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THE FINALS ISSUE
DARTMOUTH’S SONS AND DAUGHTERS hard at work in the serene Tower Room of Baker Library
Image courtesy of Dartmouth College
The Libraries of Dartmouth Dartmouth’s Finest Profs Brandon E. Teixeira Zachary P. Port
Contributor Associate Editor In his book The Black Swan, Nassim Taleb uses the metaphor of Umberto Eco’s “antilibrary” to highlight our modern misunderstandings about collections of books. While some presume that Eco’s library of 30,000 books is a trophy case to display his reading prowess, Eco suggests that instead, a library is “not an ego-boosting appendage but a research tool… A library should contain as much of what you don’t know as your financial mean… allow.” The value of a vast untapped collection of books has never been lost on Dartmouth. For years, students, faculty, and the administration alike have seen the power that books give to institutions, and have made the acquisition of knowledge in paper form a key insti-
tutional priority. Today, it is hard to imagine Dartmouth College without its iconic Baker Tower at the head of the Green. However, the story of the Dartmouth’s libraries predates the grand clock tower by well over 100 years. Before Baker became the capitol of Dartmouth libraries, Dartmouth’s libraries lived in makeshift studies and home offices. The history of Dartmouth’s Libraries starts much in the same way the rest of our college’s history: with Eleazar Wheelock. In fact, the original Dartmouth library was nothing more than a collection of Wheelock’s books. Wheelock then appointed a math and natural philosophy tutor, Bazeel Woodward, as the first Librarian of the college, and made the southwest chamber of Woodward’s home the library. With books, a place to keep them, and
someone to look out for them, Dartmouth had its first library in 1970. As the library grew and encroached on Woodward’s living quarters, it became time for a new library in Old College, the principal college building of the time. This new library would be overseen by John Smith, who taught classics and oriental languages until he died in 1809. Besides teaching and running the library, Smith was the minister of the college church and owned a bookstore in Hanover. At this time, the role of Dartmouth Librarian was by no means a full time job. In fact, it was students who developed early Dartmouth libraries. As the Revolutionary War drew to a close, literary societies made their way into fashion. On Dartmouth’s campus, the “Socials” and the “Fraters,” two societies
on campus, began a fierce rivalry in literary debating. The groups collected dues and donations from members to build up their own rival libraries. The personal collections were likely needed because of the highly restrictive policy of the college library: a student had one hour per week to take out one book—that was it. When Dartmouth Hall replaced Old Dartmouth, the library moved to the new hall. There, each society received a room for its library. Organization of the library progressed with a printed catalogue in 1809, but the struggle between John Wheelock and the Trustees fragmented Dartmouth College into two disjoint entities: Dartmouth College and Dartmouth University (See The Storied History of Dartmouth).
> FEATURES PAGE 9
Abdul-Ghalib Agboola B. Webb Harrington Joshua L. Kauderer Contributor Associate Editor Managing Editor
The Dartmouth Review (TDR): When you were younger, did you have any idea that one day you might be a professor, or ever envision yourself in such a profession? Melanie Benson Taylor (MBT): The short answer is no, absolutely not. Not in any way. I grew up in a working-class environment in Cape Cod and what I did know was that I loved books, I loved literature, and I loved writing. The idea of being a professor was not on my radar at all. It didn’t seem possible at all for someone like me. So, I went off to college and was suddenly basking in
the glory of reading all day long and talking about books. I dreamed that maybe I’d be a famous writer, or a librarian or something, but I had a great professor, and one day I went to his office hours. Although I usually never went to his office hours, he drew me out and had me do some research for him. That opened the door for me in terms of seeing what scholarly life was like. On another occasion, I was sitting in his office talking to him about some work that I had been doing and he just happened to mention graduate school. He told me that I should go to graduate school and asked me if I had considered it, and I said “No, what’s that?” He explained the path to academia and that was a new revelation for me. From there, graduate school was my new mindset.
> FEATURES PAGE 10
HAPPY, HAPPY DAYS
COLLEGE FIREARM CULTURE
The Review examines nostalgia through the lens of the Dartmouth Twilight Song
We look at the sizeable group of students who exercise their 2nd Amendment rights
Divest Dartmouth may be mainstream, but is this movement truly justified?
> EDITORIAL PAGE 3
> FEATURES PAGE 6
> FEATURES PAGE 7
2 Monday – March 6, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
TABLE OF CONTENTS
For thirty-five years, The Dartmouth Review has been the College’s only independent newspaper and the only student opinion journal that matters. It is the oldest and most renowned campus commentary publication in the nation and spawned a national movement at the likes of Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and countless others. Our staff members and alumni have won many awards, including the Pulitzer Prize, and have been published in the Boston Globe, New York Times, National Review, American Spectator, Wall Street Journal, Weekly Standard, Village Voice, New Criterion, and many others. The Review aims to provide a voice for any student who enjoys challenging brittle and orthodox thinking. We stand for free speech, student rights, and the liberating arts. Whatever your political leanings, we invite you to come steep yourself in campus culture and politics, Dartmouth lore, keen witticisms, and the fun that comes with writing for an audience of thousands. We’re looking for writers, photographers, cartoonists, aspiring business managers, graphic designers, web maestros, and anyone else who wants to learn from Dartmouth’s unofficial school of journalism.
“Because every student deserves a safe space”
– Inge-Lise Ameer, Vice Provost for Student Affairs
Meetings held Mondays at 6:30 PM at our offices at 32 S. Main Street (next to Lou’s in the lower level office space)
INSIDE THE ISSUE The History of Dartmouth’s Libraries
Guns at Dartmouth
Great Professors: Melanie Benson Taylor
The Week in Review
The Importance of True Diversity
The Review takes a look at the history of various libraries on Dartmouth’s campus and reflects on their importance to the school.................................................................... PAGE 1
The Review sits down with the North Park House Professor and chair of the Native American Studies Department...................................................................................... PAGE 1
Various writers document and reflect on the events of the past week, offering commentary and a valuable conservative perspective............................................................... PAGE 6
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We explore this often-overlooked culture of students at the College who make the most of the College’s firearm policies...................................................................................... PAGE 6
Contributor Ishaan H. Jajodia takes a look at the divestment movement and its potential consequences.................................................................................................................... PAGE 7
Associate Editor Jack S. Hutensky takes a look at the College’s flawed view of diversity and how this issue can be righted.................................................................................. PAGE 8
CHURCHILL READS THE REVIEW. DO YOU?
The Dartmouth Review
Monday – March 6, 2017
MASTHEAD & EDITORIAL EST. 1980
“Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win great triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to takerank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much, because they live in the gray twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat.” —Theodore Roosevelt
Happy, Happy Days
Executive Editors Jack F. Mourouzis Joseph R. Torsella
Managing Editors Marcus J. Thompson Joshua L. Kauderer Devon M. Kurtz Rushil Shukla
Associate Editors Jack S. Hutensky B. Webb Harrington Zachary P. Port
BUSINESS STAFF President
Matthew R. Zubrow
Vice Presidents Robert Y. Sayegh Samuel W. Lawhon
Greg Fossedal, Gordon Haff, Benjamin Hart, Keeney Jones
Mean-Spirited, Cruel, and Ugly
Board of Trustees
Martin Anderson, Patrick Buchanan, Theodore Cooper-stein, Dinesh D’Souza, Michael Ellis, Robert Flanigan, John Fund, Kevin Robbins, Gordon Haff, Jeffrey Hart, Laura Ingraham, Mildred Fay Jefferson, William Lind, Steven Menashi, James Panero, Hugo Restall, Roland Reynolds, William Rusher, Weston Sager, Emily Esfahani-Smith, R. Emmett Tyrrell, Sidney Zion
NOTES Special thanks to William F. Buckley, Jr. “No words to bear the burden of our praise.” The Editors of The Dartmouth Review welcome correspondence from readers concerning any subject, but prefer to publish letters that comment directly on material published previously in The Review. We reserve the right to edit all letters for clarity and length. Please submit letters to the editor by mail or email: firstname.lastname@example.org Or by mail at:
The Dartmouth Review P.O. Box 343 Hanover, NH 03755 (603) 643-4370
Please direct all complaints to: email@example.com
The Dartmouth Twilight Song may seem naysayers: the former cultivates positive valone of the more cliché songs in the Dart- ues and the latter indiscriminately denigrates mouth repertoire. It conjures images of society. Dartmouth men: bright-eyed, white-collared People often criticize The Review for what youths with neatly-parted hair and green they perceive as negative nostalgia. Our pasweaters. For those with keen ears and an af- per seemingly represents a wistful (or rowfinity for the term social justice, it suggests an dy?) longing for “the good old days,” when era when Dartmouth men strolled the cam- Dartmouth embodied the spirit of New Enpus singing quaint songs about Indians and gland aristocracy. I do not deny that we occapuritanical values. sionally fall into this trap, but I do not believe Penned by Fred Pattee and Benjamin Gil- this perception accurately represents what we lette, both members of the class of ’88 (1888), stand for. At The Dartmouth Review, we work the Twilight Song has largely fallen out of to understand both our current times and favor thanks to its dated prose and classic customs and those of “the good old days.” melody. Franklin McDuffee ‘21’s Dartmouth We sincerely advocate for the preservation of Undying has replaced it in most reperthose customs that still hold value toires, which is understandable and the continuation of current considering its poetic verse and trends that promise to improve timeless air. The Twilight Song our society. may be only a fading relic of Many critiques of Darta former Dartmouth, but it mouth’s culture focus on its loss has not outlived its use or of “grit.” There is a prevailing relevance. sense that Dartmouth men of old Dartmouth seniors inspent all their time skiing, sponevitably gain a new appretaneously singing drinking ciation of our picturesque songs, carving senior canes, twilight. The hills pouring attending daily formal fraforth from the banks of the ternity dinners, and enSándor Farkas Connecticut are most dragaging in elaborate hazing matic when viewed from the Ledyard Bridge rituals. Those who lament “Harvardization” in the evening light. The fall foliage silhouett- often refer the loss of to such customs amid ed against the white bricks of Dartmouth Hall efforts to increase the College’s academic is at its peak radiance as the sun sets. While standing. What they do not realize is that most students only appreciate these things students made time for this gentlemanly life in fleeting moments, seniors become keenly by making room on their transcripts for the aware that with the passing of each day, they infamous “gentlemen’s C.” draw closer to the twilight of their Dartmouth Academics at Old Dartmouth followed days. The Twilight Song emphasizes both the a traditional liberal arts model with a strict beauty and inescapably ephemeral nature of core curriculum and few elective courses. Dartmouth and its twilights. Classes followed more traditional formats, This nostalgia is not always positive. Far and grades were of secondary importance. too often, Dartmouth students and alumni Students held significant power over their complain that the College is a shadow of what professors, exemplified by the practice of hait once was. They point to declining rankings, rassing professors in their homes with loud rising admissions rates, and other meaning- horns at night. Selective admissions, the G.I. less changes in meaningless statistics. They Bill, and the admission of women all incite negative press, a polarized campus cli- creased academic rigor at Dartmouth. These mate, a grossly incompetent bureaucracy, changes to the Dartmouth of “the good ole and the lack of administrative vision. I do days” ensured that better and more competinot dispute these latter trends, but the view tive students populated the college. that they represent a wholesale decline in the At The Review, we do our best to praise worth of Dartmouth College is profoundly and advance Dartmouth’s current academic ignorant. standards, but we also seek to restore some Every period in every institution’s life of the grit that made Dartmouth unique. G. brings with it this negative nostalgia. When K. Chesterton once wrote, “Tradition means Captain John Wheelock seceded from the giving votes to the most obscure of all classCollege and helped found Dartmouth Uni- es, our ancestors. It is the democracy of the versity, I am sure the students waxed poetic dead. Tradition refuses to submit to that arabout Reverend Eleazar Wheelock’s iron-fist- rogant oligarchy who merely happen to be ed rule. If you think DDS is bad, students lit- walking around.” We concur and believe that erally starved in the early days of Dartmouth both tradition and progress have a rightful under Wheelock. place in our society. As Editor-in-Chief of The Dartmouth ReThe Twilight Song is not a cliché hangover view, I have been at the forefront of criticizing from Old Dartmouth; it is a relevant remindevery aspect of Dartmouth. I have lambasted er of our values and the fleeting role we play President Hanlon, criticized faculty, and de- in the history of this great institution. As the bated countless peers. I have done all these shadow of graduation looms, Dartmouth things “for the sake of dear old Dartmouth;” students have an obligation to temper our sometimes you have to “shake the campus” sadness by ensuring that future classes have and omit the “with her praise” in order to their share of “happy, happy days.” In the wide bring about positive change. I believe this is world as at Dartmouth, we must remember a fundamental difference between the nos- to remain objective in our undertakings and talgia of the Twilight Song and that of today’s true to our values.
4 Monday – March 6, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
WEEK IN REVIEW AN OBITUARY FOR JOHN C. CALHOUN COLLEGE AT YALE UNIVERSITY John C. Calhoun College was killed, in a public spectacle, in New Haven, Connecticut on February 11, 2017. The Residential College, a part of Yale’s undergraduate system, was 84 years old. After many years of constant attack at the hands of those who want to forget about our troubled history, Calhoun College finally succumbed to its wounds when Yale President, Peter Salovey, plunged in the proverbial dagger and announced that the College would be renamed. The events taking place on college campuses across the country from Yale and Princeton (Woodrow Wilson) to Clemson and the University of Mississippi (Jim Crow supporting Governors Tillman and Vardaman, respectively), deserve serious and thoughtful discussion. How do we, as a nation, approach our mottled historical record? How do we come to terms with atrocities like slavery and Jim Crow, the forced relocation of native populations, the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War Two, or the decision to close our gates to European Jews during the Holocaust? How do we learn from our past and strive to be better in the future? Calhoun College is a great case study to help us grapple with these questions. The College was founded in 1933 as part of Yale’s new residential college system (if you are unfamiliar, imagine the Dartmouth house system’s distantly related, effective, respectable, and, generally cooler older cousin). Each residential college at Yale is named for a famous Yale alumnus. John C. Calhoun, who graduated from Yale in 1804, went on to serve as a member of the House of Representatives, Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Vice President, and, most famously, as an outspoken U.S. Senator from South Carolina. Calhoun was an active proponent of slavery, so much so that he touted it as a “positive good” for society. Senator Calhoun also developed and preached the doctrine of nullification, which argued that states had the constitutional right to ignore federal actions that they believed unfairly infringed on their rights. Initially, nullification sought to attack a tariff that endangered cotton exports, but it quickly became the main defense for
slavery. Faults aside, Calhoun was also a well-respected and successful statesman. Some of his many credits include overhauling the American defense infrastructure, working to overturn a series of economically disastrous tariffs, and writing a number of respected works on American government and political theory. As a member of “the triumvirate,” alongside Senator Henry Clay and Senator Daniel Webster (Dartmouth Class of 1801), Calhoun was instrumental in the debates surrounding the various compromises of the Antebellum Era. Clearly, Calhoun’s legacy is convoluted. The cited reason for whitewashing Calhoun’s name from his residential college is his support for the institution of slavery. In the words of Yale’s President Salovey, support for slavery “fundamentally conflicts with Yale’s mission and values.” We should hope so. That being said, it is ridiculous to hold Calhoun to the same standard that we hold ourselves to today. He was a nineteenth century Southerner, who represented slaveholding constituents in the Senate. Unlike us, he did not have the benefit of 150 years of scholarship, discussion, progress and reflection on race relations. In other words, he does not have the benefit of hindsight. This sort of moral absolutism that supposes that we are enlightened, omniscient, and able to judge the actions of our ancestors without understanding their perspectives and limitations is dangerous. In doing so, we build up a collective hubris that threatens other points of view and prevents frank conversation about tough topics. This moral absolutism assumes that we know everything about what is right and what is wrong. What gives us the right to shred the legacies of our predecessors? What proof do we have that our current actions will stand up to the scrutiny of a century of history? Another serious side effect of this movement to cleanse our institutions of higher education from unsightly reminders of the past is its implications for our understanding of history. Though it has become clichéd, the notion that history repeats itself and acts in cycles is nonetheless true. When we decide to remove symbols of our past from our daily lives, they are relegated to history books and esoteric conversation. The name Calhoun College forces members of the Yale community, as well as others who encounter the college to ask, “Who was John C. Calhoun?” It forces people to think critically about our history. Now that it has been renamed Hopper College future generations will instead ask who Hopper was. While Grace Murray Hopper was a remarkable woman and a pioneer in the worlds of computing, math and the military, her legacy does not raise the same questions that Calhoun’s does. She does not force us to wrestle with our demons. Instead she al-
“Moral of the story: email is NOT your friend.”
lows us to view our past through rose-tinted lenses. While it might be easier, and more pleasurable, to think about all of our Grace Hoppers, if we fail to engage with our John Calhouns, they return. Proponents of this “cultural reeducation” will argue that we are not erasing our past, just moving it to places that are more convenient or sensitive. At Yale, for instance, Salovey assured the world that “we must be vigilant not to erase the past,” promising that “we will not remove symbols of Calhoun from elsewhere on our campus,” and provisions for acknowledging Calhoun’s presence at Yale. I argue that this still misses the mark. Why? In understanding the story of slavery, and in fact many of our past mistakes, we have to understand those who perpetrated them. We have to understand that the proponents of slavery included reasoned, highly educated, and respected leaders of the time: the types of men who had and still have their names on buildings and their likenesses carved into statues in public spaces. We have to understand that some of the most visionary molders of opinion in different eras were not all great by today’s standards (41 out 56 the signatories of the Declaration of Independence owned slaves, by some estimates). When we tear down these reminders of our past and scrapbook them into museum exhibits, tiny bronze plaques, and sections of history books—where we can ignore them on a daily basis—we lose sight of the importance and the popularity that they held in their time. In short, the loss of Calhoun College is not a loss because of who John C. Calhoun was. It is a loss because of the trend it represents. As we remove our past inequities from the public eye and the public discourse, we lose sight of them and risk repeating our mistakes. While I am tempted to finish with a quote from our alma matter about the old traditions, I have decided that it would be inappropriate. Memorializing our black sheep is not about tradition. With that in mind, I think it is helpful to look to Maya Angelou, who said “history, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived, but if faced with courage, need not be lived again.” To truly face our history with courage, we must retain our symbols – the good with the bad.
APPLICATIONS DOWN 2.6% FOR DARTMOUTH CLASS OF 2021 After a long period of silence since the January 1 application deadline, the Dartmouth Admissions Office has finally decided to release the application numbers for the Class of 2021. It seems as though their silence was warranted, as applications have dropped 2.6%. In total, Dartmouth received 20,021 applications for its first-year class, down from the 20,675 they received for the Class of 2020. This year’s applicants hail from all 50 states, Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 138 foreign countries. Dartmouth’s application numbers are fairly embarrassing. Dartmouth - of the Ivies that have released data regarding application numbers - is the only one to show a drop in applications. Applications were up 5% to Yale, 3.8% to the University of Pennsylvania, and 1% to Harvard. It’s the general trend amongst other top tier universities that applications increase each year. Yet Dartmouth’s applications are down 13.4% since their peak in applications for the Class of 2016. For comparison, since the Class of 2016 the University of Pennsylvania has seen a 29.4% increase in applications. Dartmouth is aware of its current problem and situation, as just this past year they hired a new Dean of Undergraduate Admissions, Lee Coffin. Dean Coffin was previously the Dean of Undergraduate Admissions at Tufts University where he was a
The Dartmouth Review
Monday – March 6, 2017
Erik R. Jones great success – he increased application numbers by 39.2% over his thirteen years there. Thus, this drop in applications cannot be attributed to Dean Coffin, but rather the institution of Dartmouth itself. Dartmouth’s negative media attention, and negative public perception may be catching up to it as high school seniors continue to show a lower desire to attend this “prestigious” institution.
LIBERAL MADNESS AT MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE IN VERMONT Late last Thursday night, author and political scientist Charles Murray tweeted, “Report from the front: The Middlebury administration was exemplary. The students were seriously scary.” Just a few hours prior, Murray and Middlebury College Professor Allison Stranger were violently assaulted by Middlebury students while walking to a car. Stranger had organized an interview with Murray that was supposed to be conducted in front of an audience, but due to interruptions from protestors, the interview was instead broadcasted online. Some Middlebury students – desperately trying to stifle Murray’s speech – pulled the fire alarms in Wilson Hall, the building in which the interview was being conducted. This crime cost the College several thousand dollars and is punishable with a $2500 fine and up to a year in prison. When Stranger and Murray were leaving the building and walking to Middlebury administrator Bill Burger’s car, a group of a half-dozen students wearing black handkerchiefs to cover their faces assaulted Professor Stranger, pulling her hair and twisting her neck — a crime that is punishable with a fine of up to $1000 and up to a year in prison — leaving her with injuries that had to be assessed and treated at the nearby Porter Hospital. Once Murray, Stranger, and Burger were inside of the car, the students started rocking the fuel-efficient and eco-friendly Subaru, beating on the windows, jumping on the hood of the car, and throwing a stolen stop sign in front of the car to obstruct its path — a crime that is punishable with up to a $1000 fine and two years in prison. In response to all of these “violations of school policy,” or in other words “crimes,” the Middlebury College President, Laurie Patton, said, “We believe that many of these protesters were outside agitators, but there are indications that Middlebury College students were involved as well. We will be responding in the very near future to the clear violations of Middlebury College policy that occurred inside and outside Wilson Hall.”
WOMANSPLAINING AND RADICAL FEMINISM IN THE DARTMOUTH In an opinion piece for The Dartmouth entitled “Active Classroom Feminism,” Lucy Li proposes a call to action that she hopes will reverse gender stereotypes in academia. In the subheading of the article is the statement that “women should take classrooms from men through identity politics.” Perhaps, as the article suggests, identity politics can be used in a positive way to help women achieve some sort of equality. The article begins with in-depth description of the stereotypical cocky male college student. Li states that in many of her classes, there is the character that she calls “That Guy,” who “speaks too loudly,” and “leans so far back in his chair you wish he would just tip over.” She goes on to explain how guys often seem
Jonathan R. Fried Jack S. Hutensky
more confident and outspoken in class, while the girls seem more quiet and reserved. She compares loud, obnoxious male students to the “eloquent and intelligent” female students in her classes. Li’s article epitomizes the anti-male undertone that has become far too common yet remains overlooked. Very few recognize the potential harm that can be done by mocking male confidence, just as it is harmful to mock the alleged lack of female confidence. Li, along with most people today, has become blind to the negative effects that come with the generalization of males. Li’s article ingrains the counterproductive stereotype that men are sexist and selfish people who don’t want to listen to what other people have to say. Li criticizes incidents of apparent male confidence, while at the same time praising and advocating for female confidence. She exposes her own hypocrisy by bashing the very quality in men that she seeks to encourage in women. Li goes on to resent her impression that this classroom “dynamic” will persist in the professional world, “where women face a myriad of hindrances, driven by [their] oppression and socialization to submission.” While it is true that negative stereotypes about female confidence exist, Li’s plan would not do anything to help. Discouraging and generalizing men does not do anything to elevate females, but does creates tension and resentment. One potential source of the lack of confidence in some women is the victim mentality that Li’s article reinforces. If women feel that there is always some invisible force of “oppression” targeting them in all aspects of life, then they will understandably be more reluctant. Li adds into the piece that feminism to her is more than “just fighting for the equality of the heteronormative female.” She plans to also fight for the equality of “agender” and “transgender” communities. Yet Li’s breed of feminism expressed in this article is one that implies support of a type of reverse sexism that wants to inflict female stereotypes on males and male stereotypes on females. The solution to gender-based stereotypes is not to create new ones, but to gradually weaken their credibility by actively disproving them. Li concludes her loaded article by calling for an end to “mansplaining” and “ego-fluffing,” then states that what women want is “to be quantified as more than just manicured mannequins to decorate your patriarchy.” She repeats countless tired, anti-male buzzwords, and makes assumptions about men that should aggravate anyone. The proper response to anti-female sexism is not to use derogatory terms to describe men. If we want to truly see an end to counterproductive, gender-based stereotypes, we must oppose them in all their forms, including suggestive ones against men. When women are wrongfully re-
Devon M. Kurtz Noah J. Sofio
duced to something they are not, the answer is not to in turn reduce men. One extreme can easily generate from another, and we all must be vigilant in combating any instance of gender-based mischaracterization.
ATTACKS ON FREEDOM OF SPEECH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY Recently, the Berkeley College Republicans suffered yet another attack on their right to free speech when an unnamed student destroyed a sign belonging to the College Republicans. The sign, which was the private property of the College Republicans, read “Berkeley College Republicans.” The vandalism perpetrated by the Berkeley student was caught on video and depicts a student calmly breaking apart the hand-painted wood panel in full view of the College Republicans. When confronted by the Republicans, the student claimed he was exercising his right to “free speech” by destroying the sign, and demanded not to be filmed. Since the incident, the Associate Chancellor of U.C. Berkeley Nils Gilman condemned the vandalism by stating, “Let there be no mistake: the campus administration condemns all acts of vandalism and attempted intimidation, [and] these matters are now under investigation by UCPD, with the aim of identifying the perpetrators and imposing appropriate consequences.” Despite this response by the administration, a troubling pattern of attacks on Berkeley College Republicans is developing. Last September, the College Republicans were bum-rushed by a group of students who took their signs from them and proceeded to tear them up. Not long after this, a contact list belonging to the College Republicans was stolen, resulting in harassment for many of their members. Perhaps the most famous attack on Berkeley College Republicans occurred when Milo Yiannopoulos was asked to speak on campus. In order to prevent Yiannopoulos from speaking, nearly 1,000 demonstrators began throwing fire bombs, smashing windows, lighting fires, and committing other acts of violence that resulted in the event being shut down. Despite these threats to free speech and the safety of College Republicans the group remains committed to spreading their message in a manner in accordance with their beliefs – through reason and respectful dialogue.
6 Monday – March 6, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
The Right to Bear Arms
DARTMOUTH SAFETY AND SECURITY Though much-maligned, these men and women are enthusiastic about not only student well-being, but also 2nd Amendment rights
William G. Jelsma
My introduction to firearms happened dramatically when I was about three years old. My mom had found a pit viper in our backyard; she called our neighbor, who walked over with a 12 gauge shotgun and unceremoniously blew it off the back porch. At least half the people I knew growing up in Texas owned at least one firearm. However, that is not to say they were all “gun nuts.” Some certainly were: one family friend owns at least twenty firearms of various types, and has his own private shooting range on his land. That being said, there are in fact many different types of gun owners and enthusiasts. One might be an avid hunter who travels all over Texas and Oklahoma looking for the best game in the area. On the other side of the spectrum, my grandfather’s guns are primarily display pieces: a World War II-vintage carbine and an old 1800’s rifle that have not been fired in decades. But most gun owners I know fall somewhere in the middle: they own a pistol or a rifle or two that they shoot once every month or two, and hope they never have to use it to defend themselves. For me, owning a gun that you occasionally shot at the range or on a hunt, and kept around for self defense if you ever needed it, was normal. I had to wait a long while before I actually got to shoot a gun, though. When I was fifteen, my dad, my brother and I went to the gun range and rented a Smith and Wesson pistol and fifty rounds of ammunition. None of us had ever shot before Mr. Jelsma is a sophomore at the College and a contributor to The Dartmouth Review.
