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Is e-publishing an effective solution for sub-Saharan Africa?

Exploring digital publishing in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana

by

Daria Montella

This dissertation is submitted in part fulfilment of the regulations for

MA in Publishing Oxford Brookes University 2013


Abstract Acknowledgements 1.

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1

2.

Literature review……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

3.

Methodology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6 3.1

4.

5.

6.

7.

Survey on e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa……………………………………………………………………………………6

Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8 4.1

Sub-Saharan Africa………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….……….……..8

4.2

Colonial languages and publishing industry pre and post-independence………………………………….………9

ICT and educational policies in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana……………………….………………………………….…………………….10 5.1

Kenyan policies to introduce ICT in higher education………………………………………………………………..…….11

5.2

Nigerian policy and Government goodwill……………………………………………………………………………………….13

5.3

Ghanaian government policy strategies………………………………………………………………………………………….15

Advantages and challenges of e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa…………………………………………………………………………….17 6.1

Electricity-Internet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…….19

6.2

Language……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

6.3

Distribution……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….21

6.4

Government goodwill……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……21

6.5

Lack of awareness and know-how………………………………………………………………………………………….………22

6.6

Censorship-copyright……………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………….23

6.7

Cost.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………….…………24

Available technology…………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………..………26 7.1

Mobile phones……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….28

7.2

E-books………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30

7.3

Open access………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………….31

7.4

Print On Demand……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

8.

Opportunities and projects……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….35

9.

Case Study: Worldreader project ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………44

10.

9.1

Preparation stage…………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………45

9.2

Kindles in Ghana……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………46

9.3

Final evaluation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………47

Conclusions and recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………49 10.1 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………49 10.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….51

11.

References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………54

12.

Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………61


ABSTRACT In developed societies, publishing companies have developed new digital strategies in order to keep abreast of the rapidly changing market. When it comes to developing countries such as those in Africa, it is generally assumed that the digital publishing revolution cannot actually take place and develop. This study then, aims to analyse and to investigate the extent to which ICT is developed and implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and examine whether different technology can be exploited in order to embrace the digital publishing revolution in the sub-Saharan countries. These are Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. These countries have been chosen on the basis of their peculiar internal differences, which reflect the continental discrepancies of Africa itself. One of the fundamental purposes of the present research is to have a more realistic view of the publishing digitalization in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been developed by conducting thorough research into the literature and the analysis of the answers to the survey “e-publishing in subSaharan Africa�, personally sent out to libraries, university presses and publishers in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. Despite the small number of responses received, it was possible to combine the primary and secondary sources to successfully achieve the purposes of this study. This research has shown that the Kenyan, Nigerian and Ghanaian governments are willing to improve access to technology within their respective countries. However, economic instability and local discrepancies hinder the application of the policies, leaving the situation unchanged in many areas of the countries. As the reader will see from the surveys' responses, publishers and university librarians expressed the need and the will power to embrace e-publishing. They also expressed the need for training to better understand the potential of e-publishing. It is my conviction that these are two very important factors which should demonstrate the validity of my research. Despite the challenges that have been addressed during the study, the present and past projects undertaken in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana offer a positive approach to these issues. Finally, it has been acknowledged that e-publishing is not only necessary, but a helpful and essential tool for the development of local publishers because of its many advantages.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The writing of this dissertation has been one of the most satisfying academic challenges I have ever had to face. I would like to express the deepest appreciation to my dissertation tutor Rupert Jones Parry who kindly and efficiently helped me and constantly demonstrated his interest in my project. He supported my ideas since the beginning and he has never left me alone in the project. Without his persistent help this dissertation would not have been possible. I would also like to thank Professor Sally Hughes and Professor Adrian Bullock who gave me guidance and inspired me at the very beginning of this research. Their experience and professional suggestions made me believe in my project and gave me the motivation to continue my research on the topic. I am equally indebted to Agatha N. Kabugu (Deputy university Librarian, University of Nairobi) , Allson Hubert (Book Aid International),Fiona Rushbrook (UK Aid Department for International Development), Laurence Hugues (International Alliance for Independent Publishers), Liesbeth Kanis (External Academic Publishing and Research Advisor, St. John University of Tanzania Press), Mbrarathi Karuga (Storymoja Publishers), Michael Maua (Pwani University), Moi University Press, Petronila Ogola (Moran (EA) Publishers.ltd), Rob Thomson, Simi Doeskun ( Former managing editor, Kachifo limited) and all the people who contributed to this work. Grateful thanks are expressed to Julian Russ and Sally Brooking from Tula Publishing for their dedication and patience. Finally, a thank you to the Oxford Brooke’s librarians and Professor Mary Davis.

This dissertation is dedicated to my extraordinary Family.


1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, the digital revolution has changed the way in which words, images, videos and music are produced and distributed. Publishing companies have developed new digital strategies in order to keep abreast of the rapidly changing market. As has been largely agreed, these new formats and the new ways of distributing digitally are perceived and developed differently from country to country. The biggest diversification is between industrialised and non-industrialised countries; in the latter, digital publishing models are based on the most successful and widely used models of the developed countries. This is considered one of the causes of impeding the implementation of publishing Information and communications technology (ICT) in countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed Africa, as the second largest continent in the world, is home of impressive, diverse cultures, languages, territories, economies, infrastructures and politics. Yet, this diversity can be seen as an obstacle in addressing digital publishing initiatives. Conversely this “diversity raises the range of skills, knowledge, pool of experiences and perspectives from people from diverse backgrounds� (Asamoah, 2012:13). Thus, it can be argued that the same purpose of enhancing digital publishing can be achieved in developing countries that radically differ in internal structure, throughout the application of different models, more relevant to the country. In fact, several successful African digital studies aimed at exploiting ICT for publishing purposes have been undertaken by African and international bodies (Limb, 2005).

Therefore, this study sets out to analyse and to investigate the extent to which ICT has developed and has been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and examines whether a different technology can be exploited distinctively, according to the particular differences and limitations of each country. For the purpose of this dissertation, the study is mainly focused on three countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. These have been chosen on the basis of their peculiar internal differences, which reflect the continental discrepancies of Africa itself. In the second chapter, the literature on e-publishing in subPage | 1


Saharan Africa is discussed. The third chapter is concerned with the methodology adopted in the first stage of researching and information collection for the present dissertation. Following this, an overview on sub-Saharan Africa and e-publishing is given, followed by chapter 5 on ICT and the educational policy specifications of the three countries analysed. The sixth chapter addresses the technology available in these countries. Consequentially, advantages and challenges faced by epublishing in sub-Saharan Africa will be explored. In order to show the actions undertaken to implement digital publishing in sub-Saharan Africa, chapter 7 will give an overview on the projects undertaken in the three countries analysed. Finally, a critical analysis of the effectiveness of these projects will be given, along with recommendations and a conclusion.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the digital revolution which is happening in publishing. “Globalization and technological change are driving new developments in electronic publishing and learning; developments that are dominating the transmission of educational information” (Limb, 2005:3). It is imperative to explain the concept of e-publishing. Ocholla (2011:9) describes e-publishing in the educational context as “the activity and process for all types of publications, such as scholarly or research work on the web by an individual or organisation for private or public access and use”. The term e-publishing, also known as digital publishing, covers all the electronic version of the media that are usually broadcast in analogue format such as: CD-ROMs, electronic readers, computers, mobile phones, apps, podcast. Some of these media are new; some supplement their original function with new features, such as the mobile phones. For instance, from the basic function to call and send SMS, their features have developed to internet browsing, until the current era of smart phones where phones are used to read, send e-mails and access to apps usually used on computers. This process is described as ‘convergence’ by Henry Jenkins (2011:3), which he explains as “the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries”. Content such as electronic books and textbooks, electronic journals, magazines and newspapers, is available thorough different media, and it is the reader who decides which media to use; convergence changes the way people use different media to reach the same scope. Reading a book is not reading a novel, a newspaper or studying in specific times of the day anymore. With the electronic availability of publications, readers can in theory access content anytime and anywhere and the publishing industry had to adapt to these new needs. In practice, the digital publishing models used in developed countries are successful within their own territory. Yet, previous research has demonstrated that in sub-Saharan Africa, the distribution channels are still fairly weak, hence educational publishing, the focus of this paper, has to face different issues to those Page | 3


in industrialised countries. In the area of sub-Saharan African publishing “the first observation a visitor might make with regard to digital publishing in sub-Saharan Africa is that it is in an entirely embryonic state” (Kulesz, 2011:314),and it is generally assumed that the digital publishing revolution cannot actually take place and develop. An interesting perspective is given by Ngobeni, (2012) who, in his discussion about the challenges facing scholarly publishing in Africa, believes the adoption of electronic publishing by local publishers is the right solution to mitigate the current publishing issues. Ngobeni, (2012:17) added: “all we need is a hardware, internet connectivity and energy”. According to this perspective, e-publishing would be the perfect answer to solve all the sub-Sahara African publishers’ problems. However, this statement would appear to be over-ambitious in its claims. It can be argued that this solution requires a deeper analysis, and more considerations should be made about the resources available in these countries. A large number of studies have been published on the challenges and obstacles to e-publishing. In his major study, Kulesz (2011) identified some: lack of know-how, publishers’ backlists not being in digital format, the problem of piracy arising with the digital broadcast of content, expensive software, lack of infrastructure and business models (Kulesz, 2011). However, the author overlooks the crucial role played by the ex-colonies of Africa. Indeed, the long period of colonialism “led to cultural exchanges between Africans and Europeans and provided the opportunity for Africa to acquire new technologies from the West that had taken centuries of European efforts to perfect” (Asamoah, 2012: 13). This study will explore the validity of this latter statement, by giving examples of projects undertaken by Western countries to enhance digital publishing in Africa. Moreover, local projects will be examined to illustrate how local organisations, publishers, governments and policy makers all work for the development and introduction of digital publishing into local universities. During the recent years a vast amount of literature has been published on e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa. However, after a thorough scanning of the available material, the most relevant and up-to-date literature was available Page | 4


on Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. These have also been chosen on the basis that they are Anglophone and have particular internal differences, which reflect the continental discrepancies of Africa itself. Kenya is the country with the strongest bandwidth in sub-Saharan Africa (The eLearning Africa 2012 Report). Additionally, previous research has shown that “the government is currently developing an ICT infrastructure to facilitate internet connection� (Isaacs & Hollow, 2012). Nigeria faces issues such as lack of limited broadband and Wi-Fi connection. Additionally, there is a lack of an effective legal framework to administer digital publishing in the country (Nawotka, 2011). However, Nigeria records the highest number of mobile phone subscriptions in Africa (BBC News Africa, 2011). The use of mobile phones for educational purposes is constantly rising in Nigeria, as it will be described in this paper. Finally, Ghana is home of the Worldreader project, which aims to distribute e-Books in schools.

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3. METHODOLOGY The present chapter explains the methodology adopted in this research and the methods of research used to collect information. The research methodology is based on an extended investigation of secondary sources. The documents studied include the eLearning Africa reports and statistics, as well as the World Bank´s reports which show the level of ICT diffusion in the countries and the statistics on the development of technology. Furthermore, journal and online articles will be referenced, along with previous research to describe e-publishing challenges. Programmes of projects undertaken by local and international organisations and governmental documents which engage with the three countries under analysis are referenced throughout the work. Additionally, video interviews taken from newspapers online or local African TV broadcasts and international ones will be useful to add up-to-date content to this research.

3.1 Survey on “E-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”

In order to fill the gap in literature and have a more realistic view of the situation in sub-Saharan Africa, in addition to secondary sources, primary resources are used to collect data. Hence, surveys were mailed out to libraries, university press, and publishers in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana, as well as both local and international organisations. The questionnaire was structured in three main sections in order to explore the current status and possible enhancement of e-publishing in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana (see appendix 3, page 62). The first section requested general information about the respondent’s profile. The second section focused on the digital needs of universities and publishers. Section 3 questioned participants on the current situation of e-publishing. It also included questions on challenges and opportunities and the projects undertaken to enhance e-publishing. The surveys were tailor-made based on the type of respondent they were aimed at, in order to make the questions more relevant to the recipients. Overall, the percentage of responses received was quite low compared to the number of surveys that were sent. The highest response was from Kenya, followed by Nigeria and Page | 6


Ghana. The answers to the surveys will be integrated within the text, highlighting that it is a primary source, and is referenced as “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa�, title of the surveys.

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4. PUBLISHING IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA This chapter offers an overview of sub-Saharan African regions. It also talks about the advance of publishing of South Africa and describes why this region has been omitted from the present research. Finally, it concludes by listing the countries that will be studied and analysed through the paper.

4.1 Sub-Saharan Africa The region encompasses 46 countries (see map in Appendix 1, page 61). Within sub-Saharan Africa are included those countries located south of the Sahara, under the imaginary lines called Sahel ( Arabic, Sahil) or transition zone, a semi-arid region of western and north-central Africa extending from Senegal to the Sudan(Encyclopaedia Britannica Online). The countries in sub-Saharan Africa are categorised as developing countries and among them, there are some of the least developed countries in the world. It is essential to give a clarification about South Africa for its different background. South Africa has a different history and its economy is more developed than in the rest of Africa. Publishers in South Africa have more technology available and the amount of knowledge created and the access to global knowledge in South Africa is higher than in other sub-Saharan African countries (Ondari and Okemwa 2004). For these reasons, South Africa will not be included in this paper.

