a dissertation submitted to the department of design and multimedia in partial fulfilments of the requirements for the ba in graphic communication university of nicosia 24 /02/ 2014
student fedotkina daria U084N1366 advisor maria stavride
0.0 ABSTRACT T
his thesis examines the role of the art directors in the magazine - making process. It first aims to illuminate their importance not only in the magazine industry but in the history of Graphic Design as well. This research paper also investigates the role of an art director in contemporary magazines through market analysis and interviews taken from art directors of ‘The Boat’ and ‘Interview’ magazines. In the first part of the paper, I will analyze magazine employees hierarchy which will demonstrate the importance and involvement of an art director in the overall magazine - making process. Furthermore, I will continue with a chronological timeline and an investigation on the roots of art directing, which will show why and when the need for this position arose. This chapter also presents ten famous art directors and their contribution to the magazine industry development. Market analysis and interviews taken from modern art directors Luke Tonge and Viktoria Morozovskaya in the following part of this thesis will show how the type of the publication can influence the art directors tasks and roles in the overall magazine - making process. Finally, based on gained information, I will attempt to act as an art director while designing ‘A-Z’ magazine - culture and travel publication for English Speakers in Cyprus.
0.0 METHODOLOGY T
he major method of collecting data for this research paper will be based on theoretical research which includes investigations of books, eBooks, print and online articles and websites. This research will help me to come to a greater understanding of what is art directing and where is the art directors position in the magazine within the employee hierarchy. Additionally, it will show the roots of art directing and their impact in the magazine industry development. The second method for gathering data will be based on interviews taken from modern art directors Luke Tonge and Viktoria Morozovskaya, who are currently holding positions at ‘The Boat Magazine’ and Russian branch of ‘Interview’ magazine. Interviews will help me to collect unique information based on the experiences of the designers and will be used to support my arguments in this thesis. This information will be used in identifying the role of the art director in a contemporary magazine and will examine the influence of a magazine’s niche on the art director’s performance. Third method of collecting information will be based on a questionnaire. The questionnaire will provide a deeper understanding of the target audience, which is necessary for the design proposal of this thesis. Questionnaires will be sent to responders through social networks and e-mails and will allow me to collect replies from a diverse audience.
0.0 CONTENTS 0.1 INTRODUCTION 0.5 - 0.6 0.2 MAGAZINE EMPLOYEE HIERARCHY 07 - 10 0.3 HISTORICAL ROOTS OF ART DIRECTING 11 - 18 0.4 BEING THE ART DIRECTOR IN A CON TEMPORARY MAGAZINE 19 - 26 0.5 DESIGN PROPOSAL 27 - 30 0.6 DESIGN PROCESS 31 - 34 0.7 CONCLUSION 35 - 36 0.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 37 - 38 0.9 REFERENCE OF FIGURATIVE ILLUSTRATIONS 39 - 45 10 APPENDIX 46-47
0.1 INTRODUCTION ‘Magazines rise, then fall, they thrive when they fill the needs and interests of audiences and/or advertisers; they decline and ease publication when the audience grows tired, editors loose touch, or times change.’ (Heller and Ballance, 2001, p. 31)
agazine history is relatively short, it spreads over two centuries and it has been only over a decade since their first mass market success. Magazines played a significant role not only in the history of graphic design but in the cultural history as well. They reflected important art movements, served as propaganda and promotional tools in war and post war times and spread the news when television and internet were at the initial stage of their development. In addition to that, magazines were educating people worldwide by lightening up innovations in science - Einstein’s Theory of Relativity was first presented to the mass public through a magazine; or by publishing works of iconic novelists and poets like Hemingway, Tolstoy and Esenin. (Moser, 2003, p. 7) Magazines were constantly changing, adopting new styles and covering new features in order to please the reader and adjust to their needs. Today’s market is full of various magazine titles that satisfy if not all, most of people’s needs, hobbies and interests. Major magazine competitors which, as was thought, could destroy the magazine industry is the internet and television. Yet, magazines firmly stay in the market and perfectly coexist with those two mass media outlets. Despite the advantages of new medias, magazines give what internet and television will never be able to give - tactile experience earned though holding a magazine and leafing through it. A lot of modern magazines use the privileges of new technologies which allows them to be more interactive, affordable and entertaining in an effort to satisfy the emerging needs of the readers imposed by the new medias. There is no doubt that magazines are an interesting subject to discuss and have been on the main focus of investigation of different research papers, mostly on how they have contributed in influencing graphic design history but also how they have gained marketing success. Due to the field of my studies and my personal interest, this research
