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Design Development _ Spring 2009 _ Aaron Fry Stephanie White • Pearce Thompson • Alyssa Davis • Merve Tufekci

ing the P k n las hi t tic e Bag :

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FYI! The speech bubbles throughout hold quotes directly from survey respondents.

“At this point there are very grim reports on the health of the environment... Consciousness of PERSONAL habits can’t stop the effects of global warming, but it does account for SOMETHING”

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Table of Contents

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introduction. 4 survey. 8 prong I: tax. 10 prong II: incentive. 14 prong III: campaign. 18 conclusion. 28 works cited. 30 appendix. 32

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INTRODUCTION

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• Introduction • There is a need

ness and implementation. The five main

in the world, and particularly in New

materials that retailers can use are polyeth-

York City, to redesign the common,

ylene plastic, paper, compostable, biode-

plastic grocery bag.

Grocery bag life-

gradable, and reusable. Of these options,

cycles, along with their production prices

reusable bags are the most sustainable.

and levels of energy consumption are ma-

jor factors in determining the most sustain-

biodegradable, and compostable bags

able option. The current problems associ-

are more wasteful to produce than the

ated with high-density polyethylene plastic

familiar plastic bag. In terms of materi-

bags go beyond just the physical bag, for

als consumption, energy and water usage,

there are many viable alternatives available.

pollution, and greenhouse gas (GHG) pro-

Extensive research and development has

duction, plastic bags are actually the least

made many types of disposable bags avail-

wasteful. Plastic grocery bags consume

able, hence, the problem is one of aware-

71% less energy during production than

Ireland 3-1-02 UK debate/voluntary/ pending ding

X

Canada (Manitoba) 4-2-07

X

San Francisco 3-27-07

X

Contrary to public beliefs, paper,

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Taiwan 1-1-03

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Germany voluntary

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Rwanda 12-1-06

X

Israel (Delhi) 1-20-09 Western India 8-7-03

X

X

South Africa 5-9-03

X

first location

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$ tax on plastic bags X ban plastic bags

Singapore voluntary

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Tanzania 1-1-06

X

Zanzibar Islands 11-10-06

X

X

Bangladesh 1-1-02

Kenya + Uganda 6-1-07

X

China (Beijing) 6-1-08

Australia pending

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International Public Policy on the common plastic bag


5 paper bags, and they consume 64% less

the most successful. Bangladesh was

than is consumed by biodegradable plas-

the first to take action by banning plastic

tic bags. Compostable and biodegrad-

bags entirely in January of 2002. Ireland

able bags are also prohibitive in terms of

followed with a high tax months later, as

the cost of installing and using the appro-

well as a tax in Taiwan and a complete ban

priate facilities for molecular breakdown,

in South Africa.

for these bags cannot be disposed of in

made because of more urgent incentives,

modern landfills. Reusable bags trump all

such as flooding in Bangladesh and un-

types of disposable bags on all criterions

controlled levels of plastic bags littered over

as long as they are used at least three

the mountains in Ireland. A few years later

times. Hence, it is not the physical bag

in 2006, relevant international public poli-

that needs remodeling, but rather the

cy took off with more countries and major

traditional public use of such bags.

cities passing bans for large retail stores.

Building public awareness and

San Francisco was the first city in the U.S.

finding ways to reduce, reuse, and re-

to pass such a law on March 27th, 2007.

cycle all types of bags are critical points.

Having arrived at this point, the focus

and taxes depend on many geographical

These decisions were

Though the success of legislative bans

switches to current use and realizing how people use the plastic bag, as well as current governmental regulations on the issue. International public policies involving plastic bag use have been discussed since 2002, especially in Ireland. Current situations highlight the legislative options in terms of changing user habits, as well as help to determine what levels of restriction have been

“For those people who use reusable bags, the store should give a percentage off on their grocery total.�

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INTRODUCTION

and cultural traits, such as how well certain

major problems associated with this; the

regions adapt to change, or how seriously

first of which relates back to public policy.

people take their government, the effects

The direction of the public wind can either

so far widely indicate what is reasonable.

sway for or against such policies for any

For example, in West India, where

number of reasons; therefore, if even the

plastic bags were banned in August of

government cannot take a strong, con-

2003, a person could be fined 100,000 ru-

stant position on this issue, it will be hard

pees ($2,000 USD) if found with a banned

for legislation to pass and for appropriate

bag. Clearly, such a strict policy would

public change to occur. This ties into in-

never pass in the U.S., but it is helpful in

dividuals’ commitment to the issue, and

negotiating what are rational expectations.

the motivation behind changing behavior.