To conclude, given the situation of high disparity among sub-Saharan Africa, this paper will focus on three countries only: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana (see Appendix 2, 62). Digital publishing is developed in different manners in each of these three countries, and different possibilities have been exploited over the years.

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4.2

Colonial languages and publishing industry pre and post-independence

This section briefly illustrates the sub-Saharan publishing transition from the European colonialism to independence. Sub-Saharan African countries were colonised by European countries, mainly by Britain and France. As a consequence, most of the countries in this region have adopted the colonial languages of French and English as their official language, whilst hundreds of dialects and minority languages co-exist. As a consequence, the African publishing industry has been highly influenced by the colonial powers too.

Quarshire and Oseifuah (in Ngobeni, 2010) have written about the establishment in Africa of the Oxford and Cambridge University Presses in the 15th century. They also reported that the Ibadan University Press, the first indigenous publishing press in Africa, was only founded in 1952. The authors concluded that “this would seem to suggest that publishing by African scholars before the middle of the 20th century was undertaken by publishing houses in Europe and the United States” (ibid, 2010:83).

After independence, the situation changed and local publishers began to settle in the African territory, benefiting from what the colonisers had built. Regarding the current situation of educational publishing, Ngobeni (2010:75) reported that “publishing in the African continent is predominantly educational, 60% of total production”. As colonies, Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana all had to follow the British education model, but after their independence, these underwent several changes which will be described in the following chapter.

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5. ICT AND EDUCATIONAL POLICIES IN KENYA, NIGERIA AND GHANA This chapter deals with the ICT and educational policies in the three countries under analysis, Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. A common factor is that these policies highlight the need to improve access to ICT and internet connectivity in order to implement technology in educational institutions, and therefore open new digital possibilities for local publishers. In some countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the ICT educational policies also emphasise the importance of developing digital content, new tools to deliver education and the fundamental need to distribute content in indigenous languages (infoDev, 2013). Ejadafiru (2011, quoted in Kennedy, 2011:192) states that national policies might be the “planning tools which take cognizance of national needs and objectives and set course of action to achieve them”. ICT policies affect publishing because if publishing is going to adopt technology, then an adequate environment has to be provided by the policies in place. E-publishing has to be driven by the policies in place and they have to be deliberate policies to enhance the sector 1. However, while policy makers might make new policy decisions, the governments might lack goodwill or funds. To conclude then, the policies may not be implemented, leaving the status of ICT and ICT in education unchanged. In the educational content, some of the causes for lack of policy application are: “rising student numbers without commensurate increase in funds, problem of poor management, gender inequality, poor teaching and research facilities“(Ogbogu, 2013:32).

1

Kabugu,A., Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”. See appendix 11, page 76).

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5.1 Kenyan policies to introduce ICT in higher education The decolonisation of Kenya led to major changes within the country’s higher education system. Policy makers recognise the importance of integrating ICT into the educational system. For instance, the Ministry of Higher Education developed a national strategy for technical education and training, which aimed to renovate the physical facilities and guarantee that vocational and technical institutions are appropriately equipped by 2010 (Wosyanju, 2008). Within the Task force on the realignment of the education sector to the constitution of Kenya, the main goals of Kenya Vision 2030 are listed 2. The Kenyan Ministry of Education Mutula Kilonzo lists them as follows: “Towards the realization of Vision 2030, the education system will be guided by the following principles: (a) Reaffirming and enhancing patriotism, national unity, mutual social responsibility and the ethical and moral foundation of our society. (b) Providing an education for all that has open door and alternative systems that ensure opportunities for continuous learning. (c) Placing emphasis on quality, access, equity, relevance and transitional issues. (d) Placing emphasis on new developments in science, technology and innovation. Opportunities for learners to specialise in technology education shall be developed when at age sixteen; learners will have an opportunity to select to follow the technology pathway for the senior secondary phase. The use of ICT shall be accelerated and integrated into the education system.” Ministry of Education (2012, p23).

Hence, education for all is considered one of the main values of Vision 2030 as well as the introduction of technology into the education system and student training. Students are pushed to learn technology in order to raise awareness and know-how within the country.

2

The development blue-print was launched by the President Mwai Kibaki in 2008 and it comprehends a series of projects to develop Kenya into an industrialised and competitive country. With the Kenya Vision2030, Kenya aims to become the Africa’s ICT hub. It is based on economic, social and political projects.

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Additionally, during the 2nd international conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training, hosted in Nairobi in 2007, the Kenyan Minister of George Saitoti stated: “in education, the use of ICTs offer new ways in which the quality, effectiveness, and in particular, the flexibility of higher education can be improved” infoDev (2013:4). The answers given to the survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa” (see Appendix 3, page 65), confirmed that government policies have an effect on e-publishing development in Kenya.

“Data protection Bill 2012 is still a stumble block to the safety of the data. The government is still sceptical. An ICT policy does not recognise libraries as the entity that utilise a big chunk of bandwidth and storage in its operations. This has hampered the library e-publishing”. 3

Maua M., Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

“The mobilisation for the embrace of the digital revolution has been left to the publishers, without any help from Government”. The systems in use for the evaluation of digital content in educational area is years behind the digital age”. 4

Storymoja Publishers, Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

“Both government and institutions of higher learning have made lots of investments in equipment and infrastructure to support ICTs. The government has also adopted policies to enhance development of e-content for primary schools”. Kabugu A., Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

Thus, the survey’s findings seem to show that the Kenyan Government’s ICT development is still at an embryonic stage. Consequently, e-publishing is still at an early stage in Kenya and they have not yet developed to the point to benefit from the implementation of e-publishing. However despite the limitations listed above, local and international projects have been undertaken and produced positive results which will be discussed in the further chapters.

3 4

For Maua’s survey. See appendix 12, page 79. For Stormoya Publishers’ survey. See appendix 13, page 82.

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5.2

Nigerian policy and Government goodwill

This chapter focuses on the ICT and Educational policies in Nigeria through the analysis of two official documents: the Nigerian National Policy (NNP) and the Nigerian Policy of Education (NPE). The main objectives will be outlined and put in context. The Nigerian national policy on information technology highlights three main objectives: “xv) Empower the youth with IT skills and prepare them for global competitiveness. xvi) Integrate IT into the mainstream of education and training. xxiv) Establish new multifaceted IT institutions as centres of excellence to ensure Nigeria’s competitiveness in international markets” Yusuf (2005:318).

The Nigerian National Policy of Education (NPE) passed through several modifications, from the precolonial period to independence in 1960. After independence the NPE principally aimed for “national development which encompassed the goals of Africanization, national unity and economic growth” (Woolman, 2001:32).

The NPE was revised and converted several times where the crucial importance of education has been recognised as an important promoter for Nigeria’s development. One of the objectives of a further modification in 2004 was to drive Nigeria to a technological development in which the government established universities and institutes of technology. In 2012, a draft of the new NPE was published. The main goals are: “i. To reflect convergence by de-emphasizing the differences between the IT, broadcasting, telecommunication, and postal sectors; iii. To enact a new ICT Act that ensures a competitive and converged industry as well as provide an appropriate legal framework; v. To develop and enhance indigenous capacity in ICT technologies and software development; vi. To ensure the country’s effective participation in regional and international ICT in order to promote ICT development in Nigeria.

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x. To eliminate multiple regulation and taxation in the ICT sector as this serves as disincentives to investors; xii. To encourage the development of Broadband services that will enable Nigerians enjoy the benefits of globalization and convergence” (The ministerial committee on ICT policy

harmonization 2012:14). The introduction of ICT into the educational system is again emphasised by the Nigerian policy. Additionally, the policy aims to improve technology access in the country, which reflects the country’s recent strong development. Nigeria intends to become a locally and internationally competitive market in term of technology. To what extent are ICT policies applied in education? As is emphasised in the research of The African Publishing Review (APNET, 2011:4) on Capacity building in the printing and publishing industry in Africa, “the general infrastructural development in Nigeria in relation to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is bedevilled by issues ranging from Government's ineptitude to handling the energy sector and consequent costs of running businesses in Nigeria.” In conflict to this evidence, the Nigerian Minister of ICT Omobola Johnson, in a TV interview for ABN digital 5, stated that (Johnson, 2012) NPE gave a positive approach to the country’s ICT development. She recognised the importance of internet access as a service for everybody, not only for the elite, and said that the expansion of internet access must be considered as an opportunity of development. The author also added that the NPE ICT policy is based on the expansion of the software development industry, involving young professionals in the country. In relation to foreign aid, Johnson emphasised the need for foreign involvement. The policy itself shows the partners that what Nigeria can achieve with ICT is beneficial for the country development. 5

ABN digital is an online platform based in South Africa, which reports news about Business, Economy, Stock markets from all over Africa.

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When asked about the complex and wide territorial differences within Nigeria, the Minister highlighted the government intention to develop connection coverage throughout the whole country, including the Northern regions. The Government decentralised education policy making and established management bodies within each state and province. This way, policies can be more focused on the local needs (infoDEV, 2012). She concluded “Once the policies will be executed we will make the impact that we wanted to make” (Johnson, 2012). Maepa (2013:11) reports that “according to the Nigerian National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), there is a sense that the government understands the need to develop an enabling infrastructure and consistent legal framework that will encourage the development of digital publishing”. In conclusion, it seems clear that the Nigerian government is willing to improve access to technology within the country. Consequently, this leads to a higher probability of further growth in e-publishing in Nigeria.

5.3 Ghanaian government policy strategies Similarly to the Nigerian one, the official policy of Ghana explored in this chapter, recognises the fundamental importance of ICT in order to enhance the development of educational policies and has the same purpose of integrating ICT into the educational system. The following quotation is from the Ghanaian ICT in Education Policy paper (Ministry of Education 2008:13): “The Mission of this policy will be to articulate the relevance, responsibility and effectiveness of utilizing Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the education sector, with a view to addressing current sector challenges and equipping Ghanaian learners, students, teachers and communities in meeting the national and global demands of the 21st Century” and also “to enable graduates from Ghanaian educational institutions – formal and non-formal - to confidently and

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creatively use ICT tools and resources to develop requisite skills and knowledge needed to be active participants in the global knowledge economy by 2015.”

It can be noticed that the Ghanaian policy has a global vision. Among other goals, it emphasises the importance of developing knowledge in order to be a globally competitive country by 2015. The Ghanaian ICT for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD) Policy (Ministry of technology, 2003: 7-8) focuses on ICT development as the tool to help the socio-economic development of the country. The specific objectives and priorities are emphasised: “Promote an improved educational system within which ICTs are widely deployed to facilitate the delivery of educational services at all levels of the educational system” (p.7) “Promoting ICTs in Education – The Deployment and Exploitation of ICTs in Education” (p.8).

This is just a brief part of the policy, but the government has developed further goals to develop ICT in education6. The strategies adopted to pursue the goal are divided into seven main areas: 1) education management, 2) capacity building, 3) infrastructure, e-readiness and equitable access, 4) incorporating ICT into the curriculum, 5) content development, 6) technical support, maintenance and sustainability of ICT initiatives 7) monitoring and evaluation.

6

For further reading of the strategies adopted to reach this goals, see appendix 4, page 72.

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6. ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES OF E-PUBLISHING IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA The first part of the present chapter illustrates the benefits of e-publishing on the local publishing industry. In the second part, the challenges of e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa will be addressed. The introduction has already dealt with the concept of ICT convergence. An interesting observation on the topic is given by Lishan (2003:196) who states: “The fast growth and convergence of ICTs have also forced African academic institutions to react to the new way of knowledge creation, management and distribution. ”Nevertheless, the implementation of technology within educational institutions such as universities is still mediocre. Firstly, the major issue for the implementation of ICT in educational institutions is the lack of money for “acquisition, installation, maintenance, training, and sustainability” (Womboh, 2008:4). Secondly, subSaharan Africa suffers from a lack of infrastructure, internet connectivity and availability of completely sufficient energy. Thirdly, as Lishan (2003) maintains, African higher institutions are still lagging behind other regions in the improvement of ICT policies. In addition, they lack awareness of the possibilities offered by ICTs. Finally, the publishing industry has been affected by “high government taxes, high cost of equipment and obvious absence of general maintenance culture.”(APNET, 2011:4)

“Lack of understanding of the benefit, skills and necessary software. Institutional guidance – for any new technology to succeed, the administration has to be in the forefront to spearhead it. Lack of right policies to guide it.” Kabugu A., Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

“Right now the solutions we get are not the solution we are looking for because we need more interactive solution which most service providers are not giving”

O Ogola,P. Moran Publishers, Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 7 2013

7

For Ogola’s survey. See appendix 14, page 85.