paper is focused on design and, to be more specific, on who is responsible for the visual identity of a magazine. Its proven throughout the history of magazine design that no great publication can be great if poorly designed. This thesis is dedicated to the art directors of a magazine and aims to show that art directors contribution and involvement in the overall magazine making process is equally as important as editors or any other position in the magazines employee hierarchy. Great publications can only be great if there is a strong collaboration between both art and editorial departments and if design and content are treated with equality, these two should compliment each other bringing success to the magazine. Tony Chambers, creative director of ‘Wallpaper’ magazine, in his interview to ‘Creative Review’ magazine, shared his thoughts based on years of experience in the magazine industry: ‘No great magazine can exist without a great relationship between the art director and the editor, with respect between each other. They might hate each other, but they have respect for each other and I think that’s where a great magazine happens.’ (Burgoyne, 2013, p. 40) In order to understand the importance of the art director’s role in a magazine it is necessary to know where their position lies within the employee hierarchy and what are their responsibilities. Therefore in the first chapter of this thesis, magazine employees hierarchy will be analysed. This will demonstrate what are the responsibilities of an art director and will also examine the relationship between an editor-in-chief and an art director. The role of the art director can not be fully investigated without historical reference. Therefore in the second chapter of this thesis the historic timeline of significant contributors of the magazine industry will be discussed. It was Dr Mehemmed Agha who stated that design in the
magazine industry must be considered both as a separate and important element, created the position of the art director for a person who coordinates the visual elements in the publication. Soon after Agha’s statement, magazines started attracting designers and artists like El Lissitzky, Laslo, Moholy - Nagy, Andy Warhol, Alexey Brodovitch, Rodchenko, Kandinsky, Klee, Matisse, Picasso, Chagall and became a favorite and desirable place to work at. (Moser, 2003, p. 7) This thesis will also refer to the work of award winners and iconic figures like Cipe Pineses, Alexey Brodovitch, Henry Wolf, Tibor Kalman, Neville Brody, David Caslon, Bradbury Thompson and their contribution in the magazine industry. Art directors listed above had the privilege to experiment and create innovational designs in the beginning of the magazine era. But what is the key to art directing today? How do modern art directors cope with their task when it seems like everything has been done and have their responsibilities and aims changed over the last century? When ‘all is said and done’ do art directors act differently rather than a century ago? Do they now have the challenging task of amazing the reader? In the third chapter of this thesis I will analyze modern magazine market by focusing on three magazines ‘The Boat Magazine’, ‘Cereal’ and Russian branch of ‘Interview’ magazine, two independent, relatively new publications about travel, food and culture and a large and glamorous magazine with a history and absolutely different aim and target audience. This selection of magazines will shed some light on how art directors responsibilities vary depending on the nature of the publication. Additionally to that, art directors of ‘The Boat Magazine’ Luke Tonge and ‘Interview’ Victoria Morozovskaya kindly agreed to answer a list of questions that describes their performance as art directors, their responsibilities and involvement in the overall magazine - making process which supports the analysis presented in the third chapter. Finally, knowledge gained through theoretical research, interviews, questionnaires and market analysis will be applied in the practical part of this thesis - while designing ‘A to Z’ magazine, travel and culture publication for English speakers in Cyprus which will be described in the final chapter of this thesis. A new title will be created in an effort to act as an art director by adopting information collected and studied while doing my research.
0.2 MAGAZINE EMPLOYEE HIERARCHY T
he list of job positions in a magazine industry is close to endless. If the magazine is big like ‘Esquire’, ‘National Geographic’ or ‘Vogue’ a number of employees are involved in creating a single issue of a magazine that can reach up to 200 people (According to magazines’ accounts on LinkedIn network) which might also include people who are working for the foreign branches of the same magazine. There is no limit, ‘Time’ magazine, for example, built a whole empire: the number of employees working for it (full-time, part-time, freelance) raise up to 500 people (According to Time Inc. page on LinkedIn network). (Linkedin.com, 2013) There are also small independent magazines with a small number of employees , yet the same success has been achieved within their specific target audience. Therefore the number of employees depends on the content and the size of the publication. Job positions may be the same in the different publications but the functions and responsibilities for each position may vary. Editor-in-chief is always the top position. Usually he/she has a background in journalism, strong managing, leading and communicational skills and good understanding of design. Chief editor is responsible in making all the final decisions in a magazine, he/she controls the work of all the departments in a magazine and coordinates them together in order to create an effective team and flourishing business. (Magazine Designing, 2013) Jeremy Leslie, art director and graphic designer, in an article for ‘Creative Review’ magazine once wrote that: ’... magazine - making at whatever scale has always been about teamwork.’ (Leslie, 2011, p. 90) Therefore all positions in a magazine employee hierarchy are linked to each other and are important: without managing and executive editors there would be no content, without an art director there would be no image, no structure and no identity, without a publisher magazine would not be printed out and without an advertising director no one would know about it. ‘Just as magazines are composed of a number of diverse, yet similar elements, so they are compiled by a variety of people, whose jobs, though distinct and different from one another, overlap in areas.’ (Foges, 1999, p. 7)
