Baket-Mut Chantress of Amun

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Baket-Mut Chantress of Amun


Chant for Amun „O Amun, the heaven is uplifted for you; the ground is trodden for you. Ptah with his two hands makes a chapel as a resting place for your heart.... How great is Amun, the beloved god! He rises in Karnak, his city, the Lord of Life.... The beautiful face of Amun, the beloved power, at whom the gods love to look, as the mighty one who came forth from the horizon! The whole entire land of Amun’s domain is in festival. It is happy for Amun-Re, it is he whom mankind loves.”

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Chant for Amun „O Amun, the heaven is uplifted for you; the ground is trodden for you. Ptah with his two hands makes a chapel as a resting place for your heart.... How great is Amun, the beloved god! He rises in Karnak, his city, the Lord of Life.... The beautiful face of Amun, the beloved power, at whom the gods love to look, as the mighty one who came forth from the horizon! The whole entire land of Amun’s domain is in festival. It is happy for Amun-Re, it is he whom mankind loves.”

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Baket-Mut Chantress of Amun Over three thousand years ago, as Dynasty XVIII drew to a close and with it one of the most intriguing and still incompletely understood eras in the whole of ancient Egyptian history, Dynasty XIX was ushered in by a powerful family headed by a general named Ramesses. The majority of the kings who followed him in Dynasties XIX and XX were also named Ramesses – one of them so famous, that he is known simply as Ramesses the Great (Ramesses II) 1. During the Ramesside Period Egypt’s power was at its height; the land and its inhabitants enjoyed an era of peace and prosperity.

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Baket-Mut Chantress of Amun Over three thousand years ago, as Dynasty XVIII drew to a close and with it one of the most intriguing and still incompletely understood eras in the whole of ancient Egyptian history, Dynasty XIX was ushered in by a powerful family headed by a general named Ramesses. The majority of the kings who followed him in Dynasties XIX and XX were also named Ramesses – one of them so famous, that he is known simply as Ramesses the Great (Ramesses II) 1. During the Ramesside Period Egypt’s power was at its height; the land and its inhabitants enjoyed an era of peace and prosperity.

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Egyptian, New Kingdom, probably Dynasty XIX Reign of Sety I – early Ramesses II, ca. 1285 – 1270 B.C. Limestone with traces of polychromy Height 74 cm., width ca. 44 cm., depth ca. 49 cm.2 Formerly in the collection of Ernst and Marthe (Marta, Martha) Kofler-Truniger, Lucerne, Switzerland3: presumably from Western Thebes

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Egyptian, New Kingdom, probably Dynasty XIX Reign of Sety I – early Ramesses II, ca. 1285 – 1270 B.C. Limestone with traces of polychromy Height 74 cm., width ca. 44 cm., depth ca. 49 cm.2 Formerly in the collection of Ernst and Marthe (Marta, Martha) Kofler-Truniger, Lucerne, Switzerland3: presumably from Western Thebes

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The limestone sculpture of Baket-Mut and her husband reflects the general sense of wellbeing and affluence that resulted from Egypt’s rise to greater power. The individuals depicted in this statue were members of the select social echelon who lived during this golden era at Thebes. Not only are the closest stylistic parallels for the couple’s dyad dated or datable to the beginning of the Ramesside era (Figures 2, 18), but the column of hieroglyphs carved down the front of Baket-Mut’s gown below her knees provides clues that associate her with the royal family and with the Theban religious establishment5. Baket-Mut’s inscription: His sister [synonymous with wife], His wife, Whom he loves, Chantress of Amun, The Osiris, Baket-Mut [“Handmaiden-of-the-Goddess-Mut”], True of voice [indicating Baket-Mut has successfully survived the last judgment] Both the lady’s name Baket-Mut, meaning “Handmaiden of the Goddess Mut”, and her title Chantress of Amun, link her to the principal Theban deities Amun and his consort Mut, and suggest as well that she was the namesake of one of Ramesses II’s daughters.

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The limestone sculpture of Baket-Mut and her husband reflects the general sense of wellbeing and affluence that resulted from Egypt’s rise to greater power. The individuals depicted in this statue were members of the select social echelon who lived during this golden era at Thebes. Not only are the closest stylistic parallels for the couple’s dyad dated or datable to the beginning of the Ramesside era (Figures 2, 18), but the column of hieroglyphs carved down the front of Baket-Mut’s gown below her knees provides clues that associate her with the royal family and with the Theban religious establishment5. Baket-Mut’s inscription: His sister [synonymous with wife], His wife, Whom he loves, Chantress of Amun, The Osiris, Baket-Mut [“Handmaiden-of-the-Goddess-Mut”], True of voice [indicating Baket-Mut has successfully survived the last judgment] Both the lady’s name Baket-Mut, meaning “Handmaiden of the Goddess Mut”, and her title Chantress of Amun, link her to the principal Theban deities Amun and his consort Mut, and suggest as well that she was the namesake of one of Ramesses II’s daughters.

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Who was Baket-Mut?

Figure 1 The daughters of Ramesses II depicted at Abu Simbel. Princess Baket-Mut is the second from the right.

According to tradition, Ramesses II was a not only one of the worlds’ greatest leaders but was also a devoted family man. As was the general rule for ancient Egyptian kings, he had several wives; over one hundred children are documented. In representations of his daughters in series, the second figure is regularly labeled Baket-Mut; this is thought to indicate that she was the second daughter born (Figure 1). Princess Baket-Mut’s mother may have been Ramesses II’s great favorite Queen Nefertari whom he married before he ascended the throne, or, alternatively, Queen Iset-Nofret whom he also took as wife while still prince regent.

Figure 2 Princess Baket-Mut shaking a sistrum, Abu Simbel.

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There is every reason to believe that the Chantress of Amun Baket-Mut was named after Ramesses II’s daughter, Princess Baket-Mut. Like her, the Chantress may even have been born before the king ascended the throne as Ramesses II, since he already had two wives, or soon thereafter. Not surprisingly, the feminine name Baket-Mut was most popular at that time6.

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Who was Baket-Mut?

Figure 1 The daughters of Ramesses II depicted at Abu Simbel. Princess Baket-Mut is the second from the right.

According to tradition, Ramesses II was a not only one of the worlds’ greatest leaders but was also a devoted family man. As was the general rule for ancient Egyptian kings, he had several wives; over one hundred children are documented. In representations of his daughters in series, the second figure is regularly labeled Baket-Mut; this is thought to indicate that she was the second daughter born (Figure 1). Princess Baket-Mut’s mother may have been Ramesses II’s great favorite Queen Nefertari whom he married before he ascended the throne, or, alternatively, Queen Iset-Nofret whom he also took as wife while still prince regent.

Figure 2 Princess Baket-Mut shaking a sistrum, Abu Simbel.

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There is every reason to believe that the Chantress of Amun Baket-Mut was named after Ramesses II’s daughter, Princess Baket-Mut. Like her, the Chantress may even have been born before the king ascended the throne as Ramesses II, since he already had two wives, or soon thereafter. Not surprisingly, the feminine name Baket-Mut was most popular at that time6.

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Although we have no record of Baket-Mut’s family, both her name and her title, Chantress of Amun, underscore her close association with Thebes7. Amun, the deity in whose cult Baket-Mut served as Chantress, was the patron god of Thebes where he had risen to be the head of the Egyptian pantheon. The title Chantress of Amun8 was one of the most common New Kingdom titles for elite women at Thebes where it is also most frequently documented9. A Chantress was a member of an elite troupe of musicians who served a god’s cult. Contrary to what might be expected, there is no evidence that social position was instrumental in determining eligibility for the office of Chantress of Amun, nor were age or marital status decisive. For the most part, Chantresses (and Chanters) were educated members of the elite who could well afford inscribed monuments including large-scale sculptures and fine tombs. However, during the later New Kingdom, women from modest backgrounds might also successfully aspire to be Chantresses.

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Although we have no record of Baket-Mut’s family, both her name and her title, Chantress of Amun, underscore her close association with Thebes7. Amun, the deity in whose cult Baket-Mut served as Chantress, was the patron god of Thebes where he had risen to be the head of the Egyptian pantheon. The title Chantress of Amun8 was one of the most common New Kingdom titles for elite women at Thebes where it is also most frequently documented9. A Chantress was a member of an elite troupe of musicians who served a god’s cult. Contrary to what might be expected, there is no evidence that social position was instrumental in determining eligibility for the office of Chantress of Amun, nor were age or marital status decisive. For the most part, Chantresses (and Chanters) were educated members of the elite who could well afford inscribed monuments including large-scale sculptures and fine tombs. However, during the later New Kingdom, women from modest backgrounds might also successfully aspire to be Chantresses.

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Figure 3 Yuny and his wife Renenutet, Chantress of Amun, who holds a Menat. New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX, reign of Sety I, ca. 1294 –1279 B.C.

Few instances of the title Chantress are documented prior to the New Kingdom10, and thus far none of the early bearers of the title are attached to the cult of Amun. In Dynasty XVIII a significant rise in the frequency of the title Chantresses of Amun is documented11, reflecting the supremacy of the god. During the brief reign of the heretic king Akhenaten, the Amun cult was banned. With his death and the abandonment of his capital city Amarna, a nation-wide program backed by the priesthood and the throne restored Amun to his traditional position as King of the Gods. His sanctuaries were rebuilt and the damaged depictions of him and his consort Mut were repaired, along with desecrated texts naming the divine couple. These programs inspired a surge of piety, and with it a notable increase in the number of elite women who belonged to the troupe of Chantresses of Amun (Figures 3, 23)12. Many titles held by men and women in ancient Egypt were essentially honorific. In contrast, a Chantress13 of Amun received special training and instruction in using percussion instruments – drums, sistra, menats (Figures 4, 5), and clappers – as well as in rhythmic hand clapping to accompany their recital14. Together with her troupe of colleagues, Baket-Mut would have performed at temple festivals and rituals honoring the God Amun (Figure 6).