Options in terms of public policy range from

outright bans to recommended voluntary

plastic bags was lifted due to government

action (which is being done in Germany);

disinterest, would people go back to us-

if a tax on plastic bags is the most feasible

ing the bags, or would they realize there

option, then determining the amount per

are other non-fiscal reasons they should

bag is critical. Looking at incentives and

continue their ethical habits? Also, how

responsibilities of both the retailers and

much must the government charge or of-

consumers is important in determining who

fer people in order for a significant change

should be responsible for paying the tax.

to be made? This is related to determin-

Another key issue involves the

ing the appropriate level of taxation so

extent to which such policies of fis-

that people feel enough of a need to

cal self-interest will actually change

change behavior as opposed to expect to

user attitudes, as opposed to just

spend a little more at the grocery store, yet

behavior. That is, people may change

not to the point that there is a hostile pub-

their habits simply because they want to

lic response to a shocking amount of tax.

save money, not because they actually

care about the negative environmental

the conflict between individual self-

impacts of polyethylene bags. There are

interest and global sustainability;

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For example, if a long-term ban on

All of these issues revolve around


7 this leads to the idea of implementing a change that holds more importance than a typical governmental regulation. Individuals are confronted with a social dilemma to either hurt society at large by making an unsustainable choice, or bear the burden of a small individual price in order to help the common good. The most successful program would eliminate this type of dilemma by making it natural and preferable for individuals to choose the second option.

To promote sustainable consump-

tion, there must be communication-based social marketing to complement the governmental tax. This carrot and stick approach is necessary fostering a change in mentality that makes sustainable behavior self-sustainable. That is, we wish to shed light on this issue in a way that will motivate individuals to act in the interest of society autonomously. Thus our solution is a three-pronged approach: direct behavioral control (a tax), communication-based social marketing (an extensive campaign), and individual incentive planning (rewards program).

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SURVEY

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1. Has all the talk about being green caused you to be more environmentally conscious? Yes...............86.5% No...............13.5% 2. Have you noticeably reduced your waste, energy, and/or water consumption in the last year? Yes...............55.8% No...............44.2% 3. Which bags are better for the environment? Paper....................................................32.7% Plastic...................................................7.7% Neither, They are both bad..................59.6% 4. Have you started taking reusable bags to the grocery store? If not, please also choose the reason(s) for not doing so. “Bags are not Yes...............34.6% No...............65.4% convenient to carry around�

5. Do you ever opt out of accepting complementary store bags, even if it is at your inconvenience? . Yes...............55.8% No...............42.3% 6. Have you brought your plastic bags back to the store and used the provided recycling receptacles? Yes....................................................19.2% No.....................................................57.7% Did not know they were provided.....23.1% 7. How many bags do you usually accumulate on an average shopping trip? 1-2....................................................40.4% 3-5....................................................34.6% As many as I can carry.....................13.5% I load up my trunk.............................9% I always bring my own......................5.8% I get delivery......................................3.8% 8. Do you think having a tax on paper and plastic bags would cause you to bring reusable bags to the store more often? Yes...............80.8% No...............19.2%

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9. Where would you like to see the tax revenue go? Environmental Programs........................58.8% Schools..................................................41.2%� Back in my pocket.................................23.5% I am SO against the tax.........................13.7% Back to the retailers...............................3.9%

“Or just local government debt in general. Money is SO needed”

10. Do use the rewards cards grocery and drug stores provide? Yes...............76.9% No...............23.1% 11. Are you loyal to a particular to one store? Yes...............38.4% No...............61.5%

What is the maximum per price you would be willing to pay per carryout bag?

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.5-10 67.3%

.15-20 13.5%

.25 7.7%

.50-$1

1.9%

$1+

3.8%


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PRONG 1:TAX

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• Tax • The first action New York City

recently

has taken to reduce plastic bag waste

is to require stores over a certain size, or

were found to be the leading cause of the

with a certain number of chains to have in-

2005 flooding. Bangladesh and India do

store recycling receptacles. Part of Mayor

not have waste management programs,

Bloomberg’s new revenue plan is to in-

so this is not a fair comparison to cities in

clude a five cent tax on all plastic bags.

the West. Ireland was the actually the first

We do agree that in order to get people to

country to implement a tax on bags. Initially

actually reduce consumption, there does

the price was not high enough, but after

have to be a consequence, or “stick” ele-

setting it to about US 30 cents, bag use

ment in the plan. However, simply imple-

dropped 90% in a matter of months. This

menting a five cent tax on plastic bags

is a remarkable result, but it did not solve

is not getting to the root of the problem.

the entire problem. Retailers absorbed

Many cities around the world have

the extra cost and started providing paper

introduced

laws.

Bangladesh banned them after they

15-20 cents

$300 million?

ENVIRONMENT Programs, Waste Management, Research RETAILERS - for the costs of implementing rewards programs

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bag

LOCAL GOVERNMENT Community sees results SCHOOLS


11 bags to customers. San Francisco has

box” stores, and small deli-groceries. To

seen similar results, and sanitation work-

make up for the initial inconvenience to

ers have commented they notice more

stores, retailers would receive a portion

plastic bags astray than before the ban.

of the tax revenue back. They would be

We acknowledge these laws have

encouraged to create incentive programs

been a step in the right direction, but

for customers who bring reusable bags.

more can be done. If government is go-

ing to enforce taxes and implement restric-

tailers by generating customer loyalty,

tions on the public and businesses, the

and shoppers who enjoy the rewards.

law must be genuinely sustainable. After

Secondly, the tax includes all complemen-

careful consideration, we have decided

tary, carry-out bags at these stores, regard-

to implement a 15 cent tax. This would

less of material. Plastic is technically more

bring in $300 million in revenue for the city

environmentally friendly in that it uses less

each year, unlike Mayor Bloomberg’s 5

energy to produce, and can be produced

cent proposal, which would only bring in

cheaper than paper. However, plastic bags

$100 million. A higher fee would change

are an eyesore to the community. They get

behavior faster, but would only add about

caught in trees and streams; animals eat

an extra dollar to the average shopper’s

them. They require petroleum to produce.

bill. If a 15 cent fee did not change be-

Even though paper is biodegradable, it

havior (in addition to our campaign and

releases methane gas as it decompos-

incentive programs) it could be increased

es. Paper is not as durable as plastic in

Incentive

programs

benefit

re-

to a maximum of 25 cents per bag.

Based on our research, we fig-

ured a bag law should include a number of provisions that counteract with each other, so there is no way to dodge certain aspects. First of all, all grocery-type stores would be required to comply. That includes supermarkets, drug stores, “big

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PRONG 1:TAX

many cases, say if groceries are particu-

There

larly heavy or one gets caught in the rain.

that are important to include since

we are not banning bags entirely.

Reusable bags are the answer to all of

are

a

few

small

the problems that paper and plastic cause.

In some ways however, the reusable bag

in-store recycling receptacles. People do

fad has caused extra problems: all types

re-use plastic bags at home, thus they

are being produced with poor, low quality

should be allowed to take bags out of the

materials and misleading slogans. People

receptacles if need be. Another unnec-

have accumulated more than enough,

essary, easily solvable problem regarding

and they just end up being thrown out

disposable bags is double-bagging. This

too. The new law should set restric-

should be banned. Stores should be re-

tions on the types of reusable bags that

quired to have bags that can carry a cer-

are being sold, such as having a cer-

tain weight. Lastly, retailers would not be

tain amount of recycled content, or they

able to wave the tax, or to pay for cus-

should be made out of natural materials.

tomers themselves. If all groceries are re-

We would continue the mandatory

Requires that grocers (all sizes), drug stores, and big box stores comply with the bag tax Encourage incentive programs through retailers so people directly benefit from bringing their reusable bags

Ta x L a w P r o v i s i o n s

Continue mandatory recycling programs for plastic bags at major retailers, and allow people to take the bags out if they want

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provisions

Would ban double bagging; retailers have to make take out bags hold a certain weight Reusable bags must have a certain amount of recycled content and/or be made of natural materials Includes all disposable/complementary bags regardless of material Retailers could not wave the tax, or pay for customers on their behalf


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“By bringing our own bags, we are actually helping the stores save $$ and they should return the favor.�

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PRONG 2: INCENTIVE

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• Incentive • Initially in entering this

four or five reusable bags in each trip, can

project our goal was to create a sustain-

they replace up to 520 plastic bags a year.

able and reusable shopping bag to pro-

vide consumers with an alternative solution

actual use of these “free” reusable bags is

to using disposable bags.

Throughout

very low. This is due to the fact that many

further research, we came to the conclu-

people are not directly affected when not

sion that it would take much more than a

bringing their reusable bags in either suffer-

reusable shopping bag which is already

ing the consequences of a tax or gaining

available in most retail chains and ma-

an incentive for bringing back their bags.

jor grocery stores throughout the coun-

‘If you don’t reuse them, you’re actually

try, to battle the problem with disposable

worse off by taking one of them,’ says Bob

bags.