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Thus, can e-publishing be considered a valid solution for developing countries like SSA in the scholarly context? How can foreign publications be made available to scholars around the wide territory of subSaharan Africa? Adopting new publishing models can be one effective approach. Several authors and researchers have contributed to the literature on the benefits brought by epublishing. To begin, e-publishing is recognised as a beneficial model for publishers for its costeffectiveness in cutting down costs for recycling paper, waste collection, printing and distribution. Among others, the biggest issues for African publishers are the cost of paper and significant distribution and printing costs. These can be solved in part by electronic publishing which guarantees the reduction of paper consumption and therefore decreases distribution and printing problems. For instance, it is cost effective for local publishers, because they can have a digital copy of the textbook before sending it to publication, saving the money for paper, ink and printing if the book is not satisfactory. Besides, digital publishing is environmentally friendly, because it reduces fuel emissions and the use of harmful chemicals, and reduces paper consumption and emissions from distribution (European Commission, 2009). A study by Econtent.com (2009) can contribute to the definition of the third advantage of embracing epublishing: digital publishing is borderless. Due to the peculiarity of the internet, digital content is available everywhere, as has been described in the previous comments about convergence culture. Scholarly publications have the possibility to reach an extended audience. The central concern here is that, whereas in the developed countries of Europe or the US, the shift from analogue to digital has already started and it is developing at different speeds (Kulesz,2011), when it comes to non-industrialised regions like sub-Saharan Africa, restrictions such as the lack of infrastructure and skilled human resources, slow this process down. Albeit e-publishing and content digitalisation preserve the same characteristics, the models must be applied in different ways. In order to have a better overview on the educational and ICT environment of Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana, the present research will firstly focus on the educational and ICT policies of the post-independence era. Page | 18


6.1 Electricity-Internet In northern countries the devices used to connect to the internet are widespread and advanced, while the devices used to access to e-publishing content in Africa are either in low quantity and lack software development or are different devices which in Africa find more market than in any other part of the World, such as the mobile phones. This is reflected at the same time in scholarly publishing, in fact despite universities having most digital equipment among institutions, their levels are still very low compared with industrialised countries. Research has acknowledged that priorities and policies have been made to overcome those limitations, but the question still remains unsolved. According to the International Energy Agency, IEA, (2011, cited in UNESCO 2011) “in sub-Saharan Africa, some 585 million people (58%) do not have access to electricity at home. Writing about electronic publishing challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, Ondari and Okemwa (2004:9) write: “Sub-Saharan Africa could benefit from electronic publishing but the countries in the region lack the technological capability to support electronic knowledge transfer”. The situation regarding universities is almost parallel, for instance Lishan (2003:205) maintains that at the top of the ICTs constraints for African universities, there is the lack of adequate bandwidth. On this topic, Ondari and Okemwa (2004:10) highlight the same problem that “very few institutions of higher learning in the region enable scholars to have free and unlimited access to the internet”. “The band width issue should be sorted so the materials can reach the target group. The infrastructure has to be improved”. Ogola,P. Moran Publishers. Survey “e-publsihing in sub-Saharan Africa”

Along with these findings, it is important to remember what was specified at the beginning of this research. Differences exist from one country to another and within the country itself. Thus, in order to have a realistic context overview, it is appropriate to compare data from other sub-Saharan Africa besides Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. In fact, the aim of this paper is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these three countries within Africa and not compare them with other developed countries. For instance, according to the UNESCO’s institute for statistics’ report on the school and Page | 19


teaching resources in sub-Saharan Africa (2012:9), the countries with the low level of energy access are Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Guinea, Malawi, Niger and Togo. “Here more than 80% of schools lack electricity”. As can be noticed, the three countries Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana are not on the list. Hence, despite the many issues faced by these countries, they can be seen as rising economies within the African continent.

6.2 Language For the purpose of this research, only Anglophone countries are analysed. English is the official language, but indigenous languages must be considered as common spoken languages. In Nigeria for example, there are at least 5 local recognised spoken languages: Hausa, Yourba, Fulfulde, Songhai, Kanuri, Igbo and more than twenty two written languages (UNESCO, 2011). Ghanaians speak nine local languages in addition to English. “The most widely spoken local languages are, Ga, Dagomba, Akan and Ewe” (Ghana Embassy: 2013). “In Kenya are spoken approximately 42 African languages including Kiswahili. In terms of official policy, Kiswahili is the national language while English is the official language” (Ogechi, 2001:186). This introduces us to the concept underlined by Collins and Bruns (2007:44). They affirm that “the cultural diversities of Africa are best understood on the common domination of language. Language remains the basic structure, despite changes in culture and society”. The final evaluation of the Worldreader Iread project in Ghana (which will be examined in depth in chapter 9), addresses the problem of languages. It can be reported: “while English is the official language of Ghana, it is the second language for most if not all project affected students and teachers. English language limitations were especially significant for primary students who use English for the first time in primary class 4” (Worldreader, 2012:19). To sum up, the language differences within one country can be an issue in publishing. Thus, the question whether the contents should be published in local languages or in the national language (English) emerges. Also, it could be argued that Page | 20


international publications in English could not be effective in countries where local people speak different languages because they do not have a proficiency in English.

6.3 Distribution In Africa, even the distribution of essential textbooks might face big distribution issues, which restrict the market to “only local bookshops and outlets, which leads to the limitation and even the strangling of their content’s potential” (Publishing perspectives, 2013). Ngobeni, (2010) emphasises the problem that African research and scholarly publications mainly remain within the region they are written in and hardly ever spread beyond the borders, leading to a lack of visibility of publications. Given these background distribution issues, Batamuze (2010) recognises that e-publishing would be the right solution. According to the author, e-publishing offers new opportunities for content distribution within Africa. Content can be delivered via devices such as mobile phones and connection models (wireless networks), not adopted by western countries. About the cost effectiveness of epublishing, Doeskun 8(2013:33) discusses: “digital publishing cuts out the problems of distributions and are estimated to save the equivalent of $300 million over textbook provision”.

6.4 Government goodwill The embracement of technology and therefore the embracing of e-publishing by sub-Saharan African universities depend on government support. Although the national policies of the three countries analysed in chapter 5 seem to treat the importance of ICT development in education very carefully, the present situation is different. As a matter of fact, as Lishan (2003:206) states, “insufficient private sector investments in the telecommunications infrastructure and the lack of competition have led to arbitrary pricing-setting that has set the cost of ICTs beyond the reach of most universities”. The author

8

Simi Doeskun (Former Managing Editor, Kachifo Limited).

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adds: “African governments put up constraining barriers, making it harder for ICTs and knowledge diffusion.” Nevertheless, some institutions lack funds due to a Government apathy (Womboh, 2008). In fact, in the past the policy was intended to develop and implement IT by the government, but the development process actions has never been completed or even started. Albeit the “Government is the major source of funds for federal universities in Nigeria” (Ogbuogo, 2011:157), often the funds given are inadequate and the unstable economy of both government and universities does not allow a complete development of the policies.

6.5 Lack of awareness and know-how The government deficiencies described above influence teachers, librarians and professionals who feel abandoned by the government itself. As a matter of fact, several sub-Saharan African universities have to work with a low level of facilities, unequipped libraries, and in the majority of cases, they are also not aware of the technology potential (Ogbuogo, 2011:159).The author Lishan (2003:197)emphasises:“the low level of awareness and commitment of higher education administrators is discouraging”. Furthermore, the local universities do not have a proper understanding of the possibilities which can be embraced with electronic publishing, and they have difficulties to “adapt to the changing circumstances in networked environments” (ibid., p. 205). “Initially there was lack of computer skills but the situation has now changed and all staff is skilled”. “University presses have to be in the forefront in adopting technology so as to be the shining examples for others”. Kabugu A., Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

“Librarians should also be enlightened that by embracing technology in publishing does not mean the end of print publishing. Print is here to stay but some scientific and technical articles should be published electronically”. Maua M., Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

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6.6 Censorship-Copyright One of the biggest concerns of local publishers and researchers is the fear of piracy and violation of copyright which might be generated by the publishing work-flow through the World Wide Web.

“Lecturers are asking for incentives before they submit their work to the IR and also there is still the belief that authoritative work is the one which is printed but not electronic”. Maua M., Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

“The issue of security: in Kenya the penalty for piracy is very lenient and therefore most publishers are reluctant to pursue this”. Ogola,P. Moran Publishers,Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

The problem of piracy has been studied by Zell (2013:2) who points out: “fear of piracy also remains a major issue. Not surprisingly, publishers are hesitant to digitalize their books until digital and online content are seen to be secure from piracy and illegal distribution”. When thinking about digital publishing, other concerns of African publisher are copyright/intellectual property issues which especially rise when it comes to Open Access content. Trucano (2012) points out that “the digitization of learning materials, together with the proliferation of ‘alternative’ approaches to licences for various types of digital content (like Creative Commons, which has helped spawn the OER movement), is causing many education systems to re-think approaches to educational content”. However, digital rights management (DRM), digital assets, encryption tools, security systems are still areas where African publishers lack know-how. In his market research on Publishing Market Profile of Kenya, Andrews (2004:44) highlights that the piracy cases in the country in 2004 caused losses of almost £2.25m. Finally though, he adds that “new legislations are being introduced by the government, which has also set up a new Kenya Copyright Board and an Anti-Piracy Authority”. Page | 23


6.7 Cost This section illustrates the cost effectiveness of digital publishing for African publishers. In countries where digitalisation is still in an early stage, there is a need to invest in the purchase of new technology. Then, as has been emphasised in chapter 6.5, publishers, librarians and academics, require training. It must be considered that establishing the digital “infrastructure to support multimedia content requires substantial capital investment” (Brown et al. 2007:14) as well as providing training.

Despite these first costs a decline is noticeable in printing, production and distribution costs. Hence, the publishing process would be much more affordable. Here, it is important to consider one of the aspects previously described: lack of awareness. As has been mentioned before, African publishers do not have the right knowledge on the benefits of e-publishing; therefore, they are generally sceptical about investing money in what is seen as an economic risk. 9 In conclusion, the issues for the adoption of digital publishing in Africa are concatenated. Firstly, the economy inequality, government corruption and lack of goodwill of governments, cause an inappropriate management of funds for technological growth and training. Secondly, the lack of awareness, both of publishers and governments, as well as librarians and academics, are the first constraints to digital development. Hence, since publishers do not have a real knowledge of e-publishing, they are sceptical in investing a large amount of money in a reconstruction which could not guarantee them economic security. For the same lack of awareness, publishers do not embrace digital publishing, because they perceive digital distribution as a threat to copyright. Nevertheless, this cannot be used as a general assumption. Indeed, according to the Kenyan publishers and librarians who responded the survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, the publishing industry, as well as university libraries, recognise the need for technology and admit that the embracement of e-publishing would be beneficial for them.

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Finally, it has been shown that in some areas the lack of electricity and bandwidth limitation are a massive obstacle to the realisation of digital projects. This problem has been addressed by ICT policies. Despite this, the policies have not been fully applied and therefore these issues are still present in the territory. Given the internal issues and weaknesses of sub-Saharan Africa, the next chapter will illustrate the available technology in universities, libraries and publishing houses of the three countries analysed.

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7. AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

Through this chapter, the devices used to get access to the internet and therefore to the electronic publications will be addressed. It is important to begin with an overview on internet availability on the continent. In fact, the e-publishing model mainly uses the internet connection to work; therefore, the internet penetration plays an important role in defining the possibilities of digital publishing. In this regard, Castells (2001:269) observes that “Internet is the technological tool and organisational form that distributes information power, knowledge generation, and networking capacity in all realms of activity.” He adds: “on one hand being disconnected or superficially connected to the Internet is tantamount to marginalisation in the global networked system. Developed without the Internet would be equivalent of industrialisation without electricity in the Industrial era”. The following pie chart taken from theInternetworldstats.com (2013) shows the internet users in Africa in comparison with the rest of the world.

The table below shows the internet penetration and internet users in 2012. For the purpose of this research, the results are narrowed down to the three countries analysed. Page | 26


Population

Internet Users

Internet

Penetration

Internet

(2012 Est.)

Dec/2000

Users

(% Population)

% Africa

30-June-2012 Nigeria

170,123,740

200,000

48,366,179

28.4%

29.9%

Kenya

43,013,341

200,000

12,043,735

28.0%

7.2%

Ghana

25,292,392

30,000

3,568,757

14.1%

2.1%

Š Miniwatts Marketing Group. All rights reserved worldwide. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm

From a general perspective, comparing the two figures, we can see that the internet penetration in Africa is very low compared to the other countries of the world. However, it is encouraging to see that the number ofinternet users within Africa has risen considerably in ten years in all the three countries of analysis. Whereas Nigeria registers the highest number of internet users, the internet penetration is similar for Kenya and Nigeria. Not surprisingly Ghana registers the lowest percentage of internet penetration and the lowest level of internet users. However, an interesting perspective regarding the internet usage in sub-Saharan African universities is given by Onyancha and Ocholla (2007) who compare the level of web influence on universities in Kenya and South Africa. The results of their research show that universities in Kenya have started to adopt the internet recently; consequently in general the websites are still under construction (Ocholla, 2011). Furthermore, the study shows that the level of adoption of websites within universities in this country is growing and the web development is beginning to be perceived as an important factor for university visibility. Thus, electronic publishing in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing its presence thanks to the webbased publications.

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7.1 Mobile phones The digital revolution for Africa means the mobile phone revolution. This chapter will investigate the penetration of mobile phones in sub-Saharan Africa and the possible interrelation with the publishing industry. The mobile phones market in Africa is radically growing, “there are more mobile phones in the African continent than in the United States” (ITU: 2012). According to the Internet World Statistics, ”in June 2010, there were six licensed mobile line operators, over 75 million mobile subscribers, 400 operating ISPs, and almost 44 million internet users” (APNET, 2011:7). The mobile social network Eskimi, from Lithuania records up to 2 million users in Nigeria (International Alliance of Independent Publishers, 2013:6). But which are the factors that make mobile phones so adaptable at the sub-Saharan African region? “Publishing to mobile phones, is an alternative currently being explored around the world” (Batambuze, 2010: 8). If before people had to go to the internet points, now with the mobile phone technology, people can access the internet with their mobile phone, and from a publisher’s point of view, this is nothing else than a new channel to market (ibid). On the adoption of mobile phones for learning purposes, UNESCO (2011) supports the use of mobile phones, arguing that other technologies for e-learning purposes are limited and only affordable by institutions, whilst mobile phones are cheap, readily available and individuals can afford them. The selling point of mobile phones seems to be the lowest price and the easiest connection to the internet. In fact, mobile phones reduce handset prices, allowing this technology to be available for all (Isaacs, and Hollow, 2012:32), for further information about mobile phones penetration in Nigeria see appendix 6/7 (page 73-74). Nevertheless, these devices are bought by teachers, students and students’ families, without any support of the governments.