Chant to accompany the God Amun‘s journey from the Karnak Temple to the Luxor Temple during the Opet Festival “O Amun-Re, Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, may you live forever! A drinking place is hewn out, the sky is folded back to the south, [a drinking place] is hewn out, the sky is folded back to the north, that the sailor of [King] Horemheb, beloved of Amun-Re-Kamutef, praised of the gods may drink! Hail Amun-Re, the primeval one of the two lands, foremost one of Karnak, in your glorious appearance amidst your [river] fleet, in your beautiful festival of Opet, may you be pleased with it. A drinking place is built for the party which is in the (best) ship of ships(?). The paths of the Akeru [east–west horizons] are bound up for you; a great Inundation is raised up. May you pacify the Two Ladies, O lord of the red [and] white crown, Horus strong of arm, while the god is conveyed with her, the good one of the god, (and) after Hathor has done the most wonderful of things for Horemheb, beloved of Amun, praised one of the gods.” xx Figure 6 The God Amun enthroned and King Haremhab standing beside him on a smaller scale. New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 –1295 B.C.

Figure 4 Menat from Thebes, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, reign of Amenhotep III, 1390–1350 B.C. Figure 5 Sistrum of the Chantress Tapenu, Third Intermediate Period or later, ca. 1070 B.C. or later.

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As mentioned above, the name Baket-Mut (“Handmaiden of the Goddess Mut”), is another factor that links the lady with Thebes. As Amun’s consort, Mut is often shown with him both in statuary and relief, frequently accompanied by their son Chonsu, the moon god. Her cult, like her divine husband’s, was centered at Thebes and a temple complex in her honor was erected just south of the Great Temple enclosure at Karnak dedicated to her consort Amun15. Baket-Mut’s name and title therefore both imply a close association with Thebes and its cult center of the god Amun.

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Figure 3 Yuny and his wife Renenutet, Chantress of Amun, who holds a Menat. New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX, reign of Sety I, ca. 1294 –1279 B.C.

Few instances of the title Chantress are documented prior to the New Kingdom10, and thus far none of the early bearers of the title are attached to the cult of Amun. In Dynasty XVIII a significant rise in the frequency of the title Chantresses of Amun is documented11, reflecting the supremacy of the god. During the brief reign of the heretic king Akhenaten, the Amun cult was banned. With his death and the abandonment of his capital city Amarna, a nation-wide program backed by the priesthood and the throne restored Amun to his traditional position as King of the Gods. His sanctuaries were rebuilt and the damaged depictions of him and his consort Mut were repaired, along with desecrated texts naming the divine couple. These programs inspired a surge of piety, and with it a notable increase in the number of elite women who belonged to the troupe of Chantresses of Amun (Figures 3, 23)12. Many titles held by men and women in ancient Egypt were essentially honorific. In contrast, a Chantress13 of Amun received special training and instruction in using percussion instruments – drums, sistra, menats (Figures 4, 5), and clappers – as well as in rhythmic hand clapping to accompany their recital14. Together with her troupe of colleagues, Baket-Mut would have performed at temple festivals and rituals honoring the God Amun (Figure 6).

Chant to accompany the God Amun‘s journey from the Karnak Temple to the Luxor Temple during the Opet Festival “O Amun-Re, Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, may you live forever! A drinking place is hewn out, the sky is folded back to the south, [a drinking place] is hewn out, the sky is folded back to the north, that the sailor of [King] Horemheb, beloved of Amun-Re-Kamutef, praised of the gods may drink! Hail Amun-Re, the primeval one of the two lands, foremost one of Karnak, in your glorious appearance amidst your [river] fleet, in your beautiful festival of Opet, may you be pleased with it. A drinking place is built for the party which is in the (best) ship of ships(?). The paths of the Akeru [east–west horizons] are bound up for you; a great Inundation is raised up. May you pacify the Two Ladies, O lord of the red [and] white crown, Horus strong of arm, while the god is conveyed with her, the good one of the god, (and) after Hathor has done the most wonderful of things for Horemheb, beloved of Amun, praised one of the gods.” xx Figure 6 The God Amun enthroned and King Haremhab standing beside him on a smaller scale. New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 –1295 B.C.

Figure 4 Menat from Thebes, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, reign of Amenhotep III, 1390–1350 B.C. Figure 5 Sistrum of the Chantress Tapenu, Third Intermediate Period or later, ca. 1070 B.C. or later.

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As mentioned above, the name Baket-Mut (“Handmaiden of the Goddess Mut”), is another factor that links the lady with Thebes. As Amun’s consort, Mut is often shown with him both in statuary and relief, frequently accompanied by their son Chonsu, the moon god. Her cult, like her divine husband’s, was centered at Thebes and a temple complex in her honor was erected just south of the Great Temple enclosure at Karnak dedicated to her consort Amun15. Baket-Mut’s name and title therefore both imply a close association with Thebes and its cult center of the god Amun.

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The Role of the Dyad in Preparation for the Afterlife. Royal and non-royal individuals alike shared the concern for being well prepared for life after death. A critical component of this preparation was the tomb, which in ancient Egyptian was appropriately called a House for Eternity. Baket-Mut and her husband would have planned their burial carefully. Even though their statue is the only object thus far identified as coming from it16, the couple’s elite social status is reflected in the superb carving of the dyad which suggests their tomb was well-appointed. This limestone statue17 depicting husband and wife seated side by side in perpetuity may even have been one of several sculptures made for their tomb to serve as a substitute resting place for their souls and a focal point for cult offerings presented by family and friends.

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The Role of the Dyad in Preparation for the Afterlife. Royal and non-royal individuals alike shared the concern for being well prepared for life after death. A critical component of this preparation was the tomb, which in ancient Egyptian was appropriately called a House for Eternity. Baket-Mut and her husband would have planned their burial carefully. Even though their statue is the only object thus far identified as coming from it16, the couple’s elite social status is reflected in the superb carving of the dyad which suggests their tomb was well-appointed. This limestone statue17 depicting husband and wife seated side by side in perpetuity may even have been one of several sculptures made for their tomb to serve as a substitute resting place for their souls and a focal point for cult offerings presented by family and friends.

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Figure 9 Funerary Feast in the tomb of Roy and his wife, Nebet-taui. Theban Tomb 255.

Like Baket-Mut, Roy’s wife was a Chantress of Amun, and images in the tomb depict her in the role of musician-priestess. Clad in a translucent, pleated gown of white linen Roy’s wife holds a Hathor-headed sistrum (painted yellow) in one hand and, in the other, a menat consisting of a counterpoise and many strands of beads, two of the cult instruments used by Chantresses of Amun to beat the rhythm when chanting. Baket-Mut would also have been skilled in using both.

Figure 7 Looking toward the West Bank and the Thebank Necropolis from modern day Luxor.

The association with Thebes of references in Baket-Mut’s name and title make it likely that she was buried in the vast necropolis of Western Thebes (Figure 8) 22. Until now the tomb she shared with her husband has not been identified, but an idea of what it might have looked like is provided by Theban Tomb 255, the tomb of Roy, Royal Scribe, Steward in the Estates of Haremhab and of Amun, and his wife Nebet-taui (Figures 8  –10). It was discovered at Dra‘ Abu en-Naga in 1822 by Jean-François Champollion (1790 –1832) 23 and is approximately contemporary or just a bit earlier than Baket-Mut’s lifetime. Figure 8 Roy and his wife, Nebet-taui, Chantress of Amun. Theban Tomb 255. New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII.

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Baket-Mut’s statue may have already been set up in the tomb some time before her death. On the day of burial Baket-Mut’s coffin, protecting her mummy within it, would have been placed in the burial chamber of the tomb, outfitted with funerary furnishings prepared to supply her needs for eternity. These might include furniture, jewelry, clothing, and yards of folded linens, sealed vessels filled with water and wine, and baskets of food, as well as individual personal belongings guaranteeing her a “beautiful life” in the Hereafter.

Figure 10 Nebet-taui, Chantress of Amun, shaking her sistrum. Theban Tomb 255.

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Figure 9 Funerary Feast in the tomb of Roy and his wife, Nebet-taui. Theban Tomb 255.

Like Baket-Mut, Roy’s wife was a Chantress of Amun, and images in the tomb depict her in the role of musician-priestess. Clad in a translucent, pleated gown of white linen Roy’s wife holds a Hathor-headed sistrum (painted yellow) in one hand and, in the other, a menat consisting of a counterpoise and many strands of beads, two of the cult instruments used by Chantresses of Amun to beat the rhythm when chanting. Baket-Mut would also have been skilled in using both.

Figure 7 Looking toward the West Bank and the Thebank Necropolis from modern day Luxor.

The association with Thebes of references in Baket-Mut’s name and title make it likely that she was buried in the vast necropolis of Western Thebes (Figure 8) 22. Until now the tomb she shared with her husband has not been identified, but an idea of what it might have looked like is provided by Theban Tomb 255, the tomb of Roy, Royal Scribe, Steward in the Estates of Haremhab and of Amun, and his wife Nebet-taui (Figures 8  –10). It was discovered at Dra‘ Abu en-Naga in 1822 by Jean-François Champollion (1790 –1832) 23 and is approximately contemporary or just a bit earlier than Baket-Mut’s lifetime. Figure 8 Roy and his wife, Nebet-taui, Chantress of Amun. Theban Tomb 255. New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII.

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Baket-Mut’s statue may have already been set up in the tomb some time before her death. On the day of burial Baket-Mut’s coffin, protecting her mummy within it, would have been placed in the burial chamber of the tomb, outfitted with funerary furnishings prepared to supply her needs for eternity. These might include furniture, jewelry, clothing, and yards of folded linens, sealed vessels filled with water and wine, and baskets of food, as well as individual personal belongings guaranteeing her a “beautiful life” in the Hereafter.

Figure 10 Nebet-taui, Chantress of Amun, shaking her sistrum. Theban Tomb 255.

