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Sea of Gold – Project Proposal on the Development and Operations of a

Sea-Cucumber Farm in the Maldives By: Mohamed Sanih Address: Dhaftharu 1427, Male, Maldives Mobile: 00960 7794366 (Viber / Whatsapp) Skype: mohamed.sanihu WeChat: Mode0802 All rights reserved.

Mohamed Sanih – 00960 - 779 4366 (Viber/Whatsapp)

Skype: mohamed.sanihu


INTRODUCTION: A Sea-Cucumber farm will be established and operated in specified Island of Maldives which was diagnosed as one of the best locations within the country to operate a project of this nature. Sea cucumber have been collected from different parts in the Maldives for the last few decades. The price of sea cucumber has been continuously raised over the las 40 years and there is no sign that this trend will reverse. Although there are many other countries in the world, one of the most well-known market in Asia for sea

cucumber is recorded as China. The growth of China’s economy has contributed to a large extent as the middle class enjoys sea cucumbers as one of the four ‘Heavenly Foods’ of traditional Chinese Culture eaten during Chinese New Year, weddings, birthdays and other celebrations. Economists believe that China’s economy will overtake that USA possibly by 2025 making it the solely largest economy in the world. Of the many species of sea cucumbers, the sandfish or Holothuria scabra is both highly prized and a good aquaculture candidate. This species is found throughout the Indo-Pacific region stretching from South Africa to Sri Lanka to Indonesia, and until Australia and Micronesia. Although they are widespread into the huge area, (according to the lab-based investigation reports), the best quality of it is

maintained within the species found from Maldives due to the biologically rich natural sea-environment in the Maldives.

As it consumes only sand, (hence its name as sandfish), it does not harm the

environment in any way and therefore, very eco-friendly to farm in the Maldives. In some parts of Maldives such as Laam Atoll, this species is locally named as “Hudhu Butt” found at 40+ meters depth.

This proposal calls for the setting up of a sea cucumber hatchery and operating it using locally caught sea cucumbers and farming them at one of the best research-found location in the Maldives.

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PROJECT PROPOSAL: This project will have 2 (two) developmental phases within it. In phase-1, a project comprising of a hatchery, nursery and farm will be operated for 2 (two) years with an expected outcome of 7 – 7.5 Metric Ton (MT) dried sea cucumber at the end of the 2nd year. Then, using the result of the initial project, the 2nd phase, which is the large commercial upscale phase of the project will be developed. The two years mentioned above will be the duration it will take before the first shipment would be marketed. It includes 6 months for the setting up of the required infrastructure (laboratory, hatching

aquariums, nursery tanks, mump room, power house, boundary of the 10ha farm in the sea, whole area boundary, etc.) necessary for the whole project. Since in the natural condition, the sea cucumbers species described in this document takes complete 18 months (from a new-born to be grown to the harvesting size) before been cooked and dried for marketing, the whole project will take a total of 24 months before the first batch will be marketed. After the first shipment, it is expected to be produced and marketed around 7 metric tons in every 2 months continuously from the farm area of 10ha. Although the sea cucumber lay eggs once in every month in the natural system, the breeding could be delayed or controlled using specific treatments

available, and such controlling strategies will be utilized in the future according to the market-demands.

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Phase-1 Development: Phase 1 is based on the land-use plan developed by the island council of where the farm will be established and operated. Area demarcated for future housing development are untouched while some of the industrial zone is utilized. In total, 3.2ha of land area is requested for hatchery and nursery development and a further 10ha of adjoining sea area for farming development. The building plan layout is planned in such a way that it will accommodate the phase 2 hatchery and nursery developments as well.

Fig. 1- The green area is the proposed 3.2ha project site for the hatchery at the Southern tip of the island. The blue area is the initial Sea Farm of 10ha. The orange area has been zoned by the island council for other uses in its land-use plan.

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Fig. 2 (above) show the initial project buildings layout plan. PHASE -2 Phase 2 does not require any extra construction but, concentrate on expansion of the farming area and one proposed site is the Southern Sand Bank (SSB) of the selected island. This area was studied for the purpose during 2010 and 2 sites have been selected – one with an area of 120ha and the other with an area of 400ha. At present there is no economic activity in the SSB as there are hardly any commercial fishes here. There is therefore, no resource use conflict with local inhabitants. Some contract (temporary) staff will be required in the 2nd phase for cooking the sea cucumber. It includes 6 labors for 7 days in every 2 months who will be paid on a daily basis.