(my mom was the shooter in my family), so a range officer taught us the basics. The biggest thing that struck me from my first visit to the range was their focus on safety and the responsibility, both individual and collective of every shooter to uphold those safety principles. Before we fired a gun, we had to read through the range safety rules three separate times, and our instructor drilled into us the four principles of gun safety. At this point, I have lost count of the number of times I have gone on a shooting trip, but the responsibility I have to be a safe shooter and gun owner is something that has never left my mind. The Second Amendment gives us the right to bear arms, but it also carries with it the obligation to use that right responsibly. The culture surrounding guns at Dartmouth is quite different from the environment where I was raised in Texas. Almost everyone I know in Texas has at least seen and shot a rifle. Here at Dartmouth, there is a substantial portion of the people I know who have never touched a gun, or even seen one outside of a police officer’s holster. If I tell someone I own a gun in Texas, it is seen as normal, but most Dartmouth students are surprised to find out that I am a gun owner and store a rifle with Safety and Security, even though it is a College-sanctioned (and, in fact, quite common) practice. Views on gun rights are also vastly different; there are some people like me at Dartmouth, who own guns, or have shot them, and are pro-Second Amendment rights. There are also those who are unfamiliar with guns, and perhaps a little afraid of them, but also curious to learn more. Finally, there is a group of people that condemns all firearms and the Second Amendment,
despite not even having touched a firearm themselves. The Dartmouth administration seems to fall more into the final group. Dartmouth is a gun-free zone. The language in the firearms policy on the Office of Student Affairs website is rather hostile: “All weapons are prohibited on the Dartmouth campus.” Firearms are banned at Dartmouth, excluding “hunting rifles/shotguns … registered and stored with the Department of Safety and Security.” Students are not allowed to keep handguns with Safety and Security at all. Personally, as an avid pistol shooter, finding out that I could not keep and use one for sporting purposes at Dartmouth was disappointing. In fact, the process of registering a rifle or shotgun with Safety and Security is a thorough and stringent process. To store a firearm, one must possess a hunting license or a certificate of hunter education. To get one of those in New Hampshire, I had to register months in advance, pay a sizable fee, spend hours taking an online course that mainly covered gun safety and operation techniques I already knew, and take a class with the Fish and Game department in person. I was already planning on getting my New Hampshire hunting license, so the class was useful for me, but for someone only planning on going target shooting, learning about things like tree stands and bow hunting was redundant at worst, and a helpful reminder at best. That being said, when it comes to firearm safety, it is important to be as careful and thoughtful as possible. Any student who wants to go hunting would have to take the class to get their license in any case. Dartmouth naturally has the right to set whatever restrictions they would like on
their firearm storage facilities; with such thorough regulation, however, it is disappointing that students go through such a process and are ultimately denied the right to possess handguns for similar sporting purposes, limiting the ability of legitimate gun owners to fully enjoy their hobby on campus. In addition, the idea of Dartmouth as a gun free zone is one that raises a red flag amongst many Americans. Students do not store their rifles with Safety and Security for self-defense; it is purely for target shooting and hunting. Declaring Dartmouth to be a gun-free zone, however, seems similar to planting a sign in your front yard saying that your home is a gun-free zone. It is a public declaration telling the rest of the world that you are dependent on the limited resource of law enforcement for safety, which is certainly problematic in the world of today. However, many people unfamiliar with guns seem to view gun-free zones as a place of security, and the proliferation of guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens as the problem. In fact, concealed carry permit holders are the most law-abiding group in the nation—even more so than the police. Their overall crime rate is 1/6th that of police officers, and even lower for firearms-related violations. The police commit firearms violations at a rate of 16.5 per 100,000 officers; among concealed carry holders, that rate is only 2.4 out of 100,000. Guns in the hands of responsible owners hurt nobody— except for the criminals they defend against. In addition, gun-free zones do nothing to deter terrorists and deranged gunmen. The facts speak for themselves: since the 1950’s, all but two of America’s mass shootings have occurred in “gun free”
zones. In fact, some mass shooters specifically chose areas where guns are prohibited. Elliot Rodger, who killed three people in Santa Barbara, California, wrote in his 141-page manifesto that he ruled out certain areas to attack because he was too afraid someone with a gun would shoot back. The only people these gun-free zones are stopping are law-abiding gun owners from defending the public. However, keeping guns privately on college campuses is still a problematic issue. The people have the right to own weapons and defend themselves, but those who choose to exercise that right also have the responsibility to ensure that they are in control of their firearms at all times. Not only do they need to make sure that another person cannot get control of their weapon, but they also need to always be in control of themselves when handling it. Dorm buildings simply do not provide a very secure space to store a firearm; the guarded Safety and Security armory, however, is a different story. Ultimately, the case against gun ownership and the Second Amendment reflects a common difference between the ideologies of liberals and conservatives: liberals believe that more regulation and government intervention is necessary to protect the people from themselves, whereas conservatives believe in the rights of the individual and trust that the average person will have the responsibility to not abuse those rights. I commend Dartmouth for their relatively open policies towards student firearm ownership, and hope that those rights can be extended even further towards law-abiding student firearm enthusiasts, leading to an overall safer and gun-friendly environment at the College on the Hill.
The Dartmouth Review
Monday – March 6, 2017
The Belittling of Divestment Ishaan H. Jajodia Contributor
Buoyed by the success of divestment in dealing with the oppressive South African regime in the 1970s and 1980s, college students across the United States have taken the fight to fossil fuels. Belied by a poor understanding of the realities of energy production and markets, there is a clear equivalence of the apartheid regime and the fossil fuel industry by using divestment. The former was an egregious abuse of human rights, the latter a necessity for human survival today. The exploitation of the symbolism associated with divestment and the dismantling of apartheid, and appropriation of this iconography to an issue which is by no means similar to it, is a dishonour to the legacies of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and the millions of others who gave up a large part of their lives to a noble cause. The Civil Rights Act, along with a handful of Supreme Court cases in the 1960s changed the socio-cultural fabric of the United States of America forever, marking the end of legalised segregation and the realisation of the letter and spirit of the 15th Amendment (1870). The recognition of equality regardless of the colour of one’s skin enabled change makers and Civil Rights leaders to focus their efforts elsewhere, where governments and organisations discriminated on basis of colour. Throughout the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, colleges played a pivotal role in pressuring the United States government to dismantle its own system of apartheid, euphemistically called segregation. Four young college students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, the Greensboro Four, organised, on February 1, 1960, a sit in at a Woolworths Store. The Greensboro sit-ins expanded to other students from the College, gaining critical momentum and spreading to the rest of the population as an extraordinarily popular and effective form of civil disobedience. The 1970s was a time of turmoil on universities and campuses in the United States. On May 4, 1970, students at Kent State protesting American involvement in the Vietnam War were at the receiving end of fire from Ohio National Guard soldiers, killing four and wounding nine. This further energised student activists across college campuses around the United States. Protests against the Vietnam War continued throughout the first half of the decade, until Nixon and Kissinger negotiated a peace deal in Paris, and the USA pulled Mr. Jajodia is a freshman at the College and a contributor to The Dartmouth Review.
out of Vietnam completely. The rise of social justice and student activism in colleges throughout the United States culminated in the divestment movement against South Africa. South Africa’s apartheid regime was responsible for egregious human rights abuses, including mass displacements and forced segregation. Many colleges had endowments worth billions of dollars, including Dartmouth and the rest of the Ivy League, parts of which were invested in businesses with activities in South Africa that followed these laws. Buoyed by the successes of the last two decades, and a poor understanding of the stock market, activism had found a new country to fight for the right of equality-South Africa, and a new tool: divestment. Divestment as a business practice has existed since the beginning of the stock exchanges, but only in the 1970s was it appropriated as a tool to pressure businesses into changing and following certain policies. As John Silber explains, when divestment occurs, stocks are merely sold off to somebody else, and “if we sell it to somebody, we have just gotten rid of our guilt in order to impose guilt on somebody else.” It is a symbolic gesture, and it was this very symbolism that pro-divestment activism aimed to exploit to pressure businesses, and gave rise to a new form of votingvoting with the wallet. For an economy so highly dependent on foreign capital, South Africa was in a highly vulnerable position. Divestment would cause capital flight from the national economy, and would cripple business activity. Between 1985 and 1988, there was a net outflow of 23.9 billion Rand from the South African economy due to disinvestment, and threatened to launch the economy into a state of hyperinflation, with inflation already at 12-15% in the same period. Companies that had any sort of business activity in South Africa faced disinvestment from investors not just in the form of colleges but also other corporations across the world. By August 1988, 155 colleges, 26 states, 22 counties and more than 90 cities across the USA had divested from any form of business activity in South Africa. The symbolism and limited nature of activism transformed into widespread action, and disinvestment only began to become an effective method of social justice activism when the monetary system began to partake in it. Between late 1985 and early 1986, American banks, starting with Chase Manhattan refused to lend money to South African firms. Richard Knight, a former UN official, says, “The U.S. banks’ actions caused a panic in South Africa. At the time, U.S. banks had outstanding loans of $3.5 billion, of which $2.8 billion had a maturity of one year or less.”
The South African economy was on the brim of collapse, and the government became desperate to save it from an imminent slump. Debt repayment negotiations between the F.W. de Klerk government and the banks reached a standstill until the government showed a commitment to dismantling apartheid, by releasing nine long term political prisoners including Walter Sisulu. The economic crises sparked by large scale divestment culminated in the dismantling of apartheid the
the world would be plunged into darkness. There is no evidence to show that in the near future, the world can survive on solely renewable forms of energy. Any attempt to negatively impact energy production through fossil fuels will result in developing nations bearing a disproportionate amount of costs for production changeovers, not to mention the immense economic impact. The morality of divestment in South Africa was clear cut- it was a violation of one of the most ba-
“The morality of divestment in South Africa was clear cut- it was a violation of one of the most basic human rights of the modern world: the right to equality and liberty.” release of Nelson Mandela from prison, and his election as President of South Africa. In 2009, a consortium of 18 scientific associations, under the aegis of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, issued a statement reproduced by NASA, that read, “Observations throughout the world make it clear that climate change is occurring, and rigorous scientific research demonstrates that the greenhouse gases emitted by human activities are the primary driver.” Global warming is a real threat to the planet, and one of the most important contributors to it is the burning of fossil fuels, including oil and natural gas. A steady increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere will have tragic global consequences. Attempts to replace real cars with electricity powered mobility scooters are not as green as green-clad activists think. The lithium in the batteries is highly toxic for the environment, especially in its ionic form. The electricity that is used to power the chargers that power the cars comes predominantly from coal and oil fired power plants. By increasing the degrees of separation between energy production and consumption, the potential for conversion to forms of energy that are not kinetic in nature are significantly increased, assuming the path of least resistance, and just shifts the guilt from the driver, some sort of feel-good thing. Manufacturing these scooters isn’t environmentally friendly either, for electric car manufacturing has a higher per-unit carbon footprint than the manufacture of conventional cars. Neither are the batteries any better for the environment, and the lithium and other heavy metals that constitute them are a more immediate danger to the environment, with small concentrations having the ability to lethally harm food and water sources for millions of people. Assuming the magnitude of the impact that divestment had from South Africa would be mirrored in the fossil fuel industry,
sic human rights of the modern world: the right to equality and liberty. It was an egregious violation of human decency, reducing people of colour into simple numbers who stayed together. Global warming, too, poses a threat to human existence, but divestment in fossil fuels dishonours the memory of the people who gave up their lives to fight against apartheid in South Africa. The equivalency of both, by using the same tactic, is a disservice to the brave men and women who braved an oppressive and violent government to fight for their rights. In 2013, Harvard, one of the universities that was an enthusiastic participation in the divestment from South Africa through its own endowment and status, refused to divest from fossil fuels. Highlighting the existence of global warming, and acknowledging the role of the fossil fuels as an irremovable part of our daily lives, President Drew Gilpin Faust said that using the endowment as “a lever to exert economic pressure for social purposes, can entail serious risks to the independence of the academic enterprise.” Similarly, President Christina
Paxson of Brown, which refused to divest funds from fossil fuels, said in a statement, “Coal is the source of approximately 40 percent of the world’s electricity, and it provides needed energy for millions of people throughout the world… a cessation of the production and use of coal would itself create significant economic and social harm to countless communities across the globe.” There is a tacit recognition amongst administrators around campuses that fossil fuels are an integral part of daily life, and there is a rejection of the equivalency between apartheid and global warming. What differentiates divestment in fossil fuels and divestment from apartheid is the level of governmental support for the policies, again a negation of the equivalency between the two. The dismantling of the apartheid regime due to divestment was aided by an UN imposed oil and weapons embargo, a recognition of the true evil of apartheid and the pressing need to dismantle an oppressive regime. When colleges divest from fossil fuels, the same shares get sold on the stock market, and there is no change to policy. Divestment from fossil fuel stocks, which are high return stocks, negatively impact the ability of colleges to fund need-blind admissions, and cover tuition, increasing the unsustainability of their endowments. Instead, by choosing to not divest, colleges can maintain their influence as shareholders, and pressure firms from within to be accountable and transparent about the true impact of their business activities. While fossil fuels may not be the cleanest way to illuminate and run the planet, it is the only way to do so. Till the time renewable energy sources enter the mainstream and can supply the increasing demand for energy, fossil fuels are the only way that the world can run.
NIGEL FARAGE READS THE REVIEW, BECAUSE AS WE ALL KNOW, THE DARTMOUTH IS PRETTY MUCH A NON-NEWSPAPER.
8 Monday – March 6, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
A Tale of Two Diversities Jack S. Hutensky Associate Editor On March 31, 2016, the Dartmouth Admissions Office released admissions decisions for the class of 2020, this year’s freshman class. The press release from their website, like it does every year, trumpeted the fact that the class of 2020, my class, is “a socioeconomically, culturally, and geographically diverse group.” This year was no different. While the admissions decisions for regular decision have yet to be announced, a December 14, 2016 announcement boasted that those “admitted early decision to the Class of 2021 make up one of the most intellectually engaged and diverse groups Dartmouth has ever accepted.” I took the liberty of reading the “acceptance announcements” stretching back to the class of 2017, this year’s seniors. Each announcement seems to follow a very specific format. Each is roughly 650 words (coincidentally the length of a Common Application essay), heavy with statistics such as test scores, class ranks, and financial aid, and ends with a plug for Dimensions. What is particularly interesting, however, is the opening “hook;” Each announcement proclaims the racial and ethnic diversity of the incoming class. For 2020, it was the percentage of students of color. In 2017, the percentage of Native Americans and Asian Mr. Hutensky is a freshman at the College and an associate editor of The Dartmouth Review.
Americans, and so on. Suffice to say, every year, the admissions office pats itself on the back for creating a “diverse” class. But in reality, how diverse is Dartmouth? My argument is not enough, but not for the reasons held by those who occupied Parkhurst to demand a “Freedom Budget.” It is not that we are not diverse because we do not have enough people from specific racial or socioeconomic or geographic groups. That may be true, but that is not the main problem. The problem is that we treat diversity wrong. The prevailing sentiment views diversity as a function of things we do not control: such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or birthplace. While this technically counts as diversity on paper, the diversity that truly drives learning, growth, scholarship, and debate is something different. The diversity that matters is diversity of opinion. For example, take a look at Dartmouth’s core values, set out on the mission statement page of its website. According to the site, “Dartmouth embraces diversity with the knowledge that it significantly enhances the quality of a Dartmouth education.” Dartmouth also, according to our core values, “supports the vigorous and open debate of ideas within a community marked by mutual respect.” In a typical Writing 5 class, a requirement of all first-year students, how does each type of diversity contribute to the quality of the education a student receives, or the breadth of different ideas vigorously debated in class
discussions? Imagine a discussion where a student disagrees with one of his peers and argues that the United States should continue to support NAFTA. Does it matter whether he is Black, White, or Asian? Does it matter whether he grew up a few miles away or halfway around the globe? Does it matter how much money his family has? I sincerely hope not. I would hope that we have reached a place, as a society and as scholars, where we evaluate people based on their ideas and actions and not based on biographical facts. Here at Dartmouth, biographical diversity (race, hometown, socioeconomic status, etc.) does not and should not determine one’s value to a discussion. Instead, let us look at a conversation from the angle of diversity of opinion. In that same Writing 5 class, the professor decides to talk about NAFTA. Does it matter whether the whole class supports NAFTA or whether there is disagreement? Does it matter whether the class is made up entirely of supporters of one economic system or whether some students in the class believe in capitalism, while others are socialists? Does it matter whether everyone in the class cares about the economic impacts of free trade or whether some students are more concerned with diplomacy, the agreement’s constitutionality, or its environmental effects? Absolutely. These differences form the crux of scholarly debate. This is diversity of opinion. This is the diversity that “significantly enhances the quality of a Dartmouth educa-
tion” and “supports the vigorous and open debate of ideas within a community marked by mutual respect.” This is the type of diversity that makes Dartmouth a better place. I am in no way arguing that racial, geographic, socioeconomic (etc.) experiences do not affect how we perceive the world. On the contrary, these cornerstones of our socialization have a significant impact on how we think, how we feel, and how we react to the world around us. That being said, there are plenty of other aspects of our lives that racial or ethnic diversity fails to account for and can be just as important to forming our opinions. These range from political affiliations and employment experience, to how and with whom free time is spent. The point is this: biographical diversity is not a good metric for measuring the Dartmouth community. There is data to prove this assertion. The College’s web site reports that about 40% of undergraduates are students of color. If whether or not a student is “of color” is a defining factor in his or her opinions, then Dartmouth Pulse Data should reflect a significant disparity between opinions of the minority of students who are “of color” and the opinions of the general student body. However, this disparity is not reflected in the data. In the Pulse Survey entitled Politics (January), 90% of students “of color” disapproved of President Trump, compared to 87% of the total population – a very similar statistic. 71% of nonwhites approved of Pres-
ident Obama, compared to 72% of the total population. Again, little variation. In the flag burning survey, 66% of students “of color” opposed an amendment banning flag burning, the same as the general Dartmouth student body. This trend of sameness continues. It shows an equal and overwhelming preference for Morano Gelato over other off-campus desserts, a lack of excitement for Valentine’s Day, and around 90% satisfaction with individual undergraduate experiences. This recent Pulse data proves two things. First, racial diversity is not a good metric for measuring the truly important kind of diversity (the diversity of opinion) on campus. Second, the Dartmouth community seems to have a real dearth of diversity of opinion. If you take anything away from the editorial, I hope that you start to rethink how you look at diversity in your daily life. I hope that you start to think about the ways in which many of us think and act the same. I hope you think about and compare the two diversities in your classes, friend groups, sports teams, and clubs. Most of all, I hope you seek out people who think differently than you do, especially if you do not regularly interact with them. Having new experiences and encountering new opinions is what college is all about. If you happen to respectfully disagree with me, please feel free to send me an email. I would love to talk—because I wholeheartedly value the diversity of opinion.
