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Lesson 1: NATURE OF STS -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. When you finish the lesson, you should be able to: 1. Explicate what STS is. 2. Describe five features of STS. 3. Disseminate the various ST fields to the people in the community. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction In this lesson, you will learn the meaning of science, technology and society. The three areas will be treated as a single discipline. The discipline referred to as science, technology and society (STS) is an integration of the three areas. You will learn how science affects the society and how the society affects science; how science affects technology and how technology affects science; how society affects technology. The three areas put together will lead us in this course, to study the quality of life. Quality of life 1


______________________________________ depends on our values. You will specifically learn the ideas and definitions educators and scientists have about STS. Features of STS STS is a new subject. Like most interdisciplinary programs, it emerged from the confluence of a variety of disciplines and disciplinary subfields, all of which had developed an interest—typically, during the 1960s or 1970s— in viewing science and technology as socially embedded enterprises. The key disciplinary components of STS took shape independently, beginning in the 1960s, and developed in isolation from each other well into the 1980s, although Ludwik Fleck's monograph (1935) Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact anticipated many of STS’s key themes. In the 1970s Elting E. Morison founded the STS program at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which served as a model. By 2011 STS programs were counted: History of Technology that examines technology in its social and historical context. Starting in the 1960s, some historians questioned technological determinism, a doctrine that can induce public passivity to technologic and scientific 'natural' development. At 2


______________________________________ the same time, some historians began to develop similarly contextual approaches to the history of medicine. History and Philosophy of Science (1960s). After the publication of Thomas Kuhn's well-known, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962),which attributed changes in scientific theories to changes in underlying intellectual paradigms, programs were founded at the University of California, Berkeley and elsewhere that brought historians of science and philosophers together in unified programs. Science, Technology, and Society In the mid- to late-1960s, student and faculty social movements in the U.S., UK, and European universities helped to launch a range of new interdisciplinary fields (such as women’s studies) that were seen to address relevant topics that the traditional curriculum ignored. One such development was the rise of “science, technology, and society” programs, which are also—confusingly— known by the STS acronym. Drawn from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, history, political science, and sociology, scholars in these programs created undergraduate curricula devoted to exploring the issues raised by science and technology. Unlike scholars in science studies, history of technology, or the 3


______________________________________ history and philosophy of science, they were and are more likely to see themselves as activists working for change rather than dispassionate, “ivory tower” researchers. As an example of the activist impulse, feminist scholars in this and other emerging STS areas addressed themselves to the exclusion of women from science and engineering. Science, Engineering, and Public Policy Studies emerged in the 1970s from the same concerns that motivated the founders of the science, technology, and society movement: A sense that science and technology were developing in ways that were increasingly at odds with the public’s best interests. The science, technology, and society movement tried to humanize those who would make tomorrow’s science and technology, but this discipline took a different approach: It would train students with the professional skills needed to become players in science and technology policy. Some programs came to emphasize quantitative methodologies, and most of these were eventually absorbed into systems engineering. Others emphasized sociological and qualitative approaches, and found that their closest kin could be found among scholars in science, technology, and society departments. 4


______________________________________ Thus, in order a country to take steps towards being an information society, changes need to be made in the learning environments. Society consists of individuals and information is communicated through individuals. Improvement in Science would affect technology, society and environment positively or negatively. Science could develop as a result of an interaction between technology as the application of theoretical knowledge and requirements created by social needs. Human history experienced the process of moving towards being an information society with the invention of the first programmable computer in 1940’s. These improvements in computer and communication technologies increased the production of knowledge and its transfer. This was enabled by the ability of information technologies to maximize the level of communication and sharing between individuals and organizations. Thus, scientific and technological activities refers to the elucidation of unknown phenomena, and to the creation of new knowledge through the discovery of new natural laws and principles, and the new knowledge obtained is then utilized in the real society. The essence of how science and technology 5


______________________________________ contributes to society is the creation of new knowledge, and then utilization of that knowledge to boost the prosperity of human lives, and to solve the various issues facing society. With the shift to a knowledge-based society well underway in the opening years of the 21st century, the creation of new knowledge is an increasingly important aspect of scientific and technological activities, and the role of science in this knowledge creation is important for the realization of “science and technology for society.” The study of “Science, Technology and Society” (STS) examines the roles of science and technology in society, how science and technology reflect social, economic and cultural values, and the human and ethical implications of emerging technologies. Science, technology and society (STS), also referred to as science and technology studies, is a branch or offspring of science studies. It considers how social, political, and cultural values affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture. NSTA has identified eleven features of STS programs. These features according to (Yager 1992) indicate the importance of instruction over curriculum 6


______________________________________ and indicate how the context of human experience is attained. STS programs are those which include:  Students identification of problems with local interest and impact.  The use of local resources (human and material) to locate information that can be used in problem resolution.  The active involvement of students in seeking information that can be applied to solve real life problems.  The extension of learning beyond the class period, the classroom, the school.  A focus upon the impact of science and technology on individual students  A view that science content is more than concepts which exist for student to master on tests.  An emphasis upon career awareness especially careers related to science and technology.  Opportunities for students to act in their communities as they attempt to resolve issues they have identified.  Identification of ways that science and technology are likely to impact on the future. 7


______________________________________ ďƒź Some autonomy in the learning process (as individuals are identified and considered). Yager states that STS is focusing upon current problems and issues and attempts at their resolution as the best way of preparing students for current and future citizenship roles. This according to him means identifying local, regional, national and international problems with students, planning for individual and group activities which address them. Emphasis on STS is responsible decision making in the real world of the student. We can attempt defining each of the words. Science is the systematic study of nature, both living and nonliving aspect of nature including natural phenomena like thunder, weather etc. Technology is the organization of knowledge for the achievement of practical purposes or a set of skills, techniques or activities for shaping materials and fabricating objects for practical ends. Society is the system of collective, cohabitation of groups of individuals with mutual understanding, benefits and common goals. The three, science, technology and society aim at increasing our ability to comprehend and apply the concepts of scientific and technological systems. STS 8


______________________________________ can be therefore defined as the discipline that raises a generation of citizens who understand the nature of things in the environment; a generation of citizens who are aware of changes taking place around them; a generation who can adjust to the changes in the environment; a generation who is equipped to deal with forces that influences the future, a generation who can take her future in her own hands. Science is dynamic, so is technology and society. As science and technology, the society is affected both positively and negatively. The society becomes complex in accepting and using new technologies. Thus, STS is another way of saying� integrated science, technology and society. Science educators have formed a discipline from the three. When we say STS, we are talking about a discipline that embodies the relationship of science and technology and how the two shape the society and vice-versa. Science and Technology Fields Life Sciences. Life Sciences is a very broad field, it encompasses numerous specializations. It is commonly defined by sciences that pertain to living organisms like microorganisms, plants, animals, and most importantly 9


______________________________________ human beings. Some of the well-known fields in the Life Sciences are zoology, botany, biology, microbiology, biotechnology, and biomedical technologies. In the Philippines, the various fields of the Life Sciences is under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). This government office is responsible for the coordination and funding of different researches by Filipino scientists and inventors, which can potentially help the progress of science and technology in the Philippines. There are different agencies under DOST which cater to specialized fields, these are the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), and the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic, and Natural Resources Research Development (PCAARRD). Botany and Biology. Botany and biology are two of the highly sought-after research topics in the Philippines, given its rich biodiversity in flora and fauna.Several Filipino scientist have pioneered in the field of biology. Eduardo Quisumbing, a biologist who graduated MS in Botany at the University of the Philippines Los BaĂąos in 1921, and Ph.D. in Plant Taxonomy, Systematics and Morphology at 10


______________________________________ the University of Chicago in 1923. He conducted research on taxonomic and morphological papers deal with orchids and authored the book Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. The species of Saccolabium quisumbingii was named after him. Dioscoro L. Umali, is an agriculturist that was dubbed as the Father of Philippine Plant Breeding due to the programs he conducted that are related to rainfed and upland agriculture, social forestry, and environmental preservation. Marine biologist helped improve the knowledge on aquatic resources like Angel Alcala, a biologist who was recognized for his research on amphibians and reptiles diversity and marine biodiversity in the country and served as consultant on marine and aquatic projects under the United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and others, Gavino Trono, a biologist who was dubbed as the Father of Kappaphycus farming for his contributions to the study of tropical marine phycology, focusing on seaweed biodiversity, established the largest phycological herbarium in the country – the G.T. Velasquez Herbarium in the University of the Philippines’ Marine Science Institute, and authored a book that was considered as the most authoritative books in the

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______________________________________ country on the seaweed flora titled Field guide and atlas of the seaweed resources of the Philippines. Biotechnology. The Philippines Biofuel Act of 2006, RA 0376 mandates an increase of the minimum 5% bioethanol blend (E5) in gasoline to 10% ethanol blend (E10). In 2011, 600 million liters of gasoline was consumed by car owners in the Philippines, if the 10% bioethanol blend would be followed, this would be equivalent to 1 million metric tons of sugar. Ethanol is an alcohol produced from fermenting carbohydrates in plants. Bioethanol can be produced mainly from three different kinds of raw materials, namely simple sugars, starch, and lignocellulosic biomass. Since the prices of the raw materials are very volatile and can easily change, lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively studied due to its cheap price and abundance in agricultural countries like the Philippines. Some of the top sources of lignocellulosic biomass are forest residues, municipal solid wastes, and agricultural wastes like sugarcane baggase, nipa sap, rice straws, etc.Numerous studies have been done by Filipino scientists on what raw material should be used to achieve an efficient and cost-effective bioethanol production. Studies on nipa sap showed that molasses is still more advantageous to use, as for the same 12


______________________________________ amount of bioethanol produced, a greater amount of nipa sap was needed compared to molasses. A study by Tan reports on corn as being viable for bioethanol production, and could give a yield of around 0.37 Liters per kilogram of corn used. Other studies showed that sugarcane juice produced approximately 70 Liters per ton of sugar, but using sugracane juice as the primary feedstock for bioethanol production, would be problematic, as this would mean that it would be competing with the sugar production in the country. These problems have pushed Filipino scientists today, to continue searching for alternatives to sugarcane. One of the most promising fields is the study of lignocellulosic agricultural wastes, as they are abundant and very cheap. A study by Del Rosario in 1982 identified sweet sorghum as a possible source of ethanol, it is a very adaptive crop which can withstand drought and grow in the low-lands as well as in the high lands. A study by the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT) showed that the production costs for sweet sorghum is higher than sugarcane by 4.28%, but this is balanced out by the grain yield of 1 ton per hectare. In 2007, the University of Philippines-Los Banos, together with the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) and ICRISAT conducted studies on sweet sorghum as feedstock for 13


______________________________________ bioethanol production. In 2013 the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) announced that the country may start producing its first sweet sorghumbased bioethanol. The Philippine National Oil Co. Alternative Fuels Corp and the San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. are discussing on creating a 1,000 hectare sweet sorghum plantation solely for the purpose of using the produce as feedstock for bioethanol production. Engineering. Engineering is the field of science that applies both science and math to solve problems. It concerns the use of technology in practical ways that can advance the human condition. Some of the fields of engineering include mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, and industrial engineering. In the Philippines, many organizations and research institutes for engineering were established, such as the National Engineering Center and the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers. The National Engineering Center (NEC) was first established on January 27, 1978 as the research arm of the University of the Philippines College of Engineering. It absorbed the UP Industrial Research Service Center, the National Hydraulic Research Center, the Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry, the Transport Training Center, and the Building Research Service. The Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE) 14


______________________________________ was the result of the merging of two separate civil engineer organizations, the Philippine Society of Civil Engineers (PSCE) and the Philippine Association of Civil Engineers (PACE), on December 11, 1973. It was given accreditation by the Professional Regulation Commission on August 13, 1975 as the only official recognized organization of civil engineers in the Philippines. It was established to advance the knowledge and research and to maintain high ethical standards of civil engineering. The University of the Philippines also established the National Center for Transportation Studies (NCTS) to contribute to scholarly research and training in the field of transportation. They advocate sustainable transport, integrated transport system, road safety, and institutional development. They release advisories and feature studies by both undergraduate and graduate students on transportation. For example, the NCTS website links to downloads of Emer T. Quezon's research into the effects of flyover construction on traffic flow in Nagtahan and R. Magsaysay Boulevard intersection in 1994, as well as the research of Franklyn T. Amistad and Jose Regin F. Regidor, Dr. Eng. researched into ways to improve traffic management and congestion in Vigan without sacrificing its legacy as a World Heritage Site. Ricardo G. Sigua is a professor 15


______________________________________ who contributed to engineering research in the Philippines. Sigua, a professor at the Institute of Civil Engineering in the University of the Philippines, Diliman, wrote a book called The Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering due to the scarcity of textbooks on the traffic engineering relevant to the Philippine context. His book covers topics such as traffic management and regulations, traffic flow, traffic studies, intersection design and control, geometric design of highways, road safety, traffic accident analysis, travel demand forecasting, the origindestination table (OD Matrix), and the intelligent transportation system. Agriculture and Aquaculture. Agriculture is the field in science wherein it concerns with the different techniques of land cultivation, crop and livestock raising, or otherwise, farming. The Department of Agriculture (Philippines) (DA) is a government agency responsible for the development of the Philippine's agriculture by generating policies, investments, and support services which are significant in the local and export-oriented trade. In the Philippine Development Plan (PDP), Chapter 4: Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector, both agriculture and fisheries sector provides the needs and raw materials for the market and surplus labor to the industry and 16


______________________________________ service sectors. The focus for improvement would be to generate more opportunities of employments and increased income for the farmers which would encourage participation from them. Development of the agricultural sector is critical in maintaining an affordable price for food especially for the poor which, then, could be translated to inclusive growth and poverty reduction. Proceso J. Alcala is a former district representative and the recently appointed DA secretary by President Benigno Aquino III in 2010. He is considered the 'Father of Organic Agriculture' because of his work in the Organic Agricultural Act of 2010 (RA 10068). Developments regarding the research and technology of Philippine agriculture are currently in the works. Most of the researches are inclined in solving the problem of increasing hunger in the country by creating a more efficient and cheaper process of yielding produce. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international research consortium, including the Philippines, which serves to improve the rice production and quality through biotechnology and research. One of their ongoing research involves changing the normal C3 carbon fixation mechanism of rice into a supercharged photosynthetic mechanism, C4 carbon fixation. Converting rice from a C3 plant into a C4 plant would be beneficial because the 17


______________________________________ latter can efficiently produce more yield than the former in a given and limited amount of resources (land, water, and fertilizer) which bodes well to the Philippines' situation. IRRI have made calculations which shows that converting rice into a C4 plant would increase the yield at around 30-50%, demonstrating a double water-use efficiency, and providing more at less fertilizer usage. Other rice varieties have been developed to increase efficiency without sacrificing the quality too much. PSB Rc26H (Magat), PSB Rc72H (Mestizo), and PSB Rc76H (Panay) are some of the rice hybrids developed but only Mestizo is currently available for planting. The texture and taste quality of Mestizo is comparable to the normal grain, IR64. Overall records and statistics about Philippine agricultural growth is provided by the CountrySTAT Philippines. In 2014, gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 6.13%. The gross value added (GVA) in agriculture and fishing went up by 1.60% and this accounted for 10% of the GDP increase. There was an increase in the production of livestock rated at 1.01%. Gross outputs of the following livestock showed an increase at different rates: hog, cattle, carabao, goat, chicken, duck, and other products such as chicken eggs and dairy. There was an increase in the prices of

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______________________________________ different produce such as crops, fruits, and livestock and a decrease in the prices of vegetables. Metal Industry. This industry deals with the creation and innovation of metallic and steel products. The metal/steel industry have shown remarkable technological dynamism over the centuries and with the growing product innovation, there have been a great significance on the steels' economic and political influence. The Philippines have become part of the growing revolution of the industry. The Metal Industry Research and Development Center (MIRDC) is a government agency under the Department of Science and Technology that supports the local metals and engineering industry through support services enhancing the industry's competitive advantage. The agency's mission would consist of providing both public and private sectors with professional management and technical expertise, quality control, research and development, technology transfer, and business advisory services. MIRDC have been cooperating with different organizations to create technology for various improvements and purposes. The Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) System and the Road Train were unveiled to the public during the annual Lantern Parade in the University of the Philippines Diliman. It was a collaboration between UP Diliman and MIRDC for 19


______________________________________ the purpose of faster travel time for students in UP and the public. It had two stations, one located along C.P. Garcia and the other one is along the University Avenue. The Hand Tractor was from the works of both MIRDC and Center for Postharvest Development and Mechanization (PhilMech). The concept of the equipment is a transplanter-attached hand tractor and harvester-attached hand tractor wherein rice transplanting and harvesting implements are readily available from the tractor. Farmers would benefit from this because of the reduced cost and more utilization of hand tractor. Statistics of recent steel and steel-related industry developments were published by the Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) of the National Statistics Office (NSO) with 2001 as the reference year. Food and Nutrition. Food science or nutritional science is the field of science studying the nature of foods and the natural changes in them resulting from handling and processing. It is the science concerned with food and nourishment and the role of nutrients in health. In the Philippines, food and nutrition research investigates the ideal diet for Filipinos to solve the problem of malnutrition and the current state of nutrition. The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) is the principal research arm of the Philippine 20


______________________________________ government in food and nutrition. It was first created in 1947 as the Institute of Nutrition to serve as a clearing-house of data and information regarding nutrition. In 1949, it was authorized to conduct research in the applied science of food, as well. The FNRI was reorganized in Executive Order No. 128, s. 1987 to redefine its mandate to research food and nutrition in order to research and identify solutions to malnutrition problems, develop programs, projects, and policies to address malnutrition, and disseminate these findings. In accordance with these functions, the Food Composition Laboratory was established. Now known as the Food Analytical Service Laboratory (FASL), it is the pioneering laboratory researching into the food and nutrient composition of Philippine foods. Their services include chemical testing, microbiological testing, physico-chemical testing, and research and consultancy services. FNRI also develops simple recipes for small scale and household use, especially for the consumption by infants and children. They provide the nutritional information, properties and even market potential. Aside from the FNRI, Philippine scientists have been researching into food science. Patricia T. Arroyo, Ph.D., an assistant professor and chairman of the Department of Fisheries Technology of the University of the Philippines, Diliman wrote The Science 21


______________________________________ of Philippine Foods as a reference for students of food chemistry and food technology to be used instead of foreign books. This book is a compilation of scattered literature about Philippine foods and contains information about the structure, composition, methods in preparation, standards of quality, preservation, and experiments about various food such as eggs, rice, red meat, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, fats, oils, milk, milk products, wheat, flour, and sugar. Maria Ligaya T. Braganza, Ed.D, the Dean of the School of Food Science and Technology at the Philippine Women's University conducts applied researches on food and product development. One of her studies investigates the use of banana flour as a wheat flour extender in pan de sal and doughnuts. Ame P. Garong, a museum researcher at the National Museum of the Philippines, published Ancient Filipino Diet: Reconstructing Diet from Human Remains Excavated in the Philippines based on her doctoral dissertation. Using isotope analysis, she reconstructed the diet from the archaeological human remains from different burial sites in the Philippines. Based on the bone, hair, muscle samples and plant and animal tissues, Garong traced the diet of ancient Filipinos. Filipinos in the pre-colonial and early colonial past ate mostly aquatic resources (such as marine fish, 22


______________________________________ freshwater shellfish, and coral reef resources). Some samples showed that the ancient Filipinos practiced prolonged breast feeding. Health. One aspect of healthcare is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases; the other pertains to provisions for medical care for people in the community. In the Philippines, healthcare is under the Department of Health (DOH). This government office is responsible for organizing public healthcare and making sure that all Filipino citizens have access to quality health services. This office is also responsible for supervising and funding researches pertaining to new medicines and medical devices. The DOH has different bureaus, all of which have different areas of specialization, these are the Bureau of Health Devices and Technology, Bureau of Health Facilities and Services, Bureau of International Health Cooperation, Bureau of Local Health Development, Bureau of Quarantine and International Health Surveillance, and Food and Drug Administration. The DOH has a budget of Php 87.6 billion for the year 2015. The Secretary of Health is nominated by the President of the Republic of the Philippines, the incumbent Secretary of Health is Janette Garin; she was appointed last February 17, 2015. The DOH has recently implemented the Philippines eHealth Strategic Framework and Plan 23