The art directors position is no less important than the one of editor in chief. Moreover their collaboration is known to be one of the most important in a magazine. In some publications one person is responsible for both positions. A well-designed magazine will always sell better, it will stand out on a magazine shelf and will be pleasant to read and viewed. It doesn’t matter if the magazine is about art or politics, design matters or both. Well designed does not necessarily mean that it is experimental, colorful and artistic; it means that the reader is not distracted by illegible text, excessive amount of graphic elements and unbalanced composition while reading. Some magazines serve as a good example of how great design can be simply invisible. And the person who is responsible for this is the Art Director or Creative Director. Therefore the art directors’ aim is to come up with a strong visual identity, that will give character to the publication. Art directors are also responsible for clearly structured and smartly presented content with suitable visuals in order to attract potential readers, to meet their needs and offer them a unique reading experience. (Forges, 1999, p. 8). All these are gained through a close and constant collaboration with the editor-in-chief and other departments within the magazine in order to have a successful publication. The key to art directing in Ezra Petronio’s, art director of ‘Self-service’ magazine, words: ‘The ability to combine words and images to convey meaning. A good magazine has a balance of visual expression and simulating articles. It documents expression and emotion.’ (Rivers, 2006, p.123) As the head of the art department, the art director leads a creative team composed of designers, photographers, illustrators and assistants. He/she must be confident in all the areas listed above or even become involved in the process in order to be helpful and produce efficient work. Horst Mozer in his book ‘The Art Directors’ Handbook of Professional Magazine Design’ divides art directors into three categories: ‘the artistic art directors, the virtuoso editorial art director, and a third, special creature that’s evolved within the large publishing houses, best identified as an art director whose decisions are all heavily influenced by market research.’ (Mozer, 2003, p .10)
As an example for the first category Horst Mozer names Neville Brody and David Caslon for their influential, outstanding and experimental work for ‘RayGun’, ‘The Face’ and ‘Arena’ magazines. This category unites all the creative art directors that make magazines a masterpiece. They masterfully manage to break the rules and come up with a beautiful and unique result at the end. Those art directors usually work in art, architecture, computer and graphic design magazines that have a specific target audience.
This strategy works for yellow pages, celebrity tabloids, cheap publications and small lifestyle periodicals.
Second category contains art directors who act as ‘the conductor of an orchestra’, beautiful descriptive words used by Mozer in his book. Those art directors are masters of their skill, they are ready to solve any problems, answer all questions and have great leading and managing skills. This kind of heart and a head of an organization can usually be found in both editors and art directors at the same time.
‘The success of magazines depends on clear communication and concise story telling, both of which demand rigorous applications of grid layout and the establishment of visual hierarchies in order to keep readers entertained while they consume the content.’ (Flask, 2014)
Third category is contributed to art directors that cannot even be called art directors. They don’t build the identity of a magazine, they usually go for safe choices and already existing ideas. This type of art directors usually take a position in a publication which is not concerned with design.
Nevertheless, all art directors, no matter which role suits them the best, contribute to the magazine industry. They present magazines in such a way that people want to buy them and want to leaf over them. The success of the magazine depends on the art director’s great performance when poor performance, bad design in other words, can lower the sales and cause loss of potential readers.
And as Tibor Kalman, ‘Colors’ magazine editor-in-chief, once said: ‘If you bust the budget nobody remembers. If you miss the deadline, nobody remembers. But if you do work that sucks, they will remember for ever.’
An art director’s tasks and duties may include: - Design of the visual identity of the magazine. - Leading the art department of the magazine. - Manipulating all the visual material of the magazine - Laying out pages for the magazine, often to tight deadlines - Discussing design and layout ideas with the editor and other colleagues - Commissioning photographers and illustrators - Sketching out and designing the cover - which must always look distinctive to attract buyers - Anticipating trends and setting the magazine’s overall visual style - Controlling the art budget.
0.3 historical roots of art directing
he art director, as a separate job title first appeared in the 20th century and since then has became one of the most wanted position within graphic designers. Why? Because magazines is one of the most flexible mass media that allows designers to express their individuality and be immediately noticed by a wide audience. As Chris Foges repeats the words of Teal Triggs in the book ‘Magazine Design’: ‘In some cases, magazines are ‘laboratories of experiment’ when innovative art directors and type designers are given the freedom to produce visual feasts. Historically, magazines have been the place for the development of new design vocabularies, as well as technical processes.’ (Foges, 1999, p. 10). Alexey Brodovitch, Cipe Pineles, Henry Wolf, Tibor Kalman, Neville Brody and many other iconic graphic designers took an advantage of this and became famous for their contribution in magazine industry. Due to this interest within graphic designers, magazines became a respected, diverse and popular mass media. The importance of content is obviously not contested but when the role of design was rethought and no more treated as only decoration, magazine authorities have observed the obvious - the more beautiful and eye catchy magazine identity is the higher the sales. The raise of importance of editorial design, also called golden era of magazines, happened between 1930-1950’s and a lot of important figures of ‘modern visual language’ were art directing American magazines. (Aynsley, 2001, p. 78) Studying the roots of magazines and specifically the roots of art directing is necessary in order to understand the nature of a magazine, how it was formed and changed overtime, how it was influenced by different times and approaches and what has already been done in this industry. Since the art directors position has been created it established the work of a whole art department in a magazine. A lot of iconic designers, illustrators, photographers and typographers contributed in a magazine industry holding a position of an art director or working under art directors.