VLADIMIR PUTIN READS THE REVIEW. YOU PROBABLY SHOULD TOO.
The Dartmouth Review
Monday – March 6, 2017
Books and Walls: Libraries at Dartmouth > CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1
While the trustees wished to keep the school a college, the state of New Hampshire awarded Wheelock’s Dartmouth University the library. The trustees refused to give up the ship, however, locking the room and refusing to surrender the key. The Library remained closed until the Dartmouth College Case was resolved. The literary societies remained at the center of books until 1817, when a professor at the university led a raid on the Socials’ library. The Fraters came to the defense of their rivals, ousting the invading professors. The literary societies stood their ground until the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in favor of the Trustees, students, and Dartmouth College. After the court case, the College was in peril. Legal fees left the trustees looking to sell the College’s library, but, with no offers, the library remained unsold. The literary societies grew well past subsistence level and garnered great respect and generosity, while the library remained small. Eventually, it moved down to the first floor of Dartmouth Hall, in part to keep students from throwing books down the stairs. As the College Library remained the object of disrespect through the 1860s, the library closed, leaving no observable impact on the student body. The literary societies were still the center of Dartmouth’s collections. Edwin Sanborn returned order to the library system, finally incorporating literary societies into the College Library system and increasing operating hours. Fireproofing required the collection to leave Dartmouth Hall and move to Reed Hall until 1885, when Wilson Hall was designated to be the new College Library. Wilson Hall may have been the only project in College history to be constructed under budget and ahead of schedule. The College seemed to have no plans for the much-needed expansion of Wilson until Oxford University debaters visited Dartmouth in 1925. At the beginning of his speech, one said that he was excited to see Dartmouth because he “had heard that the College had the largest gymnasium and the smallest library of any college in America.” President Earnest Hopkins later recalled that the jab “burned me up.” Hopkins Mr. Teixeira is a freshman at the College and a contributor to The Dartmouth Review. Mr. Port is a freshman at the College and an Associate Editor at The Dartmouth Review.
began searching for donors and found Edwin Webster Sanborn, and George F. Baker. Sanborn was ready to donate a new library in memory of his late father, the college librarian from 1866 to 1874. Upon hearing that George F. Baker’s massive donation would dwarf his own, however, Sanborn balked in gifting his estate. It took considerable persuasion to convince Sanborn otherwise: while Baker would be an icon from the outside, Sanborn would be a gem on the inside. The new home of the English Department, Sanborn Hall, was erected in 1929 along with its neighbor Baker Library. Though Baker has evolved throughout the years, becoming home to the ever-expanding stacks as well as the ever-modernizing circulation, reserve, and reference desks, Sanborn’s hand-carved library remains a bastion of civility and tradition, with its continuing afternoon tea service and honor-based checkout system. President Hopkins presided over a time of great prosperity for the college, but he considered the construction of Baker and Sanborn libraries his greatest accomplishment. In 1932, Dartmouth commissioned Mexican muralist José Clemente Orozco to plaster the bare walls of Baker’s basement with murals in the room that now bears his name. Alumni and trustees objected to the College’s decision to flaunt its wealth during the lean years of the Great De-
pression. The economic troubles of ensuing years caused a struggle between the administration and trustees as to whether the library should continue to expand. It wasn’t until economic trouble began to subside that the College Library would expand in full swing. When a weak dollar in 1938 left the library unable to acquire foreign books without donations, the College established a friends group, with voluntary dues, to fund gifts for the Treasure Room of Baker. As the depression grew to a close, Librarian Nathaniel Goodrich proposed a fiveyear expansion plan which would add to the stacks and the collections. The proposal faced opposition as trustees grew fearful that further expansion would fix something that wasn’t broken, or worse would transform Dartmouth College into Dartmouth University. When the Navy chose Dartmouth as the location of its Naval Reserve Officers Indoctrination School in 1942, the College added naval books to its collection in order to accommodate the new students. By 1950, at the close of Goodrich’s thirty-eightyear tenure, the Dartmouth College Library had acquired over 655,000 texts, and could no longer be considered the small library of the small College on the Hill. The next great addition to the library’s collection came from noted artic explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson, who gave Dartmouth
his great collection of texts, maps, and articles on the polar regions of the world. They were placed in Special Collections. The donation solidified the College as a leading institution in Geography and Arctic Studies. By 1962, the stacks had become a non-smoking area, catapulting them into the modern era. In the early seventies, Baker Library would play host to not just thousands of books but also streakers. Baker also played host to one of the College’s more controversial acts: in 1976, a man casually walked into Baker with a shotgun to send his girlfriend a message, causing panic among the library patrons. As Geisel, Thayer, and Tuck gained national prominence, their collections also grew; the centrality of Baker was in limbo. Eventually the different schools established their own libraries, increasing their collections and combining them into more appropriate departments. Medical books were moved to the Charles A. Dana Biomedical Library in the new medical building. The Tuck and Thayer collections were moved to the new Feldberg Library in 1973. As more and more books moved to departmental buildings in the school, Baker ended up holding only the Humanities and Social Sciences, but it remained the location of the administrative offices and processing departments for the entire library. In 1979, Margaret Otto be-
BAKER LIBRARY The centerpiece of Dartmouth’s campus and the Dartmouth Experience
came the college’s first female librarian, breaking the male dominance of the position. In 1992, president James O. Freedman made an announcement that a thirty-million-dollar donation had been made to the College by John W. Berry ‘44, who Freedman called the greatest donor in the history of the College. Because of Berry and a few other donors, the Berry Library construction would begin, adjoined to the Baker Library. Ms. Otto was concerned that Baker and the other libraries on campus were not sufficient for the modern age and its technological advancements, and the Berry Library complex was the perfect remedy for her uncertainties. Freedman called it a “core resource for intellectual growth.” The donation was used for both the new library and a partial renovation of the Baker Library. Unlike Rauner, Berry was simply added to the north side of Baker. Phase one of construction finished most of the building in 2000, and in 2002 the renovations of Baker were completed. Today, the Dartmouth College Library System houses millions of texts along with an immense online database. Books are kept everywhere from Baker and Sanborn to Feldberg and Berry. The Library is widely recognized as one of the best college libraries in the country, a far cry from the days of the original small library of the College on the Hill.
Image courtesy of Wikimedia
10 Monday – March 6, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
Dartmouth’s Great Professors
are too quiet or things seem too harmonious because that means that there are probably some different kinds of issues that are not being discussed. As a result, change and progress become more painful and difficult to attain. I guess that I am relentlessly optimistic because while there is a lot of tension and stress in the world right now, the important thing is that we must move forward. I do not mean to conjure up the image of Moving Dartmouth Forward, but that’s definitely on everyone’s mind right now, so I think it’s important that we all think about how we get that done for the good of everyone in the community, and especially for the students.