______________________________________ (2013-2017). This focuses on the application of

Information and Communications Technologies for healthcare. It draws up a long-term strategic plan for the development and implementation of eHealth services in the Philippines. It looks into realizing a national electronic public-health information systems, if this is reached, it can greatly improve the surveillance and response to health emergencies, and it can also impact researches of epidemiological nature, greatly speeding up the process as sampling would be very convenient already. Another program recently started by the DOH is the Universal Health Care high Impact Five (UHC-Hi-5), which focuses on the regional operations and its convergence in high priority poverty program areas. Its goal is for tangible outputs within a 15-month period of its implementation. Anti-cancer research. Soybean is a very soughtafter crop, as its by products are used to generate bioethanol, and most importantly it is linked with cancer research. During the past decade, soybean has been extensively studied due to its 43-amino acid polypeptide called Lunasin. The anti-cancer properties of Lunasin was first discovered by Dr Alfredo Galvez and Dr. Benito de Lumen, both Filipino doctors, when they were enhancing the nutritional properties of soy protein. Dr. Galvez observed mitotic disruptive 24


______________________________________ properties of Lunasin in mammalian cancer cells, he saw that it prevented normal cells from turning into cancerous cells. This eventually lead to more research about its anti-cancer properties. In 2005, Dr. de Lumen conducted an experiment on Lunasin using skin cancer mouse models, he discovered that Lunasin internalizes in mammals within minutes of exogenous application, it eventually ends up in the nucleus wherein it inhibits the acetylation of core histones. Dr de Lumen observed that in spite of Lunasin’s anti-cancer properties, it does not inhibit the growth of normal mammalian cell lines. A very recent study on Lunasin showed that at certain doses, it reduced non-small cell lung cancer tumor volume by 63%, it also showed a capability of inhibiting non-small cell lung cancer cells by suppressing the cellcycle dependent phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. More studies of Lunasin also showed that it possesses antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and a cholesterol regulating role; all of which makes it a very good potential source of dietary supplements. All of these researches would have not been at the level of where it is now, if not for the Filipino doctors who first discovered Lunasin. Social sciences. Notable Filipino scientist have been contributors in the field of social science in the country. Raul V. Fabella was an academic, economist and 25


______________________________________ scientist that graduated in Seminario Mayor-Recoletos (Bachelor of Philosophy; 1970); the University of the Philippines School of Economics (Master of Arts; 1975); and Yale University (Doctor of Philosophy; 1982). He had written articles in both theoretical and applied fields: political economy and rent-seeking; the theory of teams; regulation; international economics; and mathematical economics and was associated with the concepts of "Olson ratio" in rent-seeking, egalitarian Nash bargaining solutions, and debt-adjusted real effective exchange rate. Teodoro Agoncillo, a 20th-century Filipino historian, and received the national scientist award for his contributions in the field of history. He graduated from the University of the Philippines (Bachelor of Philosophy; 1934) and finished his Master of Arts degree in the same university in 1935. He also wrote books regarding the Philippine History like History of the Filipino People. Encarnacion Alzona, a pioneering Filipino historian, educator and suffragist became the first filipina to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy. She got her degree in history and a master's degree from the University of the Philippines and later obtained another master's degree in history from Radcliffe College in 1920, and a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1923. She was an advocate of women suffrage in the Philippines and authored the book The Filipino Woman: Her Social, Economic and Political Status (1565-1933) that stated a stable account for women despite their lack in political and social rights. 26


______________________________________ Forestry. Forestry is the field of science that practice planting, managing and taking care of trees. The governing body for the Philippine forestry is the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). This department started way back in 1863, when the Spanish Royal Decree established the Inspeccion General de Montes. This was transformed into the Department of Interior in 1901. Then when the government reorganized, it became the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. During 1987, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was formally established. Under this department, the Forest Management Bureau was the sector that focuses on preserving the forest and the harvesting of its resources. The Philippines have an actual forest cover at 6.5 million hectares (ha) or 24% of the total land area. A lot of Filipinos rely on these resources for their survival. The country's goal is to have a sustainable forest-based industry that can contribute to the socio-economic development and support the disadvantaged sectors of society. Several projects have been started by the Forest Products Research and Development and Institute (FPRDI) to accomplish this goal. It starts with the identification of the nation's tree species. Subsequently developing the products-based industry of wood and lumber. The Institute also covers the sustainable creation of furnishings using wood, bamboo, rattan and vines.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 01 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Briefly explain the concepts of Science, Technology and Society. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28


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______________________________________ 2. In a tabular format, differentiate the three concepts. Science

Technology

Society

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______________________________________ 3. Prepare a brochure to disseminate the various ST fields to the people in your community. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31


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Lesson 2. STS AND HISTORICAL SCENE -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. When you finish this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Define Science, Technology and Society. 2. Trace the historical development of ST in the Philippines. 3. Apply the scientific way of solving problems. 4. Manifest the values and attitudes of a scientist. 5. Differentiate the impacts of science, technology, and society. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction The relationship between science and technology and society, can be described by the example of rain falling on a mountain. Rain that has fallen on a mountain does not immediately wash away downhill. First, it is captured and stored by forests, giving life to trees and other vegetation and creating a 33


______________________________________ verdant landscape. This can be compared to the accumulation of scientific knowledge and the continuing search for truth, obtained through basic research, and perhaps demonstrates that science has intrinsic value in itself. Meanwhile, the rainwater stored in the forest bubbles out from springs and flows downhill in a steadily widening stream. A single stream flow can separate into a large number of sub-flows, and sometimes the flow can go underground into a subterranean network. This situation can be compared to the diversity of research and development that can arise based on scientific knowledge, leading to the planting of various new technological seeds. Eventually, the river reaches farming communities and urban cities, where it is utilized for drinking water and other household purposes, for agricultural or industrial uses, and for various other needs, universally benefiting all aspects of society. This is equivalent to research and development resulting in practical technologies that boost the prosperity of the people’s society and lives, and to the utilization of science and technology in response to various issues facing society. If the forest fails to capture a sufficient amount of the falling rain, society will quickly be faced with drought and people will not be able to live. In the same way, realization of societal progress through science and 34


______________________________________ technology requires a sufficient accumulation of scientific knowledge. In other words, science can be considered to be the foundation strength of society. However, this foundation strength is not something that can be acquired in a single day or night, but instead requires a steady, continuous build-up. Science is a body of knowledge pursued by scientists. What the scientists do is referred to as the process. Knowledge derived from science lead to products, which are often referred to as technology, like in manufacturing. All these take place in the society. Therefore science, technology and society are intricately linked. People study science in individual compartments like Physics, Chemistry and Biology, but they do not know their relevance in the community and to their individual lives. STS cover every aspect of the pure sciences. When you finished writing your exams in Physics, Chemistry and Biology you thought that was all there is to those subjects. Those subjects are part of your life. An automobile is a product of Science, what you call technology. We use cars and in the community (Society). It took a lot of Physics knowledge, Chemistry knowledge to manufacture a car. The smoke from a car constitutes health hazard. The chemist will tell you how carbon 35


______________________________________ monoxide is hazardous to your health. STS is a form of integrating knowledge from the various sciences. STS takes you into consideration because you live in the society. One more aspect of the contribution that science has made in the establishment of modern civilization has been the steady spread around the world of scientific thought as science has progressed. Modern science derived originally from certain sciences in one limited region, Western Europe, where a culture of science developed. Yet while debates may exist regarding specific scientific results, the sciences and scientific thought are today widely accepted in many countries around the world. The history of the worldwide spread of modern science has varied sharply by country and region, and was often fraught with dissension or friction. Nature of Science Scientific results are linked to the development of new products and new technologies, and contribute greatly to economic and medical progress, and to other real social and economic activities. When the question is raised about what science and technology for society really means, one important viewpoint is whether or not scientific results are linked to the development of 36


______________________________________ technologies that can create real, utilizable products and services Science is believed to be a systematic study of nature. Those who study science are called scientist. What is peculiar about scientist is that:  They do not accept any information as fact until they gather evidences and other scientist came up with this same finding, in this scientists are said to be skeptical (Skepticism).  They like to look into everything asking why and how questions (curiosity).  They work and keep on working at whatever they suspect will give then a clue to what they are looking for (Perseverance/Persistence).  They take things step by step and they aim at accuracy (Systematism). It is very easy for them to discover things and even the unexpected because of this alertness.  They do not like to work in isolation, even if they do they show each other what they have found (Cooperation). 37


______________________________________ ďƒź Scientists are objective, open-minded, honest, restrained, and willing to change opinion, they are critical minded, etc. Because of these attributes of Scientists, science is said to be dynamic, constantly moving, and the knowledge changes. What you know yesterday and today may not be an acceptable fact tomorrow because a theory may have to change when new observations are made. Science is therefore tentative. Scientific Method The statement that a rose plant does not bear any flower because of lack of carbon dioxide and water is called a hypothesis, which is a tentative solution or generalization to a problem. A big part of science is to attempt to disprove hypothesis. If, over time, the hypothesis survives all attempts to disprove it, it becomes accepted as a theory that is a general truth about the natural world but not yet universally accepted. In biology, one example is the Theory of Evolution. Once the theory is universally accepted, it becomes a scientific law. Examples of scientific laws are the Law of Inertia, Law of Gravity and Law of Interaction. 38


______________________________________ The Scientific Method is a combination of the creative reasoning and testing of hypothesis. It occurs in a step by step procedures outlined below: 1.

Carefully Identify the Problem under study based upon observations of the natural world. To identify is to specify the problem for the purpose of gathering specific data or information.

2.

Gather Specific Data or Information about the specific problem. These information are used to formulate hypotheses as a tentative solution to the specified problem.

2.

Formulate a Hypothesis as a possible answer or solution to the problem. This hypothesis will be tested in the experimentation process.

3.

Plan and conduct an Experiment and Series of Observation to test and verify the validity of the hypothesis or tentative solution to the problem. It is a controlled attempt to verify and test the hypothesis.

4.

Formulate Conclusion/ Generalization based on the facts discovered from the experimentation/ laboratory activity. 39


______________________________________ 5.

Communicate the Result through television, radio, magazine, and science journal for future application.

6.

Apply the Result of the process for the formulation of theory and/ or scientific law.

Other Values and Attitudes A scientific attitude is a way of looking at things governed by facts based on observations. The scientific attitudes are very useful in any career particularly in Science. The following are attitudes that one should possess in order to become more successful in the chosen field like biological sciences (Modified from Bronowski, Taken from The Kansas School Naturalist, Vol. 35, No. 4, April 1989.) 1.

2.

A belief that Problems have Solutions. Major problems have been tackled in the past, like sending a man to the moon. Other problems such as pollution, war, poverty, and ignorance are seen as having real causes and are therefore solvable -perhaps not easily, but possible. A Respect for Power of Theoretical Structure. A scientist is unlikely to adopt the attitude: "That is all right in theory but it won't work in practice." 40


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3.

4.

5.

6.

Theory is "all right" only if it does work in practice. Indeed the rightness of the theory is in the end what the scientist is working toward; no science facts are accumulated at random. Theory guides observation; and observation modifies theory. A thirst For Knowledge, an "Intellectual Drive." Scientists are addicted puzzle-solvers. Scientists are willing to live with incompleteness rather than "...fill the gaps with off-hand explanations." Ability to Separate Fundamental Concepts from the Irrelevant or Unimportant. Beginning science students get bogged down in observations and data that are of little importance to the concept they want to investigate. Levels of analysis vary, and keeping focus on the "big picture" can be difficult. Ability to Suspend Judgment. A scientist tries hard not to form an opinion on a given issue until he or she has investigated it, because it is so hard to give up opinions already formed. Willingness to act on the best hypothesis that one has time or opportunity to form. An Appreciation of Probability and Statistics. Correlations do not prove cause-andeffect, but some pseudoscience arises when a 41


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7.

8.

9.

chance occurrence is taken as "proof." Individuals who insist on an all-or-none world and who have little experience with statistics will have difficulty understanding the concept of an event occurring by chance, or the relationship of a sample to a population. An Automatic Preference for Scientific Explanation. No scientist can know all of the experimental evidence underlying current science concepts and therefore must adopt some views without understanding their basis. A scientist rejects non-scientific explanations and prefers science paradigms out of an appreciation for the power of reality based, testable knowledge. An Understanding that All Knowledge has Tolerance Limits. All careful analyses of the world reveal measurements that scatter at least slightly around the average point; a human's core body temperature is about so many degrees and objects fall with a certain rate of acceleration, but there is some variation. There is no absolute certainty, nor is it required in science. Awareness of Assumptions. A good scientist starts by defining terms, making all assumptions very clear, and reducing necessary assumptions to the smallest number possible. Often we want scientists 42


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10.

11.

12.

13.

14. 15.

to make broad statements about a complex world. But usually scientists are very specific about what they "know" or will say with certainty: "When these conditions hold true, the usual outcome is such-and-such." Determinism. "Cause-and-effect" underlies everything. In simple mechanisms, an action causes a reaction, and effects do not occur without causes. Empathy for the Human Condition. The practice of science is bounded by ethical constraints, and good scientists are aware of, and often deeply involved in, other moral and ideological domains. Empiricism. A scientist prefers to "look and see." You do not argue about whether it is raining outside -- just stick a hand out the window. Loyalty to reality. Ability to accept a model that matched reality better. A scientist would never have considered holding to an opinion just because it is associated with his name. Parsimony. Prefer the simple explanation than the complex. Precision. Scientists are impatient with vague statements. Scientists are very exact and very "picky."

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______________________________________ 16. Respect for Quantification and Appreciation of Mathematics as a Language of Science. Many of nature's relationships are best revealed by patterns and mathematical relationships when reality is counted or measured. 17. Respect for Scientific Paradigms. A paradigm is our overall understanding about how the world works. It means a framework or structure is working at things. 18. Scientific Manipulation. Any idea, it may be simple and conform to apparent observations, must also be confirmed by work that teases out the possibility that the effects are caused by other factors. Don't jump to conclusions, especially if you found what you were looking for in the first place! 19. Skepticism. Nearly all statements make assumptions of prior conditions. A scientist often reaches a dead-end in research and has to go back and determine if all the assumptions made are true to how the world operates. Be particularly skeptical of assumptions that come from nonscience domains IF they claim scientific truth. In short, harness a questioning mind about things said to be the truth. 20. Willingness to Change Opinion. Scientists are willing to immediately throw away old fashion 44


______________________________________ ideas that are no longer applicable to scientific endeavor. Nature of Technology Technology is the product of science. Technologists are scientists. Have you seen a technologist who is not a scientist? Because of this connection, technology can be said to dynamic and tentative. Do you agree with this statement? It is true, that is why we have technological advancement. Think of how much changes have taken place around you. Where technology has developed in close relationship to the convenience and prosperity of human life since before the advent of recorded history, science originated from natural philosophy and was supported by people’s intellectual curiosity. The main objective of science has been elucidation of how nature is put together and operates, and it has developed as a separate entity from technology. Of course, while technological progress was backed up by various scientific advances, this does not mean that scientific research was conducted for the purpose of developing new technologies, rather, scientific knowledge was utilized only because it was available. In fact, it was more common for new technologies to be developed in 45


______________________________________ order to pursue scientific research. After the Industrial Revolution, the separate paths taken by science and technology began to move closer together. Significantly, the concept of linking scientific results to technology for utilization in society became prevalent after around 1850, which is when a chemical industry began to develop based on utilization of knowledge about chemistry, and electrical technologies arose based on knowledge about electromagnetism. Nevertheless, science has moved away from being the business of the intellectual world, with scientific results now pioneering the frontiers of human activities in terms of both space and time, and expanding the potential of human activities. Science also has become a major influence on people’s sense of values, changing the nature of society and becoming the engine driving society’s progress from the viewpoint of civilization. The IT revolution of recent years is the culmination of many developments in computer technology, including the concept of the computing machine proposed by Alan Turing, and the invention of the transistor by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain, as well as the advent of the Internet and other advances in information and communications technology. The IT revolution, however, does not consist merely of the development 46


______________________________________ of new products or improvement of people’s convenience, but is also greatly changing people’s modes of behavior and lifestyles, through the possibilities it has opened up for the people of the world to use cyberspace for instantaneous exchange of information and opinions. The effects of the IT revolution have changed the nature of society in many dimensions, from the education, medical and welfare, transport, finance, and manufacturing sectors to modes of work and play. Elsewhere, the television has become a major factor shaping our modern society, as the communications medium with the greatest influence. This device, as well, is the culmination of various scientific results over the years, beginning with the invention of wireless communication by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895, the invention of the Braun tube in 1897, the invention of the Yagi-Uda antenna in 1925, and Kenjiro Takayanagi’s successful transmission of an electronic image using a Braun tube in 1926. Nature of Society The Sociologist will tell you that their main job is to study society. The society is made up of community of people. Among these people are 47


______________________________________ scientists and technologists. What proceeds from the work of the scientists and technologists are used up by the society? When for instance a plane is developed by the scientist and technologist, the recipients (users) are the people in the society. Society itself is not stagnant. Society is dynamic. Look back to your village that you were growing up. It is possible that you have electricity now, pipe borne water, road that connects your village to their own etc. There are more plans to turn your village to a much better place than what you currently have. It is like science and technology-dynamic and tentative. Thus, scientists and technologists abode in a community (society) they see the need of the society. As one grows, the other grows. If one is stunted the other will be stunted. Any factor that affects the society has effect on the scientist and the technologist who are also part of the society. While there are probably no end of examples of scientific progress having a major effect on people’s sense of values, and changing the nature of society itself, the following is an introduction to just a few of the more famous examples. The centennial anniversary to one of the most amazing years in history (the “Miracle Year� of 1905) is fast approaching, when 48


______________________________________ Albert Einstein, one of the premier scientists of the 20th century, issued in rapid succession a theory of the photon, a theory of Brownian motion, and the Special Theory of Relativity, all of which served to overthrow the then-prevailing views of physics. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity became the foundations for all later physics, contributing greatly to progress in various fields of science. At the same time, it altered people’s concepts of space and time, and had a huge effect on philosophy and thought. In the field of astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus developed a theory, later bolstered and refined by Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, which had a great effect on the development and reform of society, overthrowing Europe’s medieval sense of values and driving it into the modern age. In recent years, however, examples of such society-changing advances have become increasingly common. For example, Edwin Hubble’s discovery in 1929 that the universe was expanding led directly to the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe (1946) by George Gamow and others. In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected cosmic background radiation pervading the universe, providing powerful evidence for the Big Bang theory. These discoveries gave people a new “sense of the universe.” Moreover, advances in space 49


______________________________________ development have greatly expanded the space available for possible human activities, and opened up new frontiers for humanity where people can dream. At the same time, images of Earth taken from space have given people all over the world a new “view of the Earth,” vividly revealing its beauty and irreplaceability. Furthermore, the revelation in 1974 by Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina that chlorofluorocarbon gases were causing depletion of the ozone layer, followed in 1985 by the discovery of an ozone hole, and had a huge effect on efforts to protect the global environment. Science and Technology Historical Timeline -Jan Dosoudil & Nigel Haward (Great Britain)

The development of science and Technology is as old as mankind. Many ‘inventions’ claimed after the 11th century in fact dated back to the Greeks and Chinese many centuries before. Scientific information proposed by the Greek Philosopher Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) and others was lost in the dark ages in Britain and Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire.