The second prong in our three

Lilienfeld, author of the Use Less Stuff Re-

prong approach includes an incentive pro-

port, an online newsletter about waste pre-

gram encouraging consumers to recycle

vention. And because many of the bags

their bags by getting rewards from spe-

are made from heavier material, they’re

cific stores for reusing their reusable bags.

also likely to sit longer in landfills than their

Reusable bags are readily available

thinner, disposable cousins, according

in almost every large retail chain through-

to Ned Thomas, who heads the depart-

out the country. Whether they are giving

ment of material science and engineering

the bags away for free or selling them for

at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

a very low fee ranging from $2 to $5, all

Consumers and retailers are now discover-

major retailers have jumped on the band-

ing that it is increasingly harder to battle the

wagon in an effort to prevent the use of

problem of disposable shopping bags and

disposable bags. After further research,

creating a reusable bag doesn’t necessari-

we discovered that although people are

ly mean the company has gone “green.” A

buying or taking these reusable bags, it is

marketing professor at the Stanford Gradu-

only when bag is used multiple times -- at

ate School of Business conducted a study

least once a week – if each consumer uses

with his students on the problems our world

At present, the trend is fresh and the


15 is facing with human behavior and reus-

in the right direction, but the percentage

able bags. He says it can take ‘years and

of using them more than once is much

decades’ for consumers to change their

too low. While retailers and environmental-

shopping habits, and they will only do so

ists ponder the reasons why people aren’t

when there’s a personal reward or an ob-

jumping on to the trend as fast as the free

vious taboo associated with the change.

mp3 giveaways, we’ve discovered there is

Our research leads us to the conclu-

a missing component. Getting people to

sion that the issue of disposable bags can-

transfer from disposable to reusable is an

not simply be solved by putting yet another

issue of human behavior and without any

reusable bag on the market. Not only does

education on why this is such a problem,

it take more time and energy to produce

suffering from a tax or gathering incentive

these “free” reusable bags in which retail-

points, no change will occur anytime soon.

ers seem to have no problem giving away;

the idea of reusable is moving the stores

which we’ve modeled our incentive program

We discovered the SmarTote bag in

Chico Bag Fabric 100% Recycled PET, Carabiner 97% Recycled Aluminium, Cord 100% Recycled PET, Cordlock 100% Recycled Polyurethane (Thread, Screen Print, Care Label Made from Virgin Material) Bag 18" x 14.5" Pouch 3"x4" 1.5 oz 25 lbs. $9.00

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PRONG 2:INCENTIVE

after. The bag is currently on the market

ie. SmarTote, however reap the rewards

to encourage retailers to start a smart bag-

that the SmarTote bag offers. We devised

ging policy. The SmarTote is a consumer

a program where retailers and consumers

and environmentally friendly packaging

will benefit in distributing small travel tags for

system that offers great benefits for both

the reusable bags consumers previously

consumers and retailers. The bag comes

purchased. The travel tags will have a di-

with a bar code that allows the store to

rect connection with each large retailer’s

track whether it is being reused. These

individual rewards cards. Each time the

companies may offer prizes or other in-

consumer brings his/her reusable bags in

centives to customers who can prove their

with the rewards card attached, they will

bag isn’t just collecting dust at home.

receive the benefits from store sales and

Our approach to the SmarTote bag

promotions, but also will maintain a record

is one where consumers will not necessarily

of the amount of times they’ve used their

have to repurchase another reusable bag

bags. It is up to the individual retails stores

SmarTote Benefits both retailers and consumers. Also have insulated versions Non-Woven Polypropylene apx $5

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17 how they would like to model the incentive/

boosting the reputation of the stores where

rewards program, but after a certain amount

they are seen as “green� and environmen-

of times the bags are used, the consumer

tally friendly, but also will create a more

will receive some sort of prize or discount.

loyal consumer following in accordance

to what rewards the store has to offer.

The incentive program is a fast and

easy way to change consumer behavior

and make people more aware of the prob-

understand how their small efforts in re-

lems with disposable bags. We don’t want

using their bags can battle a much larger

consumers to feel as if they have to pur-

problem without requiring nearly any of their

chase yet another reusable bag and on top

time or energy.

of that, one for every individual store they

proves to be a quick fix to a large prob-

frequent. This incentive programs allows

lem as well as consumer and retail friendly.

It is important that the consumers

The incentive program

retailers to customize their own rewards program. The program will not only aid in

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• Campaign • Our campaign will be

the animals inhabiting it, suffering from dis-

enabled through guerrilla marketing. We

posable bag waste. As previously stated in

chose this tactic not only because it is cost

the incentive prong, our research led us to

effective, but also because of the shock

conclude that the problem with disposable

factor. It is a twist on marketing that elimi-

bags is more an issue of human behavior

nates boring education and flat advertise-

rather than that of the retailer and distrib-

ments, and instead creates a bold and

uter of reusable bags. We realized it will

entertaining spectacle that grabs the at-

take much more than our initial idea of cre-

tention of nearly every passerby. Our cam-

ating a sustainable and reusable shopping

paign is distributed throughout New York

bag to change consumers’ bag habits.

City in grocery stores, on the street using

posters and various instillation pieces, on

that have been enforced throughout the

our promotional van, on mass transpor-

country and all over the world, we came to

tation and any other areas where plastic

the conclusion that, although some have

bag awareness will have a high reach.

proven effective, they are either too extreme

Our goal is to create awareness to

of a tactic to battle the use of disposable

the general public, specifically focusing on

bags, or too small of a change to create

local supermarkets, large chain stores,

any awareness. As stated in the previ-

delis and anywhere else that freely distrib-

ous incentive prong, it is estimated to take

utes disposable bags. Our posters and

years or even decades to change human

installations include the environment and

behavior, in using a three prong approach

After carefully reviewing programs

You use $80 worth of plastic bags.

Ireland. Bangladesh. Taiwan. Guess who is next. New York City. Australia. Germany.

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tons of candy. I’d rather have painting supplies. video games. a train ticket. film. ea

PRONG 3: CAMPAIGN

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19 we are able to slowly ease into the idea of eventually banning the use of

“I think recycling programs are okay but

disposable bags. We realize it

it is more important to reduce waste as

takes time to make a shift in

a whole, as the process to recycle con-

human behavior completely however, our campaign remains consistent in educating

sumes much energy on its own. Thus, designing with no waste (think cradle to cradle) and therefore using reusable bags are the way to go in my opinion.”

the consumer on why disposable bags are such a major contributor to environmental destruction. One campaign approach we use

attention and create buzz. This will also

is “shock advertising” which is a type of

attract an audience bringing an acute

advertising designed principally to break

awareness to the many environmental

through the advertising “clutter” to capture

and social problems following the use

nah. Just say no. I’d rather not. uh-uh. I’ll pass.

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PRONG 3:CAMPAIGN 20

of disposable shopping bags. Examples

take another disposable shopping bag.

of our advertisements include two dimen-

sional posters or installations displaying

paign with a recognizable logo and the

images of animals in their natural habitat

slogan “Minimize to Maximize.� We create

surrounded by and consuming plastic bag

awareness by educating the consumer that

waste. The images are slightly frighten-

it takes a minimal amount of effort to make

ing and include text blurbs with scientific

a maximum change for the environment.

research on why one should discontinue

Minimizing the amount of disposable bags

the use of disposable shopping bags. Not

is highly beneficial to the health of our envi-

only will this be highly effective in creating

ronment and everyday lives. We keep our

awareness and a buzz, but also effec-

campaign consistent in using the same

tive in permeating our everyday routines

Helvetica Neue font and the same color

by reminding the consumer of the envi-

scheme all throughout. We incorporate

ronmental consequences each time they

short and simple facts to educate the con-

We chose to streamline the cam-


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sumer and make them aware of their bag consumption every time they see the ad. We distribute our campaign using the guerilla marketing technique; placing ads in grocery stores, on the floors of the food aisles as well as on the bottom of

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Color Scheme

Helvetica Neue Helvetica Neue Light Helvetica Neue UltraLight

te as w / ov Go to : www.nyc.g

m or e information

for

WATCH WHERE YOU PUT ME!

le ss

for

le ss

WATCH WHERE YOU PUT ME!

m or e information

Type

te as w / ov Go to : www.nyc.g

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PRONG 3:CAMPAIGN 24

canned goods. We have ads placed in

where consumers will be able to make

magazines such as Men’s Health, Teen,

their own reusable bag, appealing to the

Real Simple, and local publications such

supporters who would like to order a cus-

as Timeout New York and the Onion. In

tomized bag. Our website includes a vast

these publications we use our traditional

amount of information pertaining to the

advertisements as well as an ad for a DIY

problems with disposable bags and what

reusable bag. Not only will readers not be

is currently being done to prevent their use.

breaking the bank to buy another reus-

We were greatly inspired by the Top Shop

able bag, but they will also have a custom-

truck where the retailer used an old ice

ized bag that has sentimental value for all

cream truck to move from borough to

their store purchases. We have ads on

borough handing out giveaways heighten-

and in public transportation for New York

ing consumer awareness. Our campaign

City using various posters and banners.

uses the same approach, but rather than

providing free giveaways, we offer a “trade-

We will have an interactive website


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PRONG 3:CAMPAIGN 26

in� program where the truck goes to spe-

Our campaign uses several dif-

cific neighborhoods and targets shoppers

ferent marketing tactics from guerilla and

carrying disposable bags. The truck takes

shock marketing to a fun DIY page and

the disposable bags and in return gives the

bag truck. We chose use these several

shopper our version of the SmarTote. The

tactics in order to broaden our market and

idea of the bag truck allows consumers

create a greater reach. The campaign ap-

creates a large awareness of the recycling

peals to different types of people includ-

of disposable bags as well as allows the

ing those who have a more rational view,

consumers to feel as if they’ve contributed

those who comply because of financial

back to the environment. This will not only

reasons and wanting to save money, and

heighten the awareness of recycling for

those who support the green movement

disposable bags, but also give greater sig-

and comply for the sake of the environ-

nificance to the recycling containers placed

ment. Broadening our market allows our

in stores specifically for disposable bags.

message to come across all individuals


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who use disposable bags.

