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RE-ENGAGING THE WELLAND CANALS

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McGill University School of Architecture Final Studio Project completed for Masters of Architecture (Professional) Studio Advisor/Instructors: Martin Bressani, Fabrizio Gallanti Project by David Donnelly

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Thank you to, Marcus Riganelli for assisting with 3D printing of lock models. David Riganelli for assisting with the drone footage for site documentation. Colleen Beard and Sharon Janzen from the GIS library at Brock University, for assisting with site topographical information. Additionally Colleen’s Project, The Historic Welland Canal Mapping Project was a valuable aid in site research and site plan production. Martin Bressani and Fabrizio Gallanti for project advisement.

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Table of contents 4. Video Link Youtube 5. Introduction 6. Context 7. Welland Canal/ Niagara Map 8-9. Current state of Historic Canals 10-11. Site Plan Proposal 12-13. Park 1, Connection 14-16. Park 2, Memory 17-23. The Path 24-25. Site Plan Enlargement 26-31. Engineering Pavilion 32-41. Pavilion for the Fallen Workers 42. Site Plan Enlargement 43-49. Lookout Tower Pavilion 50-51. Final Models

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Introduction video: https://youtu.be/HAkxy5aa_tE (please click on link)

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The Welland Canal has had four incarnations (1833, 1848, 1887, 1932) each time constructed, it profoundly shaped and changed the City of St. Catharines and the Niagara Region. Today, the old locks of these canals that once carried ships from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, are dispersed throughout the city, often fenced off, inaccessible, over grown and in a continual state of disrepair. This project investigates the now defunct, first three iterations, and their potential relationship with the contemporary city.

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N

Toronto

N

Lake Ontario Hamilton St.Catharines

Niagara Region Buffalo

Lake Erie

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1st Welland Canal - 1829

4th (Current) Welland Canal - 1933

30 m

250 m

Typical Vessel

NIAGARA ON THE LAKE

Typical Vessel

2nd Welland Canal - 1845

43 m Typical Vessel

3rd Welland Canal - 1887

78 m Typical Vessel

ST. CATHARINES U S A QE

W

l3

na

Ca

&2

Canal 4

al 1

Can

406

THOROLD

NIAGARA FALLS 8


The current state of the Historic Welland Canals

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Site Plan Proposal The proposal includes two parks that re-engage the community with these industrial artifacts. The first park, Connection, utilizes the Second Welland Canal. The park links downtown St. Catharines with the City of Thorold. The design of the park is centered on re-engaging the community with the old canal through programs focused on recreation, culture and water remediation. The primary focus of the project is on the design of the second park system, titled Memory, this park utilizes the remaining locks of the Third Welland Canal. The park connects the St. Catharines Museum, the Thorold History Museum and the current Welland Canal. The incredible story of these canals is exploded and pieced along the remaining portion of the third Canal. Here a series of museum pavilions engage with the 19th century stone locks. Each pavilion communicates a fundamental piece of the passionate story of this great infrastructure project. Three pavilions are featured, grappling with the engineering triumphs, the human tragedy, and our contemporary memory and understanding of these canal projects.

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The Third Welland Canal, 1887 Memory

Canal (1933) The Welland

St.Catharines Downtown Centennial Gardens Park

Bridge Intervention

Washroom

Parking

Theater in Lock

Fishing Pavilion

Bike Path

Information Pavilion

Lock 5

Culture

Lock 6

St. Catharines Museum and Welland Canals Center

Welland Canal 4: Lock 3

The park begins at the St. Catharines Museum at Lock 3.

430 m

Pedestrian Swing Bridge A Bridge over the current canal transports you into the park.

Lock 7

Lock 11: Pavilion - Niagara before the canals

323 m

The earliest human settlement of the area dates to 1400 AD. The Neutrals, an Iroquoian Indigenous peoples transversed Niagara with canoes they portaged over the Escarpment.