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Furthermore, UNESCO (2012) maintained that learning via mobile phones tends to be informal, and formal learning is still facing challenges. Hence, while the number of initiatives for mobile phones for education in class is still very low, mobiles are heavily used outside schools for the purpose of research. Furthermore, what is more important is that users can share information. Conversely, a project which started in Cape Town in 2010 showed the implementation of mobile phones in a different way, which will be illustrated later, in chapter 8, dedicated to a project undertaken in Africa. Briefly, mobile phones are used for academic purposes in collaboration with Oxford University Press. Recent evidence suggests that Nigeria is the country with the highest level of mobile phone usage. In fact, the mobile phones penetration in Nigeria is the highest in Africa with 95,167,308 subscriptions (ITU, 2012), even higher than in South Africa. Kulesz (2011) emphasises the potential of mobile phones for the local publishing industry. He points out that local African publishers have the possibility to be in contact with authors and they can be more conscious of the needs of the market they are working with. As has been mentioned before, the problem of irrelevant content is a big issue which must be faced by local publishers. ‘ Mobile technologies continue to penetrate larger areas and therefore the reach will definitely increase education levels in one way or another and (..) more and more people will be able to access information through hand held devices ” (infoDev, 2013:28). From the description given before, it can be concluded that mobile phones can be effectively used by the publishing industry. According to this, in his major publication on e-publishing in developing countries, Kulesz (2011:319) adds “we should incorporate electronic payment system, giving publishers a privileged commercial platform”.

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7.2 E-books The digital publishing revolution is leading to the switch to digital portable devices as the new tool to read and study. The books (or textbooks) read on electronic devices are electronic books. E-books are published books that are available in digital format, online. E-books can be read online or downloaded to be read on computers, CDs or e-book readers such as Kindle (Amazon). About the usage of e-books in African countries, Pieterese (2011, in Ngobeni: 148), claims: “There are of course many barriers and challenges in the use of e-books in educational and academic context, whether Africa or elsewhere” (Zell, 2013:3). It is generally argued that the e-book market in sub-Saharan Africa is still at an early stage. For instance, Kenya launched its first eBook store (eKitabu) only in 2012 (Maepa, 2013:12). In the US and Europe, the purchases of electronic readers is increasingly growing and electronic devices are adopted in schools to replace traditional reading. However, the spread of e-readers in subSaharan Africa is hampered by different unfavourable contexts both for publishers and consumers and the adoption of e-books for scholarly use is still rare. First of all, the e-readers are quite expensive and not affordable for everyone. Secondly, as it emerged from the answers to the survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, the e-readers are not a popular tool yet. This leads people to prefer the classic way to read and study from paper books, without being open to new solutions. Thirdly, there is a lack of local contents in digital format, and the digitalised content is usually published by international authors. However, projects such as Book Club International of igbat.org, in partnership with Worldreader, have undertaken to digitalise local material and make it available on digital tools (see chapter 8). The situation is slightly different for universities as McGregor (2010) explains “an initiative to deliver low-cost, high-quality digital publications to universities in the developing world will scale up to serve 27 countries worldwide, starting in sub-Saharan Africa. Deals involving major discounts have been reached with academic publishers, and pilot projects have run in three countries” by the World Bank Group and the International Association for Digital Publications, IADP. The university market is in fact Page | 30


easier to reach because universities have more equipment than schools, and have the possibility to access publications. This chapter has given an introduction to e-books technology. The present study will focus on the technology of e-books by exploring the project undertaken by Worldreader.org. In brief, the Worldreader’s project aims to bring e-readers to schools of sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the lack of other outstanding technology availability and projects, Ghana will be taken as the exemplar country of action of the Worldreader project.

7.3 Open Access Crow (2009:2) describes OA as the “free and immediate online access to peer–reviewed journal literature”. The publishing distribution model of open access has been proposed as a method to overcome some of the restrictions of developing countries like the sub-Saharan African one. It can be argued then that Open Access will be particularly beneficial to research in less developed countries. The OA option can be adopted by publishers in developing countries to promote the visibility of local authors, intensify the access to sources and increase knowledge of the available resources. On the other hand, Bowdoin (2011: 3) identified some deficiency which might obstruct the adoption of the OA model in sub-Saharan Africa such as lack of: •

Awareness about OA and copyright issues;

Clear institutional policies for OA;

A peer-review process which inhibits authors from wanting to deposit their work;

Coordination among academic libraries; African library consortia; strong institutional infrastructures; adequate funding; a critical mass of scientists to form a viable research community, and the participation of government.

However, those obstacles have been seen as marginal issues by other researchers and projects about OA. For instance, in 2011 during the workshop on “ Promoting Innovation Development and Diffusion Page | 31


in Africa through Open Access Publishing” in Egypt, the Economic Commission for Africa’s Chief Librarian Irene Onyancha maintains “Open Access is a new way of publishing and of sharing information in the 21st century”(BiztechAfrica, 2011). During the workshop, the significant importance of OA for Africa was recognised in content-sharing through the different media available in the country. On the same occasion, Dr. Mbambo-Thata, member of the Africa Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions agreed:“nothing in the past has given Africa such an opportunity to share its knowledge” (ibid). Ocholla and Evans (2013), support the validity of the open access as a system widely adopted in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa which fulfils the expectations of the locals. Yet, to what extent can OA work as a valid solution for local publishers? Whether developing OA usage has been considered as a priority with many bodies working on its implementation, sub-Saharan Africa publishers lack a good understanding of open assessment systems and right management, which are two fundamental pillars of e-publications. The Study of Open Access Publishing, funded by the European Commission In 2009 confirms that the access to OA in Africa faces issues of “availability of funding to pay open access charges and low numbers of journals of a (perceived) suitable quality” (DFID, 2013:7). “It is hard to hold anyone accountable should its systems be hacked if open source system is adopted. This is in view that most libraries use open source for their IR which is used for publishing in these universities”. Maua Michael, Survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, June 2013

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7.4 Print on Demand This section describes the Print on Demand (POD) book digital (printing) technology, and gives a review of authors who emphasised the benefits of POD for African publishers. Clark and Phillips (2008: 215) describe the POD model from a publisher’s perspective: “Print on demand allows a publisher to operate a virtual stock policy with titles being printed only when there is an order. This model removes the need to tie up capital in speculative inventory, and the need for real estate warehousing and distribution facilities”. Print on demand reduces costs because the user prints only the quality needed, avoiding over stock and therefore unused material. Additionally, print on demand is environmentally friendly because it eliminates shipping or books return. Talking about POD in African publishing, Dougherty (2009:184) maintains that “because there are advantages, or at least reduced risks, for publishers who employ POD technology, consumers, including libraries, may benefit from increased choice of titles”. Similarly, Batambuze (2010:8) confirms that “print on demand solution would properly work for African publishers because often only small print runs are involved”. However, the author makes a good point about the technology needed. He points out: “POD might require high technology installations as it happens in the USA and UK like Lightning Source” (ibid., p.8). An example within the African borders is the Express book machine, launched in South Africa in 2012. The Express book machine is a machine, usually located in a university’s library, that performs the same work of a proper printing-house printer. The PDF or word document of the textbook/book is selected and sent to the machine which will print, align papers, bind and trim books in black and white or in 4/4 colours as well as the book cover, without any human help, in few minutes. At a demonstration of Nigerian publishers’ actual implementation of POD, Zell (2012:4) reports that “a number of Nigerian publishers now also offer some of their titles with a choice of wider e-book format, or purchase on a print on demand basis”.

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In conclusion, since POD cuts down publishing shipping and distribution costs, distributing books outside a country would no longer be that expensive. Thus, Print on Demand, would benefit the intercountry book distribution by making local content available in more parts within Africa. Moreover, despite the initial high cost of printing machines, after the first investment, the publishing process would be completed in a high-quality and cost-effective way.

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8. OPPORTUNITIES AND PROJECTS In 1998, Castells maintained that in the age of digitalisation and technology, sub-Saharan Africa experienced the “technological apartheid”. Due to its internal structure and issues, sub-Saharan Africa is incapable of keeping up with the technology development which is happening in the rest of the world (Castells, 1998). However, over this century, the situation of technology in sub-Saharan Africa changed too, and many initiatives have been undertaken by different bodies to implement the usage of technology in publishing and educational institutions. Broadband in Africa is arriving through the mobile phone as opposed to copper in the advanced economies. Investments in submarine cables and terrestrial fibre are the fundamental driving force for this explosion through the mobile networks, gaining momentum as the price point for broadband dips.

CellBook

The mobile application developer CellBook, based in Cape Town (South Africa) and the Oxford University Press collaborate “to distribute the Oxford Dictionary of English, Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English, Compact Oxford English Dictionary for University and College Students, Pocket Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford Thesaurus of English and the Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus on mobile phones in Africa.” In the same article Pieter Traut, CEO at CellBook suggested: “The possibility to distribute books on mobile devices opens up new and untapped revenue streams for publishers and enables them to monetize content in a dynamic way in a world where the mobile phone has become the most popular digital device.”(NewswireToday, 2009) CellBook has achieved successful results in South Africa where it started collaboration with the major South African publishers NB Publishers, Jonathan Ball, Pearson Publications and Random House Struik and developed new technologies for mobile book publishing (ibid.).

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Cisco system

Cisco undertook a project aimed at developing the internet access and satellite connectivity in Algeria, Ghana, Mauritius, Rwanda, Senegal and South Africa. The project aimed to promote the installation of networking equipment in schools as tools to deliver education (infoDev, 2013:36).Additionally, it promoted campaigns for the training of teachers in the use of technologies in classrooms and teaching aids. The training of teachers is not the only scope of this project; as a matter of fact the company has planned a programme for the training of students to “design, build and maintain computer networks. A number of Networking Academies have been established in Africa in countries like Ghana, Mauritius, and Nigeria “(ibid: 36). This issue has been the focus of international organisations such as the United Nations ICT task force networking group. The group’s main objective was to “raise awareness among stakeholders in the development field of the opportunities and possibilities that exist in bringing access and connectivity to the African continent” (Danofsky, 2005:1).

The East African Marine Systems (TEAMS)

Before this project was undertaken, East Africa did not have a submarine connection. The Kenyan government supported the building of the SEACOM and Eastern Africa Submarine Cable System (EASCS). Along with this project, the government planned the development of National Optical Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI). “This merged with the already competitive Internet Service Provider (ISP) market, and gradually the price point for 2Mbps connectivity dropped from around USD 7500 per month on satellite three years ago to USD 200 per month today”(infoDev, 2013:38).The benefits of submarine cable system are manifested by results obtained in countries such as Ghana where, the elearning report continues, “a 2Mbps cost around USD4500 per month and today with four submarine cables in operation, it has reduced to USD 1000 per month” (ibid., 39).

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Millennium Declaration

In 2000, the United Nations Millennium Declaration was promulgated. There are 244 states which adopted the declaration, of which 189 are Members States of the UN and the remaining 55 are part of the General Assembly. “The Declaration makes a commitment that the number of people who live on less than one dollar a day should be halved by the year 2015”(World Telecommunication Development Report 2003). The declaration is formed by eight goals related to development solutions of different kinds and it focuses on 6 main values: •

Freedom

Equality

Solidarity

Tolerance

Respect for nature

Shared responsibility.

The declaration lists specific goals, for instance point 20 which declares: we resolve to “develop strong partnerships with the private sector and with civil society organizations in pursuit of development and poverty eradication” and in the further point “ensure that the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication technologies, in conformity with recommendations contained in the ECOSOC 2000 Ministerial Declaration, are available to all” (United Nations, 2000). As can be observed from the Millennium Declaration document, the focus on technology development and implementation is considered a fundamental factor to boost access to education, and therefore the flow of publications in digital format.

eLimu

Multimedia versions of syllabus are uploaded on e-reading devices in Kenyan schools. Essentially, the traditional content of the syllabus is implemented with interactive and animated content such as Page | 37


videos, games, music, in order to engage and increase the attention and interest of the students. This project is aimed to primary schools but it is worth mentioning this project to show the efficiency of electronic devices used in education. Also its strategy and purposes can eventually be extended to universities. “Following trials in a small numbers of schools, the tablets are now set to be more widely deployed in Kenyan primary schools as from 2013” (Zell, 2013:4).

Digital Divide Data (DDD)

The digital divide data programme established the digital platform Ekitabu (http://www.ekitabu.com/) which offers the availability of digital titles in e-Pub format of several academic subjects directly purchasable by the readers by M-Pesa 10. Through this platform, DDD also offers to Kenyan publishers support to “digitize, mobilize and monetize their publications in digital format; and through its e-books portal” (Zell, 2013:5).