This chapter is based on chronological timeline which will show the most iconic creative directors in the history of magazines and, additionally, people who were closely collaborating with them. People named in this chapter left a mark in the history of graphic design and were awarded for their significant work which still remains a fruitful source of inspiration and a model for imitation in the present times. Art Directors have been making magazines beautiful since the early 20th century when Dr. Mehemed Fehmy created a separate job position responsible for coordinating the visual elements in the magazine. Magazines were adopting different styles, were the victims of experiments, were carefully designed by hand and then completely computer generated, they went through different art movements and have become specimens of different historical periods. Art directors are people who stood behind any magazine improvements, stylistic changes and other innovations. Louis Pedlar founded a club to unite all the creative art directors together and named it the Art Directors club. It opened its doors in 1920 in New York, United States. Invitations were only sent to art directors who had influenced editorial design and impressed by their innovations, talent and creativity. The most significant art directors were honored, by being included in a special Hall of Fame of Art Directors club. It currently has 173 members. Its members include Alexey Brodovitch, Cipe Pineles, Milton Glazer, Henry Wolf, Walt Disney, Walter Allner, Tibor Kalman and many more. (Adcglobal.org, 2013) Some of the art directors listed in this chapter are also honored to be a part of AIGA society, an American organization founded in 1914 and is known as ‘...the oldest and largest professional membership organization for design.’ AIGA medal owners are known as the most celebrated and inspirational people who dedicated their lives to graphic design development and growth. (AIGA | the professional association for design, 2013)
MEHEMED FEHMY AGHA (1896 -1978) Art directed ‘Vogue’, ‘Vanity Fair’ and ‘House & Gardens.’ Editorial design as an independent department was first established when Dr. Mehemed Agha became the art director of ‘Vogue’, ‘Vanity Fair’ and ‘House & Gardens’ in the early 20th century. As a person who had a degree in economics, oriental languages, with training in the arts, photography, typography and science and who has fluency in 5 languages, he has had an all-round personality, high intellect and brilliant talent. Mehemed Agha’s talents could opened all doors in front of him. But Agha has chosen editorial design. Conde Nast (editor-in-chief of ‘Vogue’, ‘Vanity Fair’ and ‘House & Gardens’ ) was intrigued by Agha’s unique personality and immediately offered him a job in his magazines. Mehemed Agha’s performance was astonishing, he created beautiful page spreads and was the first one to introduce sans serif typography in magazines. (Magazine Designing, 2013)
ALEXEY BRODOVITCH (1898 - 1971) Art directed ‘Harper’s Bazaar’. Agha made revolutionary statements which provided useful guidance for the development of magazine industry. Yet, in spite all the credits for Agha, the most influential art director in the history of editorial design of this period was Alexey Brodovitch. He made the greatest impact in magazine design style and has been a model for imitation for more than 50 years. Incredible use of white space, type as image compositions, beautiful page spreads, full-page photographs are among his achievements and are the part of his hallmark as a graphic designer. His major achievement though is his 25 year career at iconic fashion bible ‘Harper’s Bazaar’. Magazine spreads of ‘Harper’s Bazaar’ made Alexey recognizable, successful and famous and are part of every graphic design history book.