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______________________________________ The Birth of Technology (2 Million Years BC) Tools. The birth of ‘technology’ was when the first human-like species, Homo Habilis (‘skilful person’ 2.6 million years BC) made sharp cutting edges from stone. Later, Homo Neanderthals or cave men (200 000 – 30 000 years BC) used tools and weapons and were the very successful ancestors of Homo sapiens, the species we recognize as our ancestors today. Swords, daggers and other weaponry represented a warlike society but are also interpreted as items of social status, perhaps given as diplomatic gifts between tribes (Iron Age Celtic dagger from 250 – 50 BC). Metals. Lead (Pb), one of the softest metals, was being extracted from rock in 6500 BC in Anatolia (now Turkey), followed by copper (Cu) three thousand years later in Mesopotamia. The Iron Age was built on a hard, strong and versatile metal, iron (Fe). The wheel. The longest-used invention in human history, had the biggest influence on the development of modern civilization. Around 4500 BC the wheel and axle combination became the most important invention of all time. Carts came into common use. By 2000 BC wheels had spokes, and then 51


______________________________________ rapid development occurred with waterwheels and windmills to provide power. New Inventions (9th – 18th Century) Arab Alchemy. Turning common metals into precious metals, proved to be a dead end around the 9th Century AD. Nevertheless, Arabs were clever chemists and discovered many chemicals that we use today. Gunpowder. Gunpowder is a substance used in guns to propel (move forward) the bullet. The recipe for making gunpowder appeared in a book in Europe in 1242. Roger Bacon (1214 – 1294), an English friar and philosopher, was the first to describe its formula. Guns soon followed. Printing. The 15th century saw the start of mechanical printing machines able to make identical copies of sheets of paper and books. Spreading knowledge and information was a very slow process before the invention of typography. Johannes Gutenberg (1398–1468) developed the first mechanical printing machine in the 1440s. The first printed book was the Bible in 1456 with a run of 150 copies. Each Bible previously took three years to make by hand. 52


______________________________________ The Telescope. The telescope was invented by Dutchman Hans Lippershey (1570 – 1619). In 1610, using his improved design, Galileo Galilei (1564- 1642) was able to prove that the Earth revolved around the Sun. This confirmed the ideas of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) but it angered the Catholic Church who had adopted the idea that the Earth was at the centre of everything. The Harlan J. Smith Telescope, McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis (USA). Founded in 1932, it is the observatory of the University of Texas and operates six telescopes. The Microscopes. Looking at small things became possible when a Dutch maker of spectacles, Hans Janssen and his son, put glass lenses together in 1590 to make a primitive microscope. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) took this invention a step further in 1676 with a magnification of 270 times and discovered tiny single-celled creatures in pond water. Ultimately, this helped our understanding of microorganisms and disease. A microscope is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the unaided eye. Today, there are electron microscopes, using magnetic fields and electron rays instead of lenses and light, making it possible to see even atoms. 53


______________________________________ Lightning Conductor. In 1752, Benjamin Franklin (1706 –1790), the American statesman, philosopher and scientist proved that lightning was a form of electricity when he flew a kite in a thunderstorm. Around 1754, Franklin and the Czech scientist, Prokop Diviš (1698 - 1765) independently developed the lighting conductor to protect buildings from being hit and damaged by lighting. The First Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1840) Steam Power. This era saw the development of steam engines to power factory machinery. Heating water in a boiler to make steam to power a vehicle was a major technological advance. James Watt (1736 – 1819) is recognised as the inventor of the steam engine in 1765. Water could be pumped out of mines and industrial processes speeded up. George Stephenson’s (1781 - 1848) Rocket was the first locomotive to pull heavy loads a long distance. This led to the rapid expansion of railways throughout Britain and the world. The combination of iron and steam paved the way for the great Victorian engineering projects of Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806 - 1859). He designed bridges, tunnels, viaducts and ships. Steam engines enabled the development of pumps, locomotives, steam ships, steam lorries, etc. 54


______________________________________ Photography. In 1826, after years of experiments, the French inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (1765- 1833), using ‘Bitumen of Judea’ spread on a pewter plate and an exposure of eight hours in bright sunlight, produced the first permanent picture. His technique was improved upon by his colleague Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) by using compounds of silver, the basis of modern photography. Already in the 16th century, a device called “camera obscura” was able to project images on a board, however, it wasn’t able to capture permanent images. The Second Industrial Revolution (19th Century – 1945) The Electric Light. After many refinements, Thomas Edison’s (1847 – 1931) electric light bulbs were the best and by 1879 they would last for hundreds of hours, much longer than any of their rivals. They were also cheap. To sell bulbs, energy was needed, so Edison’s Electric Illumination Company built their own power station in New York. After many decades he successfully persuaded the public to opt for clean, convenient electric light rather than gas lights. Edison made his first light bulbs from bamboo fibres. The Telephone. This is an invention that made money. Alexander Graham Bell (1847 – 1922) was the 55


______________________________________ first in the race to patent a machine in 1876 that you could use to talk to someone on the other side of the world. Admittedly, it was initially from one room to another. The message was “Mr. Watson, come here, I want you”. A year later in 1877 he set up his company and demonstrated long distance calls. The Motor Car. Until the 1860s all prototype motor cars were steam driven. German inventor Nicolas Otto (1832 - 1891) created an improved internal combustion engine in 1876 and this is still the way cars work today. In 1885, the first car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, was developed by Karl Benz (1844-1929). It was a long time before cars became common. Petrol, a cleaning fluid, was only available from the chemist. Famous names such as Rolls Royce and Henry Ford developed the technology; Rolls Royce for the rich and Henry Ford for the man in the street. The Movies. It has been only just over one hundred years since the first movie, or film, was shown by the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière (1862 1954 and 1864 - 1948) in 1895 at the Grand Café in Paris. The terrifying film was entitled The Arrival of a Train at Ciotat Station. Surprisingly, the brothers decided that films didn’t have much of a future and went back to photography. In 1889, George Eastman 56


______________________________________ (1854 - 1932) pioneered celluloid film with holes punched in the side so that the movie camera could show the film precisely frame by frame. X-rays. X-rays were quickly adapted for their use in medicine. They are especially useful in examining the skeletal system, but they can also identify other diseases, for example pneumonia and lung cancer. Science is impressive when something is discovered that cannot be seen. German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen (1845–1923) working with electrical discharges in glass tubes noticed in 1895 that there was a faint glow on a nearby screen. These rays were invisible and could pass through most materials. He also recorded them on photographic paper and thus the first X-ray image was developed. He quickly realised the medical potential of his discovery. Henri Becquerel (1852 – 1908) discovered radioactivity in 1896 while trying to find more out about X-rays. Marie Curie (1867 – 1934), a Polish born French chemist and physicist and two times Nobel Prize winner, is best remembered for her research into radioactivity and new radioactive elements. Communications. Radio waves travel in all directions at an incredible 300 000 km per second. The German physicist Heinrich Hertz (1857 – 1854) was the 57


______________________________________ first to prove they existed but it was Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937) who set up the world’s first radio stations to transmit and receive Morse code. In 1896, he sent the first message across the Atlantic from Cornwall to Newfoundland. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. It was not until 1915 that engineers were able to transmit sound effectively. The first clear television pictures to be transmitted were sent by Scottish-born John Logie Baird (1888 – 1946). He founded the Baird Television Company Limited and worked on programmes for the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). Flight. At the turn of the century, in 1903, two bicycle repairmen from Ohio, Wilbur and Orville Wright (1867 – 1912 and 1871 – 1948) built and flew the first really successful aeroplane near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. From that time progress was rapid and the military advantages of flight were realised in WWI. Rockets and Space Flights. The earliest rockets were used in China in the 11th century but by the 19th century speed and accuracy were much improved. Knowledge of astronomy meant that scientists knew the relative movements of the planets in relation to the Earth. A Russian mathematics teacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935), was the first person to draw 58


______________________________________ up plans for space stations and air locks to allow space walks. He correctly calculated that a rocket would have to travel at 8 km per second to leave the atmosphere and that liquid rocket fuel would be essential. American scientist Robert Goddard (1882–1945) not knowing of Tsiolkovsky’s ideas, independently developed liquid fuelled rockets from 1926. Ultimately, NASA took up the challenge but the Russians eventually won the race to put a man into orbit. Yuri Gagarin (1934 – 1968) orbited the earth in 1961. In the US, NASA scientists redressed the balance in the space race with their moon landing in 1969. The Proton rocket is a type of Russian space vehicle. It was first launched in 1965 and it is still used today, which makes it one of the most successful rockets in the history of space flight. The Atomic Bomb. Science and technological advances can be seen as good or bad. The invention of gunpowder must have seemed like that. In 1932, physicists John Cockcroft (1897 – 1967) and Earnest Walton (1903 – 1995) did the impossible. They split the atom. They proved Albert Einstein’s (1879– 1955) theory of relativity (E=mc²) and unlocked the secrets of the atomic nucleus. Splitting the atom was a brilliant scientific achievement. However, having that knowledge allowed scientists to develop the atomic bomb. The use of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and 59


______________________________________ Nagasaki in Japan to end the WWII in 1945 was a political decision that was highly controversial. We now know that there is no turning back once scientific and technological discoveries have been made. The cloud of smoke and flame produced by a nuclear explosion is called a “mushroom cloud� because of its typical shape. The Third Scientific‑Technical Revolution (1945 - ) After the WWII new discoveries and advances in science and technology came thick and fast. Plastics were developed for the first time. In 1949, the first practical programmed electronic computer ran mathematical problems. It fitted into one room! In the 1960s, the electronic silicon chip was invented, computers became smaller and more powerful. In 1984, the CD was born and the digital revolution began. The worldwide web has given us access to billions of documents with information and images as well as online shopping and banking. Mobile telephone technology means we have instant contact with friends and family. During this period, there have also been huge advances in genetics since the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953. Today, Biotechnology and genetic engineering show fast growth trends and, also, are big business. DNA contains the genetic information for the reproduction of life. In the beginning, 60


______________________________________ computers were mostly used for mathematical operations. The first electro-mechanical computer was built in the USA in 1946 by Eckert and Mauchly. Science and Technology in the Philippines https://Science_and_technology_in_the_Philippines

Science and technology in the Philippines represents the wide scientific and technological advances the Philippines has made. The main managing agency responsible for science and technology (S&T) is the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The science department have consulting agencies for Forestry, Agriculture and Aquaculture, Metal Industry, Nuclear Research, Food and Nutrition, Health, Meteorological and the Volcanology and Seismology. Numerous national scientists have contributed in different fields of science including Fe del Mundo in the field of Pediatrics, Eduardo Quisumbing in the field of Plant taxonomy, Gavino Trono in the field of tropical marine Phycology, and Maria Orosa in the field of Food technology. Pre-Spanish Period. Even before the colonization by the Spaniards in the Philippine islands, the natives of the archipelago already had practices linked to science and technology. Filipinos 61


______________________________________ were already aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine from herbs. They already had an alphabet, number system, a weighing and measuring system and a calendar. Filipinos were already engaged in farming, shipbuilding, mining and weaving. The Banaue Rice Terraces are among the sophisticated products of engineering by pre-Spanish era Filipinos. Spanish Colonial Period. The colonization of the Philippines contributed to growth of science and technology in the archipelago. The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institution. During the early years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught. Sanitation and more advanced methods of agriculture was taught to the natives. Later the Spanish established colleges and universities in the archipelago including the University of Santo Tomas. The study of medicine in the Philippines was given priority in the Spanish era, especially in the later years. The Spanish also contributed to the field of engineering in the islands by constructing government buildings, churches, roads, bridges and forts. Biology is given focus. Contributors to science in the archipelago during the 19th century were botanists, Fr. Ignacio Mercado., Dr. Trinidad Pardo de 62


______________________________________ Tavera and Dr. Leon Ma Guerrero, chemist Anaclento del Rosario, and medicine scholars Dr. Manuel Guerrero, Dr, Jose Montes and Dr. Elrodario Mercado. The Galleon Trade have accounted in the Philippine colonial economy. Trade was given more focus by the Spaniard colonial authorities due to the prospects of big profits. Agriculture and industrial development on the other hand were relatively neglected. The opening of the Suez Canal saw the influx of European visitors to the Spanish colony and some Filipinos were able to study in Europe who were probably influenced by the rapid development of scientific ideals brought by the Age of Enlightenment. American Period and Post-Commonwealth Era. The progress of science and technology in the Philippines continued under American rule of the islands. On July 1, 1901 The Philippine Commission established the Bureau of Government Laboratories which was placed under the Department of Interior. The Bureau replaced the Laboratorio Municipal, which was established under the Spanish colonial era. The Bureau dealt with the study of tropical diseases and laboratory projects. On October 26, 1905, the Bureau of Government Laboratories was replaced by the Bureau of Science and on December 8, 1933, the National Research Council of the Philippines was 63


______________________________________ established. The Bureau of Science became the primary research center of the Philippines until World War II. Science during the American period was inclined towards agriculture, food processing, forestry, medicine and pharmacy. Not much focus was given on the development of industrial technology due to free trade policy with the United States which nurtured an economy geared towards agriculture and trade. In 1946 the Bureau of Science was replaced by the Institute of Science. In a report by the US Economic Survey to the Philippines in 1950, there is a lack of basic information which were necessities to the country's industries, lack of support of experimental work and minimal budget for scientific research and low salaries of scientists employed by the government. In 1958, during the regime of President Carlos P. Garcia, the Philippine Congress passed the Science Act of 1958 which established the National Science Development Board. Marcos Era. During Ferdinand Marcos' presidency, the importance given to science grew. In the amended 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Section 9 (1), he declared that the "advancement of science and technology shall have priority in the national development. "In his two terms of presidency and during Martial Law, he enacted many laws promoting science and technology. In his Second State 64


______________________________________ of the Nation Address on January 23, 1967, he declared that science was necessary for the development programs, and thus, directed the Department of Education to revitalize the science courses in public high schools. The Department of Education, with the National Science Development Board (NSDB), is organizing a project to provide selected high schools with science teaching equipment over a four-year period. In his Third State of the Nation Address on January 22, 1968, he recognized that technology was the leading factor in economic development, and channeled additional funds to support projects in applied sciences and science education. In his Fourth State of the Nation Address on January 27, 1969, he gave a big part of the war damage fund to private universities to encourage them to create courses in science and technology and to research. He stated that he planned a project to have medical interns do a tour of duty in provincial hospitals to arouse their social conscious and reduce the "brain drain." On April 6, 1968, he proclaimed 35 hectares in Bicutan, Taguig, Rizal as the site of the Philippine Science Community. The government also conducted seminars for public and private high school and college science teachers, training programs and scholarships for graduate and undergraduate science scholars, and workshops on 65


______________________________________ fisheries and oceanography. In his Fifth State of the Nation Address on January 26, 1970, he emphasized that the upgrading of science curricula and teaching equipment is crucial to the science development program. He added the Philippine Coconut Research Institute to the NSDB to modernize the coconut industry. The NSDB also established the Philippine Textile Research Institute. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission of the NSDB explored the uses of atomic energy for economic development. Marcos assisted 107 institutions in undertaking nuclear energy work by sending scientists to study nuclear science and technology abroad, and providing basic training to 482 scientists, doctors, engineers, and technicians. In his Seventh State of the Nation Address on January 24, 1972, he spoke about his major development projects in reforming sectors of education. Such projects included research and development schools, technical institutes, science education centers, and agricultural colleges and vocational high schools. In 1972, he created the National Grains Authority to provide for the development of the rice and corn industry to fully harness it for the economy of the country. (Presidential Decree No. 4, s. 1972). He established the Philippine Council for Agricultural Research to support the progressive development of agriculture, forestry, and 66


______________________________________ fisheries for the nation. It was attached to the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources for administrative purposes. He provided further support for the promotion of scientific research and invention with Presidential Decree No. 49, s. 1972. This decree contains details on the protection of intellectual property for the creator or publisher of the work. He established the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) under the Department of National Defense to provide environmental protection and to utilize scientific knowledge to ensure the safety of the people (Presidential Decree No. 78, s. 1972). In 1973, he created the Philippine National Oil Company to promote industrial and economic development through effective and efficient use of energy sources. (Presidential Decree No. 334, s. 1973). In 1976, he enacted a law under Presidential Decree No. 1003-A, s. 1976 to establish the National Academy of Science and Technology, which is composed of scientists with "innovative achievement in the basic and applied sciences," to serve as a reservoir of scientific and technological expertise for the country. In 1978, he created a Task Force on the formulation of a national action program on science and technology to assess policies and programs of science and technology. 67


______________________________________ (Executive Order No. 512, s. 1978). In his Fourteenth State of the Nation Address on July 23, 1979, he said that the government invested funds and time in organizations for scientific research, such as the NSDB, the Philippine Council for Agricultural Research and Resources, the Plant Breeding Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Bureau of Plant Industry, and the Bureau of Forest Products. While these projects have had breakthroughs, the market machinery did not adapt and invest in this technology due to the high-risk front-end costs. In 1979, he constituted the Health Sciences Center created by R.A. No. 5163 as an autonomous member within the University of the Philippines System to improve the internal organization and unity of leadership within its units. (Executive Order No. 519, s. 1979). In 1980, he created the National Committee on Geological Sciences to advise government and private entities on matters concerning development in geological sciences. (Executive Order No. 625, s. 1980). In 1982, he reorganized the National Science Development Board and its agencies into a National Science and Technology Authority to provide central direction and coordination of scientific and technological research and development. (Executive Order No. 784, s. 1982). He granted salary increases to 68


______________________________________ the people with teaching positions in the Philippine Science High School due to their necessity in the advancement of national science. (Executive Order No. 810, s. 1982). He enacted a law on the completion of the National Agriculture and Life Sciences Research Complex at the University of the Philippines at Los BaĂąos. (Executive Order No. 840, s. 1982). In 1986, he established the Mindanao and Visayas campuses of the Philippine Science High School to encourage careers in science and technology and to be more accessible to the talented students in the Mindanao and Visayas areas (Executive Order No. 1090, s. 1986). Fifth Republic. In 1986, during Corazon Aquino's presidency, the National Science and Technology Authority was replaced by the Department of Science and Technology, giving science and technology a representation in the cabinet. Under the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan for the years 1987-1992, science and technology's role in economic recovery and sustained economic growth was highlighted. During Corazon Aquino's State of the Nation Address in 1990, she said that science and technology development shall be one of the top three priorities of the government towards an economic recovery. On August 8, 1988, Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force for Science and Technology 69


______________________________________ which came up with the first Science and Technology Master Plan or STMP. The goal of STMP was for the Philippines to achieve newly industrialized country status by the year 2000. The Congress did not put much priority in handling bills related to science and technology. The Senate Committee on Science and Technology was one of the committees that handles the least amount of bills for deliberation. Former DOST Secretary Ceferin Follosco reported that the budget allocation for science and technology was increased to 1.054 billion pesos in 1989 from the previous year's 464 million pesos. However, due to the Asian financial crisis, budget allocation for the years 1990 and 1991 were trimmed down to 920 and 854 million pesos respectively. Budget allocation were increased to 1.7 billion pesos in 1992. During her term, President Corazon Aquino encouraged scientists and inventors to bring the Philippines to its former position as second to only Japan in the field of science and technology. One of the goals of her administration was to achieve the status as being an industrialized country by 2000. She urged that the private research sector form a stronger bond between public research to help jump-start the progress in the area of Philippine Research and Development. Ironically, it was during President Corazon Aquino’s term and the reorganization of 70


______________________________________ Philippine bureaucracy that Executive Order No.128 abolished R.A. No. 3859, also known as the “Philippine Inventors Incentive Act.” This Philippine Inventors Commission was under the Science Development board. It gave assistance to Filipino inventors through giving financial aid, patent application assistance, legal assistance, and to help inventors market their products domestically and abroad. Despite the abolishment of the Philippine Inventors Commission, her administration gave rise to new avenues for the government to aid the progress of Science and Technology in the country. R.A. 6655 or the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988 opened doors to free education up to the secondary level, implemented in the education system together with this was the “Science for the Masses Program” which aimed at scientific and technological literacy among Filipinos. The Aquino administration recognized the importance of science and technology in the development of the Philippines into a newly industrialized country. Funding for the science and technology sector was tripled from 464 million in 1986 to 1.7 billion in 1992. The Science and Technology Master Plan was formulated which aimed at the modernization of the production sector, upgrading research activities, and development of infrastructure for science and technological purposes. 71


______________________________________ A Research and Development Plan was also formulated to examine and determine which areas of research needed attention and must be given priority. The criteria for identifying the program to be pursued were, development of local materials, probability of success, potential of product in the export market, and the its strategic nature. The grants for the research and development programs was included in the Omnibus Investment Law. There were noticeable improvements regarding science and technology as stated in President Fidel Ramos' State of the Nation Address. In his third SONA, there was a significant increase in personnel specializing in the science and technology field. At 1998, the Philippines was estimated to have around 3,000 competent scientists and engineers. Adding to the increase of scientists would be the result of the two newly built Philippine Science High Schools in Visayas and Mindanao which promotes further development of young kids through advance S&T curriculum. The government provided 3,500 scholarships for students who were taking up professions related to S&T. Schools were becoming more modernized and updated with the addition of high-tech equipment for student improvement and teachers were getting training programs to benefit themselves and their students. Health care services were promoted through local 72


______________________________________ programs such as "Doctors to the Barrio Program." The health care programs were innovative and effective as shown by the change in life expectancy from 67.5 years in 1992 to 69.1 years in 1995. Priority for S&T personnel increased when Magna Carta for Science and Technology Personnel (Republic Act No. 8439) was established. The award was published in order to give incentives and rewards for people who have been influential in the field of S&T. In the sixth SONA, education was one of the primary story-lines wherein programs such as National Program for Gifted Filipino Children in Science and Technology and enactment of a law creating a nationwide system of high schools specializing in the field of science and engineering. Fidel V. Ramos believes that science and technology was one of the means wherein the Philippines could attain the status of new industrialized country (NIC). During his term, he was able to establish programs that were significant to the field of S&T. In 1993, Science and Technology Agenda for National Development (STAND) was established. Among its priorities were: (1) exporting winners identified by the DTI; (2) domestic needs identified by the President's Council for Countryside Development; (3) support industries and (4) coconut industry development. Congress, during his term, was able to enact laws that 73