IDEA

The Information Technology Developer Entrepreneurship Accelerator, IDEA has launched a programme to train Nigerian people to develop skills in software development and create new business ideas. The programme, started in 2013, has received a lot of attention because it is a local initiative, which aims to help people from the insight of Nigeria, increasing know-how (one of the issues previously mentioned). The Vice Chairman, Institute of Software Practitioners of Nigeria, comments about the actual ICT situation in Nigeria and the opportunities created by this initiative: “what will make this attractive is that fifty years ago, we were not talking of ATM, smart phones or portable mobile phones. But in the last five years, there has been an explosion in the use of smart phones, IPAD, APPLES, etc. Apples paid $6 billion in the last quarter to software developers” (Vanguard, 2013).

10

Payment system also used in Kenya is based on the mobile money transfer model, in which the payment is made by simply sending an SMS with mobile phones, without the need for a bank account. The system was developed through the collaboration of Vodafone and Kenya’s Safari. (Zell, 2013)

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First Bank Nigeria Plc.

Excellent projects have been undertaken to incentivise and facilitate the open access in the university system. One example is given by the First Bank Nigeria Plc. which provided the Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Nigeria with the financial support to develop a 2.4GHz Internet Wireless Distribution System (WDS), also called Hotspots project (Open access journal publishing, 2010:4).

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

The target of this project is not universities, but it is worth highlighting it as one of the major government initiatives to bring electronic devices into the education system. The survey of ICT and education in Africa (2011:11) describes the project. The One laptop per child project’s main objective is to distribute laptops in schools of Nigeria and South Africa as starting points. The laptops have a 4 hour battery, colour screen and accessibility to internet with Wi-Fi connection.

Schoolnet Nigeria

Similar projects are those of Schoolnet Nigeria. This non-profit organisation aims to increase “educational delivery by enhancing the teaching, learning and management processes in our primary and secondary schools using all identified and appropriate forms of Information and Communication Technologies”. By technologies we mean computers, laptops and old media such as TV and radio. Additionally, with the purpose of improving teaching and learning through technology, Schoolnet collaborated with Multichoice Nigeria 11. They are a “resource centre and an education bouquet to Alayande School of Science, Okebola, Ibadan, Oyo State 12(Ogundare, 2009). Another collaboration, which demonstrates the influence of this organisation in Nigeria, is the one with Microsoft. During the Second Teachers’ forum awards, the two bodies “provided the teachers with professional development

11

Multichoice Nigeria was established in 1994 in collaboration with MultiChoice Africa. It is focused on TV technology and it is one of the major TV private multichoice businesses.

http://www.multichoice.co.za/multichoice/view/multichoice/en/page44115 12 See map of the Nigerian’s states in appendix 8, page 74.

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resources and new ideas about how to best utilise ICT efficiently and effectively in their classrooms all for the benefit of their students” (Nigeria Communication week, 2009).

African Virtual Open Initiatives and Resources (AVOIR)

Launched in 2004, the project called African Virtual Open Initiatives and resources (AVOIR), is a project of e-Africa Commission intended to work with more than 80 institutions in countries such as Nigeria, Kenya and Ghana along with Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda as specified by the infoDev report (infoDev, 2013:10). The project aims to develop software, ICT availability in the education sector and offers training for teachers. Currently 16 African Governments and 50 private companies have joined the project. Additionally, this project involves “finding the most feasible cost model by which schools could be financed by the banks and other leasing companies for ICT equipment, applications and maintenance.” (Ghana web, 2012). The pilot project started in Ghana. The Minister of State for Education and Sports Elizabeth Ohene, comments on this initiative: “The computer should no longer be seen as a glorified typewriter, but as a tutor, an organiser, a presentation agent, a search agent, a data processor, a remedial and e-learning interactive agent” (infoDev, 2013:3). E-school project’s business model is a “Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model which was built into the e-school initiative to help tackle challenges and constraints in the NEPAD demonstration project” (Adekoye, 2012). The projects described above have been retrieved from secondary resources. However, some of the feedback received from the survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa” helped to increment the knowledge of other projects undertaken to support the growth of e-publishing. One of the most relevant answers was provided by Storymoja Publishers. They emphasised that in Kenya, the development of ICT has produced significant benefits for the implementation of e-publishing. Firstly, they indicated that the development of a faster broadband Internet is one of the most beneficial factors. They also listed the growth of more local online markets and the Page | 40


implementation of mobile payment systems as additional factors which contribute to supporting epublishing.

One laptop per child, Ghana

In 2012 The Ghana Ministry of ICT launched the “Better Ghana Information, Communication Technology”. With this strategy (part of the ICT and educational policy), the Government promised to distribute to primary and secondary students 60,000 laptops and 5,000 scholarships. “The Ministry is also embarking on bilateral agreements with South Africa and Kenya with memoranda of understanding expected to be signed between the parties to share experiences and forge collaborations in STI,” Dr Ahmed said (BiztechAfrica, 2012). This initiative received too many applications by students, hence one year later the Ministry decided to stop the distribution of laptops. The Ministry explained the reasons that caused the suspension of the project with these words: “it had received numerous applications and that new applications would not be accepted until the backlog had been cleared” (BiztechAfrica, 2013).

The Development Tracker This project 13 is undertaken by the Department for International Development (UK). The description of the project has given by Fiona Rushbrook. 14 She described that the project “aims to share our own and others’ data and information on development programs electronically for others to use. This contributes towards our transparency agenda and Open Data Strategy.” 15

13

The Development Tracker can be accessed via this link: http://devtracker.dfid.gov.uk/ E-mail correspondence, Fiona Rushnrook (see appendix 15, page 88). 15 DFID Open Data Strategy is available here: http://www.data.gov.uk/library/dfid-open-data-strategy 14

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DRUSSA Project

Led by the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) and funded by the Department for International Development, the DRUSSA Project (Development Research in Sub-Saharan Africa) is a collaboration with university partners in Ghana (University of Ghana; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology), Nigeria (Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, and University of Calabar) and Kenya (University of Nairobi; Moi University; Kenyatta University).DRUSSA operates in partnership with two sub-Saharan organizations: The Centre for Research into Evaluation, Science and Technology (CREST) at the University of Stellenbosch and Organisation Systems Design (OSD) (University of Ghana, 2011). DRUSSA “aims to improve the uptake and accessibility of local, contextualised research in Africa by developing strategic partnerships between research institutes and policy-makers, industry and local communities” (UKAid, 2013). The DRUSSA project also aims to create a bridge between universities and policy makers in order to improve the quality of policies and satisfy the needs of the end users principally based in sub-Saharan Africa. To pursue this goal DRUSSA developed DRUSSA Online 16.

International School of Art, Business and Technology in partnership with Worldreader

The International School of art, business and technology (ISABT), is an American Organisation which aims to promote education in Ghana, through different solutions such as volunteering, book donation and book publication. From 2013, I.S.A.B.T. has been in partnership with Worldreader.org for the programme Book Club International. This programme intends to train teachers to encourage students to write and publish local content. In this way, I.S.A.B.T. begins to make a change to the lack of local publications. The pieces of writing indeed are available in different languages, are distributed locally to families and are available in digital and physical local libraries.

16

DRUSSA Online website http://www.drussa.net/index.php

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The I.S.A.B.T. volunteers go to Ghana and gather stories written by Ghanaian children, which after an editing and proofreading process will be converted into e-books by Worldreader. These stories will be accumulated with the already established I.S.A.B.T. library, which will be available to the African endusers of Kindles from now on.

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9. CASE STUDY: WORLDREADER PROJECT

The Worldreader Organisation believes in the power of technology to enhance literacy in developing countries. To pursue this objective, the non-profit organisation distributed Kindles devices to several sub-Saharan African schools in Ghana, Kenya, Ruanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. Wordleader operated in Ghana in October 2010 where it initiated the iREAD pilot study 17 in collaboration with the Ghana Ministry of Education. The selected school in Ghana was the OrphanAid 18school and Community Centre in Ayenyah, Ghana. Kulesz (2010:314) reported some of the project’s goals: “the Worldreader organisation has been handing out Kindle devices to students in Ghana in order to explore the reactions of these young people to digital technology”. However, the project pursued several other goals. For instance, it aimed to train teachers and students in the use of Kindles as reading devices, as well as tools of teaching and learning. Along with it, the iREAD study aimed to evaluate how the access to digital content for educational purposes affects the students’ learning process and how e-publishing can reduce the costs of producing and distributing reading material (www.worldreader.org iREAD progress/report, Ghana).The Kindles were provided by Amazon to support the project. In the 11 month covered (see Appendix 9, page 75), the project passed through eight main stages which are fully described in the Worldreader final report (Worldreader, 2012).

17

The iREAD study evaluated how the usage of e-readers in classes affects the students’ reading process and how it can help to reduce costs both for Publishers, educational institutions and families. 18 Orphan-Aid Africa is a non-profit organization which supports families in Ghana, with branches spread all around Europe.

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9.1 Preparation stage In the preparation stage Worldreader met with local publishers see Appendix 10 ( page 75) for the list of publishers in partnership with Worldreader), in order to receive permissions to digitalize and transfer their educational material to the Apple Store and then download them on the Kindles given out for the project before landing in Ghana. In chapter 6.5 it has been described how the lack of awareness and know-how limits the introduction of digital devices into classes. Therefore the iRead-Worldreader project was introduced to help to eradicate this issue. During the first part of the project, teachers were trained to use the electronic devices and how to introduce them into the curriculum. Later in the same chapter, lack of awareness is included among the challenges of e-publishing in sub-Saharan countries 19. Hence, before the project started, students and families were made aware of the use of the Kindles and the purposes of the project were explained to them.

19

See page 22: Lack of awareness and know how.

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9.2 Kindles in Ghana With the introduction of Kindles in the classrooms, some problems began to arise. This stage was very important, because it allowed Worldleader to assess barriers to the project. Worldreader has constantly observed the results in locus, and helped students and teachers to solve daily problems. For instance, one issue which came out after the first month of the project was the impossibility of students reading during the evening for the lack of electricity. So, Worldreader provided each student with portable reading lights. While the project was running, there was a need to download more books. Firstly they moved to Accra city, and downloaded seventy books (up to two a week) “via high speed Wi-Fi available there” (Worldreader, 2012:26). After this download in large volumes, Worldreader considered implementing a different method. As was described in chapter 7.1 about the available technology, in sub-Saharan Africa a high penetration of mobile networks and mobile phone usage exist. Given this background information, Worldreader continued to download “one or two books weekly over the GSM mobile phone network” (ibid.). This was a successful initiative and it confirms the validity of this solution for publishers and educational institutions.

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9.3 Final evaluation The project’s evaluation pointed out some restrictions to the e-readers’ sustainability. For instance, in the first seven months of the pilot study, around 40% breakages of e-readers in schools “were caused by need to strengthen the rubber seal around the screen and to advise children not to sit on them to keep them safe. Breakages now are around 3%” (Wood, 2013:2) Moreover, the Worldreader final report (2012)highlights the lack of collaboration with publishers and the need to train them on the importance of digital content. After the illustration of the Worldreader project-IREAD study, the following question needs to be asked: to which extent can the adoption of Kindle e-readers in the educational environment benefit the local publishing industry? Susan Moody of the Worldreader team answered this question: “one Kindle holds more than a thousand books, and new books can be downloaded in 60 seconds. That means printing costs disappear, and shipping gets reduced to nearly nothing” (Amazon, 2012). Talking about publishers in the developed world, David Risher 20 notes: “It's easy to sometimes see e-books as a threat. But in the developing world, where a legacy publishing model is not entrenched, e-books and e-readers can help publishers rise above the challenges including the lack of bookstores, libraries, and a distribution infrastructure to have a positive impact on literacy rates” (Albanese,2010). Additionally, the study has shown an increased interest in students to learn and read. The co-founder of Worldreader.org summarised: "We believe that this technology will offer schools and families the opportunity to access reading material that until now they have not been able to get hold of. In the future, through enabling wireless 3G (mobile phone) connections, e-readers will offer the possibility of practically immediate access to hundreds of thousands of books, magazines and daily newspapers delivered to a compact device that weighs less than a single pad of paper" (Ameyaw, 2010).

20

senior vice president of product and platform development at Amazon.com

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It could be argued that this project is based on a very expensive model. Kindles are expensive; also travel expenses and shipping costs must be added to the costs to repair broken devices. However, according to the Worldreader’s (2012:47) estimation, “the e-reader system would cost only $8.93$11.40 more per student over a 4 year period than the traditional paper book system”. Wordreader also compared the costs of publishing of paper textbooks and digital textbooks in Ghana within the period 2014-2018. This calculation (see Appendix 5, page 73) estimates that that the price for e-books would be e-book prices would be roughly 40% of paper book prices. “Worldreader’s discussions with publishers suggest that paper books priced at 5-6 GHC could cost 1-2 GHC in digital form. These low prices would be sustainable because publishers estimate that even if they sell e-books at significantly lower prices, they would still make greater profits selling e-books than selling paper books.” (ibid., p.47). Along with the advantages of digital publishing, 21 digital solutions would be lucrative for publishers because the digital local publications can be easily overcome cross the territorial barriers and reach an extended audience. In support of this project, the Ghanaian government authorised the non-profit organisation to extend the project in other areas of Ghana. This is a clear “indication of the vision and commitment to building an e-book infrastructure” (Maepa, 2013:11). During the process of research and data collection, a second survey was sent to these publishers in order to have a direct feedback on the Worldreader project results. However, it was not possible to fulfil this purpose, as a result of the lack of response from the publishers.

21

See chapter 6,”Advantages and challenges of e-publishing”.