Yet, despite all Agha’s creativity, he left a mark in history as a person who created the art director, position which will later be hold by many other famous graphic designers. After Mehemed Agha’s statements about the importance of design in a magazine, it was officially recognized that the art department became a necessary and separate part of the magazine no less important than any other department found within a magazine. He once said: ‘The visual articulation of a magazine was not to be an act after editorial fact but an integral part of the editorial process.’ (Magazine Designing, 2013) Sharing Mehemed Agha’s concerns about editorial design’s place in the magazine industry we now have the magazine employees hierarchy model which is still successfully applied in contemporary magazines. Apart from bringing the radical changes in the magazine industry and producing innovative designs Agha was a powerful leader and a strict teacher. As Cipe Pineles (Art Director of ‘Glamour’ and his protege) will later say: ‘Agha was the most fabulous boss to work for. Nothing you did satisfied him. He was always sending you back to outdo yourself, to go deeper into the subject.’ (AIGA | the professional association for design, 2013)
Alexey career started when Carmel Snow, ‘Harper’s Bazaar’ editor-in-chief, first met him during an Art Directors Club of New York exhibition which took place in 1934 and was fascinated with his works, style and ‘pages that bled beautifully, cropped photographs, typography and design that were bold and arresting.’ (Harper’s BAZAAR, 2013). If Carmel would only knew what a significant step she made by letting Alexey Brodovitch work at Bazaar. Alexey freshened the publication and, by slightly changing the design and setting new goals, expanded the target audience and raised magazine’s popularity worldwide. ‘Harper’s Bazaar’ changed from ‘an elite publication which focused on Paris haute couture to a more broadly based cultural review with an emphasis on the modern lifestyle.’ (Aynsley, 2001, p. 78) Alexey Brodovitch expanded the list of the art director’s responsibilities, he stated that finding, training and help-
ing new talents should also rely upon the art director’s performance. Alexey Brodovitch became a god within the young unknown photographers and illustrators. He was their way to recognition, because as an art director he had a power of promoting newcomers. Alexey had a scent for genius people and he had the knowledge on how to embody their ideas and where they could apply their talent. Artists and photographers like Richard Avedon, Lillian Bassman, Martin Munkasci, Henry Cartier-Bresson, Erwin Blumenfeld, Man Ray, and Andy Warhol contributed in a magazine under Brodovitch’s art direction and got their place on walk of fame later. (Mozer, 2003, p. 8)
CIPE PINELES (1908 - 1991) Art directed ‘Seventeen’, ‘Charm’ and ‘Mademoiselle’. Mid - 20th century was generous for talents and one of them is Cipe Pineles, a talent formed and educated under Dr. Mehemed Agha’s directorship. She was lucky enough to practice, learn and be assisted by the maestro of editorial design. Cipe will later apply Agha’s style in ‘cropping photographs to dramatize their effect, and for simple, unfussy type.’ (Crowley, 2003, p. 126)
With her incredible talent and passion for graphic design she later became one of the greatest art directors of the century and first woman who managed to become an art director of an American mass publication. Cipe was holding a position of an art director of lifestyle and fashion magazines ‘Charm’ and ‘Glamour’ as well as first lifestyle and fashion periodical for teenage girls - ‘Seventeen’. Historian Martha Scotford once said that Cipe managed to move ‘Seventeen away from the school of sentimental illustration to use the best contemporary artists working in America.’ (Crowley, 2003, p. 126) Cipe’s contribution in magazine design and her talent opened the doors for her to the all-male New York Art Directors club and later their Hall of Fame. Therefore she was not only the first woman holding a position of an art director for the mass market American publication but also, the first female member of the Art Directors club.
(AIGA | the professional association for design, 2013) Cipe will remain a great example for all women in the industry. Pineles was also known for her love of fine art, she was the first art director who hired fine artists to illustrate her magazines and while doing so she promoted a list of names that further will be widely recognized. Cipe’s art directors career made her well known, respectable and recognizable. When Pineles finally resigned from being an art director she became a lecturer at Parson’s school of design in New York and kept inspiring newcomers with her passion in illustration and graphic design.
BRADBURY THOMPSON (1911 – 1995) Art directed ‘Westvaco Inspirations’ and ‘Mademoiselle’. Bradbury Thompson was an art director of ‘Mademoiselle’, widely known as compulsive perfectionist. His perfectionism helped him in creating elegant, perfectly structured and balanced compositions. Bradbury used a lot of repetitions, vivid colors, overlapping, which might cause messiness but not in Thompson’s hands of a maestro. Bradbury had a rare skill of balancing busy compositions. ‘The glitter and shine of tinsel will never again look so attractive to one whose eye has been led by Bradbury Thompson with his respect for us, for his materials, and for the letters of the alphabet.’ (Adcglobal.org, 2013)
WALTER ALLNER (1909 – 2006) Art directed ‘Fortune’. It is hard to believe that over a decade ago magazines were hand generated which was time consuming and expensive. Walter Allner was the first graphic designer who pressed all his predecessors by predicting the future of the magazine - making process. Being very passionate about engineering and being confident in this field, Walter opens a door into a new, completely different method of magazine production - computer - generated magazines. Trained by Josef Albers, Vasily Kandinsky and Joost Shmidt in Bauhaus school, he finally devoted himself to ‘Fortune’ magazine, a business publication included in the ‘Time Inc’.