______________________________________ were significant for the field. Among were: (1) Magna Carta for Science and Technology Personnel (Republic Act No. 8439); (2) Science and Technology Scholarship Law of 1994 (Republic Act No. 7687) and (3) Inventors and Inventions Incentives Act (Republic Act No. 7459). The Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (Republic Act No. 8293) was enacted during Ramos' term. The law provides industrial property rights, copyrights and related rights, and technology transfer arrangements. In President Joseph Estrada's term, two major legislations that he signed were Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (Republic Act No. 8749) which was designed to protect and preserve the environment and ensure the sustainable development of its natural resources, and Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8792) which outlaws computer hacking and provides opportunities for new businesses emerging from the Internet-driven New Economy. Aside from these, in his first State of the Nation Address, President Estrada launched a full-scale program based on cost-effective irrigation technologies. He also announced that Doleouts are out, which meant basic health care, basic nutrition, and useful education for those who want, but cannot afford it. Lastly, he said that they would speed up the program to establish one science high school in 74


______________________________________ every province. It was in his second State of the Nation Address that President Estrada announced the passage of the Clean Air Act, and the decision to pursue the 15year modernization program of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. His last State of the Nation Address pushed for the advancement of industries and schools into the Internet age, as well as the announcement of the passage of the e-Commerce Act. In the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration, the science and technology sector of the Philippines was dubbed as the "golden age" of science and technology by then secretary Estrella Albastro. Numerous laws and projects that concerns both the environment and science to push technology as a tool to increase the country's economic level. This is to help increase the productivity from Science, Technology and Innovations (STI) and help benefit the poor people. Moreover, the term "Filipinnovation" was the coined term used in helping the Philippines to be an innovation hub in Asia. The STI was developed further by strengthening the schools and education system such as the Philippine Science High School (PSHS), which focuses in science, technology and mathematics in their curriculum. This helps schools produce get more involved in this sector. Private sectors were also encouraged to participate in developing the schools 75


______________________________________ through organizing events and sponsorships. Future Filipino scientists and innovators can be produced through this system. Helping the environment was one of the focus in developing technology in the Philippines. One of the more known laws to be passed by her administration was the R.A. 9367 or the "Biofuels" act. This act promotes the development and usage of biofuels throughout the country. This potentially enables a cheaper alternative to gasoline as a medium in producing energy. Also, this benefits the environment since it boasts a cleaner emission compared to regular fuel. Yet, setbacks such as lack of raw materials is holding the full implementation of the laws since importing the necessary materials are imported more. On one hand, drought-free rice was also highly encouraged to be used during her term. This enables farmers to produce rice despite the environmental hazards that slows or stops the production. In an effort to improve the efficiency of both land and water, the government imposes Republic Act 10601 which improves the Agriculture and Fisheries Sector through Mechanization (AFMech). RA 10601 covers research, development, and extension (RDE), promotion, distribution, supply, assembling, manufacturing, regulation, use, operation, maintenance and project implementation of 76


______________________________________ agricultural and fisheries machinery and equipment (Section 4). In 2014, President Aquino conferred four new National Scientist for their contribution in the Scientific field, Academicians Gavino C. Trono, Angel C. Alcala, Ramon C. Barba, and Edgardo D. Gomez was honored in their respective fields. Trono's contribution helped a lot of families in the coastal populations through the extensive studies he made on seaweed species. On the other hand, Alcala served as the pioneer scientist and advocate of coral reefs aside from his contribution in the fields of systematics and herpetology. Barba's contribution changes the seasonal supply of fresh fruits to an all year round availability of mangoes through his studies on the induction of flowering of mango and micropropagation of important crop species. Lastly, Gomez steered the national-scale assessment of damage coral reefs which led a national conservation. The Impacts of Science on Society If social forces have an ongoing impact on science, it’s equally true that science, through its practices and outcomes, has an ongoing impact on society too. Consider the following: ďƒź role in advancing access to food and in supporting health outcomes in the developing world; 77


______________________________________  impacts on sustainable environments and biodiversity;  role in supporting a growing global human population;  impacts on human health, from nutrition to allergens to indirect environmental impacts;  nature of economic and legal landscape related to intellectual property and ownership of genetic information;  extent of increased pesticide use in support of pesticide-resistant crops;  potential for water-efficient and pesticide/ herbicide free crops; and  extent of impacts on non-target species. For each of these areas, scientific research continues to lead to a changing epistemic landscape in which scientific knowledge and local knowledge butt up against each other. Despite epistemic claims from the scientific community that genetically engineered food is safe for consumption and poses little threats to traditional farming practices, the local epistemic context – informed politically, socially, and ethically – does not allow for a reconciliation of that scientific knowledge within the local context. Despite great potential for significant broader impacts of science of 78


______________________________________ society, most of the impacts to date have been indirect. Environmentally, the implementation of genetically engineered species stands at odds with the unknown risks to existing species and ecosystems directly and to human health indirectly. Consideration of the diverse range of intersecting issues and values at play in discussions about genetic engineering of organisms can help to identify and examine such broader impacts of this research. The Impacts of Technology on Society Technology and human life cannot be separated; society has a cyclical co-dependence on technology. We use technology; depend on technology in our daily life and our needs and demands for technology keep on rising. Humans use technology to travel, to communicate, to learn, to do business and to live in comfort. However, technology has also caused us concerns. Its poor application has resulted in the pollution of the environment and it has also caused a serious threat to our lives and society. This calls for the proper use of technology. The biggest challenge facing people is to determine the type of future we need to have and then create relevant technologies which will simplify the way we do things.

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______________________________________ Positive Impacts Agriculture. Modern agricultural technology allows a small number of people to grow vast quantities of food in a short period of time with less input which results into high yields and RIO �return on investment�. The use of technology in agriculture has also resulted in the manufacturing of genetic crops which can grow fast and they can be resistant to many pests and diseases. Also, farmers have access to artificial fertilizers which add value to the soil and boost the growth of their crops and enable them to produce high-quality yields. Farmers in dry areas have been in a position to grow healthy crops, they use advanced water pumps and sprinklers which derive water from rivers to the farms, the all process can be automated to save time. Transportation. Transportation is one of the basic areas of technological activity. Both society and businesses have benefited from the new transpiration methods. Transportation provides mobility for people and goods. Transportation, like all other technologies, can be viewed as a system. It is a series of parts that are interrelated. These parts all work together to meet a certain goal. Transportation uses vehicles, trains, airplanes, motorbikes, people, roads, energy, 80


______________________________________ information, materials, finance and time. All these parts I have mentioned work together to move and relocate people and goods. Technology has helped in advancing all the four types of transportation and these include ; (1) road transport used by automobiles ,(2) air transport which is used by airplanes, (3) water transportation which is used by ships and speed boats and (4) space transportation used to go to the moon. The most used of all these is Road transportation, this one facilitates the movement of goods and people. Technologies like automobiles, buses, and trucks have improved the way humans move and how they transport their goods from place to another. Also, developing countries are getting funds from wealthy countries to improve their road transport which has resulted in the development of rural remote areas. Communication. Both society and organizations depend on communication to transfer information. People use technology to communicate with each other. Electronic media like radios, televisions, internet, and social media have improved the way we exchange ideas which can develop our societies. In many countries, radios and televisions are used to voice the concerns of the society, they organize live forums where the community can contribute 81


______________________________________ through mobile phones or text service systems like tweeter. During political elections, leaders use radio, television and internet media to reach the people they want to serve. Communication technologies like Televisions, radios, and internet can be used to persuade, entertain and inform the society. Small businesses have also used the internet and mobile communication technology to grow and improve their customer service. Education and Learning Process. Education is the backbone of every economy. People need well and organized educational infrastructures so that they can learn how to interpret information. Many schools have started integrating educational technologies in their schools with a great aim of improving the way students learn. Technologies like smart whiteboards, computers, mobile phones, iPads, projectors, and internet are being used in classrooms to boost student’s moral to learn. Visual education is becoming more popular and it has proved to be the best method of learning in many subjects like mathematics, physics, biology, geography, economics and much more. The business community has invested money in various educational technologies which can be used by both teachers and their students. For example, on iTunes, you will find many educational applications which can allow 82


______________________________________ students and teachers exchange academic information at any time, this has made learning mobile. Also, programs like Long distance learning have opened boundaries too so many scholars around the world. Negative Impacts Resource Depletion. The more demand for new technologies and advancement of current technologies, the more pressure we put on earth’s natural resources. Look at the total number of mobile phones and computers being manufactured today, our population is increasing every day and all these billion consumers demand either a mobile phone or a computer in their homes or offices. This is good news for the manufactures, like Apple or Samsung, the demand for their gadgets is high, but to sustain this demand, they have to exploit Mother Nature for resources like aluminum, once these resources are extracted from the earth plates, they will never return back because it took these a billion years to mature. That means that at one time, we shall be left with no natural resource which can be a problem to the future generation and economy. Likewise, the intensive farming practices will deplete the soil. This makes heavy applications of commercial fertilizers 83


______________________________________ necessary to yield healthy harvests, but also these fertilizers have chemicals which are dangerous to the soil and human lives. Increased Population. Technology has helped us live longer by improving health facilities and aiding in the research for solutions for most health problems which affect humans. This is good news for developed countries but is bad news for developing countries which have not been in a position to access these health care benefits brought by technology. In developed countries population growth is controlled by advanced birth control methods, this has helped them balance their population in relation to natural resources and other opportunities which come with a planned population. This is different in developing countries, the rate at which people produce is very high, the mortality rate is high, food is scarce and health care is poor. Increased Pollution. Pollution affects the land we grow crops on, the water we drink and the air we breathe. The increased demand for new technologies and advancement of technologies has resulted in many manufacturing and processing factories. As they work so hard to create the best technologies for both society 84


______________________________________ and business, they release harmful chemicals and gasses which have polluted our environment and this has resulted in climate changes (global warming). So the more technology we enjoy, the more we harm our environment. Experts have tried to implement ways of reducing this impact by encouraging factories to go green, to a small extent, this has been achieved through the development of green technologies like; green cars, green computers, but a great effort is still needed to reduce the pollution of the air and the earth. The Impacts of Society on Science One sense of the broader impacts of research is on what societal values and social interests can have on the practice of science. More than we might regularly recognize, the social norms under which we function in our cultural and political settings impact the sorts of research that happens through funding, regulation, and criticism. Public interest in genetically engineered organisms has already had just such a significant impact on the research science in that area (Mortensen, Franklin, Bruce, Matthew, & Smith, 2012). From a social perspective, genetic engineering of organisms raises a cross section of issues. These issues are relevant across technologies and 85


______________________________________ applications: such ethical issues prevalent in the public debates about genetic engineering are not necessarily even specific to GE crops, but perhaps to questions of crops more generally as well as to other GE organisms. For example, if agricultural impacts on human health are ethically-relevant, then they’re relevant not only in the context of GE crops but also in “traditional� food crops more generally which have their own significant impacts. The important space for ethical work is in determining why and under what conditions GE crops are uniquely relevant. Social concern has impacted the science of genetic engineering in at least three ways: through concern about environmental and health risks, through questioning epistemic reliability and access, and through institutional impacts on the practice of science. Concern for environmental harms and risks to human health stand as central themes and pose a central conflict value conflict in debates around genetic engineering of organisms. Direct non-target effects, like on native organisms who ingest pollen of GE plants, could be one example of potential environmental harms. Indirect effects, such as potential decreased food availability for seed specialists in a GE agricultural monoculture, can be another. Increased use of

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______________________________________ pesticides coupled with pesticide resistant GE crops have been a major concern (Mortensen et. al. 2012). From a human health perspective, recombination and transference of genetic materials by and through GE species open questions about the possibility of new viral diseases. Given the variability and unexpected results of introduction of novel GE species into ecosystems, other questions about risks to human health and environmental wellbeing remain central in the debate about ethical issues in genetic engineering. In fact, these institutional inputs play a major role in the research process and as social influences on scientific practice and research. Regulatory bodies reflect both social concern and scientific interest in research practices and constrain the ways in which research can be done.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 02 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Discuss how the nature of Technology affects the nature of Society. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88


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______________________________________ 2. Describe the quality of a good Scientist. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90


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______________________________________ 3. Identify chemistry, Biology, Physics in a simple process like Photosynthesis. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92


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______________________________________ 4. Trace energy flow to its source in a typical meal. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94


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Lesson 3. STS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. At the end of this lesson, you be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Define biotechnology. Discuss the applications of biotechnology. Define biotechnology education. Describe the educational objectives of biotechnology. 5. Discuss the effect of biotechnology education on the curriculum with particular reference to Community, Secondary, Technical and University education. 6. Explain the challenges and limitations of biotechnology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction Biotechnology is a synthesis of a number of disciplines which depend on inputs from a wide range of scientific and technological fields. It is a fairly new science that has emerged out of the interaction of 98


______________________________________ disciplines in the area of Biology, Chemistry, Biochemistry and engineering. The application of Biotechnology ranges from current issues as, waste treatment and waste disposal processes, to food production and so on. These are of interest not only to professionals of science and technology but also of the society in general. In order to promote the growing interest in Biotechnology there is the need for interaction between the educational institutions, industries and research institutions. This brings in the question of Biotechnology education that is, considering the interaction of science, technology and society and how the concept of Biotechnology can be introduced into the educational institution. What impact would this have on the curriculum and how would the introduction of Biotechnology education affect or aid the needed scientific and technological break-through? What is Biotechnology? Johnson (1987) defined Biotechnology as the technical use of biological knowledge in production: He says it includes a number of technologies, originating from molecular Biology. In this broad definition, the process of bread-making with the use of 99


______________________________________ yeast, alcohol fermentation, selection of domestic animals etc., are included. Biotechnology according to Ozoro (1979) refers to the science whereby technical tasks are performed normally under the direction and supervision of biological scientist, contributory to biological experiments, tests and analysis and develop industrial public health, agricultural and other practical applications. Kille (1987) expressed his own idea of Biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems and processes to manufacturing and service industries. He explained that, in particular, it is the expansion in the industrial use of microbial and other cells, together with the demands these new manufacturing processes will place upon close integration and understanding between biologist, chemist and engineers. Ejike (1983) explained that Biotechnology is a new science that is synthetic in nature that has developed from the interaction of fundamental disciplines like genetics, biochemistry, chemical engineering, microbiology, physiology, and all aspects of process of technology. He added that Biotechnology provides a basis for the development of new industries out of the existing traditional ones. Biotechnology according to Liberman, et al. (1986), can be defined as “the application of biological systems 100


______________________________________ to technical and industrial processes�. This according to them implies the integration of all biology, including molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, cell biology, biochemistry with chemical process engineering in a way that develops the full potential of each of these systems. The above definitions of Biotechnology give interplay of Biology and technology. In other words, the technological application of biological findings in industries in order to improve the quality of life. Liberman et. al., (1986) explained that academic and industrial applications of Biotechnology can be divided into two general categories: research/ development and production. This breakdown agrees with Kille (1987). Applications of Biotechnology A breakdown of the discipline shows that it derives from the activities of organism such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts. And has vast opportunities in the application in waste treatment and waste disposal processes, plant tissue culture, food production, single cell protein research, the derivation of animal feedstuffs from Lingno cellulose and fermentation technology; other applications include: technology of 101


______________________________________ renewable raw materials, researches on environmental pollution, photobiological researches, short and long term effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems. Also Biotechnology approaches, find valuable application in researches in immunology and parasitology, the aging process, plant and animal pathology and pest technology. (Kille, 1987: Ejike, 1983). In his account, Kille (1987) added that biotechnology is useful in resource recovery by fermentation, the production of pharmaceuticals, the production of pharmaceuticals, biological pesticides, agrochemicals, the production of gaseous fuels, chemicals and solvents. Some Biotechnological Processes Detail account of the processes are not necessary for the discussion of this nature on; Biotechnology education. What is done here is just a brief mention of a couple of biotechnological processes. These include: ďƒź Production of earthworms as a potentially economical source of protein. ďƒź Alcoholic fermentation of raw sweet potato by a non- conventional method using endomycopsis Fibuligera. 102


______________________________________  Making of drugs For instance, the production of insulin from micro-organism by the process of biotechnology, which takes on week instead of fifteen months as in the case of the previous methods.  Invitro-fertilization (IVF). Bartels (1984), stated that a woman in this program is induced to super ovulate by means of a fertility drug, thus producing five or six ripe eggs. These are collected in an operation called Laparoscopy. These eggs are fertilized by the husband’s sperms. Increase agricultural yield.  Biotechnology has led to high-yield of crops and livestock, thus helping to expand the world’s supply of food. What is Education? The contemporary English Dictionary defines education as “the result of teaching or the training of the mind and character”. The Greek idea of an educated man was one who was mentally and physically well-balanced, while to the ancient Romans, emphasis was placed on oratorical and military training. In recent times the ideas of looking at education as an end in itself has changed to that of a process of getting “initiated” or an induction in to the 103


______________________________________ society (Fafunwa, 1974). Fafunwa defined education as the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or young adult develops the abilities attitudes and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he lives. Education, as a discipline, is a field of knowledge dealing with how to teach effectively. Dictionary meaning). The emphasis in education is that, the educated person should be useful to himself and the society in which he lives and not to be a misfit. Kemeny, (1959) said that “education is not to have arrived but to travel with a different view�. Precisely, one would say that education is a continuous process which takes place throughout life. What is Biotechnology Education? This brings us closer to the focus of the discussion. Biotechnology is a fairly new development in science and technology, which has such a wide range of practical daily life application. Biotechnology education would offer the generality of society, the awareness of current developments in science and technology and even help in training for a better and effective living in society, to improve the quality of life. 104


______________________________________ Looking at the definitions of Biotechnology and Education, it may not be out of place to say that Biotechnology Education is the training of mind and character of the applications of biological findings to technology with respect to new industrial prospects. Considering the fact that Education itself is a discipline or a “field” of knowledge dealing with how to teach effectively, addressing the issue of Biotechnology education could also imply teacher preparation for Biotechnology. Every known formal process of education, separate a working curriculum which states the aims and objectives, content and methods, as well as evaluation of its outcomes. This paper is proposed to briefly discuss Biotechnology education at the three main levels of education that is primary, secondary and tertiary levels. However, the first question to be addressed is “why study Biotechnology Education? Why Study Biotechnology Education? A philosophical approach to any issue would include the “what”, “how”, “who” and also “why of such a debate”. The question, “why study Biotechnology education”? Could forward several reasons in which case, it would not be out of place to 105


______________________________________ even say; that it is for the very purpose of philosophical manipulation of the issue at hand. However, Kille (1987), gave some reasons for considering education and training for Biotechnology. These include: the fact that Biotechnology is fast becoming a vogue. The need to differentiate and identify the skills and activities of the new industries in Biotechnology, from the older, more traditional industries using biological systems such as fisheries, forestry, brewing, farming etc. And also to examine ways in which educational systems can be adapted to meet the new requirements. Educational programs would also increase public awareness of their potential and counter any exaggeration of their hazards. Educational programs provide the necessary training for those who will be involved in these new industrial developments. Educational Objectives of Biotechnology According to Kille (1987), Demain and Solomon (1986), the objectives are based on the activities associated with the new industry which they identified as research, development, production control and marketing. Kille maintained that the educational and training programs of schools, technical colleges 106


______________________________________ and universities must between them take into account these four career outlets in Biotechnology.  Research: People with post-graduate training who will provide the basic ideas, technique and materials for industrial innovation from their scientific and engineering research.  Development: People with good honors degrees or diplomas in technology who will translate new ideas into manufacturing processes and into economically viable products and services.  Production control: People with degrees or technical training who will monitor and control the manufacturing processes.  Marketing: People with a wide range of training and qualification in financial, sales and management roles in industry, those interested in investment policy, political decision making, advertising and public relations. The aim of Biotechnology education is therefore to produce individuals required in each of these groups, who have acquired an understanding of microbiology, genetic engineering and other relevant areas of Biotechnology. 107


______________________________________ Effect of Biotechnology Education on the Curriculum Biotechnology will require a much broader understanding of Biological and Physical Sciences, which goes beyond their purely academic interest towards their industrial application and management. Therefore, he suggests that changes in curricula should not just produce subject specialist but must also take into consideration the social and industrial relevance of the training in the educational program. Another aspect which the curricula of educational training should take care of is the attitude among the teachers in the educational institutions, students and their parents. This is in particular reference to too much emphasis on “paper qualification�. Biotechnology will require a number of posts to be taken by professional technologists and technicians. This means that, educators in the schools and ministries of education have to pay more attention to providing courses that would be of real social and industrial relevance and therefore attract greater number of people other than the purely academic.

