any amount of

Hollywood stars on and off the screen. She was

born in Vienna, educated in the East Side schools of

New York, sold hats in a modest shop, and began

designing dresses without ever having sewed a stitch.

She still doesn't sew and cannot cut a pattern, but

has an enormous feeling for luxury of material and

beauty of line.

FRANCES CLYNE began her career as a hat

designer. During the World War she was forced to

bring back gowns from Paris while she was on a hat

buying trip for Gidding. Her imports were so suc-

cessful that she was thereby acclaimed a dress buyer

of distinction. She opened her own shop and has a

distinguished clientele. She imports stunning models

on her frequent European trips, and creates many

originals herself. She believes a very simple and not

very original style may be made important through

handsome fabric and flawless workmanship.

MRS. FRANKLIN has an unequalled reputation

for fine hand-knit clothes. She is another designer


THUMBNAIL SKETCHES OF THE

a fine old house in the East Fifties, where she de-

signs and sells both gowns and hats.

MURIEL KING began as a fashion artist after

studying art in Washington University and the New

York School of Fine and Applied Art. Free lancing

in New York led her to Paris where she drew for

Vogue, and Women's Wear. She came back and

forth to America, planned her friends' wardrobes,

and decided to go into designing seriously. Her ven-

ture was highly successful and widely publicized.

Her clientele was small at first but she designed

entire wardrobes for them with originality and in-

dividuality the keynote. She approaches her custom-

ers from the artist's viewpoint, and builds flattering

colors and lines for them. Her tailors and dressmak-

ers work from her colored sketches. Fabrics are

selected after the design has been determined. Miss

King feels that a lack of concern with construction

details leaves her imagination free for the conception

of a perfect whole. Her clothes are restrained.

MAYBELLE MANNING is another designer who

entered her career accidentally. Born of an old Vir-

ginia family, she went to Hollin's College and the

Gardner School in New York. During the war

while she was doing canteen work, she designed sim-

ple cotton dresses for herself, extravagantly admired

by her friends. After the Armistice Miss Manning

started a designing business in Dallas, Texas. Soon

her southern clothes were shown in New York, which

eventually drew her. Flo Ziegfield engaged her to

do some of the Follies shows. In addition to her

own shop in New York, she was fashion editor of the

Theatre Magazine for several years and wrote nu-

merous fashion articles for magazines and news-

papers. She stresses good workmanship in well

tailored daytime clothes and feminine evening gowns.

SALLY MILGRIM'S rise from the humble be-

ginning of model in a small Second Avenue Shop to

the designing genius of one of New York's smartest

fashion shops is a famous success story. Not content

with just marrying the youngest brother in the firm,

Charles Milgrim, Sally persuaded the brothers to

let her try designing the new soft clothes which were

starting to replace tailored suits. The phenomenal

growth of the business from this point on was a tre-

mendous tribute to her keen style sense. By 1929

when the beautiful new Milgrim shop on Fifth-Sev-

enth Street was opened, Sally Milgrim was already

designing for the most brilliant women of the stage

and social world. She also has made inaugural

gowns and other clothes for Mrs. Roosevelt, Mrs.

Harding, and Mrs. Coolidge. She drapes fabrics

directly on the mannequin until an idea is born and

another Milgrim design emerges from the folds.

JESSIE FRANKLIN TURNER stands out as an

incurable individualist among designers. Ignoring

Paris customs and styles, she works independently,

even to designing her own fabrics. This individu-

ality, plus her support of the classic belief that fine

dressing is the eloquent draping of the human body

regardless of the vagaries of the current mode, give

her designs a timeless character beyond fashion. Her

treatment is particularly suitable for formal clothes,

and it has been on them that she has concentrated,

first with Bonwit Teller, later in her own shop. Jes-

sie Turner's search for inspirational fabrics and

ideas has taken her around the world many times.

2. WHOLESALE DESIGNERS

CLAREPOTTER, non-professionally Mrs. Clare


GREAT PARIS AND AMERICAN DESIGNERS

lance drawing and designing for dress manufac-

turers, then worked for twelve years with the dis-

tinguished house of Patullo. Miss Copeland goes to

the Paris openings and stresses the vast importance

of Paris as an inspiration to American designers. She

works mainly from the fabric to the design, working

on mannequins more often than from sketches. She

believes primarily in fine lines, functional design,

decorative details closely related to structure, beauti-

ful workmanship, and equally beautiful fabrics.