‘Fortune’ was established when ‘the conventional magazines had no systematic type style and the role of the designer if there was a designer at all, was confined to the application of decorative riguettes and ornate type’. (Heller and Ballance, 2001, p. 27) Therefore Walter with
finally became an art director of ‘Esquire’ magazine. Yet, in a year he resigned from the position of an art director in ‘Esquire’ magazine. (Heller and Ballance, 2001, p. 52) Henry is the best recognized by his layouts, typography arrangements, photograph spreads and covers for ‘Esquire’, ‘Harper’s Bazaar’ and ‘Show’. Henry was known as the best in arranging the elements on a page and for the excellence of elegance and perfectionism. ‘...the word he conveys [Henry Wolf] creates either as designer, art director or photographer, is characterized by clarity of form and literary content.’ (AIGA | the professional association for design, 2013) In 1976 Wolf was honored by the American Institute of Graphic Arts award and in 1980 he was included in the American Art Directors Hall of Fame.
his innovational design ideas has lifted the magazine to a new level. He personally designed 79 covers, all of them complete pieces of abstract and geometric art. The annual issue of ‘Fortune 500’ was completely computer - generated using computer’s oscilloscope and then photographed. (Nytimes.com, 2013) Walter Allner once said: ‘Raise the aesthetic standard the public is more perceptive than you think.’ (Library.rit. edu, 2013) Walter was the first graphic designer who used the magazine - making process which will be successfully used in a few years. Software made magazine - making an easy and fast process which does not require to have as many skills as graphic designers had to have a decade ago.
TIBOR KALMAN (1949-1999) Art directed ‘Colors’. Another great art director was Tibor Kalman, fearless, spontaneous, political, he thought he could change the world and he somehow did. Graphic designers say that: ‘In the middle 1980’s there were two names that changed the graphic design industry - Mac and Tibor. One changes the way we work, the other the way we think.’ (The Independent, 1999) Tibor Kalman was an American graphic designer, most celebrated for his provocative work in the Benetton- sponsored magazine named ‘Colors’. ‘Colors’ was designed to send strong messages to the public and lighten up topics like racism, pollution and AIDS. Honest texts, shocking visuals and topics which were preferred to be kept as a secret were now published in a mass market magazine. ‘Colors’ was criticized and loved at the same time.
HENRY WOLF (1925-2005) Art directed ‘Esquire’, ‘Harper’s Bazaar’ and ‘Show’. One of the most accomplished Art Directors of the 60’s was Alexey Brodovitch’s protege - Henry Wolf. Wolf started his career in ‘Esquire’ magazine as a junior designer in 1952 and got noticed and promoted to ‘graphics editor’ because of his fresh design for advertisements for the same magazine. Being only 26 years old Henry was asked by Arnold Gingrich to design the ‘Esquire’ magazine from front to back. When given this task he said: ‘ Not me. I’m the lowest guy in the bullpen’. Even though he accepted the proposal and in collaboration with the art director of ‘Flair’ magazine Wolf did his first issue. In 1957 Wolf
Kalman did not pay attention to what other people think, as a great individual, he was confident about what he did and how he did it and never questioned if it was something morally unacceptable. Tibor was asked to take the position of art director by Olivio Toscany and before accepting the offer he answered: ‘Not just design. No. Create, edit and design. Yes.’ (Kalman and Peltason, 2002) Kalman used graphic design to promote political views and showed that design can serve not only as a beautiful image but could also bring a powerful message to the public. ‘He savored the nuances of type and had a fetish for vernacular design - the untutored or quotidian signs, marquees, billboards, and packages that compose mass culture - but understood that being a master of good design meant nothing unless it supported a message that led to action.’ (AIGA | the professional association for design, 2013)
Kalman used ‘Colors’ magazine as a platform for the concerns of his time by designing extreme visuals that no one would ever think of doing like publishing a picture of a Queen Elizabeth with black skin or Pope John Paul II as an Asian in an issue dedicated to racism. The content of the magazine was always shocking, may be even too shocking to be perceived and understood by mass market. But Tibor succeeded, he found it necessary to promulgate what everyone was silent about. Tilbor was awarded by AIGA medal in 1999 and became a part of Hall of Fame in 2004 for his conceptual and strong designs.
the interview for ‘Eye’ magazine he once said: ‘On Arena I wanted to reject style and decoration and show that it is actually the design that counts...For years ago, everything was over- designed, design was the content. At Arena we were saying, well, no, the content is the content. In the end, though, it failed.’ (Eyemagazine.com, 2014)
Neville Brody. (1957 - ) Art directed ‘The Face’, ‘Fuse’ and ‘Arena’. Neville Brody is an English graphic designer that became famous for his contribution for the graphic design fashion bible ‘The Face’ in the 1980’s. Neville is best known for his typography skills. Bold, screaming, overlapping and huge typographical images were a hallmark of ‘The Face’ magazine and Brody’s distinctive feature. He was obsessed with not only typography but our understanding of text, Neville worked on the idea of changing reader’s perception of the words. Brody stated that we do not read words but recognize them. Therefore most of the words were transformed into signs, symbols to lead the reader through the magazine, he called it ‘town planning of the magazine’. (Eyemagazine.com, 2014) Like Brodovitch’s page spreads were copied in his times, Neville’s designs became a model for imitation in the 80’s. A moment of surprise, dynamism and movement were very important elements that Brody tried to include in his designs. He was experimenting with mixing images with type in order to create a design that can be described in different ways. As he mentioned in his interview to ‘Architecture Review’: ‘what happens when you put two images together and get a third which is quite different, completely unpredictable - and in that sense, undesigned’. (Architecturalreview.com, 2011) When Brody moved from ‘The Face’ to ‘Arena’ magazine he completely changed his style and tried himself in minimalism. No more decorations but Helvetica font combined with black and white could be seen on ‘Arena’ pages in the 1987. In
Yet the most celebrated work done by Neville Brody is his typographical projects - the experimental magazine ‘Fuze’. It unites work done by different typographers and graphic designers from all around the world. Brody is an iconic art director who has left his mark in the development of editorial design, he also became one of the most celebrated graphic designers and typographers and now he is holding the position of the head of the art department in Royal College of Art.