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Baket-Mut’s Wardrobe for Eternity As befitting her status, Baket-Mut is dressed in the fashionable apparel of upper class women of late Dynasty XVIII / early Dynasty XIX, which emulated royal prototypes (compare Figure 11). She wears a simple ankle-length gown that gently accentuates her sensitively modeled body and drapes lightly over her right lower arm24. It is possible that the pleating was rendered in paint.

Baket-Mut’s moon-shaped face mirrors the ideal of female beauty most admired during the early Ramesside Period. A slight smile plays over her soft lips; her demure facial expression is enhanced by the treatment of her large eyes. They are slightly tilted, beneath elegantly arching upper lids and brows, and cast an exotic feline aura to her facial expression. Figure 11 Queen Nefertari standing beside the leg of her husband, Ramesses II, at Abu Simbel.

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Baket-Mut’s face is framed by an elaborate, fashionable wig that was obligatory for upper class ladies25; like her dress, it was influenced by royal prototypes (Figure 11).

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Baket-Mut’s Wardrobe for Eternity As befitting her status, Baket-Mut is dressed in the fashionable apparel of upper class women of late Dynasty XVIII / early Dynasty XIX, which emulated royal prototypes (compare Figure 11). She wears a simple ankle-length gown that gently accentuates her sensitively modeled body and drapes lightly over her right lower arm24. It is possible that the pleating was rendered in paint.

Baket-Mut’s moon-shaped face mirrors the ideal of female beauty most admired during the early Ramesside Period. A slight smile plays over her soft lips; her demure facial expression is enhanced by the treatment of her large eyes. They are slightly tilted, beneath elegantly arching upper lids and brows, and cast an exotic feline aura to her facial expression. Figure 11 Queen Nefertari standing beside the leg of her husband, Ramesses II, at Abu Simbel.

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Baket-Mut’s face is framed by an elaborate, fashionable wig that was obligatory for upper class ladies25; like her dress, it was influenced by royal prototypes (Figure 11).

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Figure 12 Ancient Egyptian wig viewed from above, Third Intermediate Period, Dynasty XXI, reign of King Psusennes I, ca. 1040 – 992 B.C.

The wide, plain band or ribbon encircling the crown of Baket-Mut’s wig is actually the foundation for a floral garland which would have been added in paint or relief, as comparisons with depictions of women in contemporaneous tombs and statues show (Figures 15, 16).

Wig-making was a respected profession in ancient Egypt, and an examination of actual preserved examples (Figures 12, 13) shows how skillfully they were made26. For example, a wig like Baket-Mut’s was constructed of masses of braided locks of human hair gathered into bunches with tightly twisted or braided ends. These elements were then attached to a net foundation and/or a central plait extending from the center front over the crown of the wig (compare Figure 12 and Page 23, top).

Figure 14 Detail of Figure 13.

Figure 15 The scribe, Niay, and his mother Isit, New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1250 B.C., possibly from Theban Tomb 286.

Figure 13 Human hair double wig for a man, from Thebes, New Kingdom.

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Figure 16 The Chantress of Amun Henut-tawy. Detail of a facsimile after Theban Tomb 56, of Userhet, First Prophet of the Royal ka of Tuthmosis I, New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX, reign of Sety I, 1313–1292 B.C.

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Figure 12 Ancient Egyptian wig viewed from above, Third Intermediate Period, Dynasty XXI, reign of King Psusennes I, ca. 1040 – 992 B.C.

The wide, plain band or ribbon encircling the crown of Baket-Mut’s wig is actually the foundation for a floral garland which would have been added in paint or relief, as comparisons with depictions of women in contemporaneous tombs and statues show (Figures 15, 16).

Wig-making was a respected profession in ancient Egypt, and an examination of actual preserved examples (Figures 12, 13) shows how skillfully they were made26. For example, a wig like Baket-Mut’s was constructed of masses of braided locks of human hair gathered into bunches with tightly twisted or braided ends. These elements were then attached to a net foundation and/or a central plait extending from the center front over the crown of the wig (compare Figure 12 and Page 23, top).

Figure 14 Detail of Figure 13.

Figure 15 The scribe, Niay, and his mother Isit, New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1250 B.C., possibly from Theban Tomb 286.

Figure 13 Human hair double wig for a man, from Thebes, New Kingdom.

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Figure 16 The Chantress of Amun Henut-tawy. Detail of a facsimile after Theban Tomb 56, of Userhet, First Prophet of the Royal ka of Tuthmosis I, New Kingdom, Dynasty XIX, reign of Sety I, 1313–1292 B.C.

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Husband and Wife With her left arm Baket-Mut embraces her husband; this age-old gesture expressing the relationship of man and wife, was shared by ancient Egyptian pair statues since earliest times (Figure 17). However, in ancient Egyptian group statuary 19 women are generally seated to the left of their husband (Figure 18), but BaketMut sits to her husband’s right 20. An explanation may be that more than one dyad was planned for the couple’s tomb and Baket-Mut’s position reflects a desire for symmetry. For example, mirror-image statues may have flanked a doorway or stood opposite each other in a corridor 21. A pendant lotus blossom, lightly incised above Baket-Mut’s forehead, was perhaps intended to serve as a sketch for work that was never completed. It marks the center front of her floral garland (above). A pair of false braids attached to the center back of Baket-Mut’s wig beneath the wide band (below), is a coquettish detail sometimes depicted on statues of women during the New Kingdom28.

Figure 17 Old Kingdom, Dynasty V, ca. 2465–2323 B.C., from Giza, Tomb G 2009, height 35.5 cm.

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Figure 18 Thay and his wife Naya, New Kingdom, early Dynasty XIX, from Saqqara18.

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Husband and Wife With her left arm Baket-Mut embraces her husband; this age-old gesture expressing the relationship of man and wife, was shared by ancient Egyptian pair statues since earliest times (Figure 17). However, in ancient Egyptian group statuary 19 women are generally seated to the left of their husband (Figure 18), but BaketMut sits to her husband’s right 20. An explanation may be that more than one dyad was planned for the couple’s tomb and Baket-Mut’s position reflects a desire for symmetry. For example, mirror-image statues may have flanked a doorway or stood opposite each other in a corridor 21. A pendant lotus blossom, lightly incised above Baket-Mut’s forehead, was perhaps intended to serve as a sketch for work that was never completed. It marks the center front of her floral garland (above). A pair of false braids attached to the center back of Baket-Mut’s wig beneath the wide band (below), is a coquettish detail sometimes depicted on statues of women during the New Kingdom28.

Figure 17 Old Kingdom, Dynasty V, ca. 2465–2323 B.C., from Giza, Tomb G 2009, height 35.5 cm.

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Figure 18 Thay and his wife Naya, New Kingdom, early Dynasty XIX, from Saqqara18.

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Figure 19 A nobleman wearing a wig, linen garment and sandles like Baket-Mut‘s husband.

The Husband’s Wardrobe for Eternity Baket-Mut’s figure is almost perfectly preserved; by contrast, her husband’s image has not survived intact but was purposefully damaged. His head and with it his left shoulder were removed off in antiquity. The garment covering his knees and most of his legs which would have borne an inscription has been broken away and with it, every trace of his name and titles; in ancient Egypt, the practice of removing such a text effectively destroyed memory of an individual among the living and prohibited the person’s continued existence in the afterlife as well.

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Figure 19 A nobleman wearing a wig, linen garment and sandles like Baket-Mut‘s husband.

The Husband’s Wardrobe for Eternity Baket-Mut’s figure is almost perfectly preserved; by contrast, her husband’s image has not survived intact but was purposefully damaged. His head and with it his left shoulder were removed off in antiquity. The garment covering his knees and most of his legs which would have borne an inscription has been broken away and with it, every trace of his name and titles; in ancient Egypt, the practice of removing such a text effectively destroyed memory of an individual among the living and prohibited the person’s continued existence in the afterlife as well.

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Figure 20 Thay and his wife, Naya, comtemporaries of Baket-Mut and her husband. New Kingdom, early Dynasty XIX, from Saqqara.

However, despite the damage to the figure of Baket-Mut’s husband, enough remains to provide an accurate idea of his original appearance.

Figure 21 Linen stroage chest from the tomb of of Hatnefer and Ramose, Theban Tomb 71, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1480 B.C.

Guidelines were also added to the husband’s image, comparable to those incised on BaketMut’s headband. Most are visible on the skirt in the area of the sash and belly (above left). These include a loop below the navel that represents the loose end of the skirt which was pulled up after wrapping, folded and tucked into the sash. It is enhanced with a section of scalloped edging. Additional incised notations on the lap of the husband’s skirt and his chest are guidelines for other garments and pleating.

Like most of his contemporaries (Figure 20), the now anonymous husband wore a two-part wig. Only the right-hand, echeloned-curled lappet is still preserved29. A small detail underscoring the quality of the carving is the drilling of the ends of the twisted curls to imitate realistically the appearance of actual curls (below)30.

The clothing of Baket-Mut and her husband was certainly made of linen, the most commonly used woven textile in ancient Egypt. Linen varied significantly in quality and its intrinsic value should not be underestimated. In fact, linen ranked high on the list of commodities included among funerary equipment for the deceased’s use in the afterlife and exquisite examples of garments worn in daily life were often deposited in tombs (Figure 21).

His clothing, like that of his wife, follows the example set by the royal family of late Dynasty XVIII and early Dynasty XIX. His two-part gala ‘ensemble’ of linen combines a tunic-like garment with cuffed, deeply pleated sleeves and a pleated skirt (Figure 11). The profile view of the statue (Page 27) illustrates how the skirt with its sash is wrapped high above his hips in back, with deep pleating modeling his thigh and buttocks. In front, the waistline drops well below the navel emphasizing his slightly bulging abdomen, a venerable symbol indicative of wealth and prosperity. Although much of the front of the husband’s skirt and his legs are lost, comparison with contemporary statues demonstrates that he wore a skirt with a flaring panel down the front (Compare Page 26 and Figure 20).