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10. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This dissertation has explored the extent to which ICT is developed and implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and whether different technology can be exploited in order to embrace the digital publishing revolution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the local publishing possibilities of Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana, addressing the issues of each of the three countries and exploring projects undertaken to improve technology. To achieve these goals, the dissertation has been developed by conducting thorough research into the literature and the analysis of the answers to the survey “e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”, personally sent out to libraries, university presses and publishers in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. Despite the small number of answers received, it was possible to combine the primary and secondary sources to achieve the purposes of this study. 22

10.1 Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn from the previous dissertation discussion. First of all, from the analysis of the ICT and ICT in Education policies, it appears that the Nigerian, Kenyan and Ghanaian governments are willing to improve access to technology within their respective countries (e.g. Nigerian National Policy, Kenya Vision 2030, Ghanaian ICT for Accelerated Development Policy).Thus, there is a higher probability of further growth in e-publishing. At the same time, one of the most significant findings to emerge from this research is the urgent need to apply these ICT–educational policies, which are still at an embryonic stage. Indeed, corruption, economic instability and local discrepancies, hinder the application of the policies, leaving the situation unchanged in many areas of the countries.

22

For further information, it would be necessary for the reader to read the survey’s responded in appendix 11 to 16, page 76-89.

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Moreover, the research has shown that there are several challenges to be faced before embracing digital publishing with a high level of quality and security (e.g. Lishan, Womboh). Also, the lack of awareness and know-how limits the implementation of new technology. Several publishers are preoccupied with copyright issues and do not have sufficient knowledge about the opportunities offered by digital publishing. Despite these limitations, this study has proven that digital publishing offers solutions to local publishers to help them overcome issues which cause the marginalisation of publishing in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been acknowledged that e-publishing is cost effective. Digital publishing guarantees the reduction of paper consumption and it decreases distribution and printing problems. Moreover, digital publishing helps publishers to overcome the problem of over stocking (adopting POD for instance). Furthermore, moving to digital publishing allows local publishers to preview the books before publication, avoiding the printing of defective content. Finally, digital publishing is borderless. This means that the local digital publications can reach an extended audience more easily than printed ones. In addition, digital publishing is environmentally friendly. It has been interesting to determine the international and local bodies’ active participation in projects which aim to develop technology infrastructure and introduce technology into the educational system. The findings of this section reflect the African potential. The same section has also demonstrated that sub-Saharan Africa is technologically emerging and investments in these countries would be profitable. After these considerations, it is also essential to remember the internal discrepancies. For instance, the last statements might be applicable to developed areas in Nigeria, Kenya and Ghana, but would be untimely for rural and poor areas in the same countries. In these areas, thinking about the implementation of e-publishing would be in vain, and totally unnecessary. There are other priorities to be satisfied first. Students in poor areas might not have proper schools, and the existing schools are territorially disconnected. Students walk for hours to reach the school and once there, they might find rooms without chairs, tables, light or books. They might lack water, electricity and primary goods, Page | 50


which limit their learning process. Teachers are not motivated or not qualified to provide a good education. Hence, if the debate is to be pushed forward, a deep analysis into the issues of rural and underdeveloped areas should be done. Also, considerably more research should be undertaken to draw effective and realistic solutions and recommendations, where possible, to improve the situation which is still relatively unstable. Admittedly, this dissertation has been focused on only three countries, and on specific geographical areas. However, further research needs to be done to investigate the status of digital publishing in other African countries. For instance it would be interesting to assess the effectiveness of digital publishing in the more developed country of South Africa, or northern regions.

10.2 Recommendations The preliminary findings of this study suggest that publishers, governments and academic institutions should pay more attention to the pricing of digital content, develop new financial and business strategies, raise awareness about digital publishing and stimulate the governments’ goodwill. Additionally, an important role should be played by international bodies. Based on the scenario described above, this work recommends:

•

Pricing and new financial strategies

Publishers should pay particular attention to the pricing of digital contents, in order to maximise the digital sales and encourage institutions and people to embrace digital publishing. The digital content needs to have a more accessible price than the printed ones, in order to facilitate the buyers’ choice. For instance, e-books are too expensive and not affordable for the majority of the population, as well as e-readers. By reducing the price, the readers would be incentivised to buy them, if they desire to open to a new way of learning to read or they want to access foreign publications.

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It is also important that publishers do not price virtual contents too low either. This could lead to the customer perceiving the product as low quality and it would negatively influence authors too. Moreover, local publishers have to be active in the development of new financial strategies and business models if they intend to make the digital publishing market grow.

•

Raise awareness about digital publishing

Conferences and seminars about digital publishing should be organised in key places, accessible to all the institutions, in order to inform universities, libraries and publishing houses of the potential of e publishing. Local publishers who have already embraced the digital revolution should host them. However, it is recommended that bodies from countries where publishing is already developed (such as South Africa) participate as well, to explain and illustrate methods and results. Moreover, workshops and training courses about digital publishing should be held in universities, libraries and publishing houses where there is still a lack of technical know-how. Local or international institutions, in respect of the internal differences and needs, can hold these workshops and training courses. Additionally, local entrepreneurs should think globally, not only about building new ideas within their own territory.

•

Raise consciousness in international bodies on sub-Saharan African publishing potentials

International shareholders should be aware of the possibilities offered by sub-Saharan African publishing so as to invest more in ICT development and training, and allow local publishers to exploit all the possibilities of the digitalization.

In order to reach this target, it is fundamental that the bodies such as governments, policy makers, non-profit organisations and publishers, who intend to collaborate with Kenyan, Nigerian and Ghanaian partners, must consider the challenges faced by scholarly-academic publishing in these countries. Page | 52


International bodies, who aim to help publishing in these countries, should bear in mind that the development of e-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa must be contemplated only within this territory, without trying to compare it to the growth and implementation processes undertaken in other more advanced countries.

Adopt different models to overcome connectivity issue

To overcome the lack of connection and electricity in some parts of the countries the best solution would be offline materials. An example has been given by the Worldreader project, which downloaded e-books onto Kindles in areas with high connection before making them available offline to students. Thus, there is the need to exploit different sources of connection such us mobile phone networks.

Sensitise governments

It is also mandatory that governments invest to stimulate publishers, librarians and academic institutions with financial funds. As a matter of fact, the African publishing industry mainly depends on government funds. However, it has often been shown that the funds given by the government are inadequate and the economic instability of both government and universities do not allow complete development of the policies. Hence, there is a critical need to find effective means of converting theories (policies) into action. The governments should draw their attention and resources to the formulation of policies which must be realistic according to the country’s potential to guarantee the policies’ applicability.

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Ocholla, D.N. (2011). An overview of issues, challenges and opportunities of scholarly publishing in Information Studies in Africa. African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science, 21 (1), pp. 116. Ocholla D.N. and Evans N. (2013). Empowering and inspiring current information studies worldwide. [Online] Available at: http://www.lis.uzulu.ac.za/conferences/DIS%20Conference%20ProceedingsMarch%202012%20final.p df (Accessed 12 June 2013). Ogbogu, C. (2011). Modes of funding Nigerian universities and the implications on performance. The2011 Barcelona European Academic Conference, Barcelona, Spain.[Online] Available at:http://www.lis.uzulu.ac.za/conferences/DIS%20Conference%20ProceedingsMarch%202012%20final .pdf(Accessed 9 July 2013). Ogbou, C. (2013). Policy issues in the administration of higher education in Nigeria. World Journal of Education, 3(1), pp. 32-38. [Online] Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/wje.v3n1p32 (Accessed 1 July 2013). Ogechi, N. (2001). Publishing in Kiswahili and indigenous languages for enhanced adult literacy in Kenya. Swahili Fomm VIII. 68(8), pp. 185- 199. [Online] Available at: http://www.qucosa.de/fileadmin/data/qucosa/documents/9165/8_15_ogechi.pdf(Accessed 08 June 2013). Ogundare, F. (2009). Nigeria: Multichoice, Schoolnet Donate Resource Centre to Schools. [Online] Available at: http://allafrica.com/stories/200909300334.html.(Accessed: 15 July 2013) Ondari and Okemwa, E. (2004). Impediments to promoting access to global knowledge in sub-Saharan Africa. Library Management25 (8-9) pp.361 – 375. Onyancha, O.B. & Ocholla, D.N. (2007). The performance of South African and Kenyan universities on the World Wide Web: a web link analysis. Cybermetrics: International Journal of Scientoemtrics, Informetrics and Bibliometrics, 11(1). [Online] Available: http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/articles/v11i1p2.html (Accessed 01 June 2013). Publishing perspectives (2013). Independent African publishers go global via app stores. [Online] Available at: http://publishingperspectives.com/2013/07/independent-african-publishers-goglobal-via-app-stores/ (Accessed 12 June 2013). Sahel (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Available at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/516438/Sahel (Accessed 09 July 2013). The ministerial committee on ICT policy harmonization (2012). National information communication technology (ICT) policy. [Online] Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/114731588/nigerianational-ict-policy-document-draft(Accessed 09 June 2013). Trucano (2012). Textbook policies in an increasingly digital age. Available at: http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/textbooks(Accessed 9 July 2013).

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UNESCO (2011). Optimising learning education and publishing in Africa: the language factor. [Online] Available at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002126/212602e.pdf (Accessed 1 June 2013). UNESCO (2011). UNESCO Mobile learning week report. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/ICT/pdf/UNESCO%20MLW%20report%2 0final%2019jan.pdf (Accessed 1 June 2013). UNESCO (2012). School and teaching resources in sub-Saharan Africa analysis of the 2011 UIS regional data collection on education. Available at: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/ib9regional-education-africa-2012-en-v5.pdf (Accessed 3 July 2013). United Nations (2000). United Nations millennium declaration. [Online] Available at: http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm(Accessed 3 June 2013). University of Ghana (2011). The Drussa programme. [Online] Available at: http://orid.ug.edu.gh/drussa.php (Accessed 10 June 2013). UKAid (2013). Evidence into action guide. A programme guide. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/199850/EiA_progra mme_document.pdf(Accessed 12 June 2013). Vanguard (2013). IDEA to revolutionize Nigeria’s software industry. Available at: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/04/idea-to-revolutionize-nigerias-software-industry/ (Accessed: 15 July 2013) Womboh, B.S.H. (2008).The state of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigerian university libraries: the experience of Ibahim Babangida library, federal university technology, Yola. [Online] Available at: http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/womboh.pdf (Accessed 3 June 2013). Wood, E. (2013). Digital futures: the changing landscape of African publishing. Notes from session at ‘Africa Writes’. Woolman, D.C. (2001). Educational reconstruction and post-colonial curriculum development: a comparative study of four African countries. International Education Journal, 2(5), pp. 27-46. [Online] Available at: http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/iej/articles/v2n5/4Wool/paper.pdf (Accessed 3 July 2013). Worldreader (2012). Iread Ghana Study. Final evaluation report. Available at http://www.worldreader.org/uploads/Worldreader%20ILC%20USAID%20iREAD%20Final%20Report%2 0Jan-2012.pdf Wosyanju, C. (2008). System of education in Kenya. [Online] Available at: http://international.iupui.edu/kenya/resources/Education-in-Kenya.pdf(Accessed 3 June 2013). Yusuf, M. (2005). Information and communication technology and education: analysing the Nigerian national policy for information technology. International Education Journal 6(3), pp.316-321. [Online]Available at: http://www.nitda.gov.ng/images/stories/PDFs/ICTinEducationNigeria.pdf (Accessed 28 May 2013). Page | 59


Zell, H (2013). Print vs electronic, and the ‘digital revolution’ in Africa. [Online] Available at: http://www.academia.edu/2514725/Print_vs_Electronic_and_the_Digital_Revolution_in_Africa (Accessed 4 June 2013).

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APPENDIX

Appendix 1. 46 countries of sub-Saharan Africa

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KENYA The Republic of Kenya covers an area of 580,367 sq km. Capital: Nairobi Population: 44,037,656 Language: English and Kiswahili and other several minority languages Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%. Literacy level: 87,4% of the total population. Independence: 12 December 1963 from Britain. Internet host: 71,018 Internet users: 3.996 million Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. Infrastructure investment threatens Kenya's long-term position as the largest East African economy. ( data CIA- The world factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html)

NIGERIA The federal republic of Nigeria covers an area of 923,768 sq km. Capital: Abuja Population: 174,507,539 Language: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 minority languages Ethnic groups: more than 250 ethnic groups; Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5% Page | 62


Literacy level: 61.3% of the total population Independence: 1 October 1960 from Britain Internet host: 1,234 Internet users: 43.989 million Oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, but in 2008 began pursuing economic reforms Lack of infrastructure and slow implementation of reforms are key impediments to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. Nigeria's financial sector was hurt by the global financial and economic crises, but the Central Bank governor has taken measures to restructure and strengthen the sector to include imposing mandatory higher minimum capital requirements.(data CIA- The world factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/ni.html)

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GHANA The Republic of Ghana covers an area of 238,533 sq km Capital: Accra Population: 25,199,609 Language: Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande-Busanga 1.1%, other 1.6% Literacy level: 71.5% of the total population. Independence: 6 March 1957 from Britain Internet host: 59,086 Internet users: 1,297 Ghana's economy has been strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels. Sound macro-economic management along with higher prices for oil, gold and, cocoa helped sustain high GDP growth in 2008-12. (data CIA- The world factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/gh.html) Appendix 2. Countries specifications

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e-Publishing in Africa Survey

I am a student of Publishing at Oxford Brookes University- Oxford. I am writing the MA dissertation on e-Publishing in Africa, focusing on three main countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. By compiling the following survey you will help me to gather information for my research- It will take maximum 20 minutes. You can directly compile the word document and send it back to me. If you have more enquires or you have troubles in sending the document back, please contact me: Daria 12069293@brookes.ac.uk. Thank you for your time and availability. The answers will be treated confidentially. Let’s start‌ You are ( underline the right option)

Librarian. Go to section A ( p. 2) University press or Publisher. Go to section B ( p. 8) Organisation. Go to section C (p. 13)

A. LIBRARIES 1. University name:

2. Where are you located? ( underline the right option) Kenya Nigeria Ghana 3. Faculties at the University: ( underline the right option) Medicine Vetinary Science Architecture Agriculture Life Sciences Physical Sciences Arts Business Management Hospitality Computing Languages Accounts/Economics Page | 65


Marketing Education Human Resources Librarianship Nursing Media Building & Construction Electrical/Wiring Plumbing Law Engineering Other ................... 4.