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______________________________________ Kille (1987), expressed that such a curriculum should not be less rigorous than those used at present, especially as even the numerical demands of Biologist of the industries could well increase the rigor. His suggestion is that, the graduates of the educational institutions should have a broadly balanced background in Physical and Biological sciences, which will be applied to the professional demand of Biotechnology. The educational demands of Biotechnology are many, but this does not necessarily call for the introduction of new subjects into the already overloaded curricula, but instead a reorganization of existing educational resources are recommended. Challenges and Limitation of Biotechnology Biotechnology demands the application of a wide range of skills and also offers a wide range of potential services for the new industries. Special courses in biotechnology, may not be necessary nor desirable, except in a few cases. One problem which stands clear, especially with regards to developing countries is that the introduction of such courses would impose a heavy drain on the existing resources of schools and universities. 109


______________________________________ Also it is unlikely that adequate number of staff is available with the necessary scientific and industrial experience. This means that the schools and university curricula must be sufficiently continued and well balanced not only to serve the existing traditional profession, but also these new industries. Hazards of Biotechnology Liberman, et. al. (1986) identified certain sources of hazards of biotechnology with three properties of micro-organisms:  The potential for undetected genotypic or phenotypic changes to alter a tested and approved process.  The potential of a few strains to cause disease.  The ubiquity of organisms which can contaminate the system.  The concern is for the need to maintain aseptic conditions.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 03 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Discuss the need for biotechnology education in our School Curriculum. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------111


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______________________________________ 2. Discuss the opportunities Philippines as a nation will derive from biotechnology. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------113


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______________________________________ 3. Name and explain four human factors that can hinder the effective implementation of biotechnology in the Philippines. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------115


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______________________________________ 4. Elucidate the challenges and limitations of biotechnology. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------117


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Lesson 4. TRENDS IN DNA TECHNOLOGY -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Narrate the trends in the development of recombinant DNA technology. 2. Elucidate the term cloning. 3. Describe the process of cloning. 4. Discuss the merits and demerits of recombinant DNA Technology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction To study this unit, you should first understand the concept called DNA. The DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a molecule of inheritance on which hereditary information are stored in virtually every organism. It is located in the nucleus of cells found in the body. This little knowledge of DNA will assist you when going through the lesson as a whole. 119


______________________________________ Trends in the Development of Recombinant DNA Technology Our knowledge of the living cells date to 1665 when Robert Hooke describe the spaces he observes in slice of cork. In 1838 and 1839. Schleiden and Schumann formulated the cell theory which shows that the cell is the basic organization unit of the living organism. On a closer look, one would appreciate the fact that the living cell is the epitome of ingenious design. Although DNA was first isolated in 1869 by the Swiss biochemist Friedrik Miescher, it was not until 1943 that DNA was conclusively identified as the primary genetic material. The brilliant experiment that shows this was performed McLeod and McCarthy who investigated the previous finding of Griffith. From that point the pace of research on the DNA molecule become rapid and intense. The foundation for what is now known as Recombinant DNA Technology or Genetic Engineering was laid by Watson and Crick (1953) in the British Journal ‘Nature’. They came up with the finding on the double helical structure of DNA and to propose the mechanism of DNA replication. After then Kormbery proposed the mechanism of DNA replication. After then, Kombery (1958) isolated DNA polymerase 120


______________________________________ .Between 1961, and 1966, the genetic code was completely worked out, in 1963, the discovery of the reverse transcriptase could be regarded as another landmark on the road to recombinant DNA ligase in 1967 and the restriction enzymes in 1970.Thus, stage was set for the take-off of the new technology- Genetic engineering. Armed with these three types of enzymes: reverse replication, DNA ligase and restriction endonuclease, Scientists now have the ability to create new forms of life by splicing together DNA (or genes from various source. In fact, the first recombinant DNA molecule were synthesized at Stanford University, USA in 1972, the following year, the ‘pandora’s box’ was opened at the Gordon Conference on nucleic acids held in New Hampshire, U.S.A. Genetic Cloning The birth of the cloned sheep Dolly in the United Kingdom in July 1996 attracted the attention of the world with the successful application of a cloning technology using the nuclei of mammalian cells, which had previously been considered to be impossible. Cloning technology is widely expected to contribute to the stable supply of livestock food sources, to the 121


______________________________________ manufacture of pharmaceutical products, to the protection and reproduction of rare animals, and to mass production of test animals. On the other hand, the suddenly approaching possibility of production of human cloned individuals carries with it ethical and social issues from the perspective of raising the possibility of infringing on respect for human life. Other issues focus on safety, such as the appearance of gene abnormalities in animal testing. In Japan, as well, in September 1997 the (then-called) Council for Science and Technology established the Bioethics Committee to engage in studies into the issue, including hearings for gathering public comment from the people. The result was the enactment and promulgation of the “Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques.� in December 2000. This law bans the transfer of human cloned embryos, etc., into human or animal wombs for the purpose of producing human cloned individuals, and stipulates severe penalties for violators. In addition, in regard to the creation of human cloned embryos, the law calls for the Council for Science and Technology Policy to engage in discussions about the future handling of fertilized human embryos, while banning the practice for the time being, in accordance with guidelines established under the law. 122


______________________________________ Benoaji (2000) defined cloning as the isolation and proliferation of individual genetically unique cells. It is a kind of high resolution separation method for DNA molecules which could be difficult to resolve by any other means. The word “clone” was first used to describe a population of cells or organisms, all derived from a single cell or organism by asexual multiplication. All members of the clone look exactly alike since they possess the same genetic constitution. The birth of recombinant DNA technology made it possible to clone a specific gene, or a segment of it in bacteria. This procedure was appropriately termed” gene cloning”. Later it also became possible for new combinations of unrelated genes to be constructed in the laboratory so the genes from different organisms (or species) could be spliced together in vitro to create new, recombinant, products. These novel genomes could then be introduced into dutiable cells and amplified many times by the DNA synthesizing machinery of the host. The major steps involved in DNA cloning include: Construction of the recombinant molecule. A DNA fragment of interest is covalently joined to a DNA vector (or vehicle). The vector must be able to replicate autonomously in an 123


______________________________________ appropriate host. The most commonly used vectors are bacterial plasmids and the lambda bacteriophage for cloning in Escherichia coli. Introduction of the recombinant molecule into host cells the recombinant molecule is re-inserted into the cell e.g. bacteria. The cells which contain the recombinant DNA molecules with the gene of interest as then selected and separated from the remaining cells which do not. The selected cells can then be amplified many times. During this process, the recombinant DNA molecules will be replicated and expressed in the host cells. This technique is useful for the synthesis of large quantities of scarce proteins such as human insulin or growth hormone. Moreover, gene recombinant technology, which is already in technical use in society, is wellsuited to elucidation of the framework of living things, to the efficient manufacture of medical and pharmaceutical products, and to the improvement of agricultural crops, etc., and expectations are high for its technological applications. On the other hand, one social concern is the fear of the adverse effect it may have on biodiversity and on sustainable utilization. In addition, the handling of living things using gene recombinant technology has developed into an 124


______________________________________ international issue. In 2000, the “Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity” was adopted under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, for the purpose of adopting measures in line with the safe transport, handling, and utilization of gene recombinant lifeforms that could adversely affect the protection of biological diversity and their sustainable utilization, with particular focus on the appropriate control of movement that crosses international borders. In Japan, the “Law for Preservation of Biological Diversity through Regulation of the Use, etc., of Gene Recombinant Lifeforms, etc.,” stipulating the domestic measures required to conform to the protocol, was passed in June 2003. Activity. What is the meaning of gene cloning? Advantages of Recombinant DNA Technology Cloning has made it possible to obtain large amounts of particular genes to determine the functions of segments of nuclear and organellar DNA, and to map genomes. Particularly useful application of the techniques is studies in which the controlling regions for prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes are cloned with an eye towards understanding the regulation of gene expression at a very basic level. 125


______________________________________ DNA cloning has a lot of potential benefits for mankind for example, it can be used to synthesize large quantities of antibiotics, enzymes and (insulin) hormones. In the near future it should be possible to introduce nitrogen fixing genes into the genomes of crops plants thus eliminate their requirement for nitrate fertilizers. Its technology has made it possible to cure diseases which for a long time have afflicted mankind. These include hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, some inborn error of metabolism, etc. Quite recently, a vaccine was produced, through this technology, which could be beneficial in controlling or eradicating malaria. It is at present undergoing clinical trials and may soon be introduced into the market. The recombinant DNA technology has also been used to achieve tremendous advances not only in the field of medicine. Agriculturists have used the new technology in producing hybrid crops with better yield and greater nutritional values. With the present recombinant DNA technology, carrying out of cloning in the laboratory is easy and not laborious. Other beneficial proteins could be manufactured by the same process. The technology at present can be afforded cheaply and rapidly. Cloning from higher plants, micro126


______________________________________ organisms, animals including mammals is now achievable. The most beneficiary of this technology are the couple(s) who are rendered infertile by one thing or the other can now clone and produce their own child through test-tube babies. Disadvantages of Recombinant DNA Technology It leads at times to the creation of organism (monsters) - animal or human whose biological activity cannot be predicted.  Large scale production of cancer – causing viruses.  The creation of penicillin - resistant recombinant E. coli.  It requires an expert in the field to carry out the cloning.  Human being, if cloned by asexual reproduction may be denatured.  Not all those who may need can afford it. The Future of Recombinant DNA Technology Before the birth of recombinant DNA technology, geneticist and molecular biologists were contented with the cloning of bacterial and some other 127


______________________________________ microorganisms, as well as cells in tissue culture. Plant breeders also cloned higher plant by propagating them asexually through simple techniques such as cutting and grafting. Higher animals usually do not reproduce asexually, therefore, in order to clone an animal it is necessary to micro surgically remove the nucleus from a fertilized egg or inactivate it with ultraviolet (uv) radiation, then replace it with a nucleus taken from a somatic cell. Such an experiment was first carried out with frogs by Gurdon 1968 at Oxford University. The recent announcement in the world press of the successful cloning of higher mammals caused a big stir around the world. A group of Scientist at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, headed by Dr. Ian Wilmut, successfully cloned a sheep which they named “Dolly�. Another group of Scientists at the Oregon Regional primate research Centre in the United State simultaneously announced the cloning of two rhesus monkeys. A monkey it is generally accepted is the next - of - kin to man in the phylogenetic scale of biological evolution. The question was them can man be cloned? If yes, then the next question is should man be cloned? The answer belongs to the realm of bioethics. 128


______________________________________ Indeed, the story of a man who spent over a million dollars to attain a clonal reproduction of himself has already been documented in a book written by David Rorvick and published (1978). The procedure used demanded that a body-cell nucleus, containing a full set of 46 chromosomes, be implanted in an ovum, the nucleus of which had been destroyed. The resulting embryo was then implanted in the uterus of a woman. This achievement was made possible by a technique which was developed in 1973: the technique of Invitro fertilization (IVF) usually referred to as “test-tube babies�. This technique made it possible to remove eggs from the ovaries of woman who were healthy in every sense, except that they were infertile as a result of irreparably damaged fallopian tubes. Their eggs would be fertilized in the test-tube with the sperms of their husbands and then implanted in their own wombs. As is always the case, every technique developed to solve medical problems is also subjects to abuse. It soon became normal practice to remove eggs from one woman fertilize it in a test-tube and then transplants it into the womb of a second woman who could not produce her own eggs. Furthermore, women who simply did not want to undergo the difficulties of carrying a pregnancy or going through labor pains 129


______________________________________ began to hire other woman to bear children for them at a reasonable fee (surrogate mothers providing wombs for rent). There are already speculations about by passing surrogate mothers by developing artificial wombs (incubators) in which the growing embryo could be developed and the baby collected after nine months! The development of the IVF techniques was not without some unpleasant incidents. This technique is credited to Dr. L. B. Shettles, a professor at the Colombia Presbyterian Medical Centre in New York, in collaboration with Dr. Willians Sweeny, a clinical professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cornell University. The takeoff of IVF technology was thus, delayed by about a year. Bevis (1974) of Leeds University in England, who also did his experiments surreptitiously, announced in a press conference that three human embryos, conceived in test-tube, had been successfully implanted in the wombs of the three women who later gave birth to healthy babies. All three women were regarded as hopelessly infertile due to damage or absent fallopian tubes. Test-tube babies are done and presently couples who cannot reproduce sexually are now able to 130


______________________________________ reproduce asexually through the process called clonal reproduction. Thus, DNA technology or Genetic engineering has been used to achieve tremendous advances not only in the field of medicine, Agriculturist have used the new technology in producing hybrid crops with better yield and greater nutritional value. It has also been used in the creation of oil-eating microorganisms to solve environmental problems created by oil spillage. It is my contention that if the eradication to all human disease recently orchestrated is to be achieved, this can only be made possible through genetic engineering or by the intervention of a supernatural strong hand from some place. Moreover, because human ES (Embryonic Stem) cells have the potential to differentiate into every type of cell in the human body, they are often called “master cells.� Cells that are lost to disease or accident, and which cannot regenerate on their own, for example, could be created from human ES cells and then transferred into the body, opening up new treatments of ailments that were previously considered to be difficult to cure. But human ES cells are created (established) through the destruction of a human embryo, giving rise to ethical issues, because a 131


______________________________________ human embryo that could have developed into a fetus if it had been transferred into a human womb is being used for a purpose other than the birth of a human life. As a result, the Bioethics Committee Subcommittee on Human Embryo Research was established in 1999 under the Council for Science and Technology (which was renamed the Council for Science and Technology Policy in January 2001), to engage in studies into the utilization of human embryos for research purposes, followed in September 2001 by the “Guidelines for the Establishment and Utilization of Human ES Cells� being adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. These guidelines require that careful ethical and societal consideration be taken in regards to the handling of human embryos. In other countries, as well, ethical discussions in regards to human ES cells are recognized as necessary, and the preparation of frameworks in regards to ethical issues is in progress. Moreover, a number of countries have drawn up rigorous laws and public ordinances in regards to the handling of these cells.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 04 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Explain how a clonal reproduction can be carried out in a man. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------133


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______________________________________ 2. Discuss the need for inclusion of recombinant DNA technology in Science teaching at all levels of education in the Philippines. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135


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______________________________________ 3. Identify and explain the other areas of human endeavor apart from Medicine where recombinant DNA technology can come into play. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------137


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______________________________________ 4. Narrate the trends in the development of recombinant DNA technology. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139


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______________________________________ 5. How would you explain the meaning of IVF to an illiterate person? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------141


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Lesson 5. SCIENCE OF THE 21st CENTURY -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Define bioethics. 2. Discuss the medical ethics in abortion, blood transfusion, health care, heart transplanting etc. 3. Discuss the rationale for integrating Science, Technology and Mathematics in the college classroom. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction The emergence of bioethics as a field of study is a contemporary phenomenon traceable to several causes. The issues of bioethics have captured the contemporary mind because they represent major conflicts in the area of technology and basic human values, those dealing with life and health. In this lesson you will learn some concrete ethical and 143


______________________________________ legal problems such as: Abortion. Blood transfusion. The child’s right to health care. Implications of homicide, suicide, cannibalism for bioethics. Gene Therapy. Heart Transplanting. Human’s right to refuse medical care. What is Bioethics? Scientific and technological advances in the life sciences have been remarkable, contributing to huge developments in medicine, and to resolution of food and environmental issues, and raising expectations of the development of wholly new industries. On the other hand, because these sciences target humanity and because they open the door to the artificial creation of functions and characteristics that do not exist in nature, and for other similar reasons, consideration for bioethics and the assurance of safety is needed. Here in Japan, as well, discussion between experts and people are now in progress on multiple fronts in bioethics and safety issues. While the specific problems and issues requiring attention may vary depending on the research content and state of implementation, some of the concerns that have been raised include the problem of respect for people, the problems of the right to self-determination and invasion of privacy in research that targets human 144


______________________________________ subjects, and the risks to human health and life, and also go beyond these issues to include concern about the effects on the environment. Moreover, with the heightened societal interest in the subject in recent years, there is a need for promotion of greater understanding in society and particular groups. Bioethics is a composite term derived from the Greek word bios (life) and e-thike- (ethics). It can be defined as the systematic study of human conduct in the area of the life sciences and health care, values and principles. Bioethics encompasses medical ethics and extends beyond it. Medical ethics in its traditional meaning deals with values-related problems that arise in the physician-patient relationship. Context of Abortion In medicine the induction of death in the fetus to save maternal life has had a long tradition, ranging from the embryotomy for cephalopelvic disproportion to the removal of pregnancies implanted in sites other than uterus (ectopic pregnancies).Due to the present experiences of disease especially of the lungs, heart and kidney, in which it was thought appropriate to perform abortion for the immediate relief of patients. 145


______________________________________ An ethos arose that proclaimed that parents should have the number of children they desired and at the time desired. Thus the procedure of abortion, which originally was linked to the preservation of maternal life and health, gradually changed to become a backstop to or an alternative to other methods of family planning. Ethical Consideration on abortion The American College Obstericians and Gynecologist, in a policy statement issued in 1976, take the view that abortion is a process of separating conflicting parties and does not primarily aim at destruction of the fetus directly. It therefore implies that interruption of pregnancy should, in the choice of methodology, maximize survival chances of the fetus. In America , unlike other developed countries courts of law have not expressed an opinion on whether abortion is a process of separating mother and fetus or whether it may guarantee death of the fetus, whether necessary or not. Blood Transfusion The process called blood transfusion is the introduction of whole blood or blood derivatives 146


______________________________________ directly into the body’s circulatory system. Efforts to meet the demand for blood must deal with the constraint s of short shortage life, safety limits for repeated donations, and exclusion of some potential donors to protect recipients from blood transmissible disease, notably serum hepatitis. Ethical Problems of Blood Transfusion Transfusion of blood generates three sets of ethical problem: a. Religion, b. Cultural attitudes toward blood, c. Social organization for securing blood, and maintenance of professional standards. Confronted by cultural traditions not deeply recruitment programs must often overcome beliefs about evil resulting from the drawing of blood e.g. impotence, infertility, general weakness. Blood service policies are thus drawn into large ethical issues of interracial justices and equality. On some religious grounds, oppose any transfusion as being a use of blood forbidden by God. Children and Biomedicine The recent trend in the United States is for increasing state intervention on behalf of the child’s 147


______________________________________ health. Status on child abuse, now in effect in every state of the United States, encourages or requires physicians and others to report. Suspicious to appropriate authorities, with civil or criminal penalties for failing to do so. In some jurisdictions a child may sue him/her parent for a negligence tort. While the limitations of substituted judgment by parents can be argued in the traditional therapeutic setting. Homicide Within the society is, under one set of conditions or another, legally prohibited everywhere. It has generally been considered justifiable for husbands, in pre-industrial societies to kill adulterous wives. Categories of homicide vary with a society’s values and social organization. Suicide which occurs when a person takes his life as a form of revenge on others is legally prohibited. Cannibalism and war are some form of killing which may spring from a number of motives both aggressive and affectionate. Implication for Bioethics This lesson points up the need to consider the bioethics of death in cross cultural perspective. An anthropology view of the bioethics of death suggest that ethical judgment of the attitude and actions 148


______________________________________ regarding death on other societies require ethnographic and essential framework in which to cope with the ethical dilemmas that confront our own society. Gene Therapy Gene therapy refers to the future possibility of introducing new, functional genetic information contained in molecules of DNA into human cells with the intention of treating human genetic disease. More generally, the art of healing, which is the primary aim of medicine, has also been a major concern of religion and ethics. For instance the western tradition demonstrates the case in both its major sources: Among the Greeks, the Pythagoreans maintained an intimate relationship among ethics, religion and health; the Hebrews frequently conjoined salvation and healing. Genetics and Law Advances in reproductive technologies and the prevention and treatment of hereditary disease and creating a human being either by test-tube baby etc. raise questions basic to societal values, thus creating a nexus between law and genetics. Since law in other countries on these subjects are scanty and difficult to 149