318 m

Lock 8

Lock 12: Pavilion - Politics and Economics

270 m

Recreation

Lock 9

Exhibiting the post-War of 1812 Canadian competition with the United States, and Mr. Merritt’s passion in building the canal, through historic documents and surveys.

323 m

Lock 13:

Staging Pavilion, Restrooms and Parking.

345 m

315 m

Lock 10

Lift Bridge Lock 14

242 m

315 m

Welland Canal

Lock 11

224 m

Water Remediation

Lock 12

Lock 15

294 m

tors

General Mo

224 m

Lock 16: Pavilion - Ingenuity, Engineering the Canals

Lock 13

Excavate buried lock.

Lock 14

Sport

Excavate buried lock.

348 m

Canadian National Railway Bridge

223 m

CN Railway Swing Bridge Lock 17 Pavilion - Toll Fallen Workers Memorial.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 4 327 m

water to be brought to surface

Welland Canal 4: Lock 5

201 m

The Second Welland Canal,1848 Connection Bridge Intervention

Washroom

Parking

Theater in Lock

Fishing Pavilion

Bike Path

Information Pavilion

Lock 16

Merritton Tunnel

Train tunnel under the canal.

Lock 19 183 m

Excavate buried lock.

The construction of the 4th canal took the lives of 124 people. It is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion reflects on the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future.

Lock 18

279 m

Lock 15

Exhibiting the engineering triumphs through drawings and models of the locks and the inventive machines that built the locks.

Excavate buried lock.

183 m

Lock 17

178 m

Lock 18

185 m

Lock 19

Lock 20

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 6

184 m

331 m

Lock 20

Lock 21 310 m

304 m

Thorold Downtown

325 m

Lock 21: Pavilion - Ship Building Along the Canals

The Canals have been home to enormous ship building and dry-dock operations, producing and repairing many vessels. These operations include the historic Shickluna Shipyards (1838-1890) and the Port Weller Drydocks. (1946-2013) Here you can rent a canoe to explore the remains of the submerged locks.

Lock 22

Lock 23

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 7 Thorold Museum

343 m

Lock 24: Pavilion - Perspective Lookout Tower

This 10 story tower, roughly the height of one of the 4th canal locks, allows you to observe the path you just experienced and its consumption by nature and time. You can also see the tracings of the 2nd and 3rd canals in the streets of Thorold. Finally you can fully understand and watch the massive Great Lake Freighters climb this incredible Canadian staircase into the interior of the continent.

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Second Welland Canal Park: CONNECTION Second Welland Canal park proposal. (not the primary focus of the project) Design includes access to water, access to locks, lighting, bike paths, fishing pavilions, visual connection from street level.

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Welland Canal 2, Lock 6 Axonometric 14


Third Welland Canal Park: MEMORY The primary focus of the project is on the design of the second park system, titled Memory, this park utilizes the remaining locks of the Third Welland Canal. The park connects the St. Catharines Museum, the Thorold History Museum and the current Welland Canal. The incredible story of these canals is exploded and pieced along the remaining portion of the 3rd Canal. Here a series of museum pavilions engage with the 19th century stone locks. Each pavilion communicates a fundamental piece of the passionate story of this great infrastructure project. Three pavilions are featured, grappling with the engineering triumphs, the human tragedy, and our contemporary memory and understanding of these canal projects.

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The Third Welland Canal, 1887 Memory

Canal (1933) The Welland

St.Catharines Downtown Centennial Gardens Park

Bridge Intervention

Washroom

Parking

Theater in Lock

Fishing Pavilion

Bike Path

Information Pavilion

Lock 5

Culture

Lock 6

St. Catharines Museum and Welland Canals Center

Welland Canal 4: Lock 3

The park begins at the St. Catharines Museum at Lock 3.

430 m

Pedestrian Swing Bridge A Bridge over the current canal transports you into the park.