28

A pair of sandals (left) completes the husband’s attire. Though women are also depicted with sandals, BaketMut is barefoot in the dyad (Page 6, 8, 16). Several studies of ancient Egyptian footwear32, including preserved examples as well as depictions in relief and statuary, suggest they were associated with the privileged class and in some cases may have been a sign of special recognition by the king. The sandals worn by Baket-Mut’s husband were probably made of plant fiber or leather, and their style with the wide puffed cross straps was popular from Dynasty XVIII onward (Figure 22). Depictions of sandals amongst the prized items to be included in a wealthy burial illustrate their value. Figure 22 Fiber sandals from the Tomb of Yuya and Tuya, KV 46, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, tp. Amenhotep III, ca. 1390 –1352 B.C.

29


Figure 20 Thay and his wife, Naya, comtemporaries of Baket-Mut and her husband. New Kingdom, early Dynasty XIX, from Saqqara.

However, despite the damage to the figure of Baket-Mut’s husband, enough remains to provide an accurate idea of his original appearance.

Figure 21 Linen stroage chest from the tomb of of Hatnefer and Ramose, Theban Tomb 71, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1480 B.C.

Guidelines were also added to the husband’s image, comparable to those incised on BaketMut’s headband. Most are visible on the skirt in the area of the sash and belly (above left). These include a loop below the navel that represents the loose end of the skirt which was pulled up after wrapping, folded and tucked into the sash. It is enhanced with a section of scalloped edging. Additional incised notations on the lap of the husband’s skirt and his chest are guidelines for other garments and pleating.

Like most of his contemporaries (Figure 20), the now anonymous husband wore a two-part wig. Only the right-hand, echeloned-curled lappet is still preserved29. A small detail underscoring the quality of the carving is the drilling of the ends of the twisted curls to imitate realistically the appearance of actual curls (below)30.

The clothing of Baket-Mut and her husband was certainly made of linen, the most commonly used woven textile in ancient Egypt. Linen varied significantly in quality and its intrinsic value should not be underestimated. In fact, linen ranked high on the list of commodities included among funerary equipment for the deceased’s use in the afterlife and exquisite examples of garments worn in daily life were often deposited in tombs (Figure 21).

His clothing, like that of his wife, follows the example set by the royal family of late Dynasty XVIII and early Dynasty XIX. His two-part gala ‘ensemble’ of linen combines a tunic-like garment with cuffed, deeply pleated sleeves and a pleated skirt (Figure 11). The profile view of the statue (Page 27) illustrates how the skirt with its sash is wrapped high above his hips in back, with deep pleating modeling his thigh and buttocks. In front, the waistline drops well below the navel emphasizing his slightly bulging abdomen, a venerable symbol indicative of wealth and prosperity. Although much of the front of the husband’s skirt and his legs are lost, comparison with contemporary statues demonstrates that he wore a skirt with a flaring panel down the front (Compare Page 26 and Figure 20).

28

A pair of sandals (left) completes the husband’s attire. Though women are also depicted with sandals, BaketMut is barefoot in the dyad (Page 6, 8, 16). Several studies of ancient Egyptian footwear32, including preserved examples as well as depictions in relief and statuary, suggest they were associated with the privileged class and in some cases may have been a sign of special recognition by the king. The sandals worn by Baket-Mut’s husband were probably made of plant fiber or leather, and their style with the wide puffed cross straps was popular from Dynasty XVIII onward (Figure 22). Depictions of sandals amongst the prized items to be included in a wealthy burial illustrate their value. Figure 22 Fiber sandals from the Tomb of Yuya and Tuya, KV 46, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, tp. Amenhotep III, ca. 1390 –1352 B.C.

29


Traces of color found on the statue – on the lady’s face, the wigs, and in the hieroglyphs – suggest it had been painted, even though the sculptor had not completed his work, as the presence of the guidelines suggests. The remains of painted lines on the backslab (Page 33) may belong to a grid plotting surface to be decorated or inscribed, supporting the theory that the statue was not entirely finished. Decoration on the backslab of a statue and/or the sides of the seat was common, as several contemporaneous sculptures document. Not only did the practice allow the inclusion of relief depictions of other members of the family in the composition of the statue, but it also provided an ideal opportunity to list the owner’s many titles and to boast of his accomplishments (Figure 23).

30

Figure 23 Backslab of Yuny and Renenutet’s statue (Figure 3).

31


Traces of color found on the statue – on the lady’s face, the wigs, and in the hieroglyphs – suggest it had been painted, even though the sculptor had not completed his work, as the presence of the guidelines suggests. The remains of painted lines on the backslab (Page 33) may belong to a grid plotting surface to be decorated or inscribed, supporting the theory that the statue was not entirely finished. Decoration on the backslab of a statue and/or the sides of the seat was common, as several contemporaneous sculptures document. Not only did the practice allow the inclusion of relief depictions of other members of the family in the composition of the statue, but it also provided an ideal opportunity to list the owner’s many titles and to boast of his accomplishments (Figure 23).

30

Figure 23 Backslab of Yuny and Renenutet’s statue (Figure 3).

31


Baket-Mut‘s Secrets Despite the quantity of information it has been possible to compile about the pair statue of Baket-Mut with her husband, a number of intriguing questions remain unanswered. Was the statue intentionally left unfinished, and if so, why?34 Was work on the statue halted in connection with the riddance of Baket-Mut’s husband? Although very little sculpture has survived from ancient Egypt perfectly intact, here the obliteration of just the area of the husband’s figure where an inscription with his name and titles would have been recorded was not accidental, but intentional. When this act was carried out, Baket-Mut’s image was not hacked away and her inscription left untouched. The modern mind might hastily conclude that the disappearance of the husband was the consequence of some marital calamity. However, an explanation is more likely to be found in the husband’s fall from royal, or local administrative favor. But this is not the end of Baket-Mut’s story. During photography of the statue under excellent lighting conditions, virtually as strong as the Egyptian sun, shiny, smooth, soiled areas became evident on the surface of her figure. This area can be followed from the right side of Baket-Mut’s head, along her right arm, over the surface of her right thigh and knee and leg, ending along the top of her right foot (Pages 16, 20, 30). The phenomenon is known: it is the result of passersby stroking the figure over a long period of time. In this case, the statue stood to the right of visitors as they walked by – visitors who held Baket-Mut or her statue in special regard whereever it may have stood. In ancient Egypt, statues of the deceased might serve as a focus for the celebration of rituals in the funerary cult by his or her descendants, thereby insuring his or her eternal life. In this manner the deceased continued to exercise a function within the extended family, perpetuating the memory of generations of predecessors as well as his or her own memory. Three thousand years after the creation of Baket-Mut’s image, it inadvertently embodies far more than originally intended. Not only does it preserve for us today a notable example of the ancient Egyptian sculptors’ skill, but it captures the spirit of one of the most significant eras in ancient Egyptian history.

32

33


Baket-Mut‘s Secrets Despite the quantity of information it has been possible to compile about the pair statue of Baket-Mut with her husband, a number of intriguing questions remain unanswered. Was the statue intentionally left unfinished, and if so, why?34 Was work on the statue halted in connection with the riddance of Baket-Mut’s husband? Although very little sculpture has survived from ancient Egypt perfectly intact, here the obliteration of just the area of the husband’s figure where an inscription with his name and titles would have been recorded was not accidental, but intentional. When this act was carried out, Baket-Mut’s image was not hacked away and her inscription left untouched. The modern mind might hastily conclude that the disappearance of the husband was the consequence of some marital calamity. However, an explanation is more likely to be found in the husband’s fall from royal, or local administrative favor. But this is not the end of Baket-Mut’s story. During photography of the statue under excellent lighting conditions, virtually as strong as the Egyptian sun, shiny, smooth, soiled areas became evident on the surface of her figure. This area can be followed from the right side of Baket-Mut’s head, along her right arm, over the surface of her right thigh and knee and leg, ending along the top of her right foot (Pages 16, 20, 30). The phenomenon is known: it is the result of passersby stroking the figure over a long period of time. In this case, the statue stood to the right of visitors as they walked by – visitors who held Baket-Mut or her statue in special regard whereever it may have stood. In ancient Egypt, statues of the deceased might serve as a focus for the celebration of rituals in the funerary cult by his or her descendants, thereby insuring his or her eternal life. In this manner the deceased continued to exercise a function within the extended family, perpetuating the memory of generations of predecessors as well as his or her own memory. Three thousand years after the creation of Baket-Mut’s image, it inadvertently embodies far more than originally intended. Not only does it preserve for us today a notable example of the ancient Egyptian sculptors’ skill, but it captures the spirit of one of the most significant eras in ancient Egyptian history.

32

33


Figure 26a-b The first Egyptian acquisitions.

Collecting As a youth, Ernst Kofler began collecting stamps, but by his early adult years he had fallen in love with Dutch 17th Century painting. Figure 24 Kofler, 1850‘s, “The Iris”

Figure 25 Kofler, 1940‘s

Figure 23 Kofler, 1959: The new shop window.

Ernst und Marthe Kofler-Truniger, Collectors Ernst and Marthe Kofler-Truniger, of Lucerne, Switzerland were prominent collectors during the first half of the 20th century. This short biography of Ernst Kofler and his wife Marthe36 Truniger whom he married in 1940 has been compiled from news clippings, remarks and recollections of individuals who knew the couple personally37. The Kofler-Truniger Collection with its rich holdings of Persian miniatures and ceramics, ancient gold jewelry, Roman and Arab glass, fibulae of the Migration Period, and ancient Egyptian art was internationally recognized for its breadth and quality35. Scholarly publications and special exhibitions have more than adequately demonstrated its paramount importance for the history of art. The Kofler Fashion House Ernst Kofler was born a collector, an addictive habit he inherited from his family. He also inherited the Kofler family business, a fashion house founded in Lucerne in 1852 that dressed the style conscious. When Ernst took over the family business, it was not only a successful concern, but it had expanded significantly with additional shops in Lucerne. However, he was never really interested in business and the fashion world. He far preferred to focus on his passion for collecting with Marthe39. When Ernst Kofler-Truniger sold the fashion house in 1968 it had been in the family for four generations40.