______________________________________ access, this discussion will be limited to American law, which is derived in part from the English common law system. Two landmarks decisions by U.S Supreme Court has increased the genetic counselor’s flexibility in providing options to a family. That parents who carried the gene for sickle-cell anemia, a hereditary defect of red blood cells, were written into law in thirteen states. The purpose of these laws was not to screen for disease, it was to warn healthy people prone about their procreative risks. Heart Transplant Opposition to heart transplantation on expressly religious grounds is typically in the United States and Europe. The ethics of human experimentation, which continues to provoke controversy, was an initial problem with cardiac transplantation. Indeed early assessment of this procedure raised serious questions about whether both donor and recipient are sufficiently protected. Ethical Issues Procurement remains one of the two most critical problems as viewed by cardiac surgeons 150


______________________________________ (Injection and infection together constitutes the other). Several countries have encountered this problem; and in the United States it is complicated by the fact that different states employ different criteria-ranging from silence (which implies current medical practice), yet there has been virtually no lay or scientific discussion of the ethical, economic, or technical implications of this type of human transplantation. Human Right to Refuse Medical Care Interventions by persons providing health care proceeds, as a general matter, only upon the permission of the patient. The restatement of what is usually called the doctrine of informed consent in terms of right to refuse medical care has several significant consequences. The fundamental objectives of the doctrine is to preserve an individual’s right to accept or decline proposed diagnosis, prevention, or therapy as he or she chooses. Despite the vigor with which the right is asserted, it may be qualified by countervailing interest. Particularly when a refusal of treatment seems likely to lead to a patient’s death, serious ethical and legal doubts arise for commentators and decision makers alike. It would be rather hollow to recognize a 151


______________________________________ so-called right to decline medical care and then to disallow its exercise when a patient feels so strongly about the choices at issue that he or she is willing to risk death.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 05 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Discuss how you as STS advocate will go about discouraging the female students from carrying out abortion? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153


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______________________________________ 2. Explain the justification for the knowledge of bioethics in STS at the educational and societal levels in Philippines. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------155


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______________________________________ 3. Discuss the medical ethics in blood transfusion, health care, and heart transplanting. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------157


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Lesson 6. THE INFORMATION AGE -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the meaning of information technology. 2. Trace the history of Internet and how it works. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction This lesson introduces you to Information Technology (IT). It starts off with brief description of IT history of internet and its operations. The module also provides meanings to some Information Technology terminologies. Information technology (IT) is the recent revolution in communication system in the world. IT has successfully turned the world to a global village. Although, it is costly to have IT fully develop in an organization but its usefulness to all sectors of human. 161


______________________________________ Online communities are plausible examples of networking. Computers and telecommunication networks were originally designed to process and exchange data and databases, but they were used for interpersonal communication from the very beginning. The alternative use of new devices assists ongoing social changes. Electronic mail, which is the equivalent of postal mailing, enabled more flexible and real-time oneto-one communication. The real networking, though, starts with mailing lists, which are the first form of many-to-many telecommunication. One of the mailing lists was run by academic researchers discussing science-fiction. Online networks of users are organized around common interests. Online communities have become widespread and the repertoire of their communication channels includes online discussion groups, public chat rooms, networking web sites, peer-to-peer networks, weblogs, photo and video sharing websites and their various combinations. Social networks supported by electronic communication channels play a crucial role in the development of ICT as a technological system. The circle of potential independent innovators widens – for example, user innovation. It is easier and faster to 162


______________________________________ channel feedback regarding innovations from relevant social groups at the development stage, thus diffusion and development of a certain innovation can advance parallel with each other. The increasing intensity of information flow between vendors and customers results in customized and personalized products and services, in particular information industries, multiplying the variations of technological artefacts. Information Age The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historic period in the 21st century characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology. The onset of the Information Age is associated with the Digital Revolution, just as the Industrial Revolution marked the onset of the Industrial Age. The definition of what digital means (or what information means) continues to change over time as new technologies, user devices, methods of interaction with other humans and devices enter the domain of research, development and market launch. During the Information Age, the phenomenon is that the digital industry creates a knowledge-based society 163


______________________________________ surrounded by a high-tech global economy that spans over its influence on how the manufacturing throughout and the service sector operate in an efficient and convenient way. In a commercialized society, the information industry is able to allow individuals to explore their personalized needs, therefore simplifying the procedure of making decisions for transactions and significantly lowering costs for both the producers and buyers. This is accepted overwhelmingly by participants throughout the entire economic activities for efficacy purposes, and new economic incentives would then be indigenously encouraged, such as the knowledge economy. The Information Age formed by capitalizing on computer microminiaturization advances. This evolution of technology in daily life and social organization has led to the fact that the modernization of information and communication processes have become the driving force of social evolution. Advancement of Information Age

Library expansion. Library expansion was calculated in 1945 by Fremont Rider to double in capacity every 16 years, if sufficient space were made available. He advocated replacing bulky, decaying printed works with miniaturized microform analog photographs, which could be duplicated on-demand for library patrons or other 164


______________________________________ institutions. He did not foresee the digital technology that would follow decades later to replace analog microform with digital imaging, storage, and transmission media. Automated, potentially lossless digital technologies allowed vast increases in the rapidity of information growth. Moore's law, which was formulated around 1965, calculated that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. The proliferation of the smaller and less expensive personal computers and improvements in computing power by the early 1980s resulted in a sudden access to and ability to share and store information for increasing numbers of workers. Connectivity between computers within companies led to the ability of workers at different levels to access greater amounts of information.

Information storage. The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, and to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007. This is the informational equivalent to less than one 730MB CD-ROM per person in 1986 (539 MB per person), roughly 4 CD-ROM per person of 1993, 12 CD-ROM per person in the year 2000, and almost 61 CD-ROM per person in 2007. It is estimated that the world's capacity to store information has reached 5 zettabytes in 2014. This is the informational equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun. 165


______________________________________ Information transmission. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 715 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1993, 1.2 (optimally compressed) zettabytes in 2000, and 1.9 zettabytes in 2007 (this is the information equivalent of 174 newspapers per person per day). The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, and 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007 (this is the information equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day). In the 1990s, the spread of the Internet caused a sudden leap in access to and ability to share information in businesses and homes globally. Technology was developing so quickly that a computer costing $3000 in 1997 would cost $2000 two years later and $1000 the following year.

Computation. The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided generalpurpose computers grew from 3.0 × 108 MIPS in 1986, to 4.4 × 109 MIPS in 1993, 2.9 × 1011 MIPS in 2000 to 6.4 × 1012 MIPS in 2007. An article in the recognized Journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution reports that by now digital technology "has vastly exceeded the cognitive capacity of any single human being and has done so a decade earlier than predicted. In terms of capacity, there are two measures of importance: the number of operations a system can perform 166


______________________________________ and the amount of information that can be stored. The number of synaptic operations per second in a human brain has been estimated to lie between 1015 and 1017. While this number is impressive, even in 2007 humanity's generalpurpose computers were capable of performing well over 1018 instructions per second. Estimates suggest that the storage capacity of an individual human brain is about 1012 bytes. On a per capita basis, this is matched by current digital storage (5x1021 bytes per 7.2x109 people)".

Various Impacts Economic impact. Eventually, Information and Communication Technology, computers, computerized machinery, fiber optics, communication satellites, internet, and other ICT tools, became a significant part of the economy. Microcomputers were developed and many businesses and industries were greatly changed by ICT. Nicholas Negroponte captured the essence of these changes in his 1995 book, Being Digital. His book discusses similarities and differences between products made of atoms and products made of bits. In essence, a copy of a product made of bits can be made cheaply and quickly, and shipped across the country or internationally quickly and at very low cost. Impact on jobs and income distribution. The Information Age has affected the workforce in several ways. It has created a situation in which workers who perform easily automated tasks are forced to find work 167


______________________________________ that is not easily automated. Workers are also being forced to compete in a global job market. Lastly, workers are being replaced by computers that can do their jobs faster and more effectively. This poses problems for workers in industrial societies, which are still to be solved. However, solutions that involve lowering the working time are usually highly resisted. Jobs traditionally associated with the middle class (assembly line workers, data processors, foremen and supervisors) are beginning to disappear, either through outsourcing or automation. Individuals who lose their jobs must either move up, joining a group of "mind workers" (engineers, doctors, attorneys, teachers, scientists, professors, executives, journalists, consultants), or settle for low-skill, low-wage service jobs. The "mind workers" are able to compete successfully in the world market and receive (relatively) high wages. Conversely, production workers and service workers in industrialized nations are unable to compete with workers in developing countries and either lose their jobs through outsourcing or are forced to accept wage cuts. In addition, the internet makes it possible for workers in developing countries to provide in-person services and compete directly with their counterparts in other nations. This has had several major consequences, including increased opportunity 168


______________________________________ in developing countries and the globalization of the workforce. Workers in developing countries have a competitive advantage that translates into increased opportunities and higher wages. The full impact on the workforce in developing countries is complex and has downsides. In the past, the economic fate of workers was tied to the fate of national economies. For example, workers in the United States were once well paid in comparison to the workers in other countries. With the advent of the Information Age and improvements in communication, this is no longer the case. Because workers are forced to compete in a global job market, wages are less dependent on the success or failure of individual economies. Impact on automation, productivity and job gain. The Information Age has affected the workforce in that automation and computerization have resulted in higher productivity coupled with net job loss in manufacture. In the United States for example, from January 1972 to August 2010, the number of people employed in manufacturing jobs fell from 17,500,000 to 11,500,000 while manufacturing value rose 270%. Although it initially appeared that job loss in the industrial sector might be partially offset by the rapid growth of jobs in the IT sector, the recession of 169


______________________________________ March 2001 foreshadowed a sharp drop in the number of jobs in the IT sector. This pattern of decrease in jobs continued until 2003. Data has shown that overall, technology creates more jobs than it destroys even in the short run. Rise of information-intensive industry. Industry is becoming more information-intensive and less labor and capital-intensive (see Information industry). This trend has important implications for the workforce; workers are becoming increasingly productive as the value of their labor decreases. However, there are also important implications for capitalism itself; not only is the value of labor decreased, the value of capital is also diminished. In the classical model, investments in human capital and financial capital are important predictors of the performance of a new venture. However, as demonstrated by Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook, it now seems possible for a group of relatively inexperienced people with limited capital to succeed on a large scale. Inventions and Innovations The Information Age was enabled by technology developed in the Digital Revolution, which was itself enabled by building on the developments in the Technological Revolution. 170


______________________________________ Computers. Before the advent of electronics, mechanical computers, like the Analytical Engine in 1837, were designed to provide routine mathematical calculation and simple decision-making capabilities. Military needs during World War II drove development of the first electronic computers, based on vacuum tubes, including the Z3, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, Colossus computer, and ENIAC. The invention of the transistor in 1947 enabled the era of mainframe computers (1950s – 1970s), typified by the IBM 360. These large, room-sized computers provided data calculation and manipulation that was much faster than humanly possible, but were expensive to buy and maintain, so were initially limited to a few scientific institutions, large corporations, and government agencies. As transistor technology rapidly improved, the ratio of computing power to size increased dramatically, giving direct access to computers to ever smaller groups of people. Along with electronic arcade machines and home video game consoles in the 1970s, the development of personal computers like the Commodore PET and Apple II (both in 1977) gave individuals access to the computer. But data sharing between individual computers was either non-existent or largely manual, at first using punched cards and magnetic tape, and later floppy disks. 171


______________________________________ Data. The first developments for storing data were initially based on photographs, starting with microphotography in 1851 and then microform in the 1920s, with the ability to store documents on film, making them much more compact. In the 1970s, electronic paper allowed digital information appear as paper documents. Early information theory and Hamming codes were developed about 1950, but awaited technical innovations in data transmission and storage to be put to full use. While cables transmitting digital data connected computer terminals and peripherals to mainframes were common, and special message-sharing systems leading to email were first developed in the 1960s, independent computer-to-computer networking began with ARPANET in 1969. This expanded to become the Internet (coined in 1974), and then the World Wide Web in 1989.Public digital data transmission first utilized existing phone lines using dial-up, starting in the 1950s, and this was the mainstay of the Internet until broadband in the 2000s. The introduction of wireless networking in the 1990s combined with the proliferation of communications satellites in the 2000s allowed for public digital transmission without the need for cables. This technology led to digital television, GPS, and satellite 172


______________________________________ radio through the 1990s and 2000s.Computers continued to become smaller and more powerful, to the point where they could be carried. In the 1980s and 1990s, laptops were developed as a form of portable computers, and PDAs could be used while standing or walking. Pagers existing since the 1950s, were largely replaced by mobile phones beginning in the late 1990s, providing mobile networking features to some computers. Now commonplace, this technology is extended to digital cameras and other wearable devices. Starting in the late 1990s, tablets and then smartphones combined and extended these abilities of computing, mobility, and information sharing. Optics. Optical communication has played an important role in communication networks. Optical communication provided the hardware basis for internet technology, laying the foundations for the Digital Revolution and Information Age. While working at Tohoku University, Japanese engineer Junichi Nishizawa proposed fiber-optic communication, the use of optical fibers for optical communication, in 1963. Nishizawa invented other technologies that contributed to the development of optical fiber communications, such as the graded-index optical 173


______________________________________ fiber as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers. He patented the gradedindex optical fiber in 1964. The solid-state optical fiber was invented by Nishizawa in 1964. The three essential elements of optical communication were invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa: the semiconductor laser (1957) being the light source, the graded-index optical fiber (1964) as the transmission line, and the PIN photodiode (1950) as the optical receiver. Izuo Hayashi's invention of the continuous wave semiconductor laser in 1970 led directly to the light sources in fiber-optic communication, laser printers, barcode readers, and optical disc drives, commercialized by Japanese entrepreneurs, and opening up the field of optical communications. Information Technology (IT) Information Technology (IT) is the use of computers and Communication systems such as Internet (network of networks of computers all over the world) and World Wide Web (WWW) (the Internet in a linked multimedia form) to manage and share information of an organization worldwide. It is responsible for the greatest technology revolution in world history. It is regularly used for all sorts of critical 174


______________________________________ applications such as playing traffic control in crowded skyways, saving lives, flying aircraft, running nuclear power stations, processing orders, controlling production or taking bookings, enhancing education training, transferring vast sums of money and controlling missile systems. ICT and information society are the results of radical changes. The revolution in information and communication technologies is a kind of technological paradigm shift. Information society is the age of a new social structure and a new mode of development. ICT assimilates earlier information and communication systems (landline telephone, radio, television, and consumer electronics) and increasingly pervades conventional technological systems (construction, logistics). The emergence of ICT is explained by the crisis of control systems in the industrial age. ICT became the new technological control system and in the meantime, society (as the processing system) has transformed drastically into an information society. Networks became the dominant form of social reproduction and the mode of development. ICTenabled social networks react to the development of technological systems, process of which is most apparent in ICT as a technological system. 175


______________________________________ Nature of Internet Internet is the network of networks of computer all over the world and everybody is freely exchanging information. Nobody knows exactly how big the Internet is because it is a collection of separately run smaller computer networks with no single place where all the connections are registered. As of September 1995, over 80, 000 networks were part of the Internet, with 180,000 networks in 1996. In 2001, about 56 million networks are connected on the Internet Worldwide (Stair, 1998). History of Internet The first networks linking computers had begun to emerge as early as the 1940s. It was the 1970s networking that became cost-effective and reliable for ordinary computer users to transmit data between computers over long distance. How the Internet Works The Internet transmits data from one computer called a host to another. If the receiving computer is on a network to which the first computer is directly connected, it can pick the message directly. If the receiving computer sends the message to another 176


______________________________________ computer connected, the sending computer sends the message to another computer that can forward it. It is quite common for a message to pass through a dozen forwarders on its way from one part of the Internet to another. The computer pass data around in chunks called packets each of which carries the address of its sender and its receiver. The set of convention used to pass packets from one host to another is known as the Internet Protocol (IP). The best known is the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) etc. Internet Services The Internet services range from sharing of resources, interaction between person-to-person, entertainments, promoting cultural awareness, supporting language learning, enabling research and development and investment purposes as follows: Service Description E-mail: Enables you to send text, binary files, send images to others Telnet: Enables you to log on to another computer and access its public topic FTP (File Transfer protocol): Enables you to copy a file from another computer to your computer

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______________________________________ Activity. Mention the role of computer in the operation of internet. Gopher: This is a menu driven system that was first attempted to make the Internet more accessible before being overtaken by the far friendly web. WWW: The fastest and most active growing aspect of the Internet that retrieve, format, and display information (including text, audio graphics and video) using hypertext links. Usenet Newsgroups: Arranging groups on electronic bulletin boards. Archive: It Searches database of documents, software, and data files available for downloading. Chatting: This enables interactive conversions. Teleconferencing: This allows a group of people to “confer� simultaneously via telephone or via electronic mail group communication software. Data conferencing: This is the process which includes the ability of two or more people at distant locations to work on the same document or data simultaneously. 178


______________________________________ Videoconferencing: Teleconferencing that also has the capability to let participants see each other “face to face” over video screens. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): This is the direct computer-to- computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transaction documents such as invoices, bills of lading, or purchase orders. EDI differs from electronic mail in that it transmits an actual structured transaction as opposed to an unstructured text message such as a letter. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): This EFT or Automatic Transfer Money (ATM) or Western Union Money Transfer (WUMT) describes a system to transfer funds by sending electronic data to his bank. For example, to make payments to a supplier or pay salaries into employees’ bank accounts or transfer funds from one bank account to another account. For example, to deposit to current account. EFT must involve the banks themselves. World Wide Web Services: A system that involves over 30,000 independently owned computers that work together as one in an Internet. Tim BernersLee at CERN, the European Center, developed this for Nuclear Research in Geneva. 179


______________________________________ Point Cast: Delivers national, International, business, industry, and company news, weather reports, transport, sports scores, and entertainment news. In-Box Direct: Allow users to create a personal newspaper form news wires, trade journals, Industries and transport. On-line Career Center: Offers listings of Jobs and profiles of companies, users can search the listing. Sports Line USA: Enables users to check the progress of favorite teams while games are in progress.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 06 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Identify ten applications of information technology to a nation. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181


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______________________________________ 2. Discuss how the community teaching/learning of Science can be enhanced with the use information technology. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------183


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Lesson 7. MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND E-MAIL SERVICES -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Discuss the worth of E-mail in our society. 2. Identify other forms of information technology such as the intelligent automobile, police information system etc. 3. Discuss the problems associated with Internet. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction This lesson introduces you to the E-mail services. It starts off with a brief explanation of E-mail and its advantages. The later part unit deals with other areas of modern technology. All that you will study so far are to help you understand the modern information technology which has made the world a global village.