MELANIE BENSON TAYLOR Chair of the Native American Studies Department
> CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 And through some resources at the college, they sent me to an academic conference for William Faulkner, and I got to hear professors discuss Faulkner’s works, and this was the whole social-intellectual synergy that really cemented for me that this was a world that I really wanted to be in. From there I went to graduate school and was very certain that this was what I wanted to do. Pursuing a future in academia is a very difficult path because so few jobs are available. I knew that, but I was so starry eyed and idealistic that I couldn’t think about anything else that I would prefer to do. I got very lucky because I got several tenure track jobs right away. Dartmouth, however, was not on my radar at this point. Dartmouth just seemed like the kind of place that somebody like me would not get a job at. I was teaching mainly American literature, multi-ethnic as they called it. It was very much cross-racial and cross-cultural. And then I saw this job come up for Native American Studies at Dartmouth, and I thought it would be a cool job. So, I submitted an application. Later, my husband and I were driving through New Hampshire, and we thought we’d just stop by and check out Dartmouth’s campus. When we saw the campus, the energy was kind of magical for me. I thought, “I’m going to be so crushed when they don’t even read my application.” Then through a series of events, I got the job. So, it really has been an unlikely series of events that led to getting my job here. TDR: How have things changed at the College since you first arrived? MBT: I remember just a month into being here, and I was talking to a colleague, and I said “Dartmouth students are the ideal students.” And I had
taught at three other places before coming here, and I also taught at my PHD institution, so I had gotten a very good sampling of what different students were like. And coming here was just so amazing, because students here are so motivated and so naturally curious. They actually do the reading, or at least they make it look like they did. Don’t crush my illusions if that’s not the case, but I think for the most part students work really hard, and they do it not because they feel they have to do so but because they want to work hard. However, that’s not always the case. Often there’s this feeling in higher education of compulsion. But at Dartmouth I think students are really drawn to the idea of knowledge, and how they can serve themselves and the world. I think it’s an amazing combination of motivations. Being in the classroom here has been so much fun for me. It’s been great talking through literature, but for me literature is just a vehicle to talk through some really big life issues. I remember a student once giving me what I thought was the greatest compliment. She said, “I don’t think this is a literature class, it’s a life-studies class.” For me, I think that’s the truth. It’s great talking through books and literature, but that should not be the end goal. We should all feel like we have a window through which we can sympathize with each other. It’s such a great way to cross the kind of borders and boundaries we have in society. It’s a lifeline to each other. And that’s why, though I’m obviously in Native American Studies now, it’s really just a piece of what I do. My work is really in southern literature, though I don’t think you can talk about any one piece of the American experience by itself. Even when we think they’re very separate experiences, which is a common belief in indigenous studies, every culture has that kind
of narrative. I think that establishing separate narratives is important, and it serves a purpose, but I think that the most important thing that we can be doing is to find where our narrative meets up with someone else’s. Because, for better or worse, we are locked into this world together and that’s the only way we’re going to be able to get along: by figuring out how to communicate, converse, and empathize. Being able to do that kind of work here has been so much more productive and exciting for me because students are so eager for that kind of work. The most exciting thing for me is to teach majors, but I really love teaching non-majors who are just taking a class for fun so that they can read books. It’s nice to have a space for students who might not normally take this kind of class to meditate on these kinds of themes for a while. TDR: In your view, how has Dartmouth, the faculty, and the administration’s relationship changed over the course of your time here? Do you think it’s become more positive, or do you think that the fissures have widened? MBT: I’ve been here for about eight years, and I would say that for the first several years I was just in my own little bunker of working towards tenure, so I wasn’t necessarily aware of the way those relationships work and what the architecture of an institution like this really is. As a member of the faculty, you can sort of ignore the way that works, but as you get more involved in committee service and the community you begin to see a lot more. I definitely have done that over the years. I think there are always conflicts and disagreements, but maybe it’s because of the kind of work I do that I always see both conflicts and fruitful moments. I think it’s a little bit more dangerous when things
TDR: Along the same lines, given that you’ve taught at a lot of different institutions, what do you think is most salient about the Dartmouth culture, and what do you think best characterizes Dartmouth students? MBT: As an English professor, I’m looking for the word that would best capture the Dartmouth experience. Dartmouth is all of those things that I mentioned before, and its students are often ambitious, motivated and curious. Dartmouth students are also instructive: they see problems, and they want to know how to solve them. They’re doing that in so many different ways: disciplinary, social, intellectual, and cultural. Those things are very salient features. For the community as a whole, the word that comes to mind is intimate. That seems like a strange word to use to talk about a college campus, but I think it’s a product of our location. We are very isolated. It’s not a huge campus. Thus, the Dartmouth experience is really about the relationships that get formed here. Professors are here because they want to be in the classroom. They want to forge lasting relationships with students. And I think students choose to be here for that reason too: to have relationships with each other and with faculty that really carry them through their lives and their careers. That seems like one of the defining characteristics of Dartmouth, and a fantastic one indeed. TDR: What has been your fondest experience here? For example, has there been any time that you’ve taught a course, and it was just a far more pleasurable or enjoyable experience than it would usually be? MBT: It’s tough because every class is so different and I feel like each new class I teach, I
think, “Wow, that was my favorite class so far.” Classes just seem to get better every time. I think the reason for that is that it’s always a new class every time. It’s always surprising that I can teach the same set of texts and have an amazingly different experience each time. I feel that’s so important because it seems like the course is so much more organic. It’s not like I’m creating a course for students to consume, but rather it’s what we’re creating together. I think that’s the best way to approach literature. It’s about what you see in it. It’s about when you help people to see it from your perspective. Maybe you struggle a little bit to see it from the other person’s perspective, but we always land on different themes or experiences that become the central topics for the course. I really love how that changes every time, and how that means that we as a small community have built something together in a class. In particular, I really like a course I teach called “Indian Killers,” which is about violence in our society. It’s always a surprising course for students because it’s not necessarily focused around the themes of colonial genocide that you would normally think of. It’s really about how American culture is saturated with ideas about violence and how that often engages the indigenous experience. That’s really just a thread which takes us to the bedrock experience of the course: about what it means to be an American. The settler and colonial experience is certainly a part of that, and we as Americans find ways of repressing that part of our identity, or connecting it onto the experience of another group. So, it’s an enormously complicated topic which we take on from a number of different angles. It’s always a very powerful and difficult course to teach because the issues are so big, vital, and scary. Of course, we feel like we’re all “Indian Killers.” We feel like we’re all constructing the narrative together, and hence robbing Indians of their own agency. So, there’s all kinds of ways that we’re implicated in this process. There’s a lot of really big issues and themes that come out of the class that can be disturbing, but are important nonetheless. TDR: So you think that particular class is particularly interesting to you because it exposes students to a completely new set of ideas and way of looking at things, while focusing on a topic that they have been tacitly involved in their whole lives without being aware of it? MBT: Exactly. And that is the
The Dartmouth Review
Monday – March 6, 2017 11
Melanie Benson Taylor most exciting thing that can happen in a classroom. Students tend to leave that class or many classes that I teach because they’re so embedded in that way of thinking. They’ll leave and keep having conversations with me years later, sending me an email saying, “Oh, I just saw this film and it made me think of our class.” They just start looking at the world in a different way, and they start seeing that subtext that they probably wouldn’t have noticed otherwise. I like to say that when you take my classes you’re ruined for life. I think for good reason, my classes allow students to move through the world seeing that it is often very discouraging or frightening. TDR: With regards to your interactions with students, and being a professor in general, what are some feelings or misgivings that you see in students that in your class or other classes would help you to teach better? MBT: I think, this goes for most people who are really driven and ambitious, sometimes students think very conservatively, in that they find it difficult to take risks and be creative because they want to be good and do the right thing. I think Dartmouth students tend to fall in that category: being really anxious to succeed. I would say for me, being open to failure, and really encouraging a lot of stumbling through the process of creativity are valuable life lessons. For example, writing a paper that has a wild argument that’s not the safe one -- not the one that we all agree on in class. An argument that comes at me from a completely different angle. I try to create an atmosphere in which students are not afraid to challenge themselves. I try to never say, “this is the way we should read this text…this is what it means.” I try to be out there and open to different viewpoints. TDR: It’s hard. As a follow-up to that, how do you balance the inclination to be creative, versus the unknown implications of being creative and the unknown consequences on your grades, and thus the opportunities you have post-graduation? MBT: That’s where we get Mr. Agboola is a sophomore at the College and a contributor to The Dartmouth Review. Mr. Harrington is a freshman at the College and an Associate Editor at The Dartmouth Review. Mr. Kauderer is a sophomore at the College and a Managing Editor at The Dartmouth Review.
stuck. We only have 10 weeks here. It’s not like we have a long meandering time to get back and learn from our mistakes and incorporate them. I understand completely, and I’m very much the same way, and that’s why I’m alert to it. It’s really hard to push yourself to failure when you just want to complete something, and get to things you want in the future. I would say as long as you’re always doing things with great integrity, care, thoughtfulness, and respect for your own ideas and those of others… As long as you’re really listening to the ideas that are really important, and just taking some small steps to creativity: for example, writing an introduction that tells a story, rather than just saying, “in this essay I will argue.” It’s a small thing, but it can make you think, “Ok, I kind of worked outside the mold there. I told a story that led me down a pathway of thinking about something more deeply.” That’s what storytelling does, it cracks something open. You did a very small experiment there in getting outside of your comfort zone. It may have led to things that opened you up intellectually. I would say to approach creativity by taking baby-steps of doing things that scare you a little bit, in terms of getting you beyond the safe, expected mode of academic success, in ways that feel true to you. TDR: With regards to Dartmouth more broadly, what are some changes that you would like to see? What are some things that you would like to see implemented, things that you think would add value to the experience of students and faculty alike?