KIVIETTE, an outstanding theatrical designer,

started as an illustrator. She studied at the National

Academy of Design, and had a hard apprenticeship

selling free-lance sketches to the trade. She finally

got a theatrical job, did strikingly dramatic clothes

for any number of Broadway successes, and now has

an enviable wholesale business. She likes to follow

body lines with subtly dramatic touches. She often

designs buttons and belts.

RENEE MONTAGUE is a Virginian with the

background of a southern debutante. She wearied

of social nothings and went to New York to study

costume design. A year in Paris followed, then New

York theatrical designing before she became head de-

signer for Jay Thorpe. She left there for wholesale

designing in which she is eminently successful. Her

forte is exquisite evening gowns and bridal clothes.

She works from sketches at times; at others, she

drapes muslin on a wooden mannequin, making only

half the garment, using plenty of pins.

GERMAINE MONTEIL (Jer-men Mon-tie) is

French by birth, American by adoption and interests.

She has always worked for high style houses with a

sophisticated clientele. In 1930 she started her own

business in the wholesale dress market. Her clothes

are dramatic, individualistic, definitely modern. She

works from quick sketches, spends a great deal of

time and painstaking care on cutting, and demands

superb workmanship from her assistants.

NETTIE ROSENSTEIN is one of the natural de-

signers who began on her own clothes and was per-

suaded by admiring friends to design for them. The

circle widened until she found herself in business.

I. Magnin asked her to make clothes for his Los

Angeles store, so that her wholesale business also

started by request, and now flourishes in over a hun-

dred and fifty of the smartest retail stores. She bases

her success on her insistence on fine fabrics and

hand workmanship regardless of the cost.

3. HOLLYWOOD DESIGNERS

ADRIAN. Probably the most widely known of

the motion picture designers is Adrian, a Connecti-

cut Yankee who studied in New York at the School

of Fine and Applied Art, and later in Paris. His

Hollywood career was preceded by costume design-

ing in New York for the Music Box Reviews, the

Greenwich Village Follies, and George White's Scan-

dals. Adrian's first trip to Hollywood was made

to costume Rudolph Valentino's plays. Since then

he has dressed Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford and

Norma Shearer. He believes in fine fabrics, clothes

that are sophisticated and glamorous but essential-

ly simple.

TRAVIS BANTON was born in Waco, Texas,

studied at Columbia University, and the School of

Fine and Applied Art. After the World War, in

which he served, he started his own dressmaking estab-

lishment for a smart clientele and also Broadway

shows. He finally made Hollywood and has been


CLASSIFIED CONTENTS

Assembling Garments 25

American Designers 90-96

Adrian 95

Travis Banton 95

Hattie Carnegie 93

Clarepotter 94

Frances Clyne 93

Jo Copeland 95

Helen Cookman 94

Howard Greer 95

Elizabeth Hawes 93

Peggy Hoyt 93

Orry Kelly 95

Omar Kiam 95

Kiviettc 95

Maybelle Manning 94

Sally Milgrim 94

Renee Montague 95

Germaine Monteil 95

Nettie Rosenstein 95

Jessie Franklin Turner 94

Bands and Belts 57

Basic Stitches 30-34

Backstitching 32

Basting 30

Blanket Stitch 34

Blind Hemming 33

Buttonhole Stitch 34

Catchstitch 34

Combination 32

Diagonal Basting 30

Dressmaker Basting 30

Even Basting 30

Fagoting 34

Gathering 31

Gauging 31

Half Backstitching 32

Hemming 33

Ladder Fagoting 34

Overcasting 32

Overhanding 32

Running Stitch 30

Shirring 31

Slip Basting 31

Slipstitching 33

Stroking Gathers 21

Top Basting 21

Uneven Basting 30

Vertical Hemming 33

Whipping 33

Bindings 52,53

Bias Binding 52

Bias Tape Binding 53

Binding Scallops 53

Binding Shaped Edges 52

Continuous Bias Strips 52

Cutting Bias Strips 52

Double Binding 52

False Binding 53

Buttons and Buttonholes 69-72

Bound Buttonholes 71

Bound Opening 71

Buttonhole with Welt 72

Corded Frogs 69

Fabric Buttons 69

Link Buttons 69

Quickly-Made Bound Buttonholes... .71

Shank Buttons 69

Tailored Buttonholes 70



Butterick dressmaking book 1940