Fig. 4 above shows the expanded Building Layout to cater for phase 2 requirements. All rights reserved.

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LOCAL SUPPORT: The island has an adequate population and there are 2 (two) NGOs functioning on the island. The project will be carried out with the support from the Island Council together with the two NGOs based on the negotiations carried out so far. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS: The project does not require any land reclamation. Neither does it require cutting down of trees (bushes, however, will have to be cleared). Any tree that happens to obstruct planned development maybe relocated to another nearby part of the island. Also, after cleaning of the bushes, actual placement of the buildings may be made in such a way as to accommodate tree locations as much as possible. As the farming utilizes rotting sea grass (seaweed) to be process into feed, this is an eco-friendly waste recycling system of farming. The sea cucumber only eats sand and does not harm the reefs in any circumstances. They will be held within the barriers (boundary) demarcating the 10 hectare farming site that are mainly shallow sea grass beds of 1 – 2-meter depth with no resource use conflicts. The solid processing waste of the sea cucumber will be incinerated while any liquid wastes will be treated until it is safe for discharge. SOCIAL CONTRIBUTION AND LAND RENT This project will provide jobs exclusively for the inhabitants of the island and with the exception of the hatchery technician (a Marine Biologist) who will be a foreigner, will not employ other foreigners. Many inhabitants have been forced to migrate to Male’ (the capital) for jobs while many others work in resorts throughout the Maldives. Phase 1 of this project will employ 19 permanent staff as specified in the table below: No

Job Specifications

Qty

1

Project Manager

1

2

Marine Biologist

1

3

Assistant Technician

1

4

Pump Station Staff

6

5

Security Staff (2 in each shifts of 8 hours duty per day)

6

6

Snorkeling staff (look after the sea cucumbers in the farm)

4

Total:

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19

Skype: mohamed.sanihu


INVESTMENT In the initial stage, in phase – 1, the following expenses will be required to establish and run the project before the first shipment would be sold. Details of the expenses are given below:

Investment for Sea Cucumber First 02 Years Cost of Investment

Amount

Fixed and Capital Related Costs

USD

Construction of Building

129,701.00

Production of Fibreglass Tanks and Aquariums

51,880.00

Generator System

16,212.00

Electric and Water Wiring

6,485.00

Establishing the security system

77,621.00

Laboratory Facilities

58,365.00

Snorkeling Equipment

4,000.00

Fencing (Farm is in the Sea)

35,425.00

Fencing the Land Area

35,425.00

Pump System

12,970.00

Cooking Utensils (with internal frame)

20,000.00

Stoves

3,918.00

Rent (Land / Sea)

15,000.00

Variable Cost

USD

Cooking Gas

1,200.00

Treatments / Food for Sea Cucumbers

25,000.00

Fuel

18,000.00

Cooking Staff

2,732.00

Salaries

USD

Project Manager (Salary+Food+Laundry)

60,700.00

Marine Biologist

60,700.00

Assistant Technician

31,128.00

Pump Station Staff

93,385.00

Security Staff (2 in each shift of 8hrs duty per day) Snorkeling Staff (look after the sea cucumbers in the farm) A Collection Vessel (mechanized)

85,000.00 155,642.00 97,276.00 $ 1,097,765.00

Revenue per Shipment

$ 2,100,000.00

Profit per Shipment

$ 1,002,235.00

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EXPECTED REVENUE PER SHIPMENT # 1

Quantity per shipment 7 metric ton

Rate (in US $)

TOTAL: (in US$)

300,000.00

2,100,000.00

NUMBER OF SHIPMENTS PER ANNUM In the first year there will be only one shipment since, the development and farming, set up and growth will take 08 to 10 months. However from the 2nd year onwards, we have planned to grow the sea cucumbers in such an way that atleast one production batch is ready every 02 or 03 months. Which means from 2nd year onwards Revenue per year will be USD 8.4 million per annum or more. The facility which generates USD 8.4 million is only 10 hectares, but this is an huge reef with lagoon area and more area will be given depending on production capacity and revenue and handling of local island without disturbance to the local population etc. Therefore, the potential to make money here is limitless. INITIAL LEASE PERIOD The initial lease period will be for a period of 30 number of years after which, subsequently it will be extended for an period of 25 years if the company performs up to par with good social responsibility and corporate governance matters. RETURN ON INVESTMENT Investment is planned to be recovered within the first two years of production and exports.