How many computers do you have your library?

5. Do students tend to have their own laptops? ( underline the right option) Yes No Other, please write which

6.

Are there WiFi hotspots at the university? ( underline the right option) Yes No

7.

Who have access to e-books? ( underline the right option) Students Lecturers Researchers

8.

Who uses eBooks most often? ( underline the right option) Students Lecturers Researchers

9.

Which of the following options do you think inhibits e-books usage: ( underline the right option) Lack of Computing knowledge Unhelpful content of e-books Lack of content Lack of training E-books not well promoted tool Lack of computers Too expensive Page | 66


Other, please write which

10. Have your library undertaken initiatives about electronic publishing?

11. Which other solutions are currently available to deliver contents in digital format? (e-books, e-journals, digital library‌)

12. Which e-publishing solutions would you like to include in your library system?

13. How ICTs have been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country? 14. Do government policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

15. Do education-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

16. Do ICT-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

17. Have you received any training for the current systems you use? ( underline the right option) Yes No 18. If so, who provided this training?

19. Who at your institution received training?

20.

Which of the following problems were encountered during the training? ( underline the right option) Lack of interest Lack of computer skills Lack of connectivity Other, please write which Page | 67


21. Which are the obstacles to open to electronic publishing?

22. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which?

23. Are you undertaking regional collaborations for developing ICT in your Library? 24. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country

25. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing? Thank you.

A. UNIVERSITY PRESSES or PUBLISHERS 1. You represent: ( underline the right option) University Press - Private - State - Federal - Other Publishing house 2. Please specify the name of the University Press or Publisher you represent

3. Where are you located? Kenya Nigeria Ghana 4. Which publications do you work with? Page | 68


5. Which are your digital initiatives in the sector of educational publishing?

6. Which digital solutions are you actually using in the publishing process? ( Print on demand- electronic books‌.) 7.

Do government policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

8. Do education-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

9. Do ICT-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

10. Which solutions are available to deliver contents in digital format? ( underline the right option) Computers E-readers Mobile phones Others: please specify which

11. How ICTs have been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country?

12. Which problems affect Publishing? ( underline the right option) Piracy Poor incomes Quality of knowledge High costs of printing High costs of distribution Production issues, if yes, which?

Others Please write what:

13. Which problems affect Electronic Publishing? ( underline the right option) Piracy Lack of connection Lack of infrastructure Quality of IT knowledge Page | 69


Language issues Other Please write what 14. Do you collaborate, or collaborated in the past with external partners for e-publishing projects? If yes, please specify

15. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which?

16. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country

17. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing?

Thank you.

3. ORGANISATION 1. Name of the organisation

2. You are ( underline the right option) Governmental Semi-governmental Private Non-governmental organisation 3. Where are you located? ( underline the right option) Kenya Nigeria Ghana Other. Please write where: Page | 70


4. Do you collaborate with other organisation for knowledge creation-sharing projects? If yes, which?

5. Have you participated in projects relative to electronic Publishing in Sub-Saharan Africa? ( underline the right option) Yes No If yes, where? ( underline the right option) Kenya Nigeria Ghana 6. Which project? Please briefly describe the goals of the project.

7.

Do government policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

8. Do education-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

9. Do ICT-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects?

10. Which solutions are available to deliver contents in digital format in Universities? the Sub-Saharan Country you operated in) Please specify which Country

( In

11. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in the African Country you work-worked in Page | 71


12. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing?

Thank you. Appendix 3. Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”.

EDUCATION MANAGEMENT

CAPACITY BUILDING

INFRASTRUCTURE, E-READINESS AND EQUITABLE ACCESS

INCORPORATING ICT INTO THE CURRICULUM

•Acquire and implement various easily integrated Information Management Systems •Develop institutional capacity in the use of computerbased management tools to enhance administration and management •Develop appropriate education management support structures and policies for ICT deployment . •Provide appropriate ICT Training to all Teachers to enhance the use of ICT. •Use Distance learning to offer further training to teachers in basic school •Facilitate the establishment maintenance and support of the ICT infrastructure and resources within the education sector •Facilitate equitable access to ICTs for all students and communities •Integrate ICTs into the curriculum •Introduce ICT as a subject at all levels of education •Develop and integrate modern assessment methodology for teaching and learning

CONTENT DEVELOPMENT

•Develop Appropriate Content for Open, Distance and e-Learning

TECHNICAL SUPPORT, MAINTENANCE & SUSTAINABILITY OF ICT INITIATIVES

•Ensure effective support and maintenance of ICT infrastructure •Ensure and guarantee sustainability of ICT initiatives

MONITORING AND EVALUATION

•Institute programmes and procedures to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the various components of the ICT in Education Policy ICT in education policy ( 2008: 21)

Appendix 4. Thematic areas of the “ICT4AD Policy”, Ghana.

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Appendix 5. Cost of publishing of paper textbooks and digital textbooks in Ghana within the period 2014-2018

Appendix 6. Nigeria mobile phones penetration rate.

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Appendix 7. Nigeria technology penetration. Source: IT E-Learning survey 2013.

Appendix 8. Map of the Nigeria’s states.

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Appendix 9. Worldreader's project Ghana. Source: http://www.worldreader.org/uploads/Worldreader%20ILC%20USAID%20iREAD%20Final%20Report%20Jan-2012.pdf

Publishers in partnership with Worldreader Sub-Saharan Publishers, Regener8, Smartline Publishing Ltd., EPP Books Services Ltd., Sam Woode Ltd. Woeli Publishing Ltd., Afram Publications Ltd., Evans Brothers Ltd., Adwinsa Publications Ltd., SedcoLongman Publishing Ltd. Appendix 10. List of publishers which work in partnership with Worlreader.

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Surveys’ responses

Survey “E-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”.

I am a student of Publishing at Oxford Brookes University- Oxford. I am writing an MA dissertation on e-Publishing in Africa, focusing on three main countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. By compiling the following survey you will help me to gather information for my research- It will take a maximum of 20 minutes. You can directly completing the word document and send it back to me. If you have more enquires or you have trouble in sending the document back, please contact me: Daria12069293@brookes.ac.uk. Please, feel free to leave some answers out if you do not have enough time. Thank you for your time and availability. The answers will be treated confidentially. Let’s start…

1. University name: University of Nairobi 2. Where are you located? ( tick or underline the right option) Kenya Nigeria Ghana 3. How many computers do you have in the library? 420

4. Do students tend to have their own laptops?( underline the right option) Yes No Other, please write which Majority of them rely on institution provided computers which are available in labs. Others rely on their smart phones for internet.

5.

Are there WiFi hotspots at the university?(tick or underline the right option) Yes No

6. Who uses e-books most often?(tick or underline the right option) Page | 76


Students Lecturers Researchers 7.

Which of the following options do you think inhibits e-books usage:(tick or underline the right option) Unhelpful content of eBooks Lack of content Lack of Computing knowledge E-books a not well promoted tool Lack of computers Too expensive Other, please write which

Mostly students want course books referred to them by their lecturers. If lecturers do not read ebooks, they will not refer students to what is available

8. Has your library undertaken initiatives about electronic publishing? Not yet 9. Which other solutions are currently available to deliver content in digital format? (e-books, ejournals, digital library‌) The library is digitising all theses, and other research publications and uploading on the library digital repository at http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/ In addition we provide access to ebooks, ejournals etc

10. Which e-publishing solutions would you like to include in your library system? Electronic journals, digital library and e-books

11. How have ICTs been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country? Both government and institutions of higher learning have made lots of investments in equipment and infrastructure to support ICTs. The government has also adopted policies to enhance development of e- content for primary schools. 12. Do government policies affect e-publishing? If yes, what affects? Though we do not have any policies directly touching on e-publishing, there are efforts under way like mentioned above to develop content for schools. Also, the government has enshrined the right to information held by the state in the constitution. To ensure this is achieved, the government has established an e-portal called open data to disseminate government generated data. There is also an e-government department that oversees this development and ensures that all government documents are made available online. Other registration touching on publishing though not electronic include books and newspapers act, copyright act etc

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13. Do education-policies affect e-publishing? If yes, what affects? Not sure of this 14. Do ICT-policies affect e-publishing? If yes, what affects? Yes, ICT policies affect publishing because if publishing is going to adopt technology, then a conducive environment has to be provided by the policies in place. E-publishing has to be driven by the policies in place and they have to be deliberate policies to enhance the sector. 15. Have you received any training for the current systems you use?(tick or underline the right option) Yes No 16. If so, who provided this training? It was done both in-house and by the provider of the software. 17. Who at your institution received training? Mostly senior staff who were supposed to cascade the skills to other staff. 18.

Which of the following problems were encountered during the training?(tick or underline the right option) Lack of interest Lack of computer skills Lack of connectivity Other, please write which

Initially there was lack of computer skills but the situation has now changed and all staff are skilled.

19. What are the obstacles to deliver electronic publishing? Lack of understanding of the benefits. Lack of skills. Lack of necessary software. Institutional guidance – for any new technology to succeed, the administration has to be in the forefront to spearhead it. Lack of right policies to guide it. 20. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which? Yes. I attended a three weeks course on electronic publishing at the University of Nijmegen in Netherlands 21. Are you undertaking regional collaborations for developing ICT in your Library? Page | 78


Yes. We have a consortium in the country, Kenya Library and Information Services Consortium whose objective is to develop ICTs in member institutions among many other objectives

22. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country Electronic publishing is not yet well developed but there is a lot of potential for it. 23. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing? There has to be expressed need for it. The management needs to enhance facilities, put in place policies for promoting technology in publishing. The industry needs to play an active role in advocacy so as to enhance delivery and also to improve their practice. University presses have to be in the forefront in adopting technology so as to be the shining examples for others. Thank you. Appendix 11 . Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa” University of Nirobi, Kenya.

Survey “E-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”.

I am a student of Publishing at Oxford Brookes University- Oxford. I am writing the MA dissertation on ePublishing in Africa, focusing on three main countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. By compiling the following survey you will help me to gather information for my research- It will take maximum 20 minutes. You can directly compile the word document and send it back to me. If you have more enquires or you have troubles in sending the document back, please contact me: Daria 12069293@brookes.ac.uk. Thank you for your time and availability. The answers will be treated confidentially. 1. University name: Pwani University 2. Where are you located? ( underline the right option) Kenya Nigeria Ghana 3. How many computers do you have your library? 12

4. Do students tend to have their own laptops? ( underline the right option) Yes No Page | 79


Other, please write which

5.

Are there WiFi hotspots at the university? ( underline the right option) Yes No

6.

Who have access to e-books? ( underline the right option) Students Lecturers Researchers

7.

Who uses e-books most often? ( underline the right option) Students Lecturers Researchers

8.

Which of the following options do you think inhibits e-books usage: ( underline the right option) Lack of Computing knowledge Unhelpful content of e-books Lack of content Lack of training E-books not well promoted tool Lack of computers Too expensive Other, please write which

9. Have your library undertaken initiatives about electronic publishing? • By subscribing e-books and e-journals through Kenya Libraries and Information Services Consortium (KLISC) • Installation and implementation of Dspace software for IR and past Exam papers • Encouraging publishing in open access journals

10. Which other solutions are currently available to deliver contents in digital format? (e-books, e-journals, digital library…) Pwani University Library is a beneficiary of TEEAL: TEEAL database can be accessed all over the campus through the Local Area Network (LAN). To access TEEAL databases installed in the server each computer on campus must be physically configured and TEEAL index installed. The TEEAL Index is currently installed on computers in the school of Agricultural and environmental Sciences and in the students’ computer Labs. Kindly contact the library for more information on how to access TEEAL. Page | 80


11. Which e-publishing solutions would you like to include in your library system? Encourage Lecturers to submit their theses and articles to be published in the IR Policy to be in place for the graduate students to submit their theses to the library for IR 12. How ICTs have been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country? • Affordable internet • The government support to ICT 13. Do government policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? Yes the government policy have got effect on e-publishing, Data protection Bill 2012 is still a stumble block to the safety of the data. The government is still sceptical, citing that state can find it hard to hold anyone accountable should its systems be hacked if open source system is adopted. This is in view that most libraries uses open source for their IR which is used for publishing in these Universities. 14. Do education-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? Yes, Resource allocation in research has hampered the innovation and churning of the novel ideas which can be published. Lecturers also require a motivation which in most cases comes with monetary, if this is not availed then nobody will avail their work to be published for free. 15. Do ICT-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? An ICT policy does not recognise libraries as the entity that utilise a big chunk of bandwidth and storage in its operations. This has hampered the library e-publishing . 16. Have you received any training for the current systems you use? ( underline the right option) Yes No 17. If so, who provided this training? Consultants 18. Who at your institution received training? Librarians and lecturers 19.