In focusing

on a more broad audience, yet specifically targeting market segments, we will eventually change consumer habits, behaviors and attitudes; leading to the eventual dismissal of disposable shopping bags.

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PRONG 3:CAMPAIGN

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editor: Jane Keltner

BREAK THE BAG HABIT MODEL NINA CARRYING THE DENIM BAG SHE CREATED. PHOTOGRAPH BY TINA TRELL.

NOT WILLING TO SPEND GOBS OF MONE ON THE CHANEL DENIM TOTE? HERE WE TEACH YOU TO MAKE YOUR OWN REUSABLE DENIM TOTE WITHOUT BREAKING THE BANK ACCOUNT!

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STEP 1 Cut the legs off an old pair of denim pants.

WHAT YOU�LL NEED *OLD PAIR OF DENIM JEANS *SCISSORS *THREAD *NEEDLE

STEP 2

Sew up the bottoms where the legs were cut.

STEP 3 Add a strap with the remaining material and now you have a reusable denim bag!

DENIM DIVA CHANEL FAN CAMERON DIAZ CARRYING A DENIM BAG BY THE LABEL.

REUSE THIS BAG while shopping for grocerys, clothes, and more! Link it to your rewards cards and earn points for special discounts and prizes! The reusable demin bag is chic, easy to make, and supports a happy and healthy environment!

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• Conclusion • Our three-pronged apCONCLUSION

proach: direct behavioral control (a tax), communication-based social marketing (an extensive campaign), and individual incentive planning (rewards program). , will be successful in implementing change both internally and externally. We hope to use the most direct, efficient means possible to target New Yorkers and reduce the number of plastic bags used daily in the city.

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“I think it’s really important we all become aware of our consumption habits. I think more awareness needs to be out there on the types of recycling and the different waste we can produce.”

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WORKS CITED

Beaudin, Monique. “The war on plastic bags, from coast to coast.” The National Post, March 18, 2009. http://www.nationalpost.com/life/footprint/story.html?id=1403091 (accessed March 29, 2009). Carlson, Wendy. “Westport First in State to Ban Plastic Bags.” The New York Times, September 26, 2008. http://www. nytimes.com/2008/09/28/nyregion/connecticut/28bagsct.html (accessed March 29, 2009). Chen, David W. “In Mayor’s Plan, the Plastic Bag Will Carry a Fee.” November 6, 2008. New York Times Online. http:// www.nytimes.com/2008/11/07/nyregion/07bags.html (accessed April 23, 2009). Crighton, Lauren. “Free Topshop Giveaway in Times Square!” March 25, 2009. NBC New York. http://www.nbcnewyork. com/around_town/shopping/FreeTopshopGiveaway-in-Times-Square.html (accessed March 30, 2009). Dzamic, Lazar. “Shockvertising: a poke in the brain.��� November 22, 2005. AIGA. http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/shock vertising-a-poke-in-the-brain (accessed March 30, 2009). Eskenazi, Joe. “Baggage.” SF Weekly, January 5, 2009. http://www.sfweekly.com/2009-01-07/news/baggage/ (accessed March 29, 2009). Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig. “How Landfills Work.” 16 October 2000. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks. com/landfill.htm> (accessed May 12, 2009). Gamerman, Ellen. “An Inconvenient Bag.”. September 26, 2008. Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122238422541876879.html#pr (accessed April 15, 2009). Gamerman, Ellen. “An Inconvenient Bag.” September 26, 2008. Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB122238422541876879.html#pr (accessed April 23, 2009). Hanna, Nissa. “Tesco’s green cards help shoppers save money while saving the planet.” Iconoculture, December 19, 2008. http://www.iconoculture.com/SMART/Content/View.aspx?docname=oa_TescoGreenCards_105152 (accessed March 29, 2009). Hoppe, Christy. “Does a proposed plastic bag tax make sense?” Monday, March 2, 2009. Dallas Morning News. http:// www.projo.com/sharedcontent/projectgreen/greenarticles/stories/030209kvue_Plastic_BagB-cb.1c0bb980.html (accessed April 3, 2009). Keim, Brandon. “Teen Decomposes Plastic Bag in Three Months.” Wired, May 23, 2008. http://www.wired.com/wired science/2008/05/teen-decomposes/ (accessed March 29, 2009). Killinger, Jennifer. “D.C. Bag Tax Would Derail Plastic Bag Recycling Efforts.” The American Chemistry Council, April 1, 2009. http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_acc/sec_news_article.asp?CID=206&DID=9358 (accessed April 12, 2009). Landes, Lynn. “LANDFILLS: Hazardous to the Environment.” Zero Waste. http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Landfills.htm ( accessed March 30, 2009). Lisberg, Adam. “‘If I had a nickel for every bag,’ sez Mayor Bloomberg” The NY Daily News, 7 November 2008. http://www. nydailynews.com/ny_local/2008/11/06/2008-11-06_if_i_had_a_nickel_for_every_bag_sez_mayo.html (accessed April 12, 2009). Mc Dermott, Matthew. “6 Cents Per Plastic Bag: New York City’s Mayor Wants Everyone to Pay Up.” Tree Hugger, November 11, 2008. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/11/nyc-mayor-bloomberg-proposes-fee-for-plastic-bags.php (ac cessed March 29, 2009). Murray, Mark. “There’s No Such Thing as a Free Plastic Bag in California.” California Progress Report, April 21, 2008. http:// www.californiaprogressreport.com/2008/04/theres_no_such_3.html (accessed April 13, 2009). Navarro, Mireya. “Seeing a Pitched Battle Over Plastic Bags.” The New York Times, November 17, 2008. http://www.nytimes. com/2008/11/18/nyregion/18plastic.html?_r=1&scp=4&sq=plastic+bags&st=nyt. (accessed March 29, 2009). New York State Assembly, “Summary of A06070.” http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=A06070 (accessed April 11, 2009). New York State Assembly, “Summary of A06537.” http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=A06537 (accessed April 11, 2009). New York State Assembly, “Summary of S00544.” http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=S00544 (accessed April 11, 2009).