34

His marriage in 1940 to Marthe Truniger united kindred spirits and from then on into the 1960’s, the couple travelled to Paris, London, New York, Egypt (every year beginning in 1948), Beirut, and where ever there was a chance of discovering something special. The first ancient Egyptian objects collected by the Kofler-Trunigers were two beautiful faience tiles with colored glaze and paste inlays depicting a Nubian and an Asiatic prisoner. They had once decorated a wall in the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu (Western Thebes)41. The Kofler-Trunigers acquired them from the Eugene Mutiaux42 Collection, in Paris. Shortly thereafter finds from Tell el-Amarna, which show a similar technique combining faience and colored glass paste, were added to the collection, along with exquisite fragments of Late Period glass inlays created in mosaic glass technique43. Many of the mosaic glass fragment were bought from the collection of the Comtesse Martine Marie Octavie de Béhague and many were later re-sold at Christie‘s London in 1985. These initial acquisitions of Egyptian art stimulated the Kofler-Truniger’s interest in the ancient civilization that produced them, inspiring the couple to make many journeys to Egypt where they became well acquainted with Pharaonic culture. One Egyptian work of art followed another. The Kofler-Trunigers acquired objects with a sure sense for quality and eye for authenticity shaped by years of collecting works of art in other fields. The standards the Kofler-Trunigers set when considering an acquisition included: the quality of the object and its artistic merit; how well it embodied the spirt of the epoch in which it was created; the pleasure the object’s craftsmanship and technique inspired; and, furthermore, the questions it prompted in connection with its meaning in the ancient culture that produced it. The inherent curiosity and thirst for knowledge that Kofler-Truniger’s collecting activities awoke in them profited by frequent and productive contacts with scholars throughout the world who welcomed discussions with the enthusiastic collectors. Prof. Dr. mult. Ludwig Keimer (1893 –1957)45, a multi-talented Egyptologist who lived in Cairo for a good bit of

35


Figure 26a-b The first Egyptian acquisitions.

Collecting As a youth, Ernst Kofler began collecting stamps, but by his early adult years he had fallen in love with Dutch 17th Century painting. Figure 24 Kofler, 1850‘s, “The Iris”

Figure 25 Kofler, 1940‘s

Figure 23 Kofler, 1959: The new shop window.

Ernst und Marthe Kofler-Truniger, Collectors Ernst and Marthe Kofler-Truniger, of Lucerne, Switzerland were prominent collectors during the first half of the 20th century. This short biography of Ernst Kofler and his wife Marthe36 Truniger whom he married in 1940 has been compiled from news clippings, remarks and recollections of individuals who knew the couple personally37. The Kofler-Truniger Collection with its rich holdings of Persian miniatures and ceramics, ancient gold jewelry, Roman and Arab glass, fibulae of the Migration Period, and ancient Egyptian art was internationally recognized for its breadth and quality35. Scholarly publications and special exhibitions have more than adequately demonstrated its paramount importance for the history of art. The Kofler Fashion House Ernst Kofler was born a collector, an addictive habit he inherited from his family. He also inherited the Kofler family business, a fashion house founded in Lucerne in 1852 that dressed the style conscious. When Ernst took over the family business, it was not only a successful concern, but it had expanded significantly with additional shops in Lucerne. However, he was never really interested in business and the fashion world. He far preferred to focus on his passion for collecting with Marthe39. When Ernst Kofler-Truniger sold the fashion house in 1968 it had been in the family for four generations40.

34

His marriage in 1940 to Marthe Truniger united kindred spirits and from then on into the 1960’s, the couple travelled to Paris, London, New York, Egypt (every year beginning in 1948), Beirut, and where ever there was a chance of discovering something special. The first ancient Egyptian objects collected by the Kofler-Trunigers were two beautiful faience tiles with colored glaze and paste inlays depicting a Nubian and an Asiatic prisoner. They had once decorated a wall in the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu (Western Thebes)41. The Kofler-Trunigers acquired them from the Eugene Mutiaux42 Collection, in Paris. Shortly thereafter finds from Tell el-Amarna, which show a similar technique combining faience and colored glass paste, were added to the collection, along with exquisite fragments of Late Period glass inlays created in mosaic glass technique43. Many of the mosaic glass fragment were bought from the collection of the Comtesse Martine Marie Octavie de Béhague and many were later re-sold at Christie‘s London in 1985. These initial acquisitions of Egyptian art stimulated the Kofler-Truniger’s interest in the ancient civilization that produced them, inspiring the couple to make many journeys to Egypt where they became well acquainted with Pharaonic culture. One Egyptian work of art followed another. The Kofler-Trunigers acquired objects with a sure sense for quality and eye for authenticity shaped by years of collecting works of art in other fields. The standards the Kofler-Trunigers set when considering an acquisition included: the quality of the object and its artistic merit; how well it embodied the spirt of the epoch in which it was created; the pleasure the object’s craftsmanship and technique inspired; and, furthermore, the questions it prompted in connection with its meaning in the ancient culture that produced it. The inherent curiosity and thirst for knowledge that Kofler-Truniger’s collecting activities awoke in them profited by frequent and productive contacts with scholars throughout the world who welcomed discussions with the enthusiastic collectors. Prof. Dr. mult. Ludwig Keimer (1893 –1957)45, a multi-talented Egyptologist who lived in Cairo for a good bit of

35


his life, was among those who regularly advised them, and valuable additions to the collection are owed to Keimer’s guidance and wisdom. Exhibitions

Figure 27 Glass inlays sold

In 1961 a small selection of the Egyptian objects from the Kofler-Truniger collection was included in the exhibition, 5000 Years of Egyptian Art (11 February–6 April 1961) at the Kunsthaus Zurich. Even then it was obvious that the Kofler-Truniger’s newest passion was enriching the collection through the acquisition of significant objects for the history of art, culture, and religion. Some of the objects lent by the KoflerTrunigers to the Zürich exhibition travelled with it to Essen (Villa Hügel) and then on to venues in Stockholm and Vienna.

In 1964 a larger group of objects from the collection was exhibited at the International Festival Weeks in Zürich; many precious small works of art, and glass dating from the Predynastic Period through the Late Period were included. The catalogue for this exceptional exhibition was written by Prof. Dr. Hans Wolfgang Müller (1907–1991)47, then Director of the Egyptian Collection, Bavarian State Collection, Munich. H.W. Müller was not only a long-time friend of Marthe and Ernst Kofler, but, as one of the great art historians specializing in ancient Egyptian art, also a valued advisor. He most probably knew the Koflers and their Egyptian collection better than any other expert of their acquaintance. In the forward to the 1964 exhibition catalogue, H.W. Müller wrote: “ The Kofler-Truniger collection cannot be considered ‘finished’. Every living collection thrives on additions. In recent times, masterpieces from every epoch of ancient Egyptian art have been added to their collection and stand on equal footing among works in collections of ancient Egyptian art in international museums.” The Kofler-Truniger’s exceptional collections are now dispersed in museums and private collections throughout the world. The works of art they so carefully collected continue to be admired and studied by those all who see them while they enrich our knowledge of the ancient culture that created them, a testament to the remarkable couple who originally collected them.

36

Remarks on condition and additional measurements: The dyad is reconstructed from several elements with minimal infilling that has been tinted to blend with the surrounding areas. Statue: Height 74 cm., width at back c. 44 cm., width at front c. 43 cm., depth at right side 49 cm. Face: Height 8.28 cm., width 7.98 cm., width of right eye c. 1.9 cm., height c. 0.76 cm. Height of inscription column c. 16 cm., width of intercolumnar lines c. 2.1 cm. Length of diagonal break 28.5 cm., width of diagonal break 12.5 cm.. Height of backslab 62 cm., width of backslab bottom 42.5 cm., width of backslab at top 36.5 cm. Height of base 10.25 cm. Height of seat 22-23.5 cm. Width of seat c. 23 cm.

Footnotes 1 The future Ramesses II was born about 1300 B.C. In his early teens, he became prince regent of his father Sety I. Specialists believe that he probably ascended the throne in 1279 B.C. He ruled Egypt until his death, in 1213 B.C. 2 For additional measurements, see closing remarks. 3 For Ernst (1903–1990) and Marthe (19??–1998) Kofler-Truni ger, see closing remarks. 4 Figures 1–5, 18, 21, 25-28, 31-32, 34-35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 46–47. 5 Damage to the last hieroglyphs at the very bottom of the co lumn of inscription resulted when the statue was broken. 6 The ancient Egyptian word for handmaiden, Baket, was also combined with the names of other deities, for example, BaketPtah, Baket-Amun, Baket-Ra, etc. According to Hermann Ranke, DIE ÄGYPTISCHE PERSONENNAMEN I (Glückstadt, 1935), p. 92 (15), the name Baket-Mut is documented for and was popu lar in the New Kingdom. To the sources Ranke cites may be added a statuette in Athens (no. 657) representing a child or young women named Baket-Mut dedicated by her parents to the memory of their daughter, who apparently died at a young age, for which see, Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, edited by J. Malek, TOPOGRAPHICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC TEXTS, STATUES, RELIEFS AND PAINTINGS VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known. Part 2.

Private Statues (Dynasty XVIII to the Roman Period), Statues of Deities (1999), p. 693, 801-670-510; there called late Dynasty XVIII, although it may be earlier, and Alexandra Doumas, THE WORLD OF EGYPT IN THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (1995), p. 111, no. 2, Inv. 657, illustrated in color.