Lock 7

Lock 11: Pavilion - Niagara before the canals

323 m

The earliest human settlement of the area dates to 1400 AD. The Neutrals, an Iroquoian Indigenous peoples transversed Niagara with canoes they portaged over the Escarpment.

318 m

Lock 8

Lock 12: Pavilion - Politics and Economics

270 m

Recreation

Lock 9

Exhibiting the post-War of 1812 Canadian competition with the United States, and Mr. Merritt’s passion in building the canal, through historic documents and surveys.

323 m

Lock 13:

Staging Pavilion, Restrooms and Parking.

345 m

315 m

Lock 10

Lift Bridge Lock 14

242 m

315 m

Welland Canal

Lock 11

224 m

Water Remediation

Lock 12

Lock 15

294 m

tors

General Mo

224 m

Lock 16: Pavilion - Ingenuity, Engineering the Canals

Lock 13

Excavate buried lock.

Lock 14

Sport

Excavate buried lock.

348 m

Canadian National Railway Bridge

223 m

CN Railway Swing Bridge Lock 17 Pavilion - Toll Fallen Workers Memorial.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 4 327 m

water to be brought to surface

Welland Canal 4: Lock 5

201 m

The Second Welland Canal,1848 Connection Bridge Intervention

Washroom

Parking

Theater in Lock

Fishing Pavilion

Bike Path

Information Pavilion

Lock 16

Merritton Tunnel

Train tunnel under the canal.

Lock 19 183 m

Excavate buried lock.

The construction of the 4th canal took the lives of 124 people. It is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion reflects on the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future.

Lock 18

279 m

Lock 15

Exhibiting the engineering triumphs through drawings and models of the locks and the inventive machines that built the locks.

Excavate buried lock.

183 m

Lock 17

178 m

Lock 18

185 m

Lock 19

Lock 20

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 6

184 m

331 m

Lock 20

Lock 21 310 m

304 m

Thorold Downtown

325 m

Lock 21: Pavilion - Ship Building Along the Canals

The Canals have been home to enormous ship building and dry-dock operations, producing and repairing many vessels. These operations include the historic Shickluna Shipyards (1838-1890) and the Port Weller Drydocks. (1946-2013) Here you can rent a canoe to explore the remains of the submerged locks.

Lock 22

Lock 23

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 7 Thorold Museum

343 m

Lock 24: Pavilion - Perspective Lookout Tower

This 10 story tower, roughly the height of one of the 4th canal locks, allows you to observe the path you just experienced and its consumption by nature and time. You can also see the tracings of the 2nd and 3rd canals in the streets of Thorold. Finally you can fully understand and watch the massive Great Lake Freighters climb this incredible Canadian staircase into the interior of the continent.

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3) St. Catharines Museum and Welland Canals Center

Welland Canal 4: Lock 3

The park begins at the St. Catharines Museum at Lock 3.

Pedestrian Swing Bridge A Bridge over the current canal transports you into the park.

Lock 11: Pavilion - Niagara before the canals

The earliest human settlement of the area dates to 1400 AD. The Neutrals, an Iroquoian Indigenous peoples transversed Niagara with canoes they portaged over the Escarpment.

318 m

Lock 12: Pavilion - Politics and Economics

Exhibiting the post-War of 1812 Canadian competition with the United States, and Mr. Merritt’s passion in building the canal, through historic documents and surveys.

323 m

Lock 13:

Staging Pavilion, Restrooms and Parking. 315 m

Lift Bridge Lock 14

elland Canal

315 m

Site Plan Enlargement

Lock 15

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The Path

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19


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Welland Canal 3, Lock 13 Path Axonometric

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Welland Canal 3, Lock 14 Path Axonometric

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Welland Canal 3, Lock 11 Path Axonometric

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3) St. Catharines Museum and Welland Canals Center

Welland Canal 4: Lock 3

The park begins at the St. Catharines Museum at Lock 3.

Pedestrian Swing Bridge A Bridge over the current canal transports you into the park.