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1. BACKGROUND ON SANDFISH & SEA CUCUMBER INDUSTRY • Biology Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) (Figure 1) have the same general anatomy as other sea cucumbers. The gonads (ovaries or testes) lie in one tuft and open dorsally at the anterior end of the body through a single gonopore (i.e. genital orifice). The digestive system is composed of a mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, cloaca and anus. Respiratory trees, which sandfish use to obtain oxygen, lie in the posterior of the body and open to the cloaca. The body wall that is processed into bêche-de-mer accounts for about 56% of total weight. Sandfish move with the help of tube feet densely distributed on the ventral face, and through muscular action of the body wall. Sandfish feed on detritus, i.e. organic matter in the mud or sand. They appear to feed continuously using the peltate tentacles surrounding the mouth to place sediment into the mouth. Sandfish are usually observed partially buried in sediment. The daily burrowing cycle varies according to environmental conditions. The growth rate of sandfish depends on environmental conditions and the time of year. At medium size, sandfish grow on average 0.5cm per month, corresponding to 14g per month. Under good conditions they grow to a size of 300g in one year. We still do not know how long sandfish live, but it may be around 10 years .

Sea cucumbers have tiny calcareous plates called spicules in their skin. Microscopic examination of spicules is used to distinguish species.

Sandfish have many spicules in the shape of tables and knobbed buttons. Sandfish can be sexually mature at a size as small as 200g. There is no apparent relationship between fecundity (egg production) and body size. Like other sea cucumbers, sandfish can regenerate some of their organs. After spending long periods out of water, or being affected by the use of chemicals, being handled during collection and transport, or when stressed by predators, sandfish may eviscerate their internal organs. Regeneration of internal organs occurs within 2 months. Sandfish and other tropical sea cucumbers can produce numerous toxins from their skin and viscera. These toxins inflict distress, loss of equilibrium and death in fish, but do not affect humans. Sandfish are found in many countries in the Indo-Pacific, from east Africa to the eastern Pacific. They are usually found between the latitudes of 30°N and 30°S. The preferred habitats of sandfish are shallow tropical waters, usually less than 20m deep, such as sheltered areas with high levels of nutrients, including muddy substrata and seagrass beds. They can tolerate reduced salinity (20 ppt) for short periods and so are sometimes found in brackish water.

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• Human Food Humans have eaten these animals for centuries. For example, the Chinese have been harvesting them from the waters of Malaysia and Australia for at least 1000 years. They are eaten in soups, raw as sushi and as appetizers and delicacies. The raw or pickled body and internal organs are called “konowata” by the Japanese and the salted, fire or sun dried body wall is known worldwide as “beche de mer” literally translated as“beast of the sea”. Another lucrative market derived from sea cucumbers is the dried intestines and dried gonads, which are favourite delicacies eaten by the Japanese. The sea cucumber can eviscerate itself, meaning it spews out its intestines when disturbed. It then regenerates this system in several weeks. Harvesters have taken advantage of this and milked the sea cucumber of its intestines and gonads, which are squeezed out, but soon grow back. • Medicinal Uses - Sea cucumber is valuable as it is a rich source of the polysaccharide condroitin sulfate, which is well known for its ability to reduce arthritis pain: as little as 3 grams per day of dried sea cucumber has been helpful in significantly reducing arthralgia. Its action is similar to that of glucosamine sulfate, which is useful for treating osteoarthritis. Sulfated polysaccharides also inhibit viruses; there is a Japanese patent for sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate for HIV therapy. - Chinese studies reveal that sea cucumbers also contain saponin glycosides. - These compounds have a structure similar to the active constituents of ginseng, ganoderma, and other famous tonic herbs.

In addition, Chinese studies indicate anti-cancer properties of both the sea cucumber saponins and the polysaccharides.