7 Baket-Mut’s name and titles make it very likely that her statue was set up at Thebes where both are most frequently docu mented, although they do occur elsewhere; however, the statue could have been made elsewhere and brought to Thebes. 8 Suzanne Onstine, “The Musician-Priestesses of Ancient Egypt” in, The Ostracon: The Journal of the Egyptian Study Society, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002), p. 10. For further information

about the title, see Onstine’s list of references and her disserta tion entitled The Role of the Chantress (ŝm’yt ) in Ancient Egypt (Doctoral Dissertation; Toronto: University of Toronto, Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, 2001). 9 Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (2001), pp. 70, 78, 140. 10 Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (2001), p. 68. 11 Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (2001), p. 70. 12 It has been suggested that this was in part politically motivated, with mothers passing on to their daughters a specific role in a hierarchical system intended to bind the loyalty of entire fami lies to the state. 13 In contrast to singers accompanied by music. 14 Anne K. Capel and Glenn E. Markoe, eds., Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt (Exhibition Catalogue, 1996), pp. 42, 43, 96-98, no. 35a. 15 Maria Michela Luiselli, “Early Mut(s): on the Origins of the Theban Goddess Mut and her Cult” in ,Revue d’ègyptologie 66 (2015), pp. 111-131, addresses early sources for the cult of the goddess Mut. The article is part of her post-doctoral research project. 16 Women named Baket-Mut are named in two tombs at Thebes that seem to be contemporary with this dyad statue, but it has not been possible to establish a direct connection with either of them. For example, the wife of Nebsumenu, Chief Steward, Steward in the house of Ramesses II, is named Baket-Mut, and is a Chantress of Amun, for which see, Theban Tomb 183 in Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings I: The Theban Necropolis. Part 1. Private Tombs (1960), pp. 289-290. Despite the congruence of name and title, both common at this time particularly at Thebes, it is unlikely that the owners of this tomb are identical with those of the statue: whereas the male figure in the dyad has been eradicated, the depictions of the male tomb owner are pristine. 17 Limestone was the primary material used for tomb sculpture from mid-Dynasty XVIII onward; many limestone statues are datable to the Ramesside Period: see Rehab Assem Hema, Group Statues of Private Individuals in the New Kingdom, vols. I–II, BAR International Series 1413 (2005). Hard stone such as granite, quartzite or basalt was used for temple statuary which was more vulnerable to damage since more accessible. 18 After Hema, Group Statues (2005), pp. 224–246, no. 113a; Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings III, 2 Memphis, (second edition, 1981), p. 726.. 19 Group statues of private individuals in the New Kingdom were studied by Rehab Assem Hema who gathered over 150 examples which she analyzed in detail in her publication, Hema, Group Statues (2005). Her findings were helpful in the study of the statue of Baket-Mut and her husband. 20 According to Hema, Group Statues (2005), only four of the thirteen sculptures she addresses with a presumed or known Theban provenance show the woman to the man’s right. At Memphis this arrangement is even less common with only one of the twelve dyads she studied depicting the woman to the man’s right. See also the discussion by Gay Robins, Women in Ancient Egypt (British Museum Press, 1993), pp. 169-170. 21 Robins, Women in Ancient Egypt (1993), p. 172. 22 Alternatively, although less likely, Baket-Mut and her husband were buried at Saqqara.

37


his life, was among those who regularly advised them, and valuable additions to the collection are owed to Keimer’s guidance and wisdom. Exhibitions

Figure 27 Glass inlays sold

In 1961 a small selection of the Egyptian objects from the Kofler-Truniger collection was included in the exhibition, 5000 Years of Egyptian Art (11 February–6 April 1961) at the Kunsthaus Zurich. Even then it was obvious that the Kofler-Truniger’s newest passion was enriching the collection through the acquisition of significant objects for the history of art, culture, and religion. Some of the objects lent by the KoflerTrunigers to the Zürich exhibition travelled with it to Essen (Villa Hügel) and then on to venues in Stockholm and Vienna.

In 1964 a larger group of objects from the collection was exhibited at the International Festival Weeks in Zürich; many precious small works of art, and glass dating from the Predynastic Period through the Late Period were included. The catalogue for this exceptional exhibition was written by Prof. Dr. Hans Wolfgang Müller (1907–1991)47, then Director of the Egyptian Collection, Bavarian State Collection, Munich. H.W. Müller was not only a long-time friend of Marthe and Ernst Kofler, but, as one of the great art historians specializing in ancient Egyptian art, also a valued advisor. He most probably knew the Koflers and their Egyptian collection better than any other expert of their acquaintance. In the forward to the 1964 exhibition catalogue, H.W. Müller wrote: “ The Kofler-Truniger collection cannot be considered ‘finished’. Every living collection thrives on additions. In recent times, masterpieces from every epoch of ancient Egyptian art have been added to their collection and stand on equal footing among works in collections of ancient Egyptian art in international museums.” The Kofler-Truniger’s exceptional collections are now dispersed in museums and private collections throughout the world. The works of art they so carefully collected continue to be admired and studied by those all who see them while they enrich our knowledge of the ancient culture that created them, a testament to the remarkable couple who originally collected them.

36

Remarks on condition and additional measurements: The dyad is reconstructed from several elements with minimal infilling that has been tinted to blend with the surrounding areas. Statue: Height 74 cm., width at back c. 44 cm., width at front c. 43 cm., depth at right side 49 cm. Face: Height 8.28 cm., width 7.98 cm., width of right eye c. 1.9 cm., height c. 0.76 cm. Height of inscription column c. 16 cm., width of intercolumnar lines c. 2.1 cm. Length of diagonal break 28.5 cm., width of diagonal break 12.5 cm.. Height of backslab 62 cm., width of backslab bottom 42.5 cm., width of backslab at top 36.5 cm. Height of base 10.25 cm. Height of seat 22-23.5 cm. Width of seat c. 23 cm.

Footnotes 1 The future Ramesses II was born about 1300 B.C. In his early teens, he became prince regent of his father Sety I. Specialists believe that he probably ascended the throne in 1279 B.C. He ruled Egypt until his death, in 1213 B.C. 2 For additional measurements, see closing remarks. 3 For Ernst (1903–1990) and Marthe (19??–1998) Kofler-Truni ger, see closing remarks. 4 Figures 1–5, 18, 21, 25-28, 31-32, 34-35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 46–47. 5 Damage to the last hieroglyphs at the very bottom of the co lumn of inscription resulted when the statue was broken. 6 The ancient Egyptian word for handmaiden, Baket, was also combined with the names of other deities, for example, BaketPtah, Baket-Amun, Baket-Ra, etc. According to Hermann Ranke, DIE ÄGYPTISCHE PERSONENNAMEN I (Glückstadt, 1935), p. 92 (15), the name Baket-Mut is documented for and was popu lar in the New Kingdom. To the sources Ranke cites may be added a statuette in Athens (no. 657) representing a child or young women named Baket-Mut dedicated by her parents to the memory of their daughter, who apparently died at a young age, for which see, Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, edited by J. Malek, TOPOGRAPHICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC TEXTS, STATUES, RELIEFS AND PAINTINGS VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known. Part 2.

Private Statues (Dynasty XVIII to the Roman Period), Statues of Deities (1999), p. 693, 801-670-510; there called late Dynasty XVIII, although it may be earlier, and Alexandra Doumas, THE WORLD OF EGYPT IN THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (1995), p. 111, no. 2, Inv. 657, illustrated in color.

7 Baket-Mut’s name and titles make it very likely that her statue was set up at Thebes where both are most frequently docu mented, although they do occur elsewhere; however, the statue could have been made elsewhere and brought to Thebes. 8 Suzanne Onstine, “The Musician-Priestesses of Ancient Egypt” in, The Ostracon: The Journal of the Egyptian Study Society, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002), p. 10. For further information

about the title, see Onstine’s list of references and her disserta tion entitled The Role of the Chantress (ŝm’yt ) in Ancient Egypt (Doctoral Dissertation; Toronto: University of Toronto, Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, 2001). 9 Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (2001), pp. 70, 78, 140. 10 Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (2001), p. 68. 11 Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (2001), p. 70. 12 It has been suggested that this was in part politically motivated, with mothers passing on to their daughters a specific role in a hierarchical system intended to bind the loyalty of entire fami lies to the state. 13 In contrast to singers accompanied by music. 14 Anne K. Capel and Glenn E. Markoe, eds., Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt (Exhibition Catalogue, 1996), pp. 42, 43, 96-98, no. 35a. 15 Maria Michela Luiselli, “Early Mut(s): on the Origins of the Theban Goddess Mut and her Cult” in ,Revue d’ègyptologie 66 (2015), pp. 111-131, addresses early sources for the cult of the goddess Mut. The article is part of her post-doctoral research project. 16 Women named Baket-Mut are named in two tombs at Thebes that seem to be contemporary with this dyad statue, but it has not been possible to establish a direct connection with either of them. For example, the wife of Nebsumenu, Chief Steward, Steward in the house of Ramesses II, is named Baket-Mut, and is a Chantress of Amun, for which see, Theban Tomb 183 in Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings I: The Theban Necropolis. Part 1. Private Tombs (1960), pp. 289-290. Despite the congruence of name and title, both common at this time particularly at Thebes, it is unlikely that the owners of this tomb are identical with those of the statue: whereas the male figure in the dyad has been eradicated, the depictions of the male tomb owner are pristine. 17 Limestone was the primary material used for tomb sculpture from mid-Dynasty XVIII onward; many limestone statues are datable to the Ramesside Period: see Rehab Assem Hema, Group Statues of Private Individuals in the New Kingdom, vols. I–II, BAR International Series 1413 (2005). Hard stone such as granite, quartzite or basalt was used for temple statuary which was more vulnerable to damage since more accessible. 18 After Hema, Group Statues (2005), pp. 224–246, no. 113a; Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings III, 2 Memphis, (second edition, 1981), p. 726.. 19 Group statues of private individuals in the New Kingdom were studied by Rehab Assem Hema who gathered over 150 examples which she analyzed in detail in her publication, Hema, Group Statues (2005). Her findings were helpful in the study of the statue of Baket-Mut and her husband. 20 According to Hema, Group Statues (2005), only four of the thirteen sculptures she addresses with a presumed or known Theban provenance show the woman to the man’s right. At Memphis this arrangement is even less common with only one of the twelve dyads she studied depicting the woman to the man’s right. See also the discussion by Gay Robins, Women in Ancient Egypt (British Museum Press, 1993), pp. 169-170. 21 Robins, Women in Ancient Egypt (1993), p. 172. 22 Alternatively, although less likely, Baket-Mut and her husband were buried at Saqqara.