MBT: In my mind, things are on the right track in that way. I’m very newly engaged and invested in the house system. We just started this term in North Park House. To me, that’s a really positive direction that Dartmouth is moving in. I know it’s always really difficult to see the culture of a place change when it has been a certain way for so long. I see the house communities as adding another opportunity for students, staff, and faculty to really come together and model that social and academic intimacy that I talked about. Whether that’s through doing something completely frivolous like playing broomball on the green for Winter Carnival, or something more intellectual, these opportunities are all very valuable. The house system has all of these new opportunities to get together and to talk and to learn about each other: to meet people you would never meet otherwise. I can only
engage with so many students in the classroom per year, and this way, I get to know so many more students that may never have come to take my classes. I think providing more opportunities and forums for that kind of engagement is a big strength of the house system. As a faculty member before the house system, there was always a divide for me between what happens on campus after I leave. Now, there’s much more integration. The idea of building bridges between students and faculty is so important for me, and what is happening in the housing communities is not replacing what’s always been special about Dartmouth, but rather it is just adding to it. TDR: That’s a positive direction? MBT: I think so. TDR: On balance, do you think some criticisms that have been cast on this new system are warranted? MBT: I think any time something new happens, people are more apt to criticize it and they’ll be fearful of it. In my mind, I think what’s happening right now is so experimental, and that the fear has been that there has been a preordained vision that has already mapped out how these things are going to work. What I’ve discovered is that it’s very much something that we’re building together. What I’m trying to encourage in my house is for it to be student driven. I’m trying to make sure that there’s a more robust student executive board, so that what we do in our house will be determined by what students want to do and not just what I find interesting. I mean, they’ll be a certain amount of that! I’ll always provide the food and the cookies. I think it really needs to be, … TDR: A grassroots effort? MBT: Yes. TDR: To your point I think that there’s this idea that the house system is this mandate descending from those high above, and that it is being forced upon the students. Moving forward, how can students be more involved in the system? MBT: I think at this point, the structure had to be created and the resources put in place, so it may have looked like something was being constructed and dropped down, but I see that as merely logistics. I see the substance as what is truly process driven. My goal would be for me to be obsolete in
some way. I’ll write the checks, be involved, and be able to provide the nucleus for community, but I really am excited to see what students want to do. What kind of programming do students come up with? What kind speakers should we bring in? What kind of games should we play on the Green? These ideas have to come from the community itself. TDR: On a different note, in what respects do you think the social climate at Dartmouth has changed with respect to specific movements and groups, ethnic or otherwise? Specifically, how has it changed in terms of trying to level the playing field? For example, we’ve seen a lot of Black Lives Matter protests recently. How do you think Dartmouth has changed with respect to being more or less responsive to those things? MBT: That’s a tough question for me to answer because what has changed for me has mainly been my perspective on things or my proximity to campus life. I can say that it seems to me right now that people are really making an effort to listen to one another and to be constructive. I don’t like to use that word but it seems applicable. There are always going to be moments in this community when people say and do things that lack understanding of what’s hurtful and what’s permissible. In the aftermath of those kinds of events, I’ve been really heartened to see how much people are willing to listen to each other, even if it means they don’t end up on the same page. Those discussions are real because we’re always going to be on different pages, in large part because we come from different places in life. The end goal is never homogeneity, but an atmosphere of mutual respect and understanding. This is a place where knowledge is created and that’s something we need to be doing outside of the classroom as well. If I sound a little too sunshiny, that’s because I tend to be that way. My classes are quite depressing and my course material is quite bleak, but I think the reason I tend to discuss the darkside a lot is because that’s the only way you find a portal into hope. We have to go through the really awful stuff and be incredibly honest about what’s there. I think it’s happening in the world and it’s happening here in our little microcosm of the world. Sometimes it means that we have to put a lot of the really ugly stuff out there in order to get to a place where we feel more like a functional community. In that light, I see things moving in a very pro-
ductive direction. I see individual students and community members really caring about each other in that way, so I’m really optimistic. TDR: I think you’re certainly one of the few optimists these days. It seems like the world has gone to hell. MBT: Yeah… I think we have to look back through history. There have been so many catastrophic moments when we come up against these moments of intense uncertainty, crisis, trauma, fear, and great change. That’s where revolutions happen: small and large. I like to think about this moment that we’re in, and the great change that can and will result from it. TDR: To close it up after a great and informative interview: Dartmouth is a great place and I think your experiences speak to that, but what do you enjoy the most about being at Dartmouth. I know it’s a tough question. MBT: I guess I’ll just repeat myself. I would say it’s the kind of helpfulness and the comfort that comes from being in a place where there’s so many passionate, helpful people working together on a daily basis to address some of the greatest challenges in the world, challenges which are changing and compounding daily. It always feels like we’re working through them in a way that is profoundly constructive and optimistic. For somebody like me who has a proclivity for incredibly tragic themes and texts, a focus on optimism vital. And I’ve found constructive optimism to be more prevalent at Dartmouth than any other place that I’ve either studied or taught, either as a student or a professor.
MARINE LE PEN READS THE REVIEW. VIVE LA FRANCE!
12 Monday – March 6, 2017
The Dartmouth Review
THE LAST WORD GORDON HAFF’S
BY G. K. CHESTERTON, COMPILED BY SANDOR FARKAS
“There are only two kinds of people, those who accept dogmas and know it, and those who accept dogmas and don’t know it.” -The Mercy of Mr. Arnold Bennett, Fancies vs. Fads “He is a very shallow critic who cannot see an eternal rebel in the heart of a conservative.” -Varied Types “Impartiality is a pompous name for indifference, which is an elegant name for ignorance.” -The Speaker, 12/15/00 “The act of defending any of the cardinal virtues has today all the exhilaration of a vice.” -A Defense of Humilities, The Defendant, 1901 “Fallacies do not cease to be fallacies because they become fashions.” -ILN, 4/19/30 “The simplification of anything is always sensational.” -Varied Types “I believe what really happens in history is this: the old man is always wrong; and the young people are always wrong about what is wrong with him. The practical form it takes is this: that, while the old man may stand by some stupid custom, the young man always attacks it with some theory that turns out to be equally stupid.” -ILN, 6-3-22
“To have a right to do a thing is not at all the same as to be right in doing it.” -A Short History of England, Ch.10
“By experts in poverty I do not mean sociologists, but poor men.” -ILN, 3/25/11
“Man is always something worse or something better than an animal; and a mere argument from animal perfection never touches him at all. Thus, in sex no animal is either chivalrous or obscene. And thus no animal invented anything so bad as drunkeness – or so good as drink.” -Wine When it is Red, All Things Considered
“One of the chief uses of religion is that it makes us remember our coming from darkness, the simple fact that we are created.” -The Boston Sunday Post, 1/16/21
“Progress should mean that we are always changing the world to fit the vision, instead we are always changing the vision.” -Orthodoxy, 1908 “Men invent new ideals because they dare not attempt old ideals. They look forward with enthusiasm, because they are afraid to look back.” -What’s Wrong With The World, 1910 “War is not ‘the best way of settling differences; it is the only way of preventing their being settled for you.” -ILN, 7/24/15 “How quickly revolutions grow old; and, worse still, respectable.” -The Listener, 3-6-35 “Art, like morality, consists of drawing the line somewhere.” -ILN, 5/5/28
The Bishop Ingredients
• A fine crystal glass filled with Madeira • A teaspoon of lemon juice • A teaspoon of sugar • A dash of nutmeg
Don Pablo entered the hall three minutes late, but with a newfound energy brought on by his midday siesta. He fumbled with a stack of dusty tomes, setting them down on the wooden pulpit. Licking his finger, he leafed through the pages peppered with Spanish, Latin, Hebrew, and even bits of Arabic. His students leaned forward, visibly eager to hear the wise words which the Bishop had prepared for them that day. Just as he opened his lips, the door to the hall burst forth from its hinges, sending a cloud of plaster over the stunned students. “No one expects the Dartmouth Inquisition!” a voice shouted from the doorway. Don Pablo was quick to reply. “Well, actually, if you were arrested by the Inquisition, you probably had a good sense beforehand that it was coming.” The intruder cut him off and strode into the center of the room, “Enough with your nuanced and factual lessons on history! I, Grand Inquisitor Don Hanlon, denounce you for your academically rigorous and politically incorrect views on history. Cease now, lest these young minds be exposed to concepts and interpretations of history that challenge them to think critically about their assumptions! For the safety of our students, you are under arrest!” With these words, two officers approached Don Pablo to drag him from the room. Instead, Don Pablo rolled up his sleeves and pushed them off. Holding his head high, he followed the Inquisitor out of the room, his pride intact. Before he left, he turned to his students one last time. “Plus! Oultre!” he exclaimed with some gesticulations. With a final bow, he was gone. It was not until many years later that Don Pablo’s trial concluded and the charges were found to be baseless. At the twenty-fifth reunion of the class of 2017, Don Pablo’s former students sat together in a new lecture hall, located in the space formerly occupied by Carson Hall, which had been replaced by a neoclassical edifice named after Pope Jones I. The students waited with bated breath as Don Pablo entered the room late, and they slowly stood to render him applause. Without a pause, Don Pablo opened his notes and began to speak.
— Breaker Morant
“Men do not differ much about what things they will call evils; they differ enormously about what evils they will call excusable.” -ILN, 10/23/09 “It is not bigotry to be certain we are right; but it is bigotry to be unable to imagine how we might possibly have gone wrong.” -The Catholic Church and Conversion “Idolatry is committed, not merely by setting up false gods, but also by setting up false devils; by making men afraid of war or alcohol, or economic law, when they should be afraid of spiritual corruption and cowardice.” -ILN, 9/11/09 “The man of the true religious tradition understands two things: liberty and obedience. The first means knowing what you really want. The second means knowing what you really trust.” -G.K.’s Weekly, August 18, 1928 “America is the only country ever founded on a creed.” -What I Saw In America, 1922
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