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______________________________________ Electronic Mail This is a computer to computer exchange of message with person to person messaging, documents and sharing. It is a method of creating and sending messages electronically to one or more individuals. These messages are stored in the destination mailbox until the receiver is ready to read them. Both the sender and receiver do not necessarily need to be on the same network machine. Advantages of E-mail include: a. E-mail is very fast; b E-mail is entirely electronic and doesn’t require that paper copies of the message be created unless the recipient desires a printed version.; c. E-mail is convenient; and d Materials in E-mail can easily be copied from other documents to the clipboard and inserted as part of e-mail message. Transport Industry You cannot see, or smell nuclear radiation, but it’s deadly. There are many health hazards that can be caused by the transport industry that it can reduce by using Transport Environmental Decision Support System (TEDSS) to assist in creating an evacuation plan in case of a nuclear power plan disaster there. For 188


______________________________________ TEDSS to be effective, it has to use the following information:  The behavior of radioactive gasses, such as dispersion rates.  Highway system characteristics, such as number of lanes.  Population distributions, such as densities and the location of the people with disabilities.  Current weather conditions, such as wind direction.  Evacuation routes and paths from any origin to assigned shelter.  Projected volumes of traffic on the highway system.  Highways that may become severely blocked by radiation.  Time that will have elapsed before the last vehicle clears the area, (Haag, Cummings and Dawkins, (1998). Other areas of Modern Technology The Intelligent Automobile. This involves monitoring engine performance of the air-fuel ratio, spark advance idle sped, oil transmission fluid, and 189


______________________________________ coolant levels, entertainment systems and on-board diagnostic systems. Other Advanced Applications of Modern Technology. These include electronic navigation system, keyless locking and communication systems. Physical distribution of freight to include computerized freight rates and payment systems such as rate analysis, automatic freight payment and report generation. Computerized shipment-tracking system to include monitors step-by-step progress of particular shipment assists in processing a particular shipment. Computerized mileage/route system to include milemarker. The rail and shipping industries to include: railroad applications such as automated car identification system. Centralized traffic control system and computer-aided dispatch system which can monitor the street lights, and traffic showing different colorful signals to motorists and pedestrians that green means go, red means stop and appear means get ready. Shipping applications to include design and manufacturing of ships, computer assisted navigation, computer monitoring of ship engines, cargo, fuel and supplies. 190


______________________________________ Police Information System. This is the heart of all police information network that can be used to prevent crime, it contains police information of a national basis to track records of conviction, records of stolen property, and other reports. Problems of Internet The Internet present many problems to the business users, largely stemming from the fact that most of the technology and functions are relatively immature. These problems range from:  Security information on Internet Electronic links tends to be exposed to attacks from both thieves and vandals.  Internet hackers have found ways to steal from both passwords as they pass through.  Technology Problem. Lack of standards allowing incompatible ways exists to access the net, allowing specific users to perform certain function.  Lack of standards also affects the ability of organization to establish a stable link to the Internet.  Sending graphics on Internet is also a problem because of low speed. 191


______________________________________  Phone network not reliable, speed of data transfer differ and slower than US.  Legal Issues. Laws governing electronic commerce are mostly non-existent or are just being written. Legislatures, courts, and international agreements will have to settle such.  Discriminate copy of documents without permission.  Traditional Internet Culture. The Internet had its origins as a scientific and academic tool. As it grew, a strong anti- commercial culture grew with it.  Cultural articularism, regionalism, social expectations, work hours, political laws, transborder data and privacy laws.  Personnel. There are acute shortages of skilled consultants in the Philippines.  Costs and tariffs.  Regulatory constraints and standardization issues.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 07 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. On your own make a list of the various ways in which Philippines can benefit from advances in the Technology of the 21st Century. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------193


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______________________________________ 3. You as a distance learner, explain how E-mail services could enhance your study of STS. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------197


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______________________________________ 4. Discuss the value of E-mail in our society. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------199


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______________________________________ 5. Identify other forms of information technology such as the community information system. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------201


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Lesson 8. BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN HEALTH -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Discuss the effects of human activities on our health. 2. Explain the need for better health care services. 3. Identify areas of serious attention in health care. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction To study health care, you should be able to explain what health is. Because of the importance of our lives, the issue of biodiversity and health care becomes more important. So, the need to have adequate knowledge of what constitutes proper health care services and the roles of science and technology in solving serious health problems are what the unit intends to address. This lesson will present some areas 205


______________________________________ of health care where science and technology have played significant roles in providing solutions. These include the viral diseases such as malaria, rotavirus and HIV. And the genetic finger printing and DNA Profiling used for crime detection will also be discussed. Biodiversity and Health http://sciencenetlinks.com/esheets/biodiversity-and-health/

The term biodiversity, now enshrined in the literature, refers to the biological diversity to describe the variety of life forms at all levels, from microorganisms to wild flora and fauna, besides the human species. However, the variety of living beings should not be viewed individually, but as a structural and functional whole, from the ecological standpoint of the natural system, i.e., the concept of ecosystem. Biodiversity refers to the variety of life forms, not just too rare and endangered forms of life, nor just too big, attractive animals and plants. It includes every living thing—the common, the ordinary, the ugly, and even those organisms invisible to the naked eye. Also, biodiversity refers to more than individual species. It includes the genes they contain, and the ecosystems and habitats of which they form part. So, biodiversity can be considered at three levels: Genetic - that is, the differences between the 206


______________________________________ genes of particular species; Species - where a particular variety of animal or plant may occur in many different shapes, sizes, and colors; and Ecosystem - where a habitat contains a number of species which depend on each other. Biodiversity is essential for supporting human life on earth. The health of the natural environment depends on continuing diversity; for instance, if one species is lost from an ecosystem, then all the other species in that ecosystem are affected. Biodiversity also is important for ensuring agricultural productivity and for the ongoing sustainable use of natural resources. Further, biological diversity ensures clean air and water, and fertile soils. Moreover, the concept includes every species of bacteria, virus, plant, fungi, and animal, as well as the diversity of genetic material within each species. It also encompasses the diverse ecosystems the species make up and the ongoing evolutionary processes that keep them functioning and adapting. Without these organisms, ecosystems and ecological processes, human societies could not exist. They supply us with oxygen and clean water. They cycle carbon and fix nutrients. They enable plants to grow and therefore to feed us, keep pest species and

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______________________________________ diseases in check and help protect against flooding and regulate the climate. These benefits are known as ecosystem services. A functioning natural world also provides a living for farmers, fishers, timber-workers and tourism operators to name but a few. So biodiversity keeps us alive, but there are other less tangible benefits. Recreation such as fishing or hiking, the aesthetic beauty of the natural world and our spiritual connection with nature; the cultural values we place on plants and animals such as the kangaroo and emu on the Australian coat of arms - these are all benefits of biodiversity. Research suggests that natural environments have direct and positive impacts on human well-being, despite the highly-urbanized modern lifestyles that most of us live. Mental-health benefits from exercising in natural environments have been are greater than those gained by exercising in the synthetic environment of the gym. Mood and self-esteem benefits are even greater if water is present. The value that humans gain from biodiversity reminds us that, despite being predominantly urban, we are still intrinsically part of the natural world. We are a component of and therefore dependent on the

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______________________________________ ecosystem. This has led to the global concerns around anthropogenic biodiversity loss. Changes in surrounding biodiversity affect all of us. Unlike other species however, we have the chance to determine what these effects might be. In considering our role in biodiversity, there is some good news and some bad news relative to human condition and health. Thus, this loss of biodiversity is concerning because of the growing consensus that it goes hand-inhand with a reduction in the stability and productivity of ecosystems. The result may be that the services on which we rely could be compromised in damaging ways. To halt the decline in biodiversity across the continent, we must translate accumulated knowledge on biodiversity into government policy. This can be done through programs and on-the-ground management. Tough decisions need to be made about where to invest, what to manage, and which approach to take. These decisions can be emotionally and politically charged. Navigating the complex environmental, economic and political values can be extremely challenging.

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______________________________________ Human Health Biotechnology has also sought new means for cure of diseases based on new chemical components or active principles of biodiversity products in the pharmaceutical potential of numerous species of micro-organisms, plants and animals, in addition to the pursuit of preventive medicine in these new products of biological diversity. This segment of scientific research has made rapid progress, with the contribution of molecular biology, genetics, genetic engineering, biochemistry and pharmacology, through the discovery of new antibiotics, antiviral agents, vaccines and even the use of nanotechnology to combat malignant tumors (Mindell, 2009). The importance of biodiversity to human wellbeing and health has only gained greater prominence when the process of loss of biological diversity alerted to the need for conservation and rational use of living resources to protect the flow of natural ecosystem services. And also in view of the escalation of human impacts on the biosphere and the recognition of the valuation of natural ecosystems and the huge potential of species for human economy in general and as a potential source of drugs in particular (Millennium 210


______________________________________ Ecosystem Assessment, 2005, Chivian & Bernstein, 2008). In general, human activity has three major negative impacts on the natural environment: (1) Loss of and change to natural habitats and biodiversity; (2) Predatory exploitation of resources; and (3) Introduction of alien species in ecosystems. Another three big impacts are being currently perceived: (4) Increase in pathogens; (5) Increase in environmental toxicants; and (6) Climate change. All this involves important issues in terms of biodiversity degradation by human activities, pollution, and human population explosion associated with the multiple uses of natural resources (Chivian & Bernstein, 2008). Interactions Benefits

While ecosystem services play a key role for the health and well-being of man, the loss of biodiversity in biomes, such as deforestation and burning of forest has affected global climate change (Shukla et al., 1990). Ecosystem services support life in the biosphere, and man, also as a biological species that breathes like other pulmonates need fresh air, uncontaminated water and other benefits of biodiversity. These socalled ecosystem services also include climate regulation, e.g., the role of the forest in 211


______________________________________ evapotranspiration, in the water cycle, in the relationship between the El NiĂąo and La NiĂąa phenomena and climate. They act in the detoxification of pollutants, in the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors, in the carbon and nitrogen cycle and in the cycle of other nutrients that are essential to life and food production, in the knowledge of the active principles of the genetic programming of microorganisms, plants and animals that have applications as medicine. Today, there is no doubt that the impact of the human population on nature is big, leading to a drastic loss of biodiversity (Sala et al., 2000; Brazil, 2008). This biotic degradation, especially in tropical regions, concerns authorities and environmentalists worldwide. The production of medicinal drugs and agricultural productivity depend on the genetic information contained in different species of microorganisms, plants and animals obtained, for example, by transferring genes from wild diseaseresistant species to domesticated species that serve as food for man. Or, using biotechnology techniques, repeat in laboratory the active principle contained in the genetic programming of wild species that may lead to the cure of diseases.

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______________________________________ Ecosystem and the Dynamics of Diseases

The destruction of and change in natural ecosystems with loss of biodiversity result from human interference in nature and other forms of change to the natural environment and human health. Human development has many goals, one of which is to protect human health in the face of rapid environmental change. Unfortunately, we often fail to attain this goal. These changes occurring in the biological and physical environment of the planet as a result of human activity certainly does have an enormous impact on human health. To some extent, these changes are unavoidable because in the past, we have seriously overloaded the environment and the consequences have not yet become fully apparent. For example, past emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and long lasting ozone depleting compounds in the stratosphere will continue to have effects for decades to come. Moreover, unexpected, rapidly occurring threats to health are more likely to emerge in future as a result of strains now placed on the ecological systems that sustain human life. Health care is therefore a basic service essential in any effort to combat poverty. That is why people like Tore Godal (2000) believes that disease and their 213


______________________________________ underlying causes can affect families in a number of ways. These include reduction in productivity, impediment of education or retained high dependencies on family members. This could lead to adverse effects on economies of families. He then concluded that the right investment in health is at least as important as education. It is these investments which are often subsidized with public funds worldwide that has led researchers to innovations on preventive health, public health and curative health care. This is also why Feachem (2000) thinks that human health has probably improved more over the past half century than over the previous three millennia. He went on to say that it is a stunning achievement - never to be repeated and it is hoped irreversible, despite the devastating impact HIV/AIDS is having worldwide. Some current areas of health care where science and technology by way of research and or its findings have made or are making breakthrough are highlighted below: Malaria. According to a bulletin of WHO, malaria is responsible for 4% of global deaths. SubSaharan Africa suffers most of the burden of mortality and morbidity from malaria accounting for over 85% of 214


______________________________________ the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to the disease. Thus, over half the children in developing countries suffer from anemia, with malaria and iron deficiency being the main etiological factors. So far malaria control in Africa continues to rely on the adequate and prompt treatment of suspected cases, because primary prevention by means of prophylactic drugs or vector control is rare. Also, interruption of contact between humans and vectors through the use of insecticide-treated bed nets is a promising approach that is slowly being implemented. Research results reported the inclusion of malaria chemoprophylaxis and routine iron supplementation delivered through EPI for pregnant women and young children as a means of improving the control of malaria and anemia. Still on malaria, fresh clues to treating malaria in pregnancy have been discovered by James Beeson and colleagues in Malawi, and U.K. By now, we know that malaria during pregnancy is serious threat to mother and fetus. The woman faces a substantial risk of death and the fetus is at risk to intrauterine growth retardation and miscarriage. Beeson and the others gained important new insights into the way malaria parasites invade the placenta and how the invasion might be inhibited, by certain sugar rich molecules called polysaccharides and by treatment of the 215


______________________________________ receptor with an enzyme - hyaluronidase. This they say would lead to the possible development of new adhesion - blocking therapies on vaccines. In fact, SmithKline Beecham candidate prophylactic malaria vaccine has shown promising results in clinical tests conducted in collaboration with Walter Reed Army Institute and the London based Medical Research Council (MRC). Similarly, malaria is acquiring new names like “Chloroquine resistant malaria” “Airport malaria”, “Baggage malaria”, “Runway malaria”, etc. These have been diagnosed as imported malaria found in persons who travel in the vicinity of international airport at which flights carrying infected vectors have arrived. Many instances of airport malaria, several of them fatal have been recorded - the largest being in France primarily because of the many direct flights arriving from areas of Africa where the diseases is endemic. Consequently WHO recently recommended several ways for aircraft disinfection and periodic treatment of aircraft with residual spray and /or the application of a space spray before take-off from highly endemic areas? It should interest us to know that the Anopheles mosquito which is referred to as the principal vector of the malaria parasite is said to be resistant to twelve different types of insecticides. This

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______________________________________ was discovered by some doctors under the auspices of WHO. Rotavirus. Rotavirus is virus that commonly causes diarrhea in children. Rotavirus causes some 600,000 deaths a year and about 125 million cases of illness. Most of these deaths are in low-income countries. Death results not from infection per se but from dehydration caused by profuse diarrhea, nausea and vomiting unless O.R.T. can be given. There are no drug treatments for rotavirus and currently no licensed vaccine following the withdrawal of the first of its kind last year. Now, these researchers have discovered how the virus triggers fluid loss from the intestines and in so doing, have identified new targets for drug development. Vaccine-carrying Potatoes. Nutritious potatoes are being genetically engineered to carry vaccines against public health hazards; and for the first time, cooking has not inactivated a candidate vaccine. Developed by Dr. Charles J. Arnizen of Cornell University Institute for Plant Research in Ithaca (NY). He and his colleagues inserted into the vegetable, a gene that makes a harmless component of cholera toxin that induces a significant immune response in the recipient. With this new vaccine, they hope to prevent many of 217


______________________________________ the estimated 5 million cases of cholera that occur annually throughout the world that cause so many infant deaths, leading to massive diarrhea which causes life-threatening dehydration, children particularly can die quickly. Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis occurs when the density of the bone becomes light because it has lost its mineral content. This is a global health problem that will take on increasing significance as people live longer and the world’s population continues to increase. Current treatments have been restricted to lack of drugs capable of restoring bone mass to normal level. Grey Mundy and colleagues in the USA have discovered a potential new drug for its treatment. They are called Statins compound and are currently in use to lower bone growth in mouse bone cell culture and also in use to lower bone growth in mouse bone cell culture and also in rats and mice. Making Muscle from Bone Marrow. Victims of traumatic injury and muscle wasting disorder, muscular dystrophy (MD) have a first ray of hope of someday building a new skeletal muscle. Some Italian researchers - Drs Fulvio Marilio and colleagues from H. San Rafferele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy in Milan have discovered that bone marrow in mice 218


______________________________________ contains a population of primitive stem cells that specialize in forming a new muscle. HIV/Care and Prevention Service. The havoc that AIDS and HIV transmission is wrecking in our world today does require an introduction but Marshal and Hunt (2000) by way of caution wrote that “As with other development al issues HIV is about people’s control over their lives. Ultimately, it relies on people realizing that their future lies in their own hands”. By way of care, study in Thailand showed that short course Zidovudine treatment reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV by approximately half among women who did not breast-feed. The intervention involved the administration of Zidovudine orally for 4 weeks including the day of delivery. Meanwhile negotiations are in progress to obtain a substantial reduction on price of the drug for this indication to make its use relatively cost effective, even in developing countries. However, Dr. D. Francis the Vax Gen president a pharmaceutical company based in San Francisco (CA) during the 12th World Aids Conference in Geneva in June 1998, said they had developed a new vaccine called AIDS vaccine started that summer in the US. It was reported that 5,000 volunteers in more than 30 US cities are participating in a 3- year trial approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Vaccines 219


______________________________________ were also to be tested on 2,500 volunteers in Thailand. The specified vaccine in one formulation was designed to protect against the strains of HIV found in America, Western Europe, and Australia and also to protect against typical strains of AIDS - causing virus found in Thailand, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Indonesia. Health they say is wealth and that is why there are huge investments in matters concerning health care worldwide. We hear reports that 369 biotechnology medicines are in testing while it is also on record that an American survey found 217 medicines and vaccines in development as Pharmaceutical Companies, continue to step up their efforts to develop medicines to meet special needs particularly of children. Genetic Finger Printing & DNA Profiling. Obtaining a copy of the gene required is the most difficult part of genetic engineering. There are about 3000 million bases and 100,000 genes in the human genome. A typical gene is several thousand base pairs long. In 1995, there was a case of three women who each claimed they gave birth to baby girls at a private Maternity Home in Lagos. Two of them were told their babies died during the birth process. But when a TV program covered the story of a 65 year old woman who claimed to have given birth to a mirage baby at the 220


______________________________________ same maternity Home, the two other women became suspicious. This led to a situation where each of the three women began to lay claim to the living child. This situation generated public interest and after seven years of extensive investigation and court proceeding, a court verdict had to be given. The verdict would not have been possible without a conclusive scientific proof of who the real mother of the child was. To do that, DNA samples from the three women and their husbands had to be taken. Genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling is used to settle complex problems that have to do with identifying persons. DNA profiling is the more recent and sensitive version of genetic fingerprinting. Alac Jeffreys and his colleagues at the University of Leicester developed genetic fingerprinting in 1984. Its use became well known to the public during the criminal trial of O.J. Simpson in the USA in 1995. There are about 100,000 genes in the human genome. It has also been discovered that there is a great deal of variations between individuals in the way short sequences of bases are repeated in the DNA. At every particular locus in the DNA, each individual has two kinds of these variations, one inherited from the father and the other one from the mother. Genetic fingerprinting is a process of analyzing the lengths of these variations of a given individual. DNA 221


______________________________________ fingerprinting was first used for forensic work in 1986 in the UK to resolve the puzzle of who raped and murdered a school girl in a village near Leicester. A total of 1500 men were tested and none of them had a matching DNA. The actual murderer was caught as a result of conversation overheard by chance in a pub. DNA fingerprinting of semen sample from the crime and a blood sample from the suspect confirmed the guilt of the suspect. When between 20 and 30 bands are used in the analysis of the DNA of suspects, the change of two persons sharing the same band is 1 in 1 million! With a world population of 6.2 billion in (4 year 2000) DNA profiling is a reliable way of distinguishing between two or more individuals.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 08 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Discus the steps to be taken to ensure proper health care for the children under your care. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------223


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______________________________________ 2. Discuss some of the government supports for proper health care system for its citizens in the Philippines. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------225


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______________________________________ 3. Mention some instances where Genetic Finger Printing could be of use in crime control. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------227


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______________________________________ 4. Name and explain the socio-economic implications of poor health care system in a nation. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------229


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______________________________________ 5. Identify specific human activity and discuss its effects on our health. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------231


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Lesson 9. ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. List areas where scientist, technologists and the people in the community around you have misused science and technology knowledge. 2. Discuss intelligently, issues that affect the society like: Computer Worms and viruses. 3. Evaluate the consequences of uncritical use of the benefits of technology. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction In this lesson, you will learn those things that constitute misuse of science and technology. Science and technology are the basic tools or development. No nation at all can develop without imbibing it as an engine’s formatter of policy and practice. In this lesson you will learn the meaning and different issues related 233


______________________________________ to misuse of science and technology. In the next unit you will study waste recycling. What is Misuse Knowledge?

of

Science

and

Technology

Man’s deliberate acts in the attempt to exploit natural resources may in turn give rise to an unpleasant situation. Misuse of the knowledge of science and technology can be witnessed as follows: Mining Activities An attempt to exploit mineral resources from the ground leads to remarked effects such as: 1) destruction of stable soil structure. 2) destruction of land flora and fauna which in turn tempers with topic levels in the feeding relationship between organisms. 3) create unnecessary ponds which serve as breeding environment for mosquito and death traps for other terrestrial habitants (man, stray animals and wild life). 4) denature the environment making it unsuitable for agricultural activities. Deforestation Forest trees are fell down for furniture, housing, boat, canoes and bridges, all useful to man. 234


______________________________________ The felling down of the forest trees exposes the soil surface to erosion, constitutes threats to wild life, makes the land vulnerable to deserts encroachment and creates atmospheric imbalance. Industrial activities This leads to high accumulation of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, giving rise to greenhouse effect. The end result is environment degradation or downward trend of the environment. The use of halogenated hydrocarbon pesticides can initiate liver cancer and also cause some birth defects. They are also reported to cause make sterility e.g. D.D.T (Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethylene) interferes with ion transport in and out of nerve fibers resulting in tremors, convulsion and death. The burning of fuel, bush, household waste, fumes from passing vehicles of decomposing organisms (bacteria) all coupled with deforestation result in the accumulation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. These lead to a phenomenon known as global warming, other call it thermal pollution. This is a major contemporary concern of scientist yet caused by them. It is believed that the higher the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the warmer the earth 235