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23 For the tomb (TT255) of the Head of Brazier-Bearers of Amun, Roy, see Porter and Moss, I The Theban Necropolis, Part I Private Tombs (Oxford, Griffith Inst., 1970), pp. 339–340, with the tomb plan p. 334; Marcelle Baud and Étienne Drioton, Tombes thébaines: Nécropole de Dirâ Abû ’n-Nága 1, Le tombeau de Roÿ (tombeau No 255), MIFAO 57,1 (Cairo, 1935) Roy served in the cult of Haremhab, and lived in Dynasty XIX. 24 Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing (Leiden, 1993), is the authoritative study of ancient Egyptian clothing, see especially pp. 107-110. 25 Specialists term the basic type an enveloping wig because it “envelops” the shoulders; it is known beginning in the Old Kingdom in a simplified version; as time passed, and in tune with the fashion of clothing becoming increasing elaborate, it, too, became voluminous, not unlike during the Elizabe-than era when women’s incredible wigs and garments made it well-nigh impossible to negotiate a doorway. 26 For the importance of hair and wigs in ancient Egypt, and a discussion of their construction see, Joann Fletcher, “Ancient Egyptian Hair and Wigs” in, The Ostracon: The Journal of the Egyptian Study Society, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002), pp. 2-8, especially her references at the end of the article. 27 Theban Tomb 358, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Meritamun, found inside coffin, MMA excavations, 1928–29; human hair, beeswax, length of longest braid 25 cm., Rogers Fund, 1930. 28 Fletcher, “Egyptian Hair and Wigs“ (2002), p. 3, notes the popularity of false braids and extensions for men’s wigs as well as for those of women. 29 Fletcher, „Egyptian Hair and Wigs“, (2002), p. 3. 30 This detail is a noteworthy feature of sculpture of the postAmarna Period. 31 After Veldmeijier, Tutankhamun’s Footwear (2011), p. 3. 32 What we today call sandals are documented since the Prehistoric Period in ancient Egypt, and it is generally accepted that members of the upper classes as well as royalty wore them. Footwear in ancient Egypt is discussed by Hassan Selim, “Two Royal Statue Bases from Karnak in the Basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,” BIFAO 111 (2011). See also André J. Veldmeijer et al., Tutankhamun’s Footwear: Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear (2011); André J. Veldmeijer, Footwear in Ancient Egypt: the Medelhavsmuseet Collection (2014). The soles of the husband’s sandals would have been painted on the base of the statue. 33 Veldmeijer, Tutankhamun’s Footwear (2011), p. 43, 3.1, drawing by Mikko H. Kriek. 34 Numerous unfinished statues and even tombs are preserved from ancient Egypt. Despite their incomplete state, they still acted as a focus for the family cult, and in the case of a statue, a valid substitute resting place for the soul. The elimination of Baket-Mut’s husband, however, effectively did away with his chance

for eternal life.

Bibliography: Baket-Mut

35 http://www.nytimes.com/2000/02/04/arts/antiques-a-newfaith-in-medieval-artworks.html: ac-cessed 30 March 2017. 36 Mrs. Kofler Truniger’s first name is also sometimes written Martha or Marta. 37 Sources consulted are listed after the bibliography. 38 http://www.kofler.ch/ueber-uns/archiv/: accessed 30 March 2017. 39 See Geraldine Norman in, The Independent, 4 October 1997: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art-market-beauty-on-a-plaque-1234219.html :accessed 3/31/2017, quoting the great collector Edmund de Unger: „Ernst had a department store in Lucerne … but he was not much interested in it. He went to Egypt every year from 1948 onwards. He had a wonderful Pharaonic collection and a very good Islamic collection. He looked for collection fields where there was a possi-bility of growth.“ 40 http://www.kofler.ch/ueber-uns/chronik/die-gruendung/: accessed 30 March 2017. https://www.inyourpocket.com/lucerne/kofler_125571v: accessed 30 March 2017. 41 Hans Wolfgang Müller, Ägyptische Kunstwerke, Kleinfunde und Glas in der Sammlung E. und M. Kofler-Truniger Luzern (1964), pp. 99-101, A 138 and A 139, plate 1, illustrated in color. 42 Eugene Mutiaux (1846-1925), magistrate, art collector, particularly Japanese, and a patron of Mar-cel Proust. Parts of his collection are today dispersed in museums and private collections through-out the world, including the Louvre as well as several in America, and in Copenhagen. 43 Christie’s, Ancient Glass, Formerly the Kofler-Truniger Collection, 5-6 March 1985 (London 1985), pp. 138–269, illustrated in color. 44 M.L. Bierbrier ed., Who Was Who in Egyptology (1995), p. 38. The Comtesse formed a collection renowned for exquisite and unusual objets d’art that she displayed in her “two homes in Paris, her chateau near Fontainebleau, and her villa St Hyères”.

Published and/or illustrated: Apollo CXXII, 286 (December, 1985), advertisement with illustration on p. 79; there Dynasty XVIII, without lower part.

45 M.L. Bierbrier ed., Who Was Who in Egyptology (1995), pp. 226-227. 46 Hans Wolfgang Müller, Ägyptische Kunstwerke, Kleinfunde und Glas in der Sammlung E. und M. Kofler-Truniger Luzern (1964), 47 M.L. Bierbrier ed., Who Was Who in Egyptology (1995), pp. 300-301.

L’Ibis, Gallery Exhibition, 1987/1988. Poster, illustrated in color.

Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, TOPOGRAPHICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC TEXTS, RELIEFS, AND PAINTINGS I: THE THEBAN NECROPOLIS. Part 1. PRIVATE TOMBS (1960).

Gay Robins, WOMEN IN ANCIENT EGYPT (British Museum Press, 1993).

Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, edited by J. Malek, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known. Part 2. Private Statues (Dynasty XVIII to the Roman Period), Statues of Deities (1999), p. 511, 801-614-640.

Hermann Ranke, DIE ÄGYPTISCHE PERSONENNAMEN I (Glückstadt, 1935).

Christie, Mason and Woods, Antiquities, sold on Tuesday 15 and Wednesday 15 May 2002 (London, 2002), pp. 156-157, lot 372; illustrated in color on cover, with fold out on page 157.

André J. Veldmeijer et al., TUTANKHAMUN’S FOOTWEAR: STUDIES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN FOOTWEAR (2011).

Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, Calendar, (Spring, Summer 2013), illustrated on cover with caption on p. 6 (not paginated). Exhibited: New York, Gallery L’Ibis , November 24, 1987 – March 3, 1988 Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, Loan Exhibition 2012-2016. Pace Gallery 2016, May 2 – May 23, 2016 Masterpieces, London June 30 – July 6, 2016 Recommendations for further reading and bibliography of sources cited in the text: Marcelle Baud and Étienne Drioton, Tombes thébaines: Nécropole de Dirâ‘ Abû ‚n-Nága, Le tombeau de Roy, MIFAO 57,1 (Cairo, 1935).

Hassan Selim, “Two Royal Statue Bases from Karnak in the Basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,” BIFAO 111 (2011).

André J. Veldmeijer, FOOTWEAR IN ANCIENT EGYPT: THE MEDELHAVSMUSEET COLLECTION (2014). Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, PHARAONIC EGYPTIAN CLOTHING (Leiden, 1993). Those curious about the contents of a New Kingdom noble’s burial may view the excellent, illustrated presentation online at http://www.deirelmedina.com/lenka/TurinKha.html

Bibliography: Kofler-Truniger Biography M.L. Bierbrier ed., WHO WAS WHO IN EGYPTOLOGY (1995). Christie’s, ANCIENT GLASS, FORMERLY THE KOFLER-TRUNIGER COLLECTION, 5–6 March 1985 (London 1985). http://www.kofler.ch/ueber-uns/archiv/.

Anne Capel and Glenn Markoe, eds., MISTRESS OF THE HOUSE, MISTRESS OF HEAVEN: WOMEN IN ANCIENT EGYPT (Exhibition Catalogue, 1996).

https://www.inyourpocket.com/lucerne/kofler_125571v.

Alexandra Doumas, THE WORLD OF EGYPT IN THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (1995).

FUNDE UND GLAS IN DER SAMMLUNG E. UND M. KOFLER-TRUNIGER LUZERN (1964).

Joann Fletcher, “Ancient Egyptian Hair and Wigs,” THE OSTRACON: THE JOURNAL OF THE EGYPTIAN STUDY SOCIETY, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002).

INDEPENDENT, 4 October 1997:

Hans Wolfgang Müller, ÄGYPTISCHE KUNSTWERKE, KLEIN-

Geraldine Norman, “Art Market: Beauty on a plaque”, in THE http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art-marketbeauty-on-a-plaque-1234219.html: accessed: 31 March 2017.

Maria Michela Luiselli, “Early Mut(s): on the Origins of the Theban Goddess Mut and her Cult,” REVUE D’ÈGYPTOLOGIE 66 (2015). Rehab Assem Hema, GROUP STATUES OF PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS IN THE NEW KINGDOM, vols. I-II, BAR INTERNATIONAL SERIES 1413 (2005). Suzanne Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (ŜM’YT ) IN ANCIENT EGYPT, (Doctoral Dissertation; Toronto: University of Toronto, Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, 2001). Suzanne Onstine, “The Musician-Priestesses of Ancient Egypt” in, THE OSTRACON: THE JOURNAL OF THE EGYPTIAN STUDY SOCIETY, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002).