Which of the following problems were encountered during the training? ( underline the right option) Lack of interest Lack of computer skills Lack of connectivity Other, please write which

20. Which are the obstacles to open to electronic publishing? Page | 81


• •

Lecturers are asking for incentives before they submit their work to the IR There is still a believe that authoritative work is the one which is printed but not electronic

21. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which? Yes ,IST Africa in Nairobi 22. Are you undertaking regional collaborations for developing ICT in your Library? No 23. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country A number of libraries are embracing the use of Dspace, it is a wave that will usher in the use of institutional repository which is a form of electronic publishing. Kenya library assoc 24. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing? • Create awareness to the benefit of e-publishing to lecturers, researchers and graduate students. • The government should come up with friendlier policies which support scholarly publishing, with data protection Bill 2012 almost becoming a law. It will usher in a positive change in e-publishing. • Librarians should also be enlightened that by embracing technology in publishing does not mean the end of print publishing. Print is here to stay but some scientific and technical articles should be published electronically. Thank you. Appendix 12 . Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa” Michael Maua, Library Assistant of Pwani University, Kenya.

Survey “E-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”.

I am a student of Publishing at Oxford Brookes University- Oxford. I am writing an MA dissertation on e-Publishing in Africa, focusing on three main countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. By compiling the following survey you will help me to gather information for my research- It will take a maximum of 20 minutes. You can directly completing the word document and send it back to me. If you have more enquires or you have trouble in sending the document back, please contact me: Daria12069293@brookes.ac.uk.Please, feel free to leave some answers out if you do not have enough time. Thank you for your time and availability. The answers will be treated confidentially.

18. You represent: (tick or underline the right option) University Press - Private - State Page | 82


-

Federal Other

Publishing house 19. Please specify the name of the University Press or Publisher you represent Storymoja Publishers 20. Where are you located? Kenya Nigeria Ghana 21. What publications do you work with? Children’s books Contemporary readers. 22. What are your digital initiatives in the sector of educational publishing? Production of ebooks, html flipbooks and animated content, plus a play support base for most standard operating systems.

23. Which digital solutions are you actually using in the publishing process?( Print on demand- electronic books….) Electonic books – available for most devices.

24. Do government policies affect e-publishing? If yes, what affects? No. 25. Do education-policies affect e-publishing? If yes, what affects? Yes. The systems in use for the evaluation of digital content is years behind the digital age. 26. Do ICT-policies affect e-publishing? If yes, what affects? Yes. The mobilisation for the embrace of the digital revolution has been left to the publishers. Poor quality standards of mobile and portable devices. 27. Which solutions are available to deliver content in digital format? ( underline the right option) Computers E-readers Mobile phones Others: please specify which Page | 83


28. How ICTs have been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country?

Faster broadband internet. More local online markets. Mobile payments 29. Which problems affect Publishing?(tick or underline the right option) Piracy Poor incomes Quality of knowledge High costs of printing High costs of distribution Production issues, if yes, which? Others Please write what:

30. Which problems affect Electronic Publishing?(tick or underline the right option) Piracy Lack of connection Lack of infrastructure Quality of IT knowledge Language issues Other Please write what

31. Do you collaborate, or have you collaborated in the past with external partners for epublishing projects? If yes, please specify No 32. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which? Yes, The BISG webcasts (Book Industry Study Group) Ljinteractive webcasts - www.ljinteractive.com 33. Please express your opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country At Storymoja we stand to achieve ‘A book in every hand’. Electronic publishing is one of the cheapest ways to produce and eventually distribute books. We (publishers) have the capability to digitise our content, suitably for scholarly purposes. With 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity, access to books is much easier, affordable and yet many can be carried around by a learner in a small lightweight device. e-Publishing is the way to go! Page | 84


34. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing? A study of the long trending digital revolution, reviewing current opportunities for the scholar and in the marketplace.

Thank you. Appendix 13 . Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa” Storymoja Publishers, Kenya.

Survey “E-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”.

I am a student of Publishing at Oxford Brookes University- Oxford. I am writing the MA dissertation on e-Publishing in Africa, focusing on three main countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. By compiling the following survey you will help me to gather information for my research- It will take maximum 20 minutes. You can directly compile the word document and send it back to me. If you have more enquires or you have troubles in sending the document back, please contact me: Daria 12069293@brookes.ac.uk. Thank you for your time and availability. The answers will be treated confidentially. Let’s start…

1. Please specify the name of the University Press or Publisher you represent Moran (EA) Publishers.ltd 2. Where are you located? Kenya Nigeria Ghana 3. Which publications do you work with? We do mainly educational materials for pupils from Early childhood, Primary level (P1 TO p8), Secondary school(S1 TO S4) and Tertiary 4. Which are your digital initiatives in the sector of educational publishing? We are currently working with world reader to convert some of our books to e books.

5. Which digital solutions are you actually using in the publishing process? (Print on demand- electronic books….) We have a few e-books which were converted by world reader and being sold through Amazon. We do not print on demand. 6.

Do government policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? Page | 85


Yes, currently the Kenya government has announced that they will provide computers to schools for the P1 pupils and therefore we have to provide content for the same. The ministry of Education evaluates materials from publishers. Ensuring that computer and its accessories can be imported duty free increases accessibility of the machines. This lowers their prices slightly and encourages more publication of e-materials. 7. Do education-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? Yes, by the introduction of the use of computers as learning and teaching tool, we have to provide materials. This comes with its costs of developing this materials and risks of piracy. 8. Do ICT-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? Yes, for example the issue of band width. This will direct our production whether we go off line or online. In Kenya the band width issue is major since it takes too long to download any materials from the net hence the best solution currently may be offline materials. The vision 2030 which is a government policy document expected outcomes where ICTeducation is concerned includes: connected academic centres, access to online resources for students and teachers, increase online participation by adults, improve quality of education, national schools education network. For this reason as publishers we have to invest in Epublishing. 9. Which solutions are available to deliver contents in digital format? ( underline the right option) Computers E-readers Mobile phones Others: please specify which

10. How ICTs have been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country?

In February this year the Government launched the ICT master plan which plugs into the vision 2030’s social and economic pillars in seven key intervention areas and education is one of them. Through the fibre optic, connectivity has improved. The mobile phones are quite affordable and therefore they are accessible to most Kenyans hence are able to access information.

11. Which problems affect Publishing? ( underline the right option) Piracy Poor incomes Quality of knowledge High costs of printing High costs of distribution Production issues, if yes, which? Lack of funds especially because we depend on government funding Others Please write what: 12. Which problems affect Electronic Publishing? ( underline the right option) Piracy Page | 86


Lack of connection Lack of infrastructure Quality of IT knowledge Language issues Other Please write what Lack of technical know-how within the publishing industry 13. Do you collaborate, or collaborated in the past with external partners for e-publishing projects? If yes, please specify Yes, currently we are collaborating with World reader and Amazon. Currently we outsource these services since we cannot do it internally.

14. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which? Yes, we have attended organised by e-kitabu : 15. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country The idea is ripe and we are looking for the best solution to maximise value for ourselves and our customers. Right now the solutions we get are not the solution we are looking for because we need more interactive solution which most service providers are not giving. The kind of solution we currently have maybe be useful to higher education learners but our major target markets are younger and therefore more interactive materials would be useful. People are still also very traditional and the hard book is it. Many have still not embrace ebooks. 16. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing? 1. The band width issue should be sorted so the materials can reach the target group. The infrastructure has to be improved. 2. The issue of security: in Kenya the penalty for piracy is very lenient and therefore most publishers are reluctant to pursue this. 3. People should be educated on the benefits of e-materials e.g lower costs , if people are receptive o it then publishing will produce materials knowing they will get returns.

Thank you. Appendix 14 . Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa� Moran Publishers, Kenya.

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20 June 2013 Dear Daria Montella, Thank you for your email to Public Enquiry Point about e-Publishing in sub Saharan Africa. I have been asked to reply. Many of your questions do not fit within the remit of our work, so rather than completing the survey I’ve provided key information about our programmes and open access and data policies below. DFID has an Evidence into Action Team within our Research and Evidence Division. They fund a number of programmes which support knowledge creation-sharing projects. For example we fund GDNet which is a knowledge hub that brings together and communicates policy-relevant research from the Global South. We also fund SciDev.net which is a multi-donor funded programme, designed to enhance the provision of reliable and authoritative news and information about science and technology for the developing world both through its website and through building science communication capacity within developing countries. More information can be found on their website: www.scidev.net. You may also be interested in DRUSSA (Development Research in Sub-Saharan Africa) which has collaborating partners in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. DRUSSA aims to improve the uptake and accessibility of local, contextualised research in Africa by developing strategic partnerships between research institutes and policy-makers, industry and local communities. To enable better communication between its different audiences, DRUSSA has established platforms such as DRUSSA online. There are further details of these and other programmes in this brochure: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/199850/EiA_programme _document.pdf DFID also has a programme which aims to produce a cadre of young, talented researchers through integrated PhD scholarships and shared supervision of post-graduate students between the UK-based and African consortia members. This would include publishing research in both national and international journals. More information about this programme can be found online: http://royalsociety.org/grants/schemes/africa-capacity-building/ We also appreciate that scientists, policy makers and humanitarian organisations in poor countries run into significant barriers when accessing research findings. They need better access to research outputs to let them build upon and use this knowledge. Therefore DFID has in place an Open and Enhanced Access Policy for the research that we fund.To read more about this policy please see our website: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dfid-research-open-and-enhanced-access-policy Page | 88


DFID has recently launched The Development Tracker. It aims to share our own and others’ data and information on development programmes electronically for others to use. This contributes towards our transparency agenda and Open Data Strategy. The Development Tracker can be accessed via this link: http://devtracker.dfid.gov.uk/ DFID Open Data Strategy is available here: http://www.data.gov.uk/library/dfid-open-data-strategy Finally all our research is published online and can be found on our Research 4 Development (R4D) platform: http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/ We hope this information helps answer some of your questions and gives more information on DFID’s knowledge sharing-creation programmes and open access and data policies.

Yours sincerely Fiona Rushbrook Department for International Development Appendix 15 . E-mail correspondence “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa” Fiona Rushbrook

Survey “E-publishing in sub-Saharan Africa”.

I am a student of Publishing at Oxford Brookes University- Oxford. I am writing the MA dissertation on e-Publishing in Africa, focusing on three main countries: Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. By compiling the following survey you will help me to gather information for my research- It will take maximum 20 minutes. You can directly compile the word document and send it back to me. If you have more enquires or you have troubles in sending the document back, please contact me: Daria 12069293@brookes.ac.uk. Thank you for your time and availability. The answers will be treated confidentially. Let’s start…

17. Please specify the name of the University Press or Publisher you represent Moi University Press 18. Where are you located? Kenya Nigeria Ghana 19. Which publications do you work with?

Page | 89


Scholarly publications for subjects thought within and with ought the University

20. Which are your digital initiatives in the sector of educational publishing? -Attending workshops on e-publishing e.g. one recently organised by ekitabu a local digitalizing firm 21. Which digital solutions are you actually using in the publishing process? ( Print on demand- electronic books‌.) None at the moment 22. Do government policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? Yes -Value added tax if added to educational materials would make the costs of production higher. 23. Do education-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? -The use of ebooks will bring in changes in the curriculum -The introduction of laptop use at Lower primary may transform the need to convert most publications to e-format. 24. Do ICT-policies have effects on e-publishing? If yes, which effects? -The availability of ICT infrastructure across the country is still a challenge e.g. the fibre optic The regulations in use of ICT may affect accessibility of internet 25. Which solutions are available to deliver contents in digital format? ( underline the right option) Computers E-readers Mobile phones Others: please specify which

26. How ICTs have been developed to support e-Publishing in your Country?

-Issuance of free Laptops to school going children -The electrification of most schools and shopping centres 27. Which problems affect Publishing? ( underline the right option) Piracy Poor incomes Quality of knowledge High costs of printing High costs of distribution Production issues, if yes, which? -Because of the scholarly target niche, our markets are far apart and the cost of securing the market may be higher than the income to be gerated. Others Please write what:

Page | 90


28. Which problems affect Electronic Publishing? ( underline the right option) Piracy Lack of connection Lack of infrastructure Quality of IT knowledge Language issues Other Please write what

29. Do you collaborate, or collaborated in the past with external partners for e-publishing projects? If yes, please specify No

30. Have you attended any conferences, seminars or workshops about digital publishing? If yes, which? One on digital data by ekitabu ,Nairobi kenya 31. Please express you opinion on electronic Publishing for scholarly purposes in your Country -The student per computer ratio still very low -Reliability of the internet connection still a challenge -The need to appreciate e-publishing content by the students and scholars -Security of e-content from piracy still a fear 32. What do you think should be done to introduce technology in scholarly Publishing? -Institutions need to include in their curriculum e-content in their courses. -Publishers to develop a secure form of distributing the e-publications -Awareness through workshops and seminars on the need to appreciate technology.

Thank you. Appendix 16 . Survey “e-Publishing in sub-Saharan Africa� Moi University Press.

Page | 91

Is e-Publishing an effective solution for Sub-Saharan Africa?  

Oxford Brookes University, MA in Publishing. Dissertation aims to explore digital publishing in Sub-Saharan Africa and the possible benefit...

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