These modern studies confirm that sea cucumber can be used as a tonic and nutrient supplement. Coinciding with economic development, the demand for sea cucumbers has greatly increased in the mainland of China since the early 1980s (Huizeng Fan 2001). - The pharmaceutical industry has also shown interest in the medicinal properties of sea cucumbers. And there is growing interest in the possible use of marine collagen extracted from sea cucumber for use in anti-aging treatments. Drs David Fairlie and Michael Whitehouse at the Centre of Drug Design and Development at the University of Queensland conducted research on rats in 1997, and found several promising medicinal properties: anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anti-ulcerant, and anti-hypertensive.

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- “Based on our data it seems highly probable that potential human therapeutic agents could be developed from sea cucumbers present in Queensland waters,” they said. • International Trade World Imports Sea cucumbers are fascinating aquatic invertebrates rather popular among the Oriental races who mostly reside in the eastern part of Asia. Hence nearly 90 % of sea cucumber harvested globally is consumed in Southeast Asia and the Far East. The international trade of these species is also dominated by this region. However, with increasing migration and relocation of Oriental people to outside Asia, some exports are taking place to North American and Western European markets with sizeable Oriental populations. In Asia, the main markets for sea cucumber are China PR, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan PC, Singapore, Korea Rep. and Malaysia. Imports into Japan, the largest seafood market in the world, are rather limited. China Hong Kong SAR, the largest direct importer of sea cucumber, reexports half of its imports to mainland China. Re-exports also take place to European and North American markets. Singapore meets its domestic demand through imports. This trading nation also re-exports to the regional markets namely China Hong Kong SAR, Malaysia, Taiwan PC, Thailand, Myanmar and to some western countries. In international trading, sea cucumbers are marketed in fresh/chilled, frozen, dried and canned forms. More than 90 % of these are dried products.

World Exports

The Asia/Pacific region is the main source of sea cucumber with the leading exporters being Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji and Australia in order of ranking. More recently, supplies from the Middle East, namely the United Arab Emirates, Yemen and some African countries (Mozambique, Kenya, Madagascar and South Africa) are also entering the markets, mostly being sent to Asian markets. More than 98 % of these exports consist of dried products. Although China PR remains the major market and consuming country for sea cucumber, China Hong Kong SAR is the main trading outlet for most of the producing countries. Lately, some direct exports are taking place to China PR, but these mostly consist of lower value species. The expensive varieties, namely the sandfish, white teatfish, etc., are exported through China Hong Kong SAR and Singapore. In 2000, Indonesia, the largest producer, exported over 2,500 tonnes of sea cucumber to the global market. Nearly 50% of these went to China Hong Kong SAR, followed by Singapore, China PR, Taiwan PC, Korea Rep. and Malaysia; a small quantity went to Japan. France is the main outlet for Indonesian sea cucumber in Europe, importing 83 tonnes from Indonesia in 2000. The other markets were the UK (6 tonnes), Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, etc. Imports into Belgium and Germany were about 8 tonnes each.

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In North America, the USA was the main outlet, importing 50 tonnes of dried sea cucumber in 2000.

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Conservation & Stock Management The population of sandfish is dwindling at an alarming rate. Fishing pressure increases with rising prices for beche de mer in the international market. The peak spawning season for sandfish is July and October, which coincides with the peak fishing season, causing irreparable damage to the stock. Use of drag-nets in the shallow seagrass beds damages the sea grasses and they are washed ashore. Sea grasses play a major role in the lifecycle of sea cucumbers. They serve as a substrate for the settlement of pentactulae larvae and also as a nursery ground for juveniles. Habitat destruction reduces the recruitment rate of sea cucumbers. In view of these facts, the ban on sea cucumbers should be extended for a few more years to allow the damaged stocks to recuperate. Periodical surveys (in situ observations) have to be initiated for effective management. With the available culture technology for sea cucumber like H. scabra, sea ranching of hatchery-grown seeds in the areas of low density, and periodic monitoring are recommended. This suggests that the population of sea cucumbers is under intense illegal fishing pressure. The ban and resource management efforts have not been synergestic to prevent the depletion of stocks. In order to relieve the fishing pressure on sea cucumbers, the fishermen need an alternative source of livelihood for sustenance. A strict ban should be imposed for trawling in shallow areas to prevent further damage to the stocks. There should be a ban on drag-nets in the seagrass zone to prevent habitat loss of larval and juvenile sea cucumbers. Fishing in the months when peak spawning takes place should be banned.