______________________________________ becomes. This creates a distortion of natural equilibrium between oxygen and carbon dioxide due to increasing population of man, animals and depletion of the forest. The knowledge of science and technology can be misused due to greed and aggression. Some government agencies make genuine and adequate scientific and technological proposal for development. These are frustrated by some individuals either due to excessive greed or mismanagement of the funds needed for such projects. This is sad and spells disaster for the nation. Some individuals, nations, world powers, become aggressive due to the quest for political economy, power drunkenness etc. rise against other nations (in war).In the event, sophisticated war techniques e.g. the use of bombs, nuclear and biological weapon and other war machines, which are the products of science and technology, are used. The consequence of this is severe destruction of life, properties, vegetation and landmass including pollution of air and water. Some biological weapons are known to create sterility in human population, even the future generation. Drugs are some of the products of science and technology. These are meant to be consumed under 236


______________________________________ medication otherwise they are abused. When abused to extreme lead to degradation of the brain and eventual madness. Irrigation schemes are constructed using the knowledge of science and technology. These irrigation schemes create a micro climate similar to that of the rainy season. Continuity in the life cycle of some pest and weeds become possible. The result of this is the abundance of such species, which in turn constitute great nuisance to man in agriculture. Also dams constructed for irrigation and other purpose serve as breeding environment for mosquitoes, fungal and growth. The dams could be death traps to wild life and human. When the dams burst, destruction caused to life and properties is alarming. Inorganic fertilizers washed into streams and rivers increase salinity of such water bodies. This increases acidity and leads to death of aqua culture. Over use of inorganic fertilizers destroy soil structure and scorching of plants.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 09 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Look back to some activities embarked upon in your immediate environment/community and list those one you can consider as misuse of Science and Technology. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------238


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______________________________________ 2. List the products of Science and technology that are destructive to life. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240


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______________________________________ 3. What is the effect of irrigation scheme on the people living around such area? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------242


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______________________________________ 4. List areas where the people in your community have misused Science and Technology knowledge. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------244


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______________________________________ 5. Evaluate the consequences of indiscriminating use of the benefits of technology from the viewpoints of a JHS student. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------246


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Lesson 10. WASTE RECYCLING -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Discuss the problem of waste management in urban and rural areas. 2. List the various ways in which waste can be converted to wealth. 3. Explain the problems associated with the process and methods of waste recycling. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction In this lesson, you will learn the meaning of waste recycling. This unit also continues the discussion on process of recycling, advantage and problems of waste recycling. You will learn that waste recycling is the reclaiming and reuse of waste that contains valuable materials. The process of recycling as well as the advantages and problems of recycling will also be discussed. 248


______________________________________ The Meaning of Waste Recycling You have learned about urbanization and pollution. When the society is large, there is the tendency for the society to produce much byproduct. Byproducts include unwanted materials, like sewage, garbage, etc. To the society, they are waste. If you take for instance a can of garbage you will find that a typical garbage from your house contain: yam peel, leftover food, pieces of paper, broken glasses, orange peel, wraps from soap, dust particles, banana peel, mangoes, assorted rotten fruits etc. You even have polyvinyl products. All these things that we consider as waste contain valuable materials that can be reclaimed and re-used. You must have taken canned soft drinks or any canned food. The can has been re-used. Such cans are got from scraps of metal. If all the refuse, tins, cans, plastic products we find littering the environment are re-claimed and re-used, we would have a better and cleaner environment. Process of Recycling Let us look at our garbage bin again. If we pick out the egg shells, we can grind or pound them to powder and mix with the ashes from burning firewood. 249


______________________________________ It serves as vim for scoring hard surfaces and the back of pots. Locally, you can compress the dirt or waste in such a way that you have a hard or caked up material that can be used as sources of energy. Burn them in earthen oven for baking bread or for cooking. Used papers are now been recycled. In developed nations waste is biodegraded. In the process of biodegradation, gas methane which burns easily is produced. They have careful way of collecting the gas. The gas is used to produce electricity that serves the same locality. The trend in most developed nation is waste-energy incineration. In fact, industries to convert wastes are being developed. Another method used in developed nations is sewage processing using decay microorganisms. Here the microorganisms present in water and soil are allowed to breakdown human wastes. Wastes thrown into rivers or streams cause trouble for organisms living in water. But with microorganisms, the process of decomposition is utilized. In the end methane is produced and a nutrient-rich dried sludge is produced. Some sludge come out as fertilizer, it depends on the constituents of the waste. 250


______________________________________ Advantages of Recycling Wastes If you look around our environment, you will wish that something is done to heaps of refuse you see everywhere. If we develop a technology of reclaiming and re-using them we will have a healthier environment. In the process of recycling wastes, the energy required is less than manufacturing new ones. Also the pollution is reduced. Energy saving is up to 50%. Making new products require time. Example in Europe to produce new tins (can), you need to mine the metal ones and then process them. Many businesses are reducing packaging on products in order to save energy. In so doing, pollution from industries is reduced. Recycling also beneficially reduces the total volume of waste requiring disposal. In developing nations waste disposal has claimed lands that could be used for other things. If such wastes are reclaimed and re-used, problem of space will be minimal. Sludge from decomposition have helped in soil fertility. They are used as fertilizers depending on the constituents of the waste. 251


______________________________________ Problems of Recycling Wastes In developing nations its problem of technicalknow-how and ignorance. In developed nations where the process has started on a comparatively large scale, the need is for effective separation of wastes. In Australia, there are bins provided for each kind of waste e.g. glasses bin, paper bin, and other bins. The process is often fruitless if some foreign body gets into a particular process. If a piece of Pyrex gets into a consignment of glass, it can render the recycled product worthless. In some communities, the waste management system is inadequate to cope with the population especially in urban area. In rural areas, the problem is lack of knowledge of basic hygiene and sanitation so waste products are not properly disposed.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 10 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Suppose you are invited by the Chairman of your Local Government Unit to talk to the people in your community on the topic “May Pera sa Basura or Waste to Wealth�. Explain how you will present your facts on this issue. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------253


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______________________________________ 2. Identify and discuss the problem of waste management in urban and rural areas. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------255


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______________________________________ 3. In your own knowledge of STS, name the various ways in which waste can be converted to wealth. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------257


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______________________________________ 4. Explain the problems associated with the process and methods of waste recycling. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------259


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______________________________________ 5. Conduct a survey in your community and identify the common problems related to waste management. Suggest possible solutions! ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------261


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Lesson 11. ENERGY SOURCES -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Explain the possible uses of solar energy in the Philippines. 2. Analyze the drawbacks of hydroelectric power generation. 3. Discuss alternative sources of energy. 4. Justify why energy should be renewed. 5. Systematically list how energy renewal can be done. 6. Discuss the effect of energy renewal. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction This lesson is designed in such a way that it contains both study unit on energy sources and reading article on solar energy presented to assist you to further understand the lesson. Carefully go through the study lesson and the material. 263


______________________________________ Meaning Energy What do you understand by energy, what is energy used for? Energy is power to do work. Energy is used to do many things. To cook your food, you need a source that provides energy like firewood. You need energy to move and carry out activities. In your own case, the energy you need is derived from the food you eat. You studied photosynthesis, a process whereby plants manufacture their own food in the presence of sunlight. Light energy is trapped in the process and energy is store in the food. During the breakdown process of the food in our body the energy is release and you have power to work or carry out different activities like breathing etc. All human activities and chemical and physical processes in nature require energy. To boil a cup of water, energy is required. Energy is obtained from many sources for different chemical processes. You may not be aware of it but you use kerosene, firewood, electricity to cook in using these products energy is released. The products are therefore sources of energy. Coals, nuclear power, and other fossil fuels generate energy. When any of these burn to release energy, there are usually byproducts like carbon dioxide, methane etc. (depends on the kind of product). These 264


______________________________________ byproducts cause pollution. The kind of pollution produced by these products is dangerous to health. You have heard about energy crisis. It is a crisis because of the kind of problems that arise from their use. Problems like using up all the available sources of energy e.g. coals. The byproducts are hazardous to health. There is fear of nuclear accident, apart from the fact that there is inherent danger in using nuclear energy. The waste constitutes problem of disposal. Because of all these problems; scientists are thinking about other sources of energy that will not bring problem like the ones mentioned above. Alternative Sources of Energy In developed world, 10% of their electrical energy is from nuclear power. The Chernobyl disaster of 1986 is an example of the problems that can occur as a result of using nuclear power and fossil fuel. In developing nations biomass (energy which includes wood, charcoal, crop residues, dung and other organic materials) is a source of energy apart from fossil fuel. Biotechnology is being used to produce alternative sources of energy based on naturally produced organic materials. There are places in the world where industrial plants convert sugar, from cane, 265


______________________________________ into ethanol (gasohol), which can be used to fuel cars. In North America cereals such as maize wheat and barley are fermented to produce a variety of products including fuel alcohol. Sugar beet widely grown in northern Europe could be processed for fuel alcohol, is potentially a cleaner source of energy than fossil fuels because it is sulfur-free. Now emphasis is on solar energy, wind energy, hydro-energy, waves energy, biomass technologies, and geothermal energy. The advantage in these sources of energy is that they are renewable. Of recent, scientists are thinking of how they can trap the energy we release in form of belching, breathing etc. and recycling. The advantages of the above renewable energy resources are enormous. For instance, they have less damaging environmental impact than fossil fuels and nuclear power.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 11 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Write a concise abstract for a research article conducted in the community related to renewable sources of energy. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------267


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______________________________________ 2. Conduct an interview with a community leader and describe how he/she presents the concept of energy and energy renewal among constituents. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------269


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______________________________________ 3. Describe various alternative sources of energy that Philippines can rely upon. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271


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______________________________________ 4. Discuss the effect of energy renewal in your community. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------273


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______________________________________ 5. Elucidate the concept of energy crisis. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------275


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Lesson 12. ST AND THE DEVELOPING NATION -----------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: 1. Discuss the challenges faced by developing nations. 2. Relate the problem of population growth and illiteracy with underdevelopment. 3. Draw up a guideline on strategies that Filipinos can use to cope with technological problems arising from underdevelopment. 4. Suggest how you as an individual can cope with the fast technological changes taking place around you. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Activity Read the article with the following questions as guide: 277


______________________________________ 1. Who is the author of the article? 2. What is the main issue presented by the article? 3. How has the issue been viewed before this time? 4. What is the author contemporary view of the article?

saying

is

the

5. What is the author’s main contribution to the issue being discussed? 6. List major differences before and now with respect to trends in science education? 7. What are your own interpretations of what he/she is saying? 8. What are your own reservations? 9. Provide a guess as to what you think of where we are going with respect to this concept. After going through it, attempt to answer the questions raised in the objectives for the lesson. If you cannot do so effectively the first time, go through the article again until you are able to do so comfortably. 278


______________________________________ “Problems of a Developing Nation” by Dadong, Maurice M. Definition Developing means advancing towards certain well defined general objective which correspond to the specific condition of man and society as found in the most advance societies of the modern world. Developing depends on what social goals are being advocated by the developing agency, government, analyst or advisers. In a social objective developing is a list of attribute which society is seeking to achieve or minimize and this include:  Increase in ideal income per capital.  Improvement in health and nutritional status.  Educational achievement.  Access to resources.  A fairer distribution of income.  Increase in basic freedom. Therefore, a developing nation from an absolute term is that nation that is attaining an average or above average growth in terms of increase 279


______________________________________ in per capital income, food production, technological advancement, basic freedom, science, industrialization, economic growth, population control, environmental control, good agricultural practices, employment, resource management etc. However, research has shown that most of these developing nations like Latin America, Indonesia, Nigeria, Malaysia and Austria suffer or are facing problems related to the above mentioned. The Problems of a Developing Nation Poor Technology: Developing nations like Nigeria is technologically dependent, that is, it relies on other countries to carry out its technological activities. Also most of these developing nations Indonesia, Malaysia, Latin America, are technologically dependent. This has resulted in the transfer of in appropriate technologies to the developing nations. These Inappropriate Technologies can be seen in two ways: The technologies which are transferred from advanced countries are generally capital-intensive, whereas the factor endowment pattern (or, crudely, the relative availability of capital and labor) in 280


______________________________________ developing nations require labor-intensive techniques if there is to be full employment of resources, the transfer of wrong kind (i.e. capital-intensive) technology is seen as at least a proximate cause of unemployment and malnutrition of income in developing countries. Secondly, technological dependence together with other factors results in the manufacture of inappropriate products in developing nations. The products which are manufactured in advanced countries results from a process of technical innovation. That is why they always reflect some trademarks or basic characteristics of the economic environment where they are made. These technologies are usually designed to meet the requirement of high income consumers (developing nations) who demand high quality goods. Nigeria for instance, in the previous years has been spending billions of naira in importing most of these machines, cars, weapons, and other sophisticated tools from technologically advanced countries like Japan, Britain, America, just because of its poor technological background. Problems of Agriculture System/practices. Traditional agriculture and traditional manufacturing are common features of developing nations. In each 281


______________________________________ instance, the basic productive unit is the family. Capital is limited to simple human and animal powered implements with few or no moving parts as can be seen in most developing nations of Americas work is sequential with no division of labor for individual commodities, the individual producer carrying the product through every stage of production. This lack of specialization means that there are no significant coordinating activities technological knowledge and work competencies are transmitted by observation and learning by doing. All the inputs and the physical principles governing the transformation are manipulated by man. Studies have shown that Africa estimated at 60% the population of the labor force engaged in subsistence agriculture. In Indonesia, it is estimated that 80% of the small holders are subsistence farmers. Even where agriculture production for direct consumption is widely prevalent, the communities thus engaged are by means of self- sufficient units. Though the buying power of rural population may increase, the standard of living does not necessarily rise along with it. Production of food stuff frequently drops with a change to the money. Economy, much of the money earned is spent on essential burgeoning a beer market in Africa and stark increase in alcoholism. In Mexico, for 282


______________________________________ instance, in some areas agricultural produce goes through fifteen different hands till it finally reaches the urban consumer. Problem of Industrialization. Developing countries in the initial stages of industrialization are characterized by inexperienced owners, few design skills and a very limited capability for machine building, because of the poor industrialization in most of the developing nations, they often rely on industries in advanced countries, for example, Nigeria is rich in oil but has no industry that can refine the crude oil to its final usage. It therefore usually take the crude oil to other countries for refining. Inexperienced owners of such materials are anyway poorly placed to discriminate between rival process technology and machinery systems. For instance, Nigeria cannot produce spare parts but can only buy the part of machines from highly industrialized countries and assemble it i.e., it can only assemble the parts to produce a simple Volkswagen, all are attributed to lack of planning and designing skills. In a developing nation, it is observed that the machines have to be imported, so has the process know-how and often also the capital for paying for at least the import content if not also the local cost component of the total project cost. 283


______________________________________ Unemployment. High unemployment has already become basic feature of developing countries like central and Eastern Europe. Research has shown that the restructuring process started in most of these countries only towards the end of 1960 and the beginning of 1991, and yet unemployment rates for the region above organization for economic cooperation and development average levels were registered as at the beginning of 1992. Furthermore, the gap in unemployment rates between, on the other hand, organization for economic cooperation and development countries and on the other hand, central and eastern European countries are continuously. The high increase of unemployment in transition countries is confirmed by results from the labor forces surveys introduced in most countries of the region in 1992. Developing nations like Austria and Norway experience relatively low unemployment rates. In Poland for instance, employment in the old nonagricultural private sector increased by over 20% during the period 1990-92. This increase was not sufficient to absorb people laid off from the state sector, while remaining high, the rate of growth of private sector employment slowed down in 1992, 284


______________________________________ despite the more favorable overall macro-economic environment. Poverty. Most developing nations are not physically endowed with riches or wealth, the appearance of natural wealth is often misleading much of Africa is paired with a laterite soil of low fertility and shallow depth. Much of it is covered and it seems was always covered in historical times by fruitless bush and poorly timbered trees. Also much of it is pestered by tsetse fly inimical to beast and man. Initially, most of these developing countries had few good food plants, early farming was a dry rice and local yams in Western Africa and of millet and sorghum elsewhere, but of little else until the coming of Indonesia banana and Asian yams in the 4th and 5th century and of American cassava, maize, sweet potatoes pawpaw, and pineapples in the 16th century. Also the position with cattle was somewhat better thanks to the spread of zebu and sanga breeds in the first millennium yet most of this area could not give raise to cattle because of tsetse fly. Environment Problem. The pursuits of affluence by developing countries are already threatening the ecosystem of the planet. This problem is usually centered on the atmosphere. Many people 285


______________________________________ believe that within a few decades the release of carbon monoxide through the burning of fuels will raise the temperature of the atmosphere past the point where serious climatic effects will begin to occur. It is known that an upward or downward change in world temperature of only a degree or two could have serious disruptive effects on food production. Another serious environmental concern is the destructive effects our agricultural practices have on our soils. Most developing nations do not recycle food wastes but throw them away (causing pollution problem in the rivers and oceans). Our agricultural methods exhaust the nutrients of the soils. Agricultural methods used by these developing countries involved the routine application of large quantities of pesticides and these have destructive effect on soil microorganism. Another environmental effect commonly faced by these developing countries are in the area of forest destruction which often result in extinction of both plants and animals species. Similarly, human activity are direct consequences our struggle for affluence and growth and our commitment to the economic system which require both for instance, Amasonic rain forest are being bulldozed to make cattle ranches and rice plantation to supply already rich 286


______________________________________ American tables and to boost the Brazilian gross national products, all in the drive to get wealth.

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______________________________________ Worksheet # 12 Name: ______________________________Date: ____ Section: ____________Professor: ________________ 1. Develop a concise abstract for this article. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------288


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______________________________________ 2. Discuss the solutions to the problems of a developing nation. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------290


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______________________________________ 3. Describe those attributes which a developing society is seeking to achieve modern ST. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------292


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______________________________________ 4. Interview your community leader of his modern ST plans and present your suggestions/ recommendations how to carry out the plans. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------294


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______________________________________ 5. Suggest how you as an individual can cope with the fast technological changes taking place around you. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------296


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______________________________________ Bibliography Ackerman, Bruce; Fishkin, James S. (2018). “Deliberation Day”. Center for American Progress. Retrieved April 14, 2018. Aguirre, A. A. et al. (2018) Conservation medicine. Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University Press. Alho, C. J. R. (2008). The value of biodiversity. Brazilian Journal of Biology, v.68, n.4. Allison, Bill, and Sarah Harkins (2018). “Fixed Fortunes: Biggest Corporate Political Interests Spend Billions, Get Trillions.” Sunlight Foundation Blog. Sunlight Foundation, 17 Nov. 2018. Web. 28 Apr. 2018. Alvez, R. R. N.; Rosa, I. M. L. (2007). Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where they meet? Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. http://www.etnobiomed.com/conten/3/1 /14. Bauchspies, Wenda, Jennifer Croissant, and Sal Restivo (2014). Science, Technology, and Society: A Sociological Approach, Wiley-Blackwell. Beeson, G, (2017). ‘Hierarchical Learning in Electrical Science’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Bewaji, C. O (2000) Title of article? Vol. 1 No. 1 printed in Nigeria Klobex Academic Publishers. Bijker, Wiebe and John Law, eds. (2018). Shaping Technology / Building Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Inside Technology Series). Bijker, Wiebe, Hughes, Thomas & Pinch, Trevor, eds. (1987). The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New

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______________________________________ Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology Cambridge MA/London: MIT Press. Bloor, David (2016). Knowledge and Social Imagery (Routledge, 2016; 9th edition, Chicago University Press Bollacker, Kurt D. (2010) Avoiding a Digital Dark Age, American Scientist, March–April 2010, Volume 98, Number 2, p. 106ff Bucchi, Massimiano (2018). “No Innovation without Representation (A Parliament of Things for the New Technical Democracies).” http://www. fondazionebassetti. Web. 21 Apr. 2018. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, (1-5). Burkett, V. R. et al. Non-linear dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications. Ecological Complexity, v.2, p.357-94, 2005. Cariño, Virginia S. (1993). Philippine science and technology: time for bold moves. UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies in cooperation with the University of the Philippines Press. Castells, Manuel. (1996-98). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, 3 vols. Oxford: Blackwell. Chivian, E. & Bernstein, A. (2008). How human health depends on biodiversity. New Yoirk: Oxford University Press. Collins. Gagne, R. M. (2010). The Conditions of LEARNING. New York: Holt Reinhart and Winston. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (2013). More Work For Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology From the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York, NY: Basic Books. David ow, Bill. (2018). “The Tragedy of the Internet Commons”. Theatlantic.com. The Atlantic. Retrieved April 28, 2018.

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Profile for Dr. David Cababaro Bueno

Science, Technology and Society  

Dr. David Cababaro Bueno (2018)

Science, Technology and Society  

Dr. David Cababaro Bueno (2018)

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