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33 New York State Government. “Governor Paterson Signs Legislation to Promote Plastic Bag Recycling and Reuse of Bags.” December 13, 2008. http://www.state.ny.us/governor/press/press_1213081.html (accessed April 11, 2009). Pinter, Dave. “NYC Establishes Plastic Bag Recycling Program.” PSFK, January 10, 2008. http://www.psfk.com/2008/01/nyc- establishes-plastic-bag-recycling-program.html (accessed March 29, 2009). Plastic Bag Recycling, http://www.plasticbagrecycling.org/00.0/. “Retail Bags Report - List of Retail Bag Regulations – USA.” April 27, 2009. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/retailbags/pages/list_USA.htm. (accessed May 8, 2009). Reusable Bags, “Recycling Can Fix This, Right?” http://www.reusablebags.com/facts.php?id=5. Rosenthal, Elisabeth. “Motivated by a Tax, Irish Spurn Plastic Bags .” The New York Times, February 2, 2008. http://www. nytimes.com/2008/02/02/world/europe/02bags.html (accessed April 12, 2009). Seattle Bag Tax, http://www.seattlebagtax.org/ Wills, Amandsa. “The Lowdown on Landfills.” March 30th, 2009. Earth911.com http://earth911.com/blog/2009/03/30/the- lowdown-on-landfills/ (accessed on May 15, 2009). Yardley, William. “Many Plans to Curtail Use of Plastic Bags, but Not Much Action.” February 23, 2009. New York Times Onl ine. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/24/us/24bags.html (accessed April 29, 2009).

“It’s hard to admit sometimes, but I think a lot of people are embarrassed to bring old shopping bags back to the store to re-use them. A good way to go around this psychological barrier is to promote reusable bags and allow for a cultural change.”

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APPENDIX

• Research Process Visuals •

Visualization of process to eventual solution.

INSPIRATION FROM: IRELAND

SUSTAINABILITY VERSUS SELF-INTEREST ANTICIPATE LINES OF LEAST RESISTENCE SOCIAL DILEMMA + INDIVIDUAL GUILT

?

FISCAL SELF INTEREST

REALISTIC POLITICAL BACKING?

GAINS + AVOID HARM TO ONESELF HOW TO CREATE COMMITMENT TO A PRINCIPLE?

COMMUNICATION -BASED SOCIAL MARKETING

TAX STICKS

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CAMPAIGN

SUPERFICIAL RESPONSE

(recycling isn’t enough)

BAN/TAX

HUMAN MOTIVATION

CHANGING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

SCALE OF REWARDS

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REUSABLE

BIODEGRADABLE

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COMPOSTABLE

REDESIGNING THE PLASTIC BAG U

PAPER

PHYSICAL REPLACEMENTS

INCENTIVE CARROTS


sustainable: compostable EXISTS why not in use?

thoughtless overuse

REGULATIONS

USER HABITS

PHYSICAL BAG

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thrown away: “dead” only to use more soon government regulations despite protest/lobby groups for greater environmental good?

PROBLEMS Identification of actual present-day problem.

household uses

life cycle of bag

price

FREE PLASTIC BAGS FOR CUSTOMERS

reward system for bringing back bags? (like plastic bottles)

cover for initial loss

business ethics: managerial responsibility?

SOLUTIONS


APPENDIX

Where do New York State taxes go?

Government NY State Agencies and Political Subdivisions Federal Agencies Exclusion of Interest on US Obligations Governments US Military Post Exchanges

General Science & Technology

R&D Property QETC Facilities, Operations and Training Credit Capital Tax Credit Employment Credit

Breakdown of New York State tax distributions.

2009-2010 Executive Budget Proposals Affecting Tax Expenditures (Millions)

Personal Income Tax

Insurance Tax

Corporate Franchise Tax

Sales and Use Tax tax surcharge on certain beverage products ($404) tax on various amusement charges ($53) narrow sales tax definition of capital improvement ($120) repeal tax cap on motor fuel ($90) impose tax on cable and satellite TV ($136) awareness? tax digital products ($15)

most profitable? future prediction?

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YOUR MONEY

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$$

Who can impose a tax? Local government

Federal government Where do federal taxes go? State government Where do New York State taxes go? Government Science & Technology Energy, Natural Resources, and Environment Agriculture Economic Development Business & Commerce Housing National defense Transportation International affairs Education & Training Social Services Health Income/Social Security & Railroad Retirement Veteransâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Benefits Fiscal Assistance

Chronological breakdown of international public policies. Country/City

Date

What?

Bangladesh Ireland Taiwan South Africa W. India Tanzania Rwanda Zanzibar islands San Francisco Canada (Manitoba) Kenya, Uganda China (Beijing) Israel (Delhi) Germany UK Singapore Australia

1/1/02 3/1/02 1/1/03 5/9/03 8/7/03 1/1/06 12/1/06 11/10/06 3/27/07 4/2/07 6/1/07 6/1/08 1/20/09 voluntary Debate/volntary voluntary Pending

ban plastic tax plastic $1T /bag ban plastic ban plastic ban plastic ban plastic ban plastic ban plastic ban plastic ban thin; 120% tax thick ban free plastic ban plastic price per bag levy

option of a plastic bag or a canvas/cotton made tote â&#x20AC;&#x201D; for a fee

?

$.10 /bag

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use me

recycle? change consumer behavior? biodegrate? totes? legislation?

flooding because of bags blocking storm drains

plastic bags all over: eyesores

anyone found even using a polythene bag could face up to seven years behind bars/fine of up to 100,000 rupees ($2,000)

International Public Policy

on the common plastic bag


APPENDIX Comparison of different major bag materials.

PLASTIC BAG - 430,000 gallons of oil per 100 million bags. - Retailers give away an estimated $4 billion in bags per year. - Plastic bags take up to 1000 years to degrade in a landfill. - An estimated 8 billion pounds of plastic bags and products enter the waste stream every year in the US - Cost more to recycle than to produce - EPA says that somewhere between 500 trillion to a billion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year

COMPOSTABLE - Cannot be recycled. - Made from corn and other crops. PLA decomposes in conditions found at municipal composting facilities, but not in compost bins, landfills or when littered. BIODEGRADABLE - Cost from 5-10 cents to manufacture - Break down completely when in contact with other decomposing materials; in compost bins, landfills, or just buried in the ground. - Can also be recycled along with regular plastic bags

COMPOSTABLE/BIODEGRADABLE

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PAPER BAG - Require 4-5 times more energy to produce, � transport and recycle - Responsible for 70% more air pollution and 50 times more water pollution - Are not durable and water-resistant - Cost almost 10 times more to produce - Release greenhouse gases when they decompose (methane) - Nearly twice as much energy (91%) is required to recycle a pound of paper than a pound of plastic - 2,000 paper bags = 280lbs; 2,000 plastic bags = 30lbs. Take up more landfill space, more energy to transport

- Often shipped thousands of miles and from cheap manufacturing facilities overseas - Many made from nonwoven polypropylene, a form of plastic that requires about 28 times as much energy to produce as the plastic used in standard disposable bags - 8 times more energy to produce as paper - Often made with no recycled content—yet they still have misleading slogans like “I used to be a plastic bag” - People are not always dedicated to solely using their reusable bags

REUSABLE


39 • Campaign Iterations •

Bag Swap

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Bring your bag and get rewards. Br

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Break your Bag Habit.


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Alyssa Davis. Graphic Design Sample. Rethinking the Plastic Bag: Changing Consumer Attitudes