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Investment in the Maldives As a rapidly growing south Asian country, Maldives has come a long way in freeing up its foreign investment laws and regulations in order to encourage more positive foreign direct investments. Given the current rate of consumption we could expect the worldwide collapse of the sandfish fishery within the next five years. The Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has deliberated on the inclusion of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) to its en-dangered list and will be listed in the foreseeable future. A growing market demand with market prices doubling over the last years due to depletion of natural resources of sandfish has led to extensive research and the establishment of pilot projects on sandfish farming. Within the last years sandfish farms have been successfully established in Vietnam, Australia, Madagascar and the Maldives, but those farms are nowhere near to supply the market demand. Considering the impending risk of the collapse of the sandfish fishery and the potential for sustainable farming there is no doubt that within the coming years we will see large scale sandfish farming development in the tropical regions. Combining the latest technical know-how for hatchery, the existing experience of tanks farming and our expertise in quality management and seafood science, this project will be at the forefront of sandfish production and will lead the way for further expansion in this sector. This Farm will be strategically-positioned in Maldives, and with a projected annual production capacity of 100,000 sea cucumbers we will be able to supply the international sea cucumber market at competitive prices with the highest quality available in the industry. Constant research and development by our live-in aqua culturists will allow us to further expand and to realize an even greater production capacity and/or optimal efficiency, enabling us to remain a market leader in this lucrative sector. Our in-house sea cucumber trading experience over the last three years provides us with an additional competitive advantage as we can directly supply our existing clients upon the harvesting and processing of our top quality sandfish. This clientele is unique in that they are an integral embodiment of the importer, tertiary processor, wholesaler and retailer, which ensures a rapid backward flow of important market information to the source.

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6. MARKETING FACTS Why sea cucumber? The favorable public perception of consuming sea cucumber products includes its use as a/an: • Food security item that is very high in protein (> 70% by weight). • Valuable Asian delicacy for three millennia with anti-arthritic property and a mystic aphrodisiac. • Anti-viral & anti-bacterial agent with some of its components used in patented HIV/AIDS treatment. • Cancer inhibitor that has been showed to slow down the spread of cancerous cells, e.g. breast cancer. • Supplement promoting health and virility. (Source: PAC International Inc.)

There is a well-established local market for sandfish with prices that can be higher than the projected prices for export. Although it is still a niche market at the current stage, it has the potential to grow rapidly taking into consideration the positive economic development in Maldives.

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Skype: mohamed.sanihu


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Skype: mohamed.sanihu


7. SWOT ANALYSIS a.

STRENGTHS

1.

Only one main competitor in Maldives.

2.

Organically-grown sandfish will ensure a successful penetration into the lucrative health conscious market segment in addition to its reputed medicinal food image among consumers.

3.

High level local government interest in developing the aquaculture industry in the region.

4.

Expertise from local experts and people who worked in the sea cucumber business in the Maldives.

5.

Existing & ready market access through Maldives, Sri Lankan and other Asian networks.

6.

Expertise in H.Scabra farming & trading with existing successful sea cucumber farming in the Maldives.

7.

Perfect location in terms of farming, logistic, security and infrastructure.

8.

Support for aquaculture development from the Maldives Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture.

9.

Support from local island NGO’s, local population and Island council for the development and implementation of such a process.

10. Sandfish are capable of rapid growth (1-3g/day) under good conditions. 11. They can reach maturity at less than one year of age. 12. They are partial spawners and can be spawned year round under tropical conditions. It is likely that a female will be able to spawn several times in a year in nature, producing 1-2 million eggs or more each time. Female sandfish can therefore probably produce of the order of 107eggs in an undisturbed lifetime. 13. Adults, and even larvae, can survive salinities as low as 20 ppt. 14. Sandfish are easy to contain inside simple, low submerged fences or ponds. 15. Sandfish do not need feeding in pens or ponds at medium densities.

b. WEAKNESSES 1.

Culture is density-limited; nursery and grow out need large areas. We will be starting 10 hectares which is capable producing 100,000 sea cucumbers per production batch. And we will also be able to acquire more neighboring lands for expansion and/or acquire larger land area due to the huge island reef available. And potential to expand to other island is also not limited.

2.

Sandfish are vulnerable to water stratification, low salinities and anoxic conditions in tanks. An aeration system will be installed to keep tank floors from becoming anaerobic and break up any stratification caused by rain.

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c. OPPORTUNITIES 1.

Farm other high-value species (eg. sea horses & abalone) using the same facility.