Lock 11: Pavilion - Niagara before the canals

The earliest human settlement of the area dates to 1400 AD. The Neutrals, an Iroquoian Indigenous peoples transversed Niagara with canoes they portaged over the Escarpment.

318 m

Lock 12: Pavilion - Politics and Economics

Exhibiting the post-War of 1812 Canadian competition with the United States, and Mr. Merritt’s passion in building the canal, through historic documents and surveys.

323 m

Lock 13:

Staging Pavilion, Restrooms and Parking. 315 m

Lift Bridge Lock 14

elland Canal

315 m

Site Plan Enlargement

Lock 15

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Canadian competition with the United States, and Mr. Merritt’s passion in building the canal, through historic documents and surveys.

Lock 13:

Staging Pavilion, Restrooms and Parking. 315 m

Lift Bridge Lock 14

Welland Canal

315 m

Lock 15

294 m

tors

General Mo

Lock 16: Pavilion - Ingenuity, Engineering the Canals 348 m

Canadian National Railway Bridge

Exhibiting the engineering triumphs through drawings and models of the locks and the inventive machines that built the locks.

CN Railway Swing Bridge Lock 17 Pavilion - Toll Fallen Workers Memorial.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 4 327 m

Welland Canal 4: Lock 5

The construction of the 4th canal took the lives of 124 people. It is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion reflects on the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future.

Lock 18

279 m

Merritton Tunnel

Train tunnel under the canal.

Site Plan Enlargement

Lock 19 Welland

Excavate buried lock.

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Engineering Pavilion This pavilion celebrates the engineering triumphs of the canal and includes two exhibition rooms, one dedicated to the drawings and models of the locks, and another dedicated to the incredible machines that facilitated their construction. This pavilion embraces the engineering theme by being extremely operable, with large sliding doors and a suspension bridge, at which point you can see the cascading locks as they decent the escarpment.

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Inspiration

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29


10

7

5

6

8

9 4

3

2

1

1. EXHIBITION: ENGINEERING THE LOCKS 2. INFORMATION 3. OFFICE 4. EXHIBITION: THE MACHINES THAT BUILT THE LOCKS 5. FIRE PIT 6. STORAGE 7. CAFE 8. KITCHEN 9. LOCKERS FOR HIKERS 10. PLATFORM IN LOCK

Plan Lock 16

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Welland Canal 3, Lock 16 Exploded Axonometric

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Fallen Workers Pavilion This pavilion embodies the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara Region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future. It is a space communicating the stories of the people who came from dire situations in hope of a better life, and fought disease, exhaustion, alcoholism, and many work related accidents. The death toll on the 4th Welland Canal alone was 124, it is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion is the only one placed inside a lock, the design was inspired by haunting images of 19th century ship building within dry docks.

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States, and Mr. Merritt’s passion in building the canal, through historic documents and surveys.

Lock 13:

Staging Pavilion, Restrooms and Parking. 315 m

Lift Bridge Lock 14

Welland Canal

315 m

Lock 15

294 m

tors

General Mo

Lock 16: Pavilion - Ingenuity, Engineering the Canals 348 m

Canadian National Railway Bridge

Exhibiting the engineering triumphs through drawings and models of the locks and the inventive machines that built the locks.

CN Railway Swing Bridge Lock 17 Pavilion - Toll Fallen Workers Memorial.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 4 327 m

Welland Canal 4: Lock 5

The construction of the 4th canal took the lives of 124 people. It is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion reflects on the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future.

Lock 18

279 m

Merritton Tunnel

Train tunnel under the canal.

Site19Plan Lock Welland

Enlargement

Excavate buried lock. 331 m

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Inspiration

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G R N S E I R D H E N C K E A R R O O R P W P A LEN S L N A O F I L I V A P 36


Welland Canal 3, Lock 17 Exploded Axonometric

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3

2

1 4

1. ENTRANCE 2. PHOTO GALLERY 3. REFLECTION AREA 4. STAIRS TO STORAGE AREA

3

2

1 4

A

Plan & Section Lock 17

38


39


40


Wellan

Lock 15

294 m

tors

General Mo

Lock 16: Pavilion - Ingenuity, Engineering the Canals 348 m

Canadian National Railway Bridge

Exhibiting the engineering triumphs through drawings and models of the locks and the inventive machines that built the locks.