David Carson (1957 - ) Art directed ‘Ray Gun’. Born the same year as Neville Brody yet overseas, David Carson is an American art director who is a master of creating bright, bold, screaming and experimental typography arrangements. He first started his career at ‘Trasworld Skateboarding’. But David is best recognized for his career at the ‘Ray Gun’ magazine, alternative American rockand-roll magazine, that started in the 1992. Under his art directing, magazine gained a public attention and its subscription tripled. With no graphic design background he made it to be an iconic figure during the 90’s. ‘Graphis’ magazine named David as a ‘Master of Typography’ and ‘I-D’ magazine included him in their list of ‘America’s most innovative designers.’ Carson was also honored to be the topic of an entire issue made by Emigre publication. (Davidcarsondesign.com, 2013).
‘Big Magazine’ and Marcelo Junemann. Usually, proved by the examples given above, one art director creates visual identity and remains working for his periodical for a period of time, but there is always an exception in a rule like the ‘Big’ magazine. The ‘Big’ is a publication founded by Marcelo Junemann, each issue of the magazine is usually thematically focused on travel destination or on a subject. Marcelo as well hires different people to art direct different issues. Junemann’s major aim was to create ‘A magazine unlike any other, driven not by ad sales, but by art direction.’ (Lin, 2002, pp. 118-131) When working on an issue focused on destination Marcelo chooses a native art director, who can better transmit all the cultural characteristics through design. Yet when the issue is about the subject, Marcelo goes for Doug Lloyd who recently did four issues of the ‘Big’ magazine. Marcelo Junemann’s distinctive feature is the way he works with people, he gives art directors a complete freedom with visual design and a right to hire people that art directors choose to collaborate with. That shows a great example of successful and respectable collaboration between editor-in-chief and the art director. Lloyd credits Junemann as ‘a remarkable motivator and catalyst who allows creative to do great work.’ (Lin, 2002, pp. 118-131)
IN CONCLUSION, although, the list of art directors can
go on, there are many other talented art directors who have their own triumphs in editorial industry. But the major aim of this chapter was to show the most iconic art directors without whom editorial industry would not be as diverse as it is today. People, discussed in this chapter, created a base for modern graphic designers and remain being a model for imitation. Mehemed Agha, Alexey Brodovitch, Cipe Pineles, Tibor Kalman has lifted the importance of editorial design up. They also consolidated the position of an art director within a magazine employees hierarchy. Design matters in the success of a magazine and there is no doubt about it anymore, therefore the job of contemporary art directors is easier due to the way the above mentioned designers acted and the changes that they made. Magazine industry has changed since then. But being an art director is still one of the most desirable jobs, yet one of the hardest at the same time. If to compare tasks that an art directors faced a century ago with tasks that contemporary art directors are dealing with today we will see the differences. Art directorâ€™s responsibilities today change depending on the type of a publication. Three magazines, examined for this thesis, will later show that the role of an art director can require different skills depending on the nature of a magazine. Modern art directors are responsible for many tasks and are true maestros in their field. Like Mike Meire, German art director, in an interview to Horst Mozer said: â€˜The art director is evolving more and more into a sort of producer, who brings together various disciplines and areas of design.â€™ (Heller and Ballance, 2001)
0.4 BEING THE ART DIRECTOR IN A CONTEMPORARY MAGAZINE ‘When all is said and done, we magazine makers are the creators of new desires or even perhaps of new forms of consciousness, and as I see it, this is a very different and much more complex challenge.’ Mike Meire Times has changed and this change influenced magazine industry and magazine - making process which is reflected on art directors’ present performance. New technologies made magazines more engaging, entertaining, interactive and affordable. Yet magazine - making process requires new skills and different approach from contemporary art directors rather from art directors a decade ago. They now have the privilege to use software which makes their job faster, easier and gives more room for creativity. Despite new technologies and fast production contemporary creative directors face more difficult issues than creative directors a century or even a half of a century ago. They now have to compete with not only other publications that exist in the market but other mass media like television or the internet. Mike Meire, German art director who is known for designing ‘the most innovative magazines of recent times’ according to the ‘Creative Review’ blog, once stated: ‘When all is said and done, we magazine makers are the creators of new desires or even perhaps of new forms of consciousness, and as I see it, this is a very different and much more complex challenge.’ (Moser, 2003, p. 16) Being an art director today is definitely a challenge. But how hard is this challenge? How art directors manage to amaze the reader?
What tricks do art directors use in order to survive in today’s competitive world? Is it possible to create new designs? Or modern new is a well forgotten old? Honest answers to this questions can only be received directly from art directors themselves. Therefore in order to get a greater understanding of the art director’s performance today the interviews with contemporary art directors will be presented below. Luke Tonge and Viktoria Morozovskaya kindly agreed to answer a list of questions. This chapter also includes the analysis of today’s magazine market based on ‘The Boat Magazine’, ‘Cereal’ and ‘Interview’. The aim of this chapter is not only to investigate the role of an art director in the magazine, but how the type of the magazine influences the art director’s job. Many different titles exist in today’s market, they cater for any possible topic from fishing to science. There are big magazine corporations and small independent periodicals. All of these magazines adopt their own employees hierarchy depending on the size and type of a magazine. Art director’s position if not in all, but in the most of these periodicals is necessary, yet creative directing also vary depending on the type of the publication or the identity of the magazine. In order to prove this statement, three publications will be further introduced and the performance of the art director in these three magazines will be compared.
First art director to be interviewed is Viktoria Morozovskaya, art director of Russian ‘Interview’, a big glamorous magazine, established back in 1969 by Andy Warhol. The other two art directors were chosen through the analysis of today’s market of the independent magazines. Knowledge gained through the market analysis will be applied while designing the practical part of this thesis. Therefore, magazines had to fit the specific criteria in order to serve as an example for the design proposal of this thesis. The first criteria is to be independent. Luckily, there is boom of independent small magazines in contemporary magazine market. More and more graphic designers and freelance writers today contribute in editorial industry. This tendency is explained by people’s desire to be free in expressing their individuality rather then to be controlled by others. As a result, we now have many nicely designed independent magazines with beautifully written and edited content. Some of this magazines don’t survive in a competitive world and shut down after a few issues and some of them strongly remain on the market. ‘Kinfolk’, ‘The Boat Magazine’, ‘Cereal’, and ‘Wherever’ were all launched not a long time ago but already gained recognition of the public and experts of the magazine design. Another criteria that two independent magazines had to fit in order to be analyzed in this chapter is to be similar in topic but aesthetically different at the same time. Both ‘Cereal’ and ‘The Boat Magazine’ fit into this criteria and joined ‘Interview’ in a list of magazines to be observed and compared. PROFILES OF THE MAGAZINES Before proceeding with the art director’s interviews, the profile and short history of the ‘Interview’, ,Cereal’ and ‘The Boat Magazine’ are described bellow.
‘INTERVIEW’ AND VICTORIA MOROZOVSKAYA ‘Why start a magazine? So we could get free tickets to all the premieres.’ Andy Warhol With these words American pop idol Andy Warhol launched a new magazine called ‘Interview’. (Duperray and Vidaling, 2003, p. 40) It was founded back in 1969 and instantly became successful because it served what people have always been interested in - the intimate insides of the celebrities’ lives. Interviews, or ‘talks between stars’ was the main feature of the magazine which was polished to perfection through out its lifetime. Despite the success, ‘Interview’ was shut and later relaunched in September 2008 by co-editorial directors Fabien Baron and Glenn O’Brien. The new ‘Interview’ has changed, interviews were now adjoined with other features like fashion, lifestyle, news and advertising. The head office of the ‘Interview’ magazine is situated in New York, US and has many branches worldwide. Original design applied for every ‘Interview’ is created by the ‘eminent’ American Partnership M&Co, headed by Tibor Kalman. (Aynsley, 2001, p. 208) Russian office of the ‘Interview’ magazine first opened its doors in 2011 and was headed by Alena Doletskaya. It still successfully remains in the Russian magazine market and acquire the status of one of the most glamorous and popular publications. Victoria Morozovskaya started her career at SK Press as a graphic designer, then she was hired to work as a senior designer in Russian ‘Vogue’ under Alena Doletskaya leadership, after three exciting years there, she tried herself as a senior designer in ‘Glamour’ Russia. Finally, when Russian ‘Interview’ was launched in 2011 Alena Doletskaya, her ex-boss from ‘Vogue’, asked Victoria to join the team and got promoted to the position of an art director. Victoria is holding the same position since then.
Luke first worked for ‘internal magazines for the likes of BUPA healthcare and Eurostar trains’ and at the same time he got asked to design a publication called ‘Blue Watch’ which was a collection of photographs of firemen. While working for ‘Blue Watch