2.

International partnership with aquaculture research institutions.

3.

Value-adding (eg. canned ready-to-eat sandfish) under own R&D when competing in the future.

4.

Selling of juvenile sandfish to fishermen turned farmers for fattening (ranching) to market sizes. This often reduces the risk of business & maturation time. A Buy Back scheme can be established to purchase adult sandfish for in-house processing.

5.

The Buy Back scheme would ease pressure on natural sea cucumber stocks and reflect well on the company’s green image nationally & internationally. This favorable image usually translates into better market acceptance of the company’s products.

6.

Ease of multiplying the successful sandfish project to other locations in Maldives.

d. THREATS 1.

Natural disaster which may occur such as earthquake and rise in seawater due to global warming. Such fear, however, is international! Sea cucumbers do not seem to be affected by the deadly redtide that usually destroys fishes.

2.

Formation of strong labour union. The company is prepared to allocate a percentage from its earning (usually 10%) as profit-sharing, on top of standard remuneration, for its employees.

3.

Socio-political upheaval could negatively affect the farming operation. The company would contribute to the social welfare system of the island where it operates and offer job opportunity to the villagers.

4.

Sandfish can be easily stolen, particularly from large tanks. Blocks of small independently manageable tanks could be very valuable for nursery work at all stages. Constant patrolling by security personnel (& cameras) will be tightened and tanks fenced off.

5.

Predators of juvenile sandfish include crabs, shrimp, some snails and fish. Installation of seawater filtration will exclude accidental predation.

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Larval culture Fertilized eggs are collected from the spawning tanks and placed into the culture tanks at a density of 0.25 individuals’ mL-1 (Kang et al. 2012). No specific density was provided, but the NFRDI culture tank shown here holds approximately one million larvae. Larvae are fed a diet of microalgae. For the first two days a 50-50 mix of Isochrysis galban and Pavlova lutherii is recommended. After day two they can be fed Cheotoceros calcitrans. Samples of larvae should be taken daily in order to monitor development. After approximately seven to eight days, larvae should be close to the pentacula stage and settlement. At this point shelters with clean settling plates can be placed in the larvae rearing tanks. Upon settlement the new juveniles are transitioned to a feed mixture of mud or bentonite, yeast, and powdered algae. Predation of larvae by zooplankton was reported to be a problem in at least one facility visited. This can likely be managed through good water filtration. Juvenile culture Juveniles are cultured on the settling plates for about a year until they are transferred to cage systems for grow-out at sea. Maintaining good husbandry practices in the hatchery is critical for preventing disease, which can be a significant issue. All of the systems visited maintained static water in the culture tanks, with twice-daily partial water changes at feeding times. In one facility, the water was changed before feeding in the morning and after feeding in the afternoon. The water temperature is maintained around 15 °C. Conservation of water heat was given as the reason for maintaining static systems. It is possible to use a flow through system, as was observed at the NFRDI research lab, although animals were maintained under ambient water temperatures. It should be noted that the juvenile sea cucumbers are mobile and will move within and between the shelter and throughout the tank. Appropriate screening must be maintained on drains when conducting water changes or if using a flowthrough system. To maintain good water quality it is important to clean accumulated feed and feces from the bottom of the tanks approximately every five days. This is accomplished by moving the shelters to an adjacent tank that is empty of animals. Surface water can be moved over to reduce the energy needed to heat the water. The image here shows a drain in the wall between adjacent tanks. Tilting the standpipe down allows clean, warm surface water from one tank to partially fill the adjacent tank where animals are moved while the old tank is cleaned. Mesh bags or screens should be placed on drains to capture loose animals in the tank being drained. Once drained, the tanks can be scrubbed clean and readied for the next transfer of animals. In addition to cleaning the tanks on a regular basis, the settling plates must also be changed out and cleaned about once every three months.

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Mohamed Sanih – 00960 - 779 4366 (Viber/Whatsapp)

Skype: mohamed.sanihu

Maldives Sea Cucumber Farm  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTi-z2jq3I4&t=41s Sea of Gold – Project Proposal on the Development and Operations of a Sea-Cucumber Farm...

Maldives Sea Cucumber Farm  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTi-z2jq3I4&t=41s Sea of Gold – Project Proposal on the Development and Operations of a Sea-Cucumber Farm...

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