38

39


23 For the tomb (TT255) of the Head of Brazier-Bearers of Amun, Roy, see Porter and Moss, I The Theban Necropolis, Part I Private Tombs (Oxford, Griffith Inst., 1970), pp. 339–340, with the tomb plan p. 334; Marcelle Baud and Étienne Drioton, Tombes thébaines: Nécropole de Dirâ Abû ’n-Nága 1, Le tombeau de Roÿ (tombeau No 255), MIFAO 57,1 (Cairo, 1935) Roy served in the cult of Haremhab, and lived in Dynasty XIX. 24 Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing (Leiden, 1993), is the authoritative study of ancient Egyptian clothing, see especially pp. 107-110. 25 Specialists term the basic type an enveloping wig because it “envelops” the shoulders; it is known beginning in the Old Kingdom in a simplified version; as time passed, and in tune with the fashion of clothing becoming increasing elaborate, it, too, became voluminous, not unlike during the Elizabe-than era when women’s incredible wigs and garments made it well-nigh impossible to negotiate a doorway. 26 For the importance of hair and wigs in ancient Egypt, and a discussion of their construction see, Joann Fletcher, “Ancient Egyptian Hair and Wigs” in, The Ostracon: The Journal of the Egyptian Study Society, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002), pp. 2-8, especially her references at the end of the article. 27 Theban Tomb 358, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Meritamun, found inside coffin, MMA excavations, 1928–29; human hair, beeswax, length of longest braid 25 cm., Rogers Fund, 1930. 28 Fletcher, “Egyptian Hair and Wigs“ (2002), p. 3, notes the popularity of false braids and extensions for men’s wigs as well as for those of women. 29 Fletcher, „Egyptian Hair and Wigs“, (2002), p. 3. 30 This detail is a noteworthy feature of sculpture of the postAmarna Period. 31 After Veldmeijier, Tutankhamun’s Footwear (2011), p. 3. 32 What we today call sandals are documented since the Prehistoric Period in ancient Egypt, and it is generally accepted that members of the upper classes as well as royalty wore them. Footwear in ancient Egypt is discussed by Hassan Selim, “Two Royal Statue Bases from Karnak in the Basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,” BIFAO 111 (2011). See also André J. Veldmeijer et al., Tutankhamun’s Footwear: Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear (2011); André J. Veldmeijer, Footwear in Ancient Egypt: the Medelhavsmuseet Collection (2014). The soles of the husband’s sandals would have been painted on the base of the statue. 33 Veldmeijer, Tutankhamun’s Footwear (2011), p. 43, 3.1, drawing by Mikko H. Kriek. 34 Numerous unfinished statues and even tombs are preserved from ancient Egypt. Despite their incomplete state, they still acted as a focus for the family cult, and in the case of a statue, a valid substitute resting place for the soul. The elimination of Baket-Mut’s husband, however, effectively did away with his chance

for eternal life.

Bibliography: Baket-Mut

35 http://www.nytimes.com/2000/02/04/arts/antiques-a-newfaith-in-medieval-artworks.html: ac-cessed 30 March 2017. 36 Mrs. Kofler Truniger’s first name is also sometimes written Martha or Marta. 37 Sources consulted are listed after the bibliography. 38 http://www.kofler.ch/ueber-uns/archiv/: accessed 30 March 2017. 39 See Geraldine Norman in, The Independent, 4 October 1997: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art-market-beauty-on-a-plaque-1234219.html :accessed 3/31/2017, quoting the great collector Edmund de Unger: „Ernst had a department store in Lucerne … but he was not much interested in it. He went to Egypt every year from 1948 onwards. He had a wonderful Pharaonic collection and a very good Islamic collection. He looked for collection fields where there was a possi-bility of growth.“ 40 http://www.kofler.ch/ueber-uns/chronik/die-gruendung/: accessed 30 March 2017. https://www.inyourpocket.com/lucerne/kofler_125571v: accessed 30 March 2017. 41 Hans Wolfgang Müller, Ägyptische Kunstwerke, Kleinfunde und Glas in der Sammlung E. und M. Kofler-Truniger Luzern (1964), pp. 99-101, A 138 and A 139, plate 1, illustrated in color. 42 Eugene Mutiaux (1846-1925), magistrate, art collector, particularly Japanese, and a patron of Mar-cel Proust. Parts of his collection are today dispersed in museums and private collections through-out the world, including the Louvre as well as several in America, and in Copenhagen. 43 Christie’s, Ancient Glass, Formerly the Kofler-Truniger Collection, 5-6 March 1985 (London 1985), pp. 138–269, illustrated in color. 44 M.L. Bierbrier ed., Who Was Who in Egyptology (1995), p. 38. The Comtesse formed a collection renowned for exquisite and unusual objets d’art that she displayed in her “two homes in Paris, her chateau near Fontainebleau, and her villa St Hyères”.

Published and/or illustrated: Apollo CXXII, 286 (December, 1985), advertisement with illustration on p. 79; there Dynasty XVIII, without lower part.

45 M.L. Bierbrier ed., Who Was Who in Egyptology (1995), pp. 226-227. 46 Hans Wolfgang Müller, Ägyptische Kunstwerke, Kleinfunde und Glas in der Sammlung E. und M. Kofler-Truniger Luzern (1964), 47 M.L. Bierbrier ed., Who Was Who in Egyptology (1995), pp. 300-301.

L’Ibis, Gallery Exhibition, 1987/1988. Poster, illustrated in color.

Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, TOPOGRAPHICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHIC TEXTS, RELIEFS, AND PAINTINGS I: THE THEBAN NECROPOLIS. Part 1. PRIVATE TOMBS (1960).

Gay Robins, WOMEN IN ANCIENT EGYPT (British Museum Press, 1993).

Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, edited by J. Malek, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings VIII: Objects of Provenance Not Known. Part 2. Private Statues (Dynasty XVIII to the Roman Period), Statues of Deities (1999), p. 511, 801-614-640.

Hermann Ranke, DIE ÄGYPTISCHE PERSONENNAMEN I (Glückstadt, 1935).

Christie, Mason and Woods, Antiquities, sold on Tuesday 15 and Wednesday 15 May 2002 (London, 2002), pp. 156-157, lot 372; illustrated in color on cover, with fold out on page 157.

André J. Veldmeijer et al., TUTANKHAMUN’S FOOTWEAR: STUDIES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN FOOTWEAR (2011).

Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, Calendar, (Spring, Summer 2013), illustrated on cover with caption on p. 6 (not paginated). Exhibited: New York, Gallery L’Ibis , November 24, 1987 – March 3, 1988 Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, Loan Exhibition 2012-2016. Pace Gallery 2016, May 2 – May 23, 2016 Masterpieces, London June 30 – July 6, 2016 Recommendations for further reading and bibliography of sources cited in the text: Marcelle Baud and Étienne Drioton, Tombes thébaines: Nécropole de Dirâ‘ Abû ‚n-Nága, Le tombeau de Roy, MIFAO 57,1 (Cairo, 1935).

Hassan Selim, “Two Royal Statue Bases from Karnak in the Basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,” BIFAO 111 (2011).

André J. Veldmeijer, FOOTWEAR IN ANCIENT EGYPT: THE MEDELHAVSMUSEET COLLECTION (2014). Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, PHARAONIC EGYPTIAN CLOTHING (Leiden, 1993). Those curious about the contents of a New Kingdom noble’s burial may view the excellent, illustrated presentation online at http://www.deirelmedina.com/lenka/TurinKha.html

Bibliography: Kofler-Truniger Biography M.L. Bierbrier ed., WHO WAS WHO IN EGYPTOLOGY (1995). Christie’s, ANCIENT GLASS, FORMERLY THE KOFLER-TRUNIGER COLLECTION, 5–6 March 1985 (London 1985). http://www.kofler.ch/ueber-uns/archiv/.

Anne Capel and Glenn Markoe, eds., MISTRESS OF THE HOUSE, MISTRESS OF HEAVEN: WOMEN IN ANCIENT EGYPT (Exhibition Catalogue, 1996).

https://www.inyourpocket.com/lucerne/kofler_125571v.

Alexandra Doumas, THE WORLD OF EGYPT IN THE NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (1995).

FUNDE UND GLAS IN DER SAMMLUNG E. UND M. KOFLER-TRUNIGER LUZERN (1964).

Joann Fletcher, “Ancient Egyptian Hair and Wigs,” THE OSTRACON: THE JOURNAL OF THE EGYPTIAN STUDY SOCIETY, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002).

INDEPENDENT, 4 October 1997:

Hans Wolfgang Müller, ÄGYPTISCHE KUNSTWERKE, KLEIN-

Geraldine Norman, “Art Market: Beauty on a plaque”, in THE http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art-marketbeauty-on-a-plaque-1234219.html: accessed: 31 March 2017.

Maria Michela Luiselli, “Early Mut(s): on the Origins of the Theban Goddess Mut and her Cult,” REVUE D’ÈGYPTOLOGIE 66 (2015). Rehab Assem Hema, GROUP STATUES OF PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS IN THE NEW KINGDOM, vols. I-II, BAR INTERNATIONAL SERIES 1413 (2005). Suzanne Onstine, THE ROLE OF THE CHANTRESS (ŜM’YT ) IN ANCIENT EGYPT, (Doctoral Dissertation; Toronto: University of Toronto, Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, 2001). Suzanne Onstine, “The Musician-Priestesses of Ancient Egypt” in, THE OSTRACON: THE JOURNAL OF THE EGYPTIAN STUDY SOCIETY, vol. 13, no 2 (Summer, 2002).

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London +44 (0) 207 491 9588 info@davidaaron.com

Photography of Baket-Mut Especially for this private publication Stefan Hagen, New York Layout and Design: Klaus Decker

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