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James Town 1607 : The second songs came. John Smith shaped it with tobacco plantation and made it successful. The ratio of men to women was 5 to 1. Indentured servants came and lived there but didn’t last very long. Before the plantation of tobacco, there was a high death ratio and bad working environments. Plantation System: Portuguese adventurers built up a large slave trade business, resulting in modern plantation system. A large-scale commercial agriculture with exploitation of slaves. People were reliant on slave. House of Burgesses: Started in Virginia. Made up of the 1st family members in aristocracy, mostly plantation owners. A joint-stock company where settlers were allowed to elect their own assembly to meet with their governor and his council to make local laws. New England Colonies: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, Vermont, New Hampshire Middle Colonies: New York, Penn, Nary Jersey. (could include mid atlantic states) Chesapeake/ Southern Colonies: South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Maryland, Delaware Purtitanism: (1630s) 16th to 17th century. English Reformation . Accused Church of England of being too tolerant of practices they associated with Catholic Church. They believed everyone was damned. They believed in predestination. In a way they were extremists. Connects to half-way covenant Church of England/Anglican/Episcopal: The Church of England was the official Church in England. It was harsh and conservative thus causing several to abandon Britain and go to the colonies to practice their own religions. The Anglican and Episcopal are churches that came from change in view points over religion. Separatists: Were more extreme than Protestants. Denied the church of England. Went to Plymouth and set up small congregations. Massachusetts Bay Colony: (1629) English Puritans obtained a charter for the MBC, a typical joint-stock corporation. The charter didn’t specify where the company was to be. The party sailed and found Dorchester, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Cambridge. 13,000 settlers came to Massachusetts. They progressed with fishing, lumber, and ship building. They gave their women and children rights. John Winthrop “City on a Hill”: Was an attorney. He became the governor of Massachusetts, joint-stock company. Helped is prosper as a colony that traded fyr, fished, and built ships. Puritans believed they had a covenant with God to build a holy society. Colony also called “Bible Commonbook.” John hated Democracy.

Harvard College/William and Mary/Yale- Came about during 1st great awakening. They were started by the New Light. Colleges were created so emphasis could be put on education. Congregational Church: The New England Puritans that tried to stop the purification of the Church in England. Just decided to disunite and create a congregation. New England Town Meetings: Towns people started to meet up and talk about problems. These meetings took place where there had previously been shows for entertainment. Half-Way Covenant: Created by the Puritans. By this time the Puritans later generation became to drift away. Parents who had been baptized but had no yet experienced conversions could have their offspring baptized and save them from hell. Roger Williams/Rhode Island : He established complete freedom of religion. His religious tolerance made Rhode Island more liberal than any other settlement. Quakers and Ann Hutchinson fled to Rhode Island. Roger had nothing in common with the two; the only common feature was that they weren’t accepted anywhere else. Indentured servants: Young men who agreed to work a certain term of years for passage to America, a bed, and board. If they were older than 19 then they had to work for 4 years. If they were younger then 19 then they had to work until they were 24 years old. Connects to Bacon’s Rebellion. Barbados Slave Codes: (1624-1640) Barbados was 400 sq. miles with sugar, a valuable import. Barbados generated wealth for the English empire. They valuable import created a large slave import. They slave codes denied rights to salve, gave masters virtually complete control over their laborers. These codes later inspires statutes governing slavery in colonies. Georgia’s Founding – (1763-1775) One of the only colonies that was planted by the British gov. ( part of their mercantilism plan) Other colonies were founded by trading companies, religious groups, or land speculators. Bacon’s Rebellion: (1676) In Virginia. Led by Nathanial Bacon. About a thousand Virginians broke out in rebellion. The rebellion was from frontiersmen who had been indentured servants. Tobacco had sucked all nutrients out of the soil and former indentured servants were angry because they were left were bad land; they wanted new land. They wanted to kick the Indians out and go live on the land beyond the Fall Line. When they gave their request to governor Berkley he rejected it and was kind to the Indian. This raged the frontiersmen. They broke out in rebellion and even drove Berkley out. Their rebellion was large and frightening. Britain was shocked by this rebellion. Eventually Bacon died of disease and Berkley crushed the uprising. Stono Rebellion: a slave rebellion begun on Sunday, September 9, 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. One of the earliest known organized rebellions in the present United

States, it was led by native Africans who were Catholic and likely from the kingdom of Kongo, and some of whom spoke Portuguese. Jemmy a literate slave who led 20 other enslaved Kongolese, who may have been former soldiers, in an armed march south from the Stono River. They recruited nearly 60 other slaves and killed 22–25 whites before being intercepted by a South Carolina militia near the Edisto River. In that battle, 20 whites and 44 slaves were killed, and the rebellion was suppressed. A group of slaves escaped and traveled another 30 miles before battling a week later with a militia; most of the slaves were executed; a few survived to be sold to the West Indies.In response, the South Carolina legislature passed the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly, education and movement.

Scots-Irish: (1775) Immigrants poured into the Americas. They became 7% of the pop. They mostly went to PA. The English gov. placed burdensome restrictions on their production of linens and woolens. They went to PA illegally and got in quarrels with Indians and whites who were frontiersmen. They also led an armed march of the Paxton Boys in Philadelphia in 1764, protesting against Quakers for being so lenient towards Indians. A dozen future presidents were descendents of the Scots-Irish. We didn’t learn about the Regulator Movement so I put a lot of info about it in. The Regulator Movement: two groups, one in South Carolina, the other in North Carolina, that tried to effect governmental changes in the 1760s. In South Carolina, the Regulator movement was an organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government. Plagued by roving bands of outlaws and angered by the assembly's failure to provide the western counties with courts and petty officers, the leading planters, supported by small farmers, created (1767) an association to regulate backcountry affairs. They brought criminals to justice and set up courts to resolve legal disputes. The assembly and the governor, recognizing the legitimacy of the grievances, did not attempt to crush the movement. By 1768, order was restored. The movement in W North Carolina, with different causes, arose at the same time. Led by small farmers protesting the corruption and extortionate practices of sheriffs and court officials, the Regulators, strongest in Orange, Granville, Halifax, and Anson counties, at first petitioned the assembly to recall its officers. When this failed, they formed (1768) an association pledged to pay only legal taxes and fees and to abide by the will of the majority. They won control of the provincial assembly in 1769, but with Gov. William Tryon, the provincial council, and the courts against them they were unable to secure relief. At first orderly, the Regulators resorted to acts of violence Edmund Fanning, a particularly despised official, was allowed to go unpunished. Those actions alienated large property holders and the clergy from the movement. On May 16, 1771, Tryon's militia completely routed a large body of Regulators in the battle of Alamance Creek. Seven of the leaders were executed, and the movement collapsed. One group of Regulators moved west to Tennessee, where they helped form the Watauga Association, but most of them submitted. Tensions remained, however, between the western farmers and the tidewater aristocracy.

Greath Awakening: (1730-1750s) A religious revival where Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodists came out on top. New Lights vs Old Lights. The New Lights were Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists. The rest of the religions declined. George Whitefield emerged as an emotional speaker. This revival united people. It was believed that the world needed more purity. The New Lights made new schools and emphasized education. There was a spread of democratic views. They broke down authority. Connects to Johnathan Edwards and George Whitefield. Jonathan Edwards: The Great Awakening was 1st ignited by him IN Northampton, Massachusetts. He was a deep theologian. He believed in salvation through good works and affirmed the need for complex dependence on God’s grace. His most famous sermon was “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” He painted lurid pictures of hell into people’s minds. George Whitefield: He came four years after Edwards. He was an Evangelical preacher. He was an orator of rare gifts. He could make an audience week. He toured around and preached. He spread the message of human helplessness and divine omnipotence. He inspired several imitators. “Old Lights” were skeptical of his emotionalism. He helped encouraged the first missionary work. Mercantilism: (1763-1775) This theory embraced by British authorities. It justified control over colonies. It was believed that wealth was power and a countries economic wealth could be measure by the amount of gold or silver in a country’s treasury. They believed that they needed to export more than they imported. Colonies were an advantage. They would send raw materials to the mother country. The London Gov. looked at American colonists as tenants. Parliaments passed laws to regulate mercantilist system. (Connects to Navigation Acts) Navigation Acts- They were aimed at rival Dutch shippers. All commerce flowing to and from the colonies could be transported only to British vessels. European goods destined for America had to go through Britain 1st ( this way Britain got a slice of the profit) Other laws stipulated that American merchants must ship certain “enumerated” products exclusively to Britain (tobacco.) Colonies had currency shortages so they tried to make paper money. Parliament got angry and prohibited it. The British law could nullify and legislation passed by the colonial assemblies that hindered mercantilism. Royal Colonies: French and Indian War: Also called Seven Years War. The 4th struggle in the AngloFrench colonial war. It was 2 years long. Fought in the Americas and on the ocean. Britain vs France and its various Native American forces allied with them. Americans had revealed a lack of unity during the French and Indian war. ( Connects to Albany Congress. This war resulted in the British conquest of Canada. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida to the British, France ceded its control of French

Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in North America. When Britain won in the end they were in debt and began to tax the colonists to pay for the debt. (Connects to Sygar Act, Stamp Act, Virtual Representaion, Intolerable Acts, and Declaration of Independence.) Albany Congress/Albany Plan of Union : (1754) Led by Banjamin Franklin. The purpose was to ahieve greater colnial unity and thus bolster the common defense against France. Albany delegates adopted the plan but the individual colonies spruned it, so did the London regime. The colonists thought it didn’t give enough independence; British officials thought it gave too much. Benjamin Franklin: was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, soldier and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He was an early proponent of colonial unity, and as a political writer and activist, he supported the idea of an American nation. As a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence of the United States possible.Franklin is credited as being foundational to the roots of American values and character, a marriage of the practical and democratic Puritan values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment Enlightenment: a time in Western philosophy and cultural life, centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.Developing more or less simultaneously in Germany, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and buoyed by the North American colonists' successful rebellion against Great Britain in the American War of Independence Treaty of Paris of 1763: called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the Seven Years' War.The treaty marked the beginning of an extensive period of British dominance outside of Europe. While the bulk of conquered territories were restored to their pre-war owners, the British made some substantial overseas gains at the expense of France and, to a lesser extent, Spain. Preferring to keep Guadeloupe, France gave up Canada and all of its claims to the territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain.Spain ceded Florida to the British, but later received New Orleans and French Louisiana from the British; Manila and Cuba were restored to Spain. France retained Saint Pierre and Miquelon and recovered Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint Lucia in exchange for Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobago going to the British. In India, the French lost out to the British, receiving back its "factories" (trading posts), but agreeing to support the British client governments, as well as returning Sumatra and agreeing not to base troops in Bengal. The Mediterranean island

of Minorca was returned to British control, having been captured by the French at the outbreak of hostilities in Europe. Proclamation of 1763: Issued by the London Gov. It flatly prohbited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians, pendhing further adjustments. It wasn’t designed to opres the colonists, but to work out the Indian problem fairly and prevent another bloody erruption. Counltess Americans were angry. They defied it and clogged the westward trails. They felt the brth right of the land above the mountains. Lordlt Birtons were over confident with their win and were in no mood for talk back. This set the stage for a violent family quarrel; personifies seperation for Britain. Sugar Act: was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764. 1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines. These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merchants were very vocal. Besides, the taxes were enacted (or raised) without the consent of the colonists. This was one of the first instances in which colonists wanted a say in how much they were taxed Stamp Act/Declaratory Act: The Stamp Act, sponsored by George Grenville, was the first direct tax imposed by Britain on its American colonies. To help cover the cost of maintaining troops in the colonies, Parliament levied a tax on legal and commercial documents as well as printed material such as newspapers and pamphlets, all of which had to carry a special stamp. Benjamin Franklin and other American agents in London offered alternative measures, but conceded the need for revenue from America. The act took effect in November 1765. Americans, who did not elect members of Parliament, opposed the act not only because of their inability to pay the tax, but also because it violated the newly enunciated principle of "No taxation without representation." This measure aroused the grievances of the colonists, and their concerted action in response paved the way for the American Revolution. The Declatory Act was passed after the Stamp Act was repealed. was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1766, during America's colonial period, one of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies and cancel the majority of the effects of the Stamp Act. It stated that Parliament had the right to make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever".