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Volu m e 3 7 , Is su e 1
Mond ay, Apr i l 1 0 , 2 0 1 7
SPRING HAS SPRUNG
THE SUN ALSO RISES over Baker Tower at the dawn of spring
Images courtesy of College Matchmaker and Dartmouth CoFIRED
Inside CoFIRED Joshua L. Kauderer Jack S. Hutensky
Executive Editor Web Editor Editor’s Note: Oscar R. Cornejo Casares ’17 is a founding member of the Dartmouth Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality, and Dreamers (CoFIRED) and has served as co-director in the 2014 and 2015 cycles. We spoke with Oscar about his background, his role in CoFIRED, and U.S. immigration policy. The Dartmouth Review (TDR): Can you tell us a little about yourself, for example, where you are from, what you are involved in on campus, and your role in CoFIRED? Oscar R. Cornejo Casares (ORCC): I was born in Morales, Mexico, which is a state just south of Mexico City. I lived there until I was 5. In the year 2000, we came to the United States. My dad was already here, he came two
years before us. He worked in California as a farmworker. It was me, my brother who was two years old, and my mom who migrated. We came through the Tijuana-San Diego border entry. It was me and my brother first and my mom was transported differently through a coyote, which is a human smuggler. So, we were separated and there was this woman, I don’t remember what she looked like, we were in the back of her car. She represented us as her children, I’m assuming fake passports, I don’t remember the procedure (I was 5), but I remember crying and crossing and wondering where my mother was because I was like “who is this person?” It was a confusing experience. Actually, looking back at it, I worried more for my mom because coyotes are known to abuse migrant women during the clandestine crossing, but we made it to California safely. Then we came to Illinois. I live in the north-
ern suburbs of Chicago, we came there because my great aunt on my mom’s side lived there so we had family there. I grew up in the suburbs of Chicago and went through the education system there. Around when I was 10, I moved to a different area and the jurisdiction changed and that was when I started to go to a predominantly white upper middle class school system, which mirrors my experience here at Dartmouth. I went through that system in high school and dedicated myself solely to education because that is what my dad wanted me to do. That is why we came: better opportunity, escaping poverty. I just focused on that: my education, my education, my education. I was lucky enough to be part of a college access program in high school, which helped vulnerable, but high potential, students to get to college. Without the program, I wouldn’t be here at Dartmouth, because they
took care of everything. As a working class, first generation immigrant, my parents and I didn’t have the knowledge to navigate the college application process. This program literally got me into Dartmouth. In 2013, I came to Dartmouth. I had applied early decision. I had visited before. I loved it. I decided to come to Dartmouth one because of the money, and two they were willing to admit me and provide financial aid. As an undocumented student, the landscape in terms of college admissions is very particular, and it’s not uniform, you have to be what’s called hyper-documented, meaning you have to be really extremely well qualified to go to these institutions. So I came to Dartmouth 2013, I’m about to graduate, I’m a ‘17 senior. I came and I realized there wasn’t a support network at all for undocumented students before me.
> FEATURES PAGE 8
The Duthu Disaster Brian Chen
Senior Correspondent It has been a year of major administrative shakeups, with the restoration of the Dean of the College’s authority, a new dean of the Geisel School of Medicine, and the unceremonious ousting of laughably vitriolic Vice Provost for Student Affairs Inge-Lise Ameer being among the many changes. While administrative incompetence is par for the course at the College on the Hill, one personnel decision strikes us as a particularly poor choice in these tumultuous times. In a characteristically ill-composed missive to campus, President Hanlon pompously announced N. Bruce Duthu as the new Dean of the Faculty while aggressively puffing up his academic record and meager administrative experience. Duthu, the Samson Occom Professor of Native American
Studies and Frank J. Guarini Associate Dean of the Faculty for International Studies and Interdisciplinary Programs, seems to check all the boxes for President Hanlon and Provost Dever. And therein lies the problem. He holds an endowed chair and serves as an associate dean, so he ostensibly a worthy scholar and leader. Moreover, given the administration’s endless harping on diversity and inclusion, selecting a Native American dean must be a plus. But beyond nominally fulfilling the prerequisites, Duthu is grossly unqualified and temperamentally unfit for the deanship he is about to assume. With little real administrative experience, Duthu should not have even been in contention for the position. Let us examine what went wrong.
> FEATURES PAGE 7
OUR MUTUAL RESPECT
DARTMOUTH’S BEST PROFESSORS
HISTORY OF JOURNALISM
New Editor-in-Chief Jack F. Mourouzis reflects on the state of affairs at the College
The Review sits down with Professor Victoria Somoff of the Russian Department
The Review takes a look at the dubious history of the College’s mainstream paper, The Dartmouth
> EDITORIAL PAGE 3
> FEATURES PAGE 10
> FEATURES PAGE 7
2 Monday – April 10, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
The Dartmouth Review
TABLE OF CONTENTS
For thirty-five years, The Dartmouth Review has been the College’s only independent newspaper and the only student opinion journal that matters. It is the oldest and most renowned campus commentary publication in the nation and spawned a national movement at the likes of Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and countless others. Our staff members and alumni have won many awards, including the Pulitzer Prize, and have been published in the Boston Globe, New York Times, National Review, American Spectator, Wall Street Journal, Weekly Standard, Village Voice, New Criterion, and many others. The Review aims to provide a voice for any student who enjoys challenging brittle and orthodox thinking. We stand for free speech, student rights, and the liberating arts. Whatever your political leanings, we invite you to come steep yourself in campus culture and politics, Dartmouth lore, keen witticisms, and the fun that comes with writing for an audience of thousands. We’re looking for writers, photographers, cartoonists, aspiring business managers, graphic designers, web maestros, and anyone else who wants to learn from Dartmouth’s unofficial school of journalism.
“Because every student deserves a safe space”
Our Mutual Respect
Jack F. Mourouzis
Editor-in-Chief Emeritus Sandor Farkas
Joshua L. Kauderer & Joseph R. Torsella
Managing Editors Jack S. Hutensky Devon M. Kurtz Rushil Shukla Zachary P. Port
Associate Editors Shawn E. Honaryar Elliott A. Lancry B. Webb Harrington Brandon E. Teixeira
Brian Chen & Marcus J. Thompson
BUSINESS STAFF President
Robert Y. Sayegh
President Emeritus Matthew R. Zubrow
(next to Lou’s in the lower level office space)
Vice President Samuel W. Lawhon
INSIDE THE ISSUE
The Review sits down with Oscar Ruben Cornejo Casares, who gives a bit of background on the organization and discusses issues relating to immigration in the contemporary United States..................................................................................................................... PAGE 1
We take a look at the College’s various offerings in the realm of undergraduate research, from Presidential Scholars to Senior Fellows, highlighting an important part of many students’ academic experiences..................................................................................... PAGE 6
The Duthu Disaster
The College’s History of Journalism
The Week in Review
Great Professors: Victoria Somoff
The Review examines the recent nomination of the controversial Bruce Duthu to Dean of the Faculty, taking another critical look at the administration................................. PAGE 1
Various writers document and reflect on the events of the past week, offering commentary and a valuable conservative perspective............................................................... PAGE 4
The Review takes a look at The Dartmouth’s claim of “America’s Oldest College Newspaper,” while also examining the publication’s history.................................................... PAGE 7
Senior Correspondent Brian Chen sits down with Victoria Somoff, the highly regarded associate professor of Russian...................................................................................... PAGE 10
Greg Fossedal, Gordon Haff, Benjamin Hart, Keeney Jones
Mean-Spirited, Cruel, and Ugly
Board of Trustees
Martin Anderson, Patrick Buchanan, Theodore Cooperstein, Dinesh D’Souza, Michael Ellis, Robert Flanigan, John Fund, Kevin Robbins, Gordon Haff, Jeffrey Hart, Laura Ingraham, Mildred Fay Jefferson, William Lind, Steven Menashi, James Panero, Hugo Restall, Roland Reynolds, William Rusher, Weston Sager, Emily Esfahani-Smith, R. Emmett Tyrrell, Sidney Zion
JUSTICE GORSUCH READS THE REVIEW
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“Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win great triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to takerank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much, because they live in the gray twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat.” —Theodore Roosevelt
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MASTHEAD & EDITORIAL
– Inge-Lise Ameer, Vice Provost for Student Affairs
An Interview with CoFIRED
Monday – April 10, 2017
“Regime change, am I right?”
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In his 1961 Farewell Address, Pres- in November of 2016. Yale University ident Dwight D. Eisenhower issued was struck by similar scandal earlier a solemn warning, stating that “This what year, when a professor was acworld of ours... must avoid becoming costed by students after sending out a community of dreadful fear and hate, a general email regarding Halloween and be, instead, a proud confederation costumes – an action which, by any of mutual trust and respect.” With the reasonable person, could hardly be subsequent ascension of President considered controversial. In an unsurJohn F. Kennedy, the nation spiraled prisingly similar vein, the election of into even further turmoil as the Cold President Donald J. Trump resulted in War heightened and the civil rights (obviously fruitless) protests and riots movement came to a head. As across the world. More recentthe times gradually changed ly, noted scholar and sociolthrough the second half ogist Charles Murray was of the twentieth century, received at Middlebury by so too did the attitudes violent riots, which resultof partisanship within ed in the hospitalization the United States: nameof a faculty member for ly, they settled down. injuries received by proAgain, however, the times testing students. When all change. In a trend that has the incidents are looked only gotten worse since at together, the overall the fateful day of Seppicture they paint can tember 11, what began only be described as as constructive divergrim. gence and disagreeThere is, however, ment has devolved into a silver lining. It seems Jack F. Mourouzis outright hatred, disreas though the students spect, and radicalization. Nowhere is of the College have, in a way, wised this schism so deeply-rooted than on up, abandoning more theatric displays the American college campus. in favor of more simple, civil demonDartmouth’s experiences with this stration or, better yet, keeping their phenomenon are well-known and mouths shut. Charles Murray made oft-cited. In more recent years, publi- his way to Hanover in April of 2016, cations such as the aptly-named Dart- and the event went off without a hitch. mouth Radical (and, increasingly, The The Milo Yiannapoulos event in NoDartmouth), organizations such as the vember was, surprisingly, met with litever-ambiguous OPAL, and adminis- tle to no reaction from campus liberal trators like the well-meaning but woe- contingents. While President Trump’s fully misguided Inge-Lise Ameer have election was met with protest, the done nothing but plunge this campus demonstrations were less provocative into deeper discord and division. The and more solemn. These reactions – or radical ideas of the Freedom Budget lack thereof – stand in stark contrast (and their egregiously disrespectful to the antics of Dartmouth’s radical deliverance) represented the ideas left in the past. The Freedom Budget of only a fringe group of students on and infiltration of President Hanlon’s campus, yet somehow managed to gain private office, alleged violence at the traction in the greater student body infamous Black Lives Matter library and manifestation in the administra- protest, and the downright silly Derby tion’s policies. The infamous Black and Pigstick protests seem like ancient Lives Matter protest in Baker-Berry history to students of today. Their unLibrary and vandalization of a Na- fortunate effects, however, are still tional Police Week bulletin board in- felt by each and every student, male or cited nationwide scandal and national female, freshman or senior, liberal or coverage. The list continues, and so conservative. does the devaluation of a Dartmouth The breaking point, however, has degree as a result. already been passed; as the generOf course, this phenomenon is not al atmosphere has calmed down, the limited to just the College on the wounds have likewise begun to heal. Hill; it applies to nearly every single It is imperative that we allow them institution of higher education from to do so, lest we plunge the brothers the Atlantic to the Pacific, and even and sisters of this College into turmoil beyond our borders. As I have previ- once again. On Wednesday, April 12, ously described, “The brute ideolog- the College Republicans and College ical force of the left has supplanted Democrats will engage in a public deeven moderate reason and replaced bate – the first of its kind in years. It it with inflammatory rhetoric, push- is steps like these that make the future ing tensions amongst students to, at of intellectual discourse and at this times, violent levels.” Countless pro- institution look brighter. Our mutual tests have taken place at universities respect for one another, even in times across America, many incited by the of conflicting ideas, is of the utmost visit of controversial journalist Milo importance; if we do not retain it, it Yiannapoulos, who visited Dartmouth will be our ultimate destruction.
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The Dartmouth Review
WEEK IN REVIEW A RESPONSE TO “ACTIVE CLASSROOM FEMINISM” In contemporary American society, we often discuss the prevalence of misogyny, but we almost never hear about examples of misandry. Fortunately enough, Lucy Li of The Dartmouth, in her article titled “Active Classroom Feminism,” demonstrates how a true misandrist views the world. Li expresses her contempt for the “level of ease that male students manage to achieve in class.” Indeed, the fact that more male students tend to convey their opinions with confidence and conviction, as any practiced public speaker should, fills her with indignation. Li fails to recognize that the existence of a few confident speakers in a class does not inhibit other students from adding a similar tone of assertion to their own verbal contributions; there is no “cap” on the total amount of confidence that can exist in a given room. And, better yet, students who tend towards diffidence can study their more confident counterparts, observing how to modify tone and body language to convey a greater level of assurance. Developing strong public speaking skills is essential for any young professional and we shouldn’t punish individuals who have worked to develop those skills earlier than their counterparts. Li also asserts that male students speak “with fewer qualifications than their female counterparts do.” This is quite a bold claim, yet Li cites no data or sources for her chauvinistic conclusion. The fact of the matter is that Dartmouth does not even release gender comparisons for average test scores, GPA’s, or extracurricular activities. If we turn to the College Board’s 2015 Total Group Profile Report, we see that, on average, male and female students scored nearly identically on the critical reading section of the SAT, while male students outperformed female students on the mathematics section and female students outperformed males on the writing section. Though males and females clearly have their separate strengths, the data shows that one gender is obviously not superior to another. So I would like to pose the following question to Ms. Li: do you claim that female students are more qualified than their male counterparts because you found actual data to support the assertion or simply because you’re a female supremacist? Overall, Li is urging women to “take classrooms from men.” Instead, in the spirit of American egalitarian-
ism, we should support gender equality, not gender inequity; men and women should share classrooms amongst each other. The girl who scorns “that guy” for his confidence and powerful public speaking skills should refocus her efforts on striving to speak with more assertion and conviction herself.
NEIL GORSUCH NOMINATED FOR OPEN SPOT ON SUPREME COURT Nearly a year after the death of Justice Scalia, President Donald J. Trump plans to make the Supreme Court conservative again. To do this, Trump has nominated the experienced Judge Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court. Gorsuch, who is only 49, holds degrees from Oxford, Columbia, and Harvard (where he was a classmate of President Obama). In addition to his impressive array of degrees, Gorsuch has experience clerking for two Supreme Court Justices and has served on the tenth circuit court of appeals since 2006. Throughout his career, Gorsuch has proven himself an intellectual conservative who is not afraid to disagree with Republicans if he believes that they are wrong. However, the most appealing aspect of Gorsuch’s nomination is his Constitutionalist stance. On several instances, Gorsuch has disregarded years of precedent when he deems that precedent inconsistent with the Constitution. Gorsuch is also a firm defender of religious liberty, as he exemplified in the Little Sisters of the Poor case. In the case, Gorsuch objected to the Obama administration’s demands that the religious order either distribute birth control or face fines of seventy million dollars a year. The nuns of the Little Sisters took their case to the Supreme Court to object to this unfair ultimatum and won, thanks in part to the incredible dissent written by Gorsuch. This defense of religious liberty and Constitutional rights is the kind of behavior that Republicans across the nation hope to see in the Supreme Court and, fortunately, is the kind of behavior that Gorsuch is sure to demonstrate for years to come. Currently, Democrats on the Senate Judiciary Committee are working hard to prevent the confirmation of Judge Gorsuch. Several Democrats have come out in opposition, with a few even pledging to filibuster the vote scheduled to take place next week. Despite this, Republicans only need to win over eight Senate Democrats to put Gorsuch on the bench, and after a brilliant confirmation hearing, many Republicans believe that Gorsuch will indeed be the one to make the
“Did you hear about the London attacks?” “Yeah, we finally have a president that says ‘radical Islamic terrorism.’”
Supreme Court conservative again.
HAPPY BIRTHDAY TO DISTINGUISHED DARTMOUTH ALUMNUS ROBERT FROST Dartmouth College has produced many notable alumni, one of the most famous being the celebrated poet Robert Frost, whose 141th birthday anniversary was this past week on March 26. Frost came to Dartmouth in 1892, but unlike most of the members of his class, he “took the road less traveled” and left in his first term, after just about two months. However, those two months in Hanover had a major impact on the poet and man he became. As he was deciphering what career path to take, he stumbled into Wilson Hall one day and read some poetry on the cover of a magazine, which made a powerful impression on him. It was this moment in Wilson Hall that Frost claims he first began to think of becoming a writer. After two months at the college he left for his new home in Massachusetts to work menial jobs to help make ends meet for his family. However, he never forgot his newfound interest in poetry and eventually became one of the most celebrated poets in American history. He never forgot his time at Dartmouth and frequently returned to give lectures. He was even the Ticknor Fellow of Humanities from 1943 to 1949. Through Frost’s great generosity, the Robert Frost Collection at Dartmouth College was established and is now one of the largest and most important in the world, as it should be, as the old College on the hill was the start of it all for the famed author. Frost, one of the “sons of Old Dartmouth,” kept his “own undying faith” for the school, and today is remembered for his great contributions to the literary world. Let’s all “give a rouse” for the famed author on the 141 anniversary of his birth.
COLLEGE ISSUES STATEMENT OF SUPPORT FOR TRANSGENDER MEMBERS OF THE DARTMOUTH COMMUNITY On March 21, Dartmouth shared a statement of support on its website for transgender members of its community. The statement guarantees that at Dartmouth “everyone is welcome to use bathrooms and changing rooms that best align with their gender identity.” It also affirms that services and special housing for transgender students will remain in place and that the College will continue to recognize the right of transgender individuals to change their names and gender markers. Furthermore, it declares that the College will continue to remain aligned with the NCAA transgender student-athlete inclusion policy. Dartmouth’s statement came in response to the new executive administration’s interpretation of Title IX, which bans sex discrimination in schools. The Obama administration interpreted Title IX to guarantee transgender students the right to use whichever bathrooms they felt matched their true gender identity. This interpretation, however, was very legally rocky and would likely have died even without a formal change in federal guidance. After Obama’s interpretation was announced, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton sued on behalf of numerous states and won a nationwide injunction that barred federal agencies from enforcing Obama’s interpretation in schools. Immediately thereafter, the Justice Department challenged Paxton’s lawsuit. The challenge was scheduled
The Dartmouth Review
Monday – April 10, 2017
James R. Chartouni Brandon E. Teixeira Shawn E. Honaryar Jason B. Ceto Marcus J. Thompson Elliott A. Lancry Noah J. Sofio
to be heard in early February, but a day after Jeff Sessions was sworn in as Attorney General, the Justice Department revoked its challenge. The Trump administration also formally changed the interpretation of Title IX to not include freedom of bathroom choice as an inherent protection. Paxton’s successful lawsuit and the eventual change in the interpretation of Title IX are tremendous victories for advocates of state and local government rights. These advocates rightfully felt as though the Obama administration overstepped its boundaries by attempting to force states to comply with its own interpretation of Title IX.
PRESIDENT TRUMP’S BUDGET THREATENS COLLEGE FUNDING President Trump unveiled his budget earlier this month and faced immediate backlash from Democrats for proposing to cut programs dedicated to funding the arts while increasing military spending. Some proposed cuts, such as decreased funding to the “Meals on Wheels” program, have provided eager critics on the left with plenty of fodder. Yet the President’s budget may have significant implications for the College as well. Currently, Dartmouth receives $175 million from the federal government to support research and scholarships in addition to 10 faculty positions supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, which would be terminated entirely under the Trump budget. It is understandable for many of us at the College, even the most principled fiscal conservative, to wince at the prospect of losing critical aid that supports the College’s academic prowess. But we must resist the temptation to respond emotionally to the effects President Trump’s budget may have on the College. Instead, we must take a hard look at the College’s reckless spending and examine whether our administration can operate efficiently enough to unburden the taxpayer from supporting a private institution. In fiscal year 2014, the College’s expenses were $853,110,000, around 10% of which went to faculty salaries. Yet unfortunately, for every dollar the College spent on faculty, $4.80 went to staff and adjunct faculty. To put this in perspective, Brown University—not exactly known for its fiscal responsibility— spent around $3.80 on staff and adjunct professors for every dollar towards tenure-track faculty in the same year. If the College were to allocate resources more effectively, perhaps the taxpayer, in addition to the tuition-paying student could most likely save some money. Additionally, the College has not exactly been a bastion of fiscal propriety since 2014. Students and alumni alike are well aware of the costly programs associated with Moving Dartmouth Forward and the
declining endowment due to many unpopular administrative moves. While it is unclear whether the $175 million in financial aid is in danger, the termination of the National Endowment for the Humanities should serve as a wake-up call to the College. Resources should be allocated towards effective teaching rather than gimmicky, superficial improvements such as housing communities or administrative positions. As President Trump’s budget throws vital aspects of the College into jeopardy, the College should respond with its own fiscal realignment: refocusing on academic programs supported by the taxpayer and moving away from unpopular, costly, and largely cosmetic projects.
example, Dartmouth students would have ample time to provide proof of residency at the College. These measures are not especially burdensome since the bill goes out of its way to accommodate a wide array of accessible documentation and creates a window to provide this documentation that extends past election day. Despite this, the onus is still on the state government to insure that there are adequate resources at local offices and polling stations to insure that this extra layer of requirements does not lengthen waiting times or disproportionally impact impoverished communities. Using these new requirements as excuses for longer waiting times at poll booths will only strengthen accusations of voter suppression and unsupported paranoia about voting fraud.
CONTROVERSY SURROUNDING NEW VOTING DARTMOUTH ALUMNUS LAW INITIATIVE IN NEW JAKE TAPPER WILL BE 2017 HAMPSHIRE COMMENCEMENT SPEAKER On Friday, the New Hampshire Senate passed a bill requiring proof of long term residency for voter registration within 10-30 days after casting a ballot. The stated goal is to prevent transient voters, such as election volunteers from other states, from casting ballots. One of the primary issues with insuring voting authenticity is establishing measures that limit voting fraud, which undermines the validity of an election, while not creating undue burdens that limit access. Across the country, Republican state legislators have passed bills requiring identification that have tightened the voting registration process. Democrats have almost uniformly opposed such legislation. They claim that ID requirements and increased wait times at polling stations disproportionately affect minorities and less affluent individuals who may not have the financial resources or time to meet such voting requirements. The Dartmouth College Democrats have responded to the bill with a campus wide email claiming that Republicans’ recent legislative efforts amount to voter suppression. But do they? New Hampshire has some of the most accessible voting laws in the country. In fact, New Hampshire even allows same day registration without proof of residency. Other states have been criticized for requiring expensive photo identification such as driver’s licenses and passports, but the bill passed in New Hampshire is very flexible in the types of identification it allows- lease agreements and hunting licenses are permitted. Voters even have 10 – 30 days after election day to provide proof of holding domicile. For
As the Class of 2017 begins its final term at Dartmouth, it is time for the commencement speaker to be selected. After receiving some input from students, the College decided to grace CNN anchor Jake Tapper ’91 with this honor. Tapper first broke the news of this decision during his appearance on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, giving Colbert a Dartmouth sweatshirt and reminding him of the time when he portrayed a Dartmouth alumnus on Comedy Central. Tapper spent his time at the College studying history modified by visual studies, a strange combination, but one which would have allowed him to continue pursuing his passion for cartooning beyond his time as a political cartoonist at the D. However, Tapper did not follow that path; instead, he found himself as the anchor of CNN weekday show The Lead with Jake Tapper and author of several popular books including New York Times bestseller The Outpost: An Untold Story of American Valor. Most recently, however, Tapper served as a moderator in two Republican primary debates as well as one Democratic town hall for the 2016 election. Other notable commencement speakers this year include Senator Cory Booker at Penn, Hillary Clinton at Wellesley, and Senator Bernie Sanders at Brooklyn College. One hopes that despite the College’s shameless attempts to politicize every aspect of higher education, Tapper will focus on congratulating the members of the Class of 2017 on their hard work and dedication and offering them advice for their future endeavors.
“And then he said, ‘No, seriously, people actually go to house events!’”
6 Monday – April 10, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
Associate Editors When in college, research opportunities are seemingly everywhere, and at Dartmouth, opportunities abound, even for young undergraduates who have not yet completed a major course of study. Research can be done on any topic, from theater to government to chemistry. The only requirements for doing research at Dartmouth is that it must somehow contribute to one’s academic or intellectual development, and that a faculty member affiliated with the college is willing to assist or supervise the project. Students doing research must also be enrolled in the college, either on a registered term taking classes or on a leave term away from the school. Independent research opportunities are seemingly available to nearly any willing and motivated undergraduate student, and that’s exactly how it should be at an Ivy League institution with an endowment valued at over $4 billion. There are many different research scholarships and foundations available to students interested in research. The Sophomore and Junior Research Scholars is open to any sophomore or junior looking to help faculty with their research. Students on this scholarship usually work between seven to twelve hours a week and receive an $850 stipend at the end of the term. The James O. Freedman Presidential Scholars Program was founded in 1988 and now allows juniors to work with Dartmouth faculty as research assistants. Projects for the program are meant to prepare students to complete senior honors theses. This scholar program is available only to juniors who are in the top 40% of their class based upon their GPA. Leave term grants, with up to $4,800 available for sophomores and juniors for full-time leave term research, are another option, particularly for students who have a major role in the project. Honors Thesis grants, with funds up to $2,500 available for students needing money for their thesis project, are an option for seniors who want to do some research for their final projects. Senior Fellowships involve projects where the college deems that the knowledge, imagination, and work involved goes beyond what can be expected from students who are also enrolled and taking classes. Senior fellows must have a faculty advisor to support their project and must submit budget plans to the college to be approved. However, once apMr. Honaryar and Mr. Teixeira are freshmen at the College and associate editors at The Dartmouth Review.
thought processes; students see the world in a unique manner and, in this way, ignorance can actually be very helpful. It shouldn’t come as a surprise that the sciences offer the most opportunities for research at Dartmouth. Indeed, the Geisel School of Medicine offers the most undergraduate research programs by far. Fields ranging from biology, chemistry, and physiology to anthropology and sociology offer significant opportunities for undergraduate research. The Thayer School of Engineering takes second place, and the Computer Science department comes in a close third. When we remove the STEM-exclusive programs from our analysis, taking into account only Presidential Research projects, grants, and the Junior Research Scholars program, Geisel still leads, but the Economics department, the Government department, and the History de-
ing as the habit center of the brain. Another area of the brain, which is responsible for dopamine production, called the Substantia Nigra may help affect activity in the striatum during habit development. In order to study how animals’ habit behavior changes, he utilizes a technique known as DREADDs to activate projections from the Substantia Nigra to the striatum in tandem with a lever pressing program. The rat is placed in an operant conditioning box which contains a lever. In some experiments, the rat receives a food pellet each time it presses lever, in others, every three times, and, in a third possibility, the rat receives a pellet about every minute regardless of any lever interaction. The boxes are programmed to send data to the lab’s computers for further analysis. Wilcox currently spends approximately ten hours each week
“Independent research opportunities are seemingly available to nearly any willing and motivated undergraduate student, and that’s exactly how it should be at an Ivy League institution with an endowment valued at over $4 billion.” partment all come up to par with Thayer and the Computer Science department. These rankings, of course, are heavily influenced by the size and popularity of each department. No sort of research-opportunity-per-capita study at Dartmouth has been conducted recently, but the Parker House is currently working towards organizing one. A few fellow Dartmouth undergraduates were willing to share their research experiences with us. Oren Wilcox ‘17 is fascinated by the fact that, while the brain is such a fundamental part of the human experience, we know so little about it. He decided to dive into Neuroscience, and he began his first research project as early as the summer after his freshman year. Since then, he has worked in four different labs and is now currently a part of Professor Kyle Smith’s lab at Dartmouth. Wilcox says that acquiring his current research position was not difficult; indeed, he met with the chair of the Neuroscience Department about seeking a thesis, and the chair directed him to Professor Kyle Smith. Given that Wilcox had already completed a wealth of science classes and possessed substantial research experience, Professor Smith welcomed him with open arms. Wilcox’s work revolves around studying the formation of habits in animals, specifically by investigating an area of the brain called the striatum. The striatum has many functions, one of which is work-
working in the lab itself in addition to many more hours writing his thesis. As a result from his extensive research career, Wilcox has learned how to more efficiently multi-task, his work ethic has improved, and he has refined his technical lab skills. Kush Desai ‘17 applied to the James O. Freedman Research Scholar program during his sophomore year due to his interest consumer marketing and its affect on social norms, as well as the generous pay that the program offered. He stayed on the research project for his sophomore summer and worked with Professor Douglas Haynes in the History department, looking at advertising for health and hygiene products. He worked industriously, about 8-10 hours a week and claims, “it gave him a deeper insight into the process of finding historical facts and trends that are often taken for granted in books.” To do his research, Kush studied old English-Indian daily newspapers from 1900-1950 to get a sense of how consumer goods companies marketed their products and how they promoted certain western notions of modernity in India. He studied how these ads, in turn, affected the general feeling of what a proper man or woman should wear to be socially acceptable. In a sense, he studied the effects of pre-television advertising on body image and accepted social norms, something he might not have had the opportunity to study otherwise. Will Tremml ‘18 has already
America’s Oldest College Newspaper?
An Undergraduate Research Institution proved, they are not required to take courses or complete a major requirement during their senior year. Mellon Mays Undergraduate Fellowships strives to combat the underrepresentation of minority faculty at the university level. MMUF supports underrepresented-minority students, striving for a PhD, and attempts to assist students who expect to go on to professional careers by providing research funds for them. If a student plans to present research they have done at an academic conference, they can even apply for separate funding from the college. There are also programs affiliated with the Undergraduate Research office. These include the Women in Science Project, which intends to help women in STEM fields do research, and the E.E. Just Program, which supports the research of students traditionally underrepresented in the STEM fields. There is also a Health Professions Program, which seeks to prepare students in the pre-health field with initial explorations in their field of study. Myriad options exist for students pursuing undergraduate research from scholarships to programs to grants; if students have the will, they can receive research funding from numerous sources. The hub for Undergraduate Research on campus is the Parker House. Each year, approximately 600-700 students participate in research programs and apply for funding through the Parker House. Hundreds more students undertake research projects by coordinating directly with faculty, bypassing the Parker House, since many professors are happy to use their grant money to pay students. Fortunately, Dartmouth Alumni recognize the value of providing students with one-on-one learning situations and are thus very financially supportive of undergraduate research. Because of the extensive giving in recent years, the Parker House is usually able to fund any research project that a student requests, assuming he or she has planned the project thoroughly and has found a faculty advisor. Why do so many opportunities for undergraduate research exist at Dartmouth? Simply put, the research experience provides an entirely different learning environment than that of the classroom. In most college classes, the professor possesses a comprehensive understanding of the content and the students are tasked with absorbing the content themselves. On the other hand, in the research environment, neither the professor nor the student has the answers; both parties must work together to discover them. Professors recognize that the limited amounts of knowledge that students possess often removes constraints on their
Monday – April 10, 2017
Shawn E. Honaryar Brandon E. Teixeira
The Dartmouth Review
completed the Physics major and is now working towards a double major in Engineering Sciences. He reports that researching in Physics opens the door to an eclectic array of topics, while researching in Engineering is often more restrictive and usually also requires several topic-specific classes as prerequisites. He spends between two to fifteen hours each week on research, depending on how occupied he is with his classes and other commitments. Tremml began his research with Physics Professor Kristina Lynch during the winter of his sophomore year, driven by his fascination of quantifying the universe through Physics, the allure of earning money through an academic pursuit, and the necessity to possess research experience when applying to graduate school. Professor Lynch and her team construct rockets that soar through the Aurora Borealis above Alaska to take data on the electrostatics of the aurora. Tremml focuses his efforts on interpreting sensor data taken by rockets to match the Aurora, which can observed with the naked eye. To aid him in his pursuits, Tremml models the rocket sensors flying through the aurora with experiments that can be performed here in Hanover. In one of his experiments, for example, he picks up a magnet and moves it over several magnetic sensors in a jagged path. Just as the sensors on the rocket serve to map the electromagnetic interactions of the Aurora Borealis, Tremml attempts to recreate the path of the magnet using only the data gathered by the magnetic sensors. Tremml views his research as quite the academically formative experience. Indeed, he affirms that there remain myriad unsolved problems in the sciences, and the “only difference between you and a Nobel Prize winner is how much time you put in and a lot of luck.” Copious opportunities for students to do research at Dartmouth exist, regardless of the field. The college provides excellent support for students who wish to do research, with willing faculty and enormous funds seemingly at every student’s fingertips. From Parker House to the James O. Freedman Presidential Scholars Program, there are numerous way that Dartmouth students can get involved with research. From history to physics, every research project is unique, but all projects enhance a student’s education, which is the main focus of any course of study at Dartmouth College. Undergraduate research is a great way for students to get hands on experience in their area of study, and at Dartmouth, the possibilities for such research are endless.
Elliott A. Lancry Devon M. Kurtz
Associate Editor News Editor The Dartmouth, originally called The Dartmouth Gazette, was founded on August 27th, 1799 by Moses Davis in Hanover, New Hampshire. Davis, after founding the paper, attempted to gather subscribers from the sparsely populated Upper Valley, a challenging task. Davis succeeded in acquiring subscribers, and charged them annual fees. These fees were the only source of revenue for the early Dartmouth Gazette. Originally, a subscription to the Gazette cost a dollar and fifty cents per year. Davis initially lacked the funds necessary to print the issue and cover the other costs associated with the newspaper, so he imposed an additional fee of twenty-five cents on his unsuspecting subscribers—subscribers who had already paid their annual fee—to get the first issue of the Dartmouth Gazette. Evidently, The Dartmouth’s tradition of integrity began with its very first Mr. Lancry is a freshman at the College and an associate editor at The Dartmouth Review. Mr. Kurtz is a freshman at the College and news editor of The Dartmouth Review.
issue. The Dartmouth Gazette was mainly concerned with local news, although it also included some articles regarding national and international news. The Gazette’s original aim was to print articles that would be useful to local residents. It often covered local events, new laws that were going into effect throughout the Upper Valley, and dangerous diseases sweeping the area. In addition to the nation’s best coverage of smallpox—that’s more than Amherst College can say—the Gazette also included poetry. The first issue included a poem and a short story written by the Daniel Webster, who was a student at the College. Webster went on to serve as a senator from Massachusetts and the United States’ secretary of state. The Gazette evolved as it grew over the course of the nineteenth century. It changed names twice: first to The Dartmouth Daily, and then to what it is known as today, The Dartmouth. Additional changes included its shift towards emphasis on Dartmouth-specific news rather than news that would be relevant to readers outside the Dartmouth community. In actuality, the name change to The Dartmouth was supposed to be reflective of the newspaper’s change in focus from out-
side news to Dartmouth-specific news. It took The Dartmouth until 1842 to run 40 pages. By this point, it was also printed eight times per year. It seems The Dartmouth did not begin to be published regularly until September 1875. This change was pioneered by Samuel Merrill of the class of 1876. Then, a new The Dartmouth came out every Thursday morning. In addition, the price of subscription increased to two dollars per year. Advertisements were utilized for the first time. The Dartmouth gained a strong foothold in the editorial sphere of college journalism, being among the three largest college weekly publications in the world after implementing these changes in 1875. Before 1913, The Dartmouth could be published thanks to a simple business partnership between the publisher (in charge of the business side) and the editor-in-chief (in charge of content). Because of this, The Dartmouth was financially independent from the college. However, The Dartmouth felt it needed a more formal organization. It feared its current structure could not bear a potential assault from the college. It subsequently incorporated itself as a legally recognized corporation. Origi-
nally, it was chartered in Maine. The College had a lot of political influence at the time and the paper feared it would be vulnerable in a lawsuit. In 1939, the paper switched back to New Hampshire, with fears of political influence quelled. The Darmouth indeed has a rich history. For hundreds of years, it has in some way or another had a profound impact on life at the College. However, their oft-cited claim of “America’s Oldest College Newspaper” is more dubious as it sounds. It shows up on every edition, and is listed by the title on their website, but is, ultimately, a bit of “fake news.” The lack of incorporation until 1913 is one challenge to its claim. It is true that The Dartmouth does not claim to be the oldest incorporated newspaper. Arguably, however, part of being a newspaper is having legal recognition, or being incorporated. Therefore, to call oneself “America’s Oldest College Newspaper” on the basis of having been created in 1799 is questionable when the date of legal recognition was not until 1913. Yet another challenge is the regularity with which The Dartmouth is published. According to Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary, a newspaper is defined as “a paper that is printed and distributed usually daily or
weekly and that contains news, articles of opinion, features, and advertising.” The Dartmouth only began to be published regularly starting in 1876, 77 years after the 1799 date The Dartmouth refers to when it dubs itself “America’s Oldest College Newspaper.” If, to qualify as a newspaper, a requirement is an element of high frequency, or even regularity, then The Dartmouth effectively does not bear the scrutiny of being “America’s Oldest College Newspaper.” Another challenge to The Dartmouth’s claim of being “America’s Oldest College Newspaper” is its continuity. Many claim that The Dartmouth experienced one or more periods of discontinuity. It has not been published consistently since its inception. It seems wrong to call a newspaper which has stopped and restarted over the 217 years of its supposed existence to dub itself “America’s Oldest College Newspaper.” The Dartmouth has certainly had a lasting impact on campus. However, it was not incorporated until 1913, only began frequent, regular publication in 1875, and has not been continuous since 1799. It claims to be “America’s Oldest College Newspaper,” but these facts heavily detract from its claim. You heard it here first: The Dartmouth is fake news.
ing the need for an internal hire. However, he seems to have let demographic factors trump fitness for the role as well. Examining the differences between the records of Mastanduno and Duthu at the times of their respective appointments is instructive. When Mastanduno was appointed in 2010, he already had seven years of experience as Associate Dean for the Social Sciences. Presumably, Mastanduno displayed a degree of competence, or otherwise he would not have been promoted. In contrast, Duthu will have had only one year of experience as an Associate Dean, a time too short to gain real experience. Worse yet, at the time of President Hanlon’s announcement, Duthu had only been on the job for ten months, a time period insufficient to establish his competence or lack thereof. Moreover, by the time of his appointment, Mastanduno had already established himself as an eminent scholar in one of the College’s top departments. The author and editor of numerous well-cited books and articles, Mastanduno had the potential to command the respect of the faculty. Duthu, while probably a fine scholar with two books and a smattering of law review articles, does not have the same distinguished record. And there is one last key difference; Mastanduno, of course, is a white male, and Duthu is a Native American. It is hard to believe that Duthu’s minority status was not the deciding factor in his appointment, even before considering his authorship of a BDS petition. As a thought exercise,
compare Duthu’s record to that of a potential alternative who happens to be a white male. Andrew A. Samwick, the Sandra L. and Arthur L. Irving ‘72a, P’10 Professor of Economics, has been Director of the Rockefeller Center since 2004. Before assuming significant administrative duties, his record of scholarship was so distinguished that he managed to make full professor in seven years instead of the usual 11 or 12. He has published in top economics journals, including the American Economic Review and the Journal of Political Economy, while also serving for a year as Chief Economist of the Council of Economic Advisors. While Duthu’s lack of qualifications is troubling enough, what is truly unconscionable is Duthu’s involvement in BDS. For those unaware, the anti-Semitic Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement targets the State of Israel for its alleged human rights abuses. Beyond singling out the only free and liberal state in the Middle East, BDS establishes a clear double standard in a region ruled by oppressive Islamist ideology. With respect to the academy, BDS supports the wholesale shunning of Israeli institutions and an active refusal to deal with Israeli academics The movement strikes against the core values of the academy: academic freedom and open inquiry. Duthu was not content to merely sign a BDS petition, a choice that could (under duress) be waved away as a momentary lapse in judgement. He found it within himself to co-author a second petition. Since his appointment, Duthu has not
disavowed his support for BDS, and the administration has been careful to avoid any mention of his involvement in the movement. In any case, he cannot be trusted to encourage the debate, dialogue, and disconfirmation that the academy so prizes. While Duthu makes a farce of these values, one should be concerned about whether controversial but worthwhile speakers will be disinvited from campus. With Duthu’s appointment to the Dean of the Faculty position, Dartmouth is now reaping what President Hanlon and Provost Dever have sown with the mind-numbing emphasis on
diversity and inclusion. Rather than select the most qualified person, the administration has managed to appoint a dangerously unacceptable affirmative action candidate. The prominence of the Dean of the Faculty has diminished with the recent emphasis on student life, elevation of the Provost, and establishment of the graduate school. Nevertheless, with a pressing need to reinvigorate academic life at the College, the position is more important than ever. We need a proven leader with real vision and credibility, not someone who just checks the right boxes.
Dean Duthu: A Grave Mistake > CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1
The search to replace outgoing Dean of the Faculty Michael Mastanduno, the Nelson A. Rockefeller Professor of Government, began on a curious note. President Hanlon announced a national search for the position, a peculiar choice for a role that requires being particularly attuned to the parochial interests of the faculty. (In doing so, President Hanlon enlisted the costly services of an executive search firm.) Furthermore, the Dean of the Faculty must understand the College’s unique position at the intersection of undergraduate education and cutting-edge research. Indeed, with both President Hanlon and Provost Dever being external hires from the University of Michigan and Vanderbilt University, respectively, the need for an internal hire is particularly acute. While he dithered with a national search, President Hanlon emphasized that the purpose of casting a wide net was “to find the most qualified leader to fill the position.” Yet he also mentioned, “Of the nine [dean searches I conducted], only two of the deans I hired were white males; four of them were people of color. So, that sort of tells you what I am looking for in the search.” For some reason, likely the administration’s ongoing tensions with an undercompensated and underappreciated faculty, President Hanlon seems to have reversed course, realizMr. Chen is a senior at the College and a senior correspondent at The Dartmouth Review.
BRUCE DUTHU A poor choice.
Courtesy of Dartmouth College
8 Monday – April 10, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
CO-FOUNDER Oscar Ruben Cornejo Casares Image courtesy of CoFIRED
> CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 They tried to organize in terms of formal organizations, they couldn’t. I came in fall of 2013. I was mentored by two undocumented students, they were seniors at the time. I told one of them that we need to start something for undocumented students because there was no support network for us. And that’s where CoFIRED came about, and it’s been a very successful organization. I continued working with them. Also, I am a Mellon Mays Fellow, which is a fellowship here at Dartmouth that helps students get to graduate school, providing them professional development skills, and academic resources to go on to graduate school and become professors. I’ve also been involved with OPAL, the Office of Pluralism and Leadership. I’m also a student adjudicator in the Office of Judicial Affairs. I’ve been involved with La Allianza Latina, which is our student Latino organization here on campus. So I’ve been a very heavily involved student both in terms of organizations and activism as well. TDR: Shifting over towards CoFIRED, can you go a little deeper into what inspired you to start CoFIRED? And also what does your membership look like? ORCC: Coming in fall 2013, there were two big events that sparked the creation of the organization. You might remember in that time there was a controversial game at UT Austin Mr. Kauderer is a sophomore at the College and Executive Editor at The Dartmouth Review. Mr. Hutensky is a freshman at the College and a Managing Editor at The Dartmouth Review.
called “Catch the Illegal Alien,” which sparked national controversy. And I was very upset by it. There was also a “Drop the I Word” Campaign, I think at UC Berkeley. I think The Dartmouth Review covered it my freshman year and I was upset by some of the commentary that was made, specifically by the newspaper, because I was reading and coming in and thinking that Dartmouth was this inclusive place, but it really wasn’t. The statements that were being made don’t reflect my reality or the reasons that we came to the US. So, UC Berkeley, I think, successfully got their Senate and their school to drop the “I word” and so I wanted something similar to happen at Dartmouth, and I didn’t want a thing similar to the Illegal Alien Game to happen at Dartmouth. And also, I saw the lack of support in terms of mental health resources, in terms of legal support, in terms of navigating Dartmouth as an undocumented student. There wasn’t anything that was consolidated in a structural form. So, I told my mentor Eduardo at that time, a senior, “We need to start something, we should do something.” So we spent that December break, in the fall of 2014, drafting a constitution and we were approved January 22, 2014, the next month. The membership has shifted over the years and I think that speaks to (1) the national landscape, (2) immigration policy, and (3) the recruitment and the things that not only CoFIRED, but also the Admissions Office has done. In the beginning, it was led by specifically undocumented students, and it was made to do advocacy work. That was the main thing I had envisioned at first – advocacy work. Now, the way I’ve seen it, it hasn’t evolved to meet the current needs, but I created all these positions alongside Eduardo
to give these students the opportunity to gain leadership and be empowered and realize that their condition is not a subjugated existence, but rather a way for them to draw strength and be successful at Dartmouth. There were all these directorship positions that were created and we were meant to be there as a leeway[sic] between the undocumented students, the rest of us, and the admissions and faculty and staff at Dartmouth. We were that intermediary between the two. Because we didn’t have representation, we didn’t have a voice for our issues that hadn’t been addressed or had been very under the table, underground, hush-hush, don’t ask, or don’t tell. Now the membership has shifted, because the number of undocumented students has increased over time. There are about 30-40 [undocumented students at Dartmouth] now and we get that from some of the Dartmouth offices, and our personal connections. [That is] the number we estimate, between undergrad and graduate students at Dartmouth. It is not the largest amount, but it is still a sizable amount. The shift has happened because of a higher number of DACA recipients. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals is a program President Obama passed, an executive order in 2012, which allows certain undocumented immigrants to receive deportation deferral and work authorization if they pose no national security threat to the US. I think about 750,000 got it, so most of the undocumented students at Dartmouth are this particular type of immigrant. The membership, though, is still maintained by the executive board and then communicated to the undocumented students at Dartmouth. TDR: You spoke a little bit about your mission as an organization. When you started, you focused initially on advocacy, but current times have changed that. Can you elaborate on that? Has your approach changed since the election of President Trump? ORCC: So the mission, in particular, is to advance the rights of undocumented students at Dartmouth and beyond. In the beginning, we were thinking about ways the landscape is organized here at Dartmouth. We were using particular words, and terms, and language that I don’t think allowed us to come to the table and have dialogue. So that’s why the first thing we focused on was language, and the “Drop the I Word” Campaign: to eliminate and understand the implications of using the words “illegal, illegal immigrant, illegals,” and how that has become racialized, pejorative, and how it is not an appropriate term to use. So, the beginning stage was to change the way we were talking, having a discussion, having dialogue. Then it shifted towards providing resources for undocumented students in terms of OPAL, Admissions, Financial Aid, CPD, Dick’s House, and all the facets of Dartmouth that would allow you to be successful. After that solidified, we started to move to more local issues. We started to expand in terms of looking at the farmworkers here in the Upper Valley, looking at connecting with churches
and other local organizations in New England. We are the only organization in New Hampshire that focuses on undocumented student issues. The only two other organizations are a local chapter of a Massachusetts immigrant rights coalition and New Hampshire Granite Staters for Immigration reform, which I think is a center-right or a center-left organization. But there is no one in New Hampshire who does what we do, and I think that speaks to the politics of New Hampshire. Now, our approach has become more reactive, in terms of the national immigration politics with the current administration, that we have in the Presidency[sic] and his current politics towards immigrants. I see a lot more coalition work being taken into fruition with other facets of Dartmouth. That has been the underpinning of the organization: to form alliances and work across these different groups to come together and talk about immigration. I think overall it has shifted from talking solely about undocumented students to talking more broadly about immigrants. I see more conversations about Muslims and Muslim immigrants, so I think it has expanded. TDR: What is difference, from your perspective, between illegal alien and undocumented immigrant? Why does it matter that we use one and not the other?
ORCC: My experience in being called illegal and an illegal alien has been one that is meant that is meant to create difference and target and dehumanize. When we look at the way we treat others and the way we perceive certain people, the “I Word” is categorizing me outside of the imaginary or outside of what the society is. It doesn’t critique how law, the state, policy, or the government creates the conditions for this certain type of existence. How U.S. immigration law, for example, in the 1960s led to the rise of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. There was a particular strategy in terms of the government, that they didn’t think the undocumented immigrants were going to come, but that was the consequence of it. The economic stability of countries is affected by immigration law and U.S. foreign policy, which creates undocumented immigration. Then, once they come here, they are vilified and demonized, because they are thought of as to have broken the law, to be criminals, to have undermined the rule of law in the U.S. Those are things to consider, however, I don’t think that argument in terms of threatening the rule of law is a particularly critical one, because we are not here to undermine U.S. law. My dad and mom came to the U.S. because they were living in poverty, they did not have an opportunity for anything, and they were willing to leave their home, everything they had, they were willing to leave their family, risk their lives, pay the smuggler to come to the U.S.—not for themselves, but for their children. It did not matter to them about this particular idea of the law. We tend to think of it as this unbiased, apolitical thing, but we don’t consider the architects of the law, the ideologies of the architects, so immigration law is put into a particular context, and I think we need
Monday – April 10, 2017
A Conversation with CoFIRED:
The Dartmouth Review
to bring that into the conversation. So, when we use illegal alien, we are first describing people as outside the law, but we are very much inside the law, and it’s a way to dehumanize and exclude people who are perceived to be a threat to the U.S. An alien, as well, is to use ideas of foreignness. I don’t know why people perceive me to be foreign or to be an alien. I am not from Mars – I am not an extraterrestrial. Even though it has two denotations, we are talking about connotations – we are talking about the way it manifests in day to day relationships that we have with people. And the way that it has been applied is that it has been used to dehumanize people, to create a certain type of discourse that excludes people. To use undocumented in some way is to understand that illegal alien is dehumanizing. Undocumented isn’t perfect—I don’t think anyone is saying that—undocumented has a very particular use. It just means that these people don’t have U.S. citizenship, they are here without authorization, they lack these papers. The use of undocumented is to move away from the way illegal alien has been used. And the Library of Congress has demonstrated that this word is pejorative and has been used to denigrate people. TDR: If you were given control of American immigration policy, for however long it took to implement your ideal approach, what would that look like? ORCC: The first thing we need to talk about is separating the conversation between immigration and terrorism. 9/11 created this conflation of the two, of terrorism and immigration. Those two conversations are related, but not the same. One thing people don’t understand is that right before 9/11 happened, the Mexican president Vicente Fox and George Bush were in conversation to establish a new labor program, a new way to regularize immigration, so it was moving toward a positive step and then 9/11 happened and so things were going to happen but then 9/11 happened and those conversations never happened again, in terms of thinking about what is the best way these two countries in particular can move forward with immigration. Divorce the two. Second, we need to move away from militarizing the border. Militarizing the border has created migrant deaths. It has created these unintended consequences. So I would move away from militarizing the border. If we are thinking about the borders as the problem, why isn’t the Canadian border being militarized? We are only thinking about the Mexican border. The U.S. has another border up north. A big, huge border – what’s happening up there? We need to be having a conversation about borders. TDR: To be fair, there is not mass migration occurring from Canada into the United States. Policymakers are simply leveraging economic resources to defend borders that are most strategically important right now for the United States. Because there is no mass migration from Canada, there is no need to fortify the Canadian border.
A Different Take on Immigration ORCC: If something were to happen and it came from the Canadian border, then we’re going to have a big conversation about why we didn’t do what we did with the other border. Power relations in terms of the two, and relations between Canada [and the U.S.] have been different than relations between Mexico [and the U.S.]. Again, these were colonial legacies that were being impacted. The second thing I would talk about is understanding refugees, asylum seekers, and understanding how the way visas are being implemented right now needs to be updated and modernized. There is this huge backlog in terms of these cases of visas from certain countries—in particular the Philippines and Mexico. There’s huge 20-year backlogs, so we need to modernize that system in terms of being able to process everything. In terms of thinking about undocumented immigration: I don’t know if I have specific answers to that. The way I have rationalized it is to (1) understand in some way the economic conditions that exist, making sure the people that are leaving their homes stay in their homes. If my mom and dad had a choice, they would have stayed home, they wouldn’t have come to the US. They did it out of a way to survive. If the economic conditions in their country helped them to stay and be able to live there [in Mexico], there wouldn’t be a reason for us to do a clandestine border crossing or come here unauthorized. If we marry immigration policy and foreign policy and understand ways to address economics in foreign countries, that can move us forward. In terms of people who are already here, there are already 11-12 million of us. There are parents, there are children, there are grandmas, there are laborers, farmworkers. Everyone in every facet of society, from doctors to farmworkers, laborers to teachers. I’m a student, my dad is a laborer. There are a wide variety of things, but I think we need to regularize, we need to give them a pathway to citizenship, because many of them have been here for decades. They see themselves as members of society. I don’t know what threat my dad places to this country. He pays his taxes, and actually he pays taxes and doesn’t get the money back he would be getting back. He pays more into the system than the system gives us back. We’re not on welfare, none of that, because my dad and my family is too proud for that. So we don’t get any benefits from the state. I pay my taxes as well. I’m working, paying my tuition here. We don’t pose any type of threat, at least in terms of thinking about the safety of the US. We do everything for the state. My dad recognizes the position he is in, so we need to think about legalizing the undocumented immigrant population that poses no threat to this country - in particular, the Dreamers or the DACA recipients, those who have already proven they are no threat to this country. TDR: Thank you for personalizing it. That is a really important part of this interview, and a reason we wanted to speak with you, but regarding means-tested welfare programs, a Census Bureau study showed that 50% of households headed by undocumented immigrants use at least
one means-tested welfare program. In terms of dramatically reshaping the undocumented experience in the United States, how do you think we should prioritize those who are already here? Also, you mentioned that we should focus on demilitarizing and opening up our borders and allowing people to come into the United States. Do the benefits of these actions for new illegal immigrants outweigh the costs such as depressed wages and negative economic growth, for example?
ORCC: I’m not saying open up the borders. That’s not what I’m saying at all. I think a country has its right to exercise its sovereignty over its borders. I’m saying demilitarize the borders, move away from these helicopters, the amount of people stationed at this place. TDR: That’s essentially going to lead to mass migration into the United States. You can’t remove enforcement and expect things to stay the same. Enforcement is there for a reason. ORCC: I don’t think mass migration would happen. But in terms of separating between the two, the border and those already here, I think the conversation that we have had thus far in terms of the discourse in Congress has always been about national security and border enforcement. That has been the one thing specifically the political right and some people on the left have continuously focused on and not addressed some of the other issues. The border is very secure right now. I don’t know how much more secure you can make it. If you’re going to build a wall, build a wall, but that’s not going to do anything. If you build a 40-foot wall, people are going to bring a 41-foot ladder. If you build it underground, people are going to go under the side, or find some other ways. I think we underestimate the agency and the power that smugglers and underground networks have in terms of migration. TDR: So you just disproved your own point. We were talking about how if we remove enforcement, there would be mass migration, and you disagreed. But you just discussed how if we build a wall, which is seen by many as an increased level of enforcement, migrants would more heavily rely on these smugglers to get into the country, and mass migration would still occur. So they go hand in hand – removing enforcement, and increasing migration. ORCC: That’s assuming that you think people seeing less enforcement are going to come in. That’s not the reason people migrate. TDR: It will just incentivize it more, because the cost for doing so will be less. ORCC: I don’t think so, because people are leaving for a specific reason. They’re not incentivized to leave because it’s less costly to go. People do not leave their homes willingly. There has to be a specific reason for their migra-
tion, a specific context.
TDR: However, if there is this reason to go, and there’s less enforcement at the border, there would be a lower “barrier to entry.” ORCC: I think what we’re missing from this conversation is that we think all migration comes through the border. About 40% of undocumented immigrants in this country overstayed their visa; it’s not a matter of border stuff, it’s a matter of the visa system. Again, why is it that they left in the first place? I think that’s the root issue that we have to talk about. You can enforce all you want, or you can enforce nothing, but either way, there’s going to be migration. Migration has been an aspect of the human condition for all of history. I think we need to couple a lot of the strategies that we’re talking about – militarization and securing the border has been the only thing we’ve been doing. None of this other stuff that I’ve mentioned has been done. TDR: You spoke a little bit about granting amnesty, or a pathway to citizenship, and focused on those who were here paying taxes, hard-working, etc. Do you have any position on granting amnesty for criminals who have committed felony crimes in the United States? ORCC: I do a lot of research on undocumented immigration and work with undocumented immigrants. They talk a lot, for example, about getting arrested for civil disobedience. If they’ve committed enough misdemeanors, it becomes a felony. So, by that definition, they’d become a criminal. But if you look at the context in which that became a felony, they were fighting for their rights. If we’re thinking about excluding criminal aliens for a lack of citizenship, that doesn’t make sense for me to be able to exclude someone for fighting for their rights or doing what they believed was the pathway. But I think this conversation about criminal and non-criminal seeks to divide, not only the undocumented immigrants, but from moving forward in creating immigration policy. I’ve been called criminal too, and the only thing I’ve done was I came to this country. But there is no uniform understanding of what it is to be a criminal. TDR: But that’s what the law is for. We can make a law that defines what a criminal is and take action in not granting amnesty to those people. ORCC: I think we’re creating a very dangerous discussion when we go from criminal/non-criminal because that’s saying that criminals are undeserving of membership, of being in this country. TDR: In many cases, they are [undeserving]. The fact remains that, although it’s not common, there have been cases where immigrants have committed murder and other heinous crimes. And there is no legal precedent for admitting them into our country and granting blanket amnesty for them.
ORCC: I think we have to have a conversation about the ‘gradation of criminality.’ Criminality is not a uniform thing, and so if we’re talking about murderers and rapists, that’s a different conversation than getting three misdemeanors from getting arrested because of civil disobedience. That’s a different conversation that I think we need to have as well. In general, however, immigrants are less likely to be criminal. We’re talking about a very, very small percentage here. What about the rest of us? I think we’re very focused on this particular thing, creating deserving and undeserving, good immigrants and bad immigrants. TDR: It’s the role of the government to promote the safety and protection of all its citizens. Shouldn’t the government be working to ensure that? If criminals are committing crimes against both immigrant communities and citizens, shouldn’t it be the role of the government to be able to prevent future crimes from occurring?
ORCC: Again, we’re talking about a very small population. I’m not saying that the government shouldn’t protect its citizens, what I’m saying is that the rest of us are non-criminals. We’re talking about this small, specific part of the population, and yes, we need to figure out a way to prevent these people from posing a public safety threat or affect the rest of the people in the country. I think that’s what you’re probably trying to get me to say. But my take on it is that this conversation between criminal and non-criminal is divisive. TDR: We’ve had a lot of talk about shifting conversations and public opinion, but do you have any specific laws or actions that you feel we should be advancing to start to fix these problems in the immigration systems and with undocumented immigration? ORCC: I think I already mentioned a lot of the stuff I would do, but the one thing about the immigration system is that it needs to be modernized and needs to reflect the current state that we’re in. Deporting 11-12 million people is simply not possible. It will be an economic strain on taxpayers, which is why ICE prioritizes and is strategic towards its targets, but even then it’s problematic, because they’re arresting and detaining DACA recipients who don’t pose any threat to this country. It’s also a conversation of deportation and how that is married with private industrial complex. TDR: Can you elaborate on that? ORCC: The private prison industrial complex is this complex between government and states and these national corporations that are for-profit prisons, so they gain money from having people in jails and containment facilities. Private detention centers are incentivized to have a certain number of detained people, typically people of color and undocumented immigrants, to create and sustain their economic structures. They gain money
from bodies. TDR: We don’t live in a nation where the state is the judge, jury, and executioner. There’s a legal system, where police can arrest someone, you go to a court, and there’s a jury and judge. It’s not this system where the warden of a private prison can say, “Okay, we’re going to round up these people and haul them into our jail.” That’s not how it works in the United States. ORCC: Well you’d be surprised at how border agents and ICE operate. It’s very aggressive. I’ve seen some videos of how they treat people; it’s dehumanizing. You’re also assuming the court system is fair and efficient; it’s not. It’s very much backlogged. We need to modernize that system. We need to be able to process and do things efficiently. I think we need to not have these private prisons at all, which benefit from having people in their facilities. That’s a broader conversation about criminality worth thinking about. Anyway, pivoting back: deportation is one aspect. Modernizing the visa system, demilitarizing the border, and making sure that undocumented immigrants in this country are on a pathway to citizenship. A foreign policy that ensures migrants stay in their country is not just the sole job of the U.S. That’s a job for all these states that have created these conditions. TDR: How has the U.S. created these conditions in Mexico, for example? ORCC: We begin first in 1848 after the end of the U.S.-Mexican War where the U.S. invaded Mexico and gained all that territory that is now the southwestern United States. Imagine that when the U.S. gained its independence, a few days later Canada came in and took half of the colonies; that’s the parallel I would make. Already a power relationship between the two states is created. Mae Ngai, a historian at Columbia University, describes this type of action in terms of laborers coming in later as a type of imported colonialism, where we have the people who historically lived in this area, now coming back and being laborers and being exploited in this area which was once theirs. We’re creating the conditions where we think of Mexicans as laborers, as people sustaining the U.S. economy, and that has been continuously the way that relationships have been, that Mexico supplies the labor and the U.S. fits them in this larger structure. We need to think about the role of the state again in creating immigrants to the U.S. TDR: Do you have any plans for after graduation? ORCC: I applied to graduate school. I’ll be attending Northwestern University in the fall for my PhD in sociology, studying undocumented immigration, social movements, and sociology of law. My aspiration is to become a professor, be an educator, and continue doing research with this particular community. TDR: Thank you, Oscar, for taking the time to speak with us. We wish you the best of luck in your future studies.
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two years. I guess that’s how I went to graduate school here, how I chose folklore as my specialty, and I think the course of my life was changed because of that meeting with Professor Dundes. TDR: Could you tell us a bit more about your scholarship, and what specifically your academic interests are, and what you’ve published?
VICTORIA SOMOFF Associate Professor of Russian Image courtesy of Dartmouth College
Brian Chen B. Webb Harrington
Senior Correspondent Associate Editor
The Dartmouth Review (TDR): I know a bit about your background, that you grew up in the Soviet Union. Could you tell us a bit about that background, and how you became a professor? Victoria Somoff (VS): I belong to what historians define as the Last Soviet Generation, in that I grew up in the Soviet Union during the time the Soviet Union collapsed, so I was born in the Soviet Republic of the Ukraine. Now it’s the Ukraine, an independent country. In the mid 90s, it was a very difficult time for most Soviet states, when the economic situation got progressively worse and it was hardest in the 90’s. My family, my friends, and I decided to emigrate. So, we received refugee status and came to the United States—to San Francisco, California. In Ukraine I was a university student. I was a graduate student in the city of Donetsk, and I also taught Russian language and literature in high school. I came to California in order to find a job in San Francisco teaching Russian. I did that, but I was unsuccessful. So, I picked up the yellow pages and called every place that had anything Russian including the Hill School, which is in a neighborhood in San Francisco called the Russian Hill. It has nothing to do with Russian, but I called and offered to teach Russian and they were surprised. I couldn’t find any job teaching Russian. I spent about a year doMr. Chen is a senior at the College and a senior correspondent at The Dartmouth Review. Mr. Harrington is a freshman at the College and an Associate Editor at The Dartmouth Review.
ing all kinds of jobs. I worked as a waitress and as a clerk; I even worked at a supply store. I began to seriously think about going back to Ukraine. It was a moment of distress—not personal distress, since I had found lots of friends in San Francisco, but I wanted to continue my professional career. I wanted to go back to research and writing, and I just couldn’t see how that could happen in America. I was thinking about going back to Ukraine, and I knew it would be difficult, but it may have been what I had to do to continue my profession. I might have done that, but I met an American friend, who has since become my husband, who told me that he knows that there is this great school nearby named UC Berkeley, and I should go there to see what they have for me there. I went to try it out, and it became a decisive moment for me on whether I would stay in America and become a professor, because I met this remarkable man named Professor Alan Dundes, and I told my students, “I know that name!” He was a well-known scholar but also remarkably generous person both intellectually and in personal interactions. He was the head of the folklore program at UC Berkeley and remarkably popular. His classes would have hundreds of students. He was so popular that there would be folklore about Professor Dundes teaching folklore. I just came in from the street to his office, and he asked me who I am, and I explained to him what I did back in Ukraine, and I was just so surprised that with my very limited English I was able to perfectly explain to him what I was doing and what my interests were. It felt like I was back in this academic environment again. He suggested that I apply to his program in folklore, and I did. He supported me financially while I studied for
VS: I will talk about folklore because it became the field that I’ve been concentrating on recently. My first book was on the rise of the Russian novel in the 19th century. I started my career in Ukraine. I had some wonderful teachers there, and of course in the United States. My teachers of literature in Ukraine taught me this approach to works of literature that I have tried to stay faithful to since then: To view a work of literature not as a representation or reflection of broad processes—social, economic, political, psychological, and so on. Even though every work of literature is influenced by and formed out of these external factors, in every work there would be some kind of surplus or excess in relation to all these factors, so that literature ultimately does not represent reality. It gives us that experience that is in principle unavailable in real life. That has been my approach to literature and to folklore; I always search for that surplus and that excess. I believe I focused on folklore because it is very conducive material for that. As all my students know every folktale, every folk proverb or folk song is found in a variety of different cultures. It perseveres and exists across cultural boundaries, and space and time. It forces us to ask this question, what is in the story itself, that it appeals to different cultures and societies? They still have that story. What makes it so that they still listen to it? Whatever I do, whether I study Russian novel, or folk tales, that has been my approach. TDR: What types of current projects are you working on? VS: My current project has to do with folklore and with literature. It has to do with literary narrative and oral narrative. My question is: I am looking at literary works in the Russian tradition which are in some way inspired or based on folklore or folk stories, folk characters, plots, imagery. I’m looking at the interaction between literature and folklore. The tenacity of folklore. Authors, often of great stature, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Shakespeare, have been inspired by folklore. King Lear is based on the folk tale Love Like Salt where the king asked his three daughters who loves him most, the king thinks the youngest daughter gives him the “wrong” answer. She says she loves him like salt, and he chases her away, but eventually the king realizes that
she gave the correct answer and really loved him the most. King Lear is a little different, but you can recognize the similarities with the folk tale. One question I’m asking is what is the appeal of that situation? What is it in that story that appeals to people who create literature? The second question is, so when folklore enters literature, what changes and what patterns can we recognize from that in which folklore is changed. Is there any way in which literary authors use folklore? I claim that there is. That’s going to be a book called, Short of a Miracle, Russian Literature. TDR: You teach many well-regarded courses. What prompted you to teach this large variety of different courses, and what do you particularly enjoy teaching? VS: I was kind of surprised that I have been switching to new courses, even though at the beginning I thought it would be safer to teach the same courses over time so that I could focus on my book. But I found myself designing new courses. I’m not sure what the reason is. One reason perhaps, is that I enjoy excitement and unpredictability which come with a new course, and that feeling that you don’t quite know where you’re going and how it’s going to turn out, it feels like you’re in the same boat as your students. It creates an environment that’s very conducive to cooperative research, and I like that feeling. I’ve been looking for ways to recreate that feeling, and I found that every time I teach a new course, it’s that feeling. That first course I taught on folklore, I still remember the course, and some of the students. Some of the same students still write me saying they thought of something and thought I might want to hear it. I sometimes teach the same course, but I have some piece of this course that is renewable, like having the same course perform a different play at the end each time. My last course was an advanced seminar in Russian. It was for advanced speakers and native speakers. My students wrote a novel, that’s the first time I’ve done it. Now I’m thinking of having a permanent course called “Creative writing in Russian” but every time it would be different creative writing. TDR: What is your approach to classroom instruction? VS: My approach is to have a discussion in every class, even if that class is a lecture. No matter whether we formally have a seminar and everybody is speaking, or in a large class, I try to make it a discussion, in that we are moving from question to question, complicating things rather than explaining them. That has been my approach. The challenge is to formulate questions clearly so we don’t get into some muddy area where nothing
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is clear. The direction should be from question to more difficult question. The evidence of analytical work well done is that it’s not finished. If we talk about one story for two classes and we’re not done yet that means we did well. TDR: What is the most rewarding aspect of teaching at Dartmouth? VS: There are many words that can be said about Dartmouth students: hard working, caring, intelligent. What’s most important for me, and what I was somewhat surprised and grateful to see, Dartmouth students are willing to take risk and to take responsibility for that risk. I have been trying to offer students new courses. I have been trying to offer students something they haven’t done before. Like staging a play. I would offer to stage a play to a group of students who weren’t even theater students, many hadn’t even done any creative writing, or why don’t we write a novel. I was always impressed with how many people say, “yes.” Agreeing to do something when it was unclear how it would turn out, and they would stick to it. The level of commitment my students have offered me is very impressive. There would always be moments, often mid-term, where I just felt like we couldn’t finish; there were no costumes or something finished, but there would be moments where students would just commit to it, not in a showy way. Every time, we would get it done. I don’t know how, but we would get it done. That’s the kind of dedication and commitment that Dartmouth students have. Somehow, we’d stage the play, or finish the book. TDR: Has your teaching influenced your scholarship and vice versa? VS: There is a very tight connection. I teach a lot of topics that I research. I offer folklore courses for instance. But also, there is a very obvious inverse relationship, that goes from teaching to research. It’s very often that an idea for research or a project would come from class. I teach a course called Russian Fairy Tales, but the subtitle for the course is “Morals and Miracles,” and the book I already talked about grew out of this course. In the course, we studied fairy tales, and literary fairy tales. First, it was just something to discuss, and then the richness of the conversations that we had in class convinced me that there was a book idea here. There is an immediate connection between scholarship and teaching here. TDR: What do you think are the institutional challenges facing Dartmouth? VS: I am still developing my institutional vision. I have been mostly focused on research and writing
Victoria Somoff, Russian Department and on my students and teaching. I am learning more on Dartmouth as an institution, and to see the decisions and challenges, and how to form them. It’s a very different system than I encountered in Ukraine. This is a research institution with a focus on undergraduate teaching. That’s a structural challenge that is present. The key is to see it not as a weakness, but to see it as a strength. To see a way to work with that challenge. I don’t have a vision of how to do that, but I can say that it should be done not by decreasing research, but by increasing the intensity of undergraduate research. We have very intelligent students who can handle graduate level research, especially in the humanities. We could have conferences formed of graduate and undergraduate students. We have a visiting scholar here who is teaching a course on Tolstoy, and she’s implementing a terrific initiative so that by the end of the course when students usually are submit papers, she has organized a conference where students can present their research. It’s done in small panels, like real conferences. This is something that graduate students do. There will be a keynote speaker. The whole class culminates in this format, and all our classes could use this. Other professors could ask their students to do this, and perhaps their research could be made into a publication or undergraduate paper in humanities, run by students and publishing student work. This is the challenge, providing more opportunities for undergraduate research. I think the initiative to bring postdoctoral fellows to campus has been very helpful. We need to institutionalize it. TDR: Grade inflation and academic rigor have been hotly debated topics in recent years. I saw that you were on the ad hoc committee on grading practices and grade inflation. What are your thoughts on the topic? VS: I’m afraid that my thoughts that are important to me might not be very productive or constructive. In an ideal world, I think that grades should be abandoned altogether, at least in the humanities. The process of submitting work, and being assigned a mark, a number, definitely interferes with the process of genuine inquiry. There is a contradiction here. It creates this dual motivation for the student to do good work, to do good research, and to get a good grade. It happens all the time, where students write good papers and good grades, but there is still a conflict. I could easily imagine a situation for instance, where a student was not able to finish paper because of the complexity of the questions involved, or where a paper deconstructs itself because the student realized in the process of writing that it was based on a false premise. I think those are valuable ex-
periences, but the grading creates the need to produce a paper by a certain deadline. It must affect the way students do research, maybe more for one student and less for others, but for every student it is a matter of compromise. I think this compromise is not conducive for good work. I see this as a conflict. To say that we are inflating grades is not a solution to this problem; we need a different solution. I do think that measures should be taken to slow down or to stop grade inflation, but while we keep in mind that there are issues to do with grading itself, which is in many ways unnecessary, a superfluous component. TDR: Given that you recently got tenure, do you have any thoughts on the tenure process, or the promotion process for full professors? This has also been a hotly debated topic recently. Do you think it’s open and honest? VS: Once again, I would approach it from a different perspective. I see it in a slightly idealistic way. I think it’s a conflicted structure, even though I understand its origins and necessity. It might be analogous to the conflict for grading for students. We are evaluating, assigning marks to the progress that is being acknowledged, and it has some sort of certification. There is a conflict between the depth and complexity of research, and the need to comply with the emphasis on speed and productivity that tenure requires. To receive tenure, we must do in depth research, but we also have to show productivity, to deliver. Once again, it’s a compromise. We can’t allow ourselves sometimes as much time on an issue as is needed to be on tenure track. This doesn’t mean that people who do compromise and receive tenure, are necessarily the best scholars, because perhaps someone who is not able to compromise, and ultimately values complexity and depth and fails to deliver things on time, is perhaps not a lesser scholar. There is this tension that is bothering me. There is this larger world, where degrees, awards, promotions matter. It’s got its whole hierarchy, with more privileged or less privileged. I think this contradicts the spirit of inquiry, the spirit of research and genuine collaboration that is important. You’re always bustling between the two. I know so many, many people who are by no means lesser scholars, who do not have jobs, who do not have tenure, who do not have tenure track jobs, and it says absolutely nothing about the quality of their research. There are just few jobs in the market and there is all of this emphasis on productivity; for some reason they were not able to adhere to that schedule. However, the hierarchical structure takes over. It creates its own reputations and prestige, and hierarchy contradicts the very essence of what we do in academia and why we do
it. Once again, I think there is good will to make the process as transparent and fair as it can be here at Dartmouth, but there is still some ways to go before it is completely fair and transparent. I think that there is the contradiction of trying to measure in some sort of quantitative criteria, and research is not about that. One person working on an article for ten years might produce an article that will be quoted, cited, and will be a real contribution to the field, but that person would not get tenure, because to get tenure, you have to write a book and six articles. We should work on making the tenure process more fair and transparent, but keep in mind this larger issue and work against it. We have to find resources to fight against this hierarchical structure. Q: How do you like the experience of living in the Upper Valley? How do you like the weather up here? A: There are aspects of the weather that I like. I grew up in Ukraine, and we do have winter, but it’s somewhat milder winter, but most important it’s a lot shorter. I couldn’t have imagined winter in April, and then I moved to California for ten years. I appreci-
ate the seasons, because I missed them from home, but I don’t like that we don’t have spring, which is my favorite season. We have winter in April, and then we just jump straight into summer. TDR: Do you have any general comments on the increasing salience of Russia in the recent years, what’s going on in Russia and the Ukraine, and the refugee issue?
A: It is an issue that is very important to me. I think that you know there’s a very grave state of conflict in Russia and Ukraine. It’s a political conflict, ideological conflict, and it’s a military conflict where Russia’s annexing a part of a sovereign country, something that hasn’t happened since World War II. What it means is that the conflict is still ongoing. I cannot go back to my home in Ukraine, I cannot cross the border because it’s not controlled by Ukraine any more. I can’t visit. It’s not clear at this point how this conflict is going to be solved. Perhaps it’s more relevant to our discussion at Dartmouth because I work in the Russian Department and teach Russian literature and Russian theater. There is internal conflict in the department. There is some conflict for me, because I
am both. My language is Russian, but I am pretty clearly on the side of the Ukraine in this conflict. Its sovereign borders were violated, and the Ukrainian Revolution was extraordinary how it happened. People took to the streets and didn’t leave until they achieved what they wanted to achieve, and then you have this larger, powerful country attacking them and continuing to draw blood. I am searching for ways to solve this conflict, within me as well. I make sure that my students know that I am from Ukraine, because many people tend to identify that whole region with Russia, but, no, I am Ukrainian. I speak Ukrainian, and it’s a different country. Now, it’s a matter of principle to say that. I am thinking of ways to introduce Ukrainian culture into our curriculum. This class where we wrote a novel on modern Ukrainian history was one of those attempts. I do hope that at some point, here in the Russian Department, we can offer courses in Ukrainian history, and Ukrainian culture, so that it is clear to people that it is a different place, with its own music, sovereign borders theater, and literature. It’s an issue. I myself came to the U.S. as a refugee so there is absolutely no doubt in my mind that people who seek refuge should be welcome here.
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THE LAST WORD GORDON HAFF’S
COMPILED BY THE DARTMOUTH REVIEW STAFF
“I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go into the other room and read a book.” -Groucho Marx “I have never let my schooling interfere with my education.” -Mark Twain “What I mean by an educated taste is someone who has the same tastes that I have.” -Edward Albee “It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.” -Aristotle “Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school.” -Oscar Wilde “Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self-confidence.” -Robert Frost “Children must be taught how to think, not what to think.” -Margaret Mead “Education: the path from cocky ignorance to miserable uncertainty.” -Mark Twain
“The purpose of a good education is to show you that there are three sides to a two-sided story.” -Stanley Fish
“An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.” -Benjamin Franklin
“Spoon feeding, in the long run, teaches us nothing but the shape of the spoon.” -E.M. Forster
“We are all born ignorant, but one must work hard to remain stupid.” -Benjamin Franklin
“If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.” -Derek Bok
“The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go.” -Dr. Seuss
“Without education, we are in a horrible and deadly danger of taking educated people seriously.” -G.K. Chesterton “In real life, I assure you, there is no such thing as algebra.” -Fran Lebowitz “If all my possessions were taken from me with one exception, I would choose to keep the power of communication, for by it I would soon regain all the rest” -Daniel Webster “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” -Maimonides “You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself any direction you choose. You’re on your own. And you know what you know. And YOU are the one who’ll decide where to go...” -Dr. Seuss
“The illiterate of the future will not be the person who cannot read. It will be the person who does not know how to learn.” -Alvin Toffler “A wise man can learn more from a foolish question than a fool can learn from a wise answer.” -Bruce Lee “It is, Sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it!” -Daniel Webster “And the granite of New Hampshire in their muscles and their brains.” -Dartmouth Alma Mater “Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance.” -Will Durant
Stinson’s: Your Pong HQ Cups, Balls, Paddles, Accessories
(603) 643-6086 www.stinsonsvillagestore.com firstname.lastname@example.org
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