CN Railway Swing Bridge Lock 17 Pavilion - Toll Fallen Workers Memorial.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 4 327 m

Welland Canal 4: Lock 5

The construction of the 4th canal took the lives of 124 people. It is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion reflects on the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future.

Lock 18

279 m

Merritton Tunnel

Train tunnel under the canal.

Lock 19

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 6

331 m

Lock 20 310 m

304 m

Lock 21: Pavilion - Ship Building Along the Canals

The Canals have been home to enormous ship building and dry-dock operations, producing and repairing many vessels. These operations include the historic Shickluna Shipyards (1838-1890) and the Port Weller Drydocks. (1946-2013) Here you can rent a canoe to explore the remains of the submerged locks.

Site Plan Enlargement

325 m

Lock 22

41


42


Canal 4: Lock 4 327 m

Welland Canal 4: Lock 5

The construction of the 4th canal took the lives of 124 people. It is undocumented how many died building the first three canals. This pavilion reflects on the human toll this infrastructure project had on the Niagara region, and the countless immigrants who died in hopes of a better future.

Lock 18

279 m

Merritton Tunnel

Train tunnel under the canal.

Lock 19

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 6

331 m

Lock 20 310 m

304 m

325 m

Lock 21: Pavilion - Ship Building Along the Canals

The Canals have been home to enormous ship building and dry-dock operations, producing and repairing many vessels. These operations include the historic Shickluna Shipyards (1838-1890) and the Port Weller Drydocks. (1946-2013) Here you can rent a canoe to explore the remains of the submerged locks.

Lock 22

Lock 23

Excavate buried lock.

Welland Canal 4: Lock 7 Thorold Museum

343 m

Lock 24: Pavilion - Perspective Lookout Tower

This 10 story tower, roughly the height of one of the 4th canal locks, allows you to observe the path you just experienced and its consumption by nature and time. You can also see the tracings of the 2nd and 3rd canals in the streets of Thorold. Finally you can fully understand and watch the massive Great Lake Freighters climb this incredible Canadian staircase into the interior of the continent.

Site Plan Enlargement

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Observation Tower This pavilion was inspired by the existing lift bridges that span the canal. These beautiful vertical structures break an otherwise flat skyline, and have been in operation since 1932. Though they are often a source of pain for local residents commuting to work, I find them one of the most fascinating features of the city. This pavilion sits at the top of the Niagara Escarpment on top of the current Welland Canal’s Lock 7 and adjacent to the buried lock 24 of the 3rd Welland Canal. An observation area at the ground level is built to watch the passing ships. An elegant wood structure holds up a steel veil. At the top, an operable glass box encloses visitors in the winter. At its 10 story height, you can observe the path you just experienced, and its consumption by nature and time. You can also see the tracings of the 2nd and 3rd canals in the streets of Thorold. Finally you can fully understand and watch the massive Great Lake Freighters climb this incredible Canadian staircase into the interior of the continent.

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Inspiration

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Welland Canal 4, Lock 7 Exploded Axonometric

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C A N A L W E L L A N D

3

1. LANDING FOR TOWER STAIRS 2. WAITING AREA 3. SEATING/VIEWING AREA

1

2

48


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Final Models

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Model scale 1:500

Model scale 1:250

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Thanks for viewing my project proposal for the Historic Welland Canals. If you have any questions or comments feel free to email me, daviddonnelly93@gmail.com

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Re-Engaging The Welland Canals  

A proposal for the Historic Welland Canals

Re-Engaging The Welland Canals  

A proposal for the Historic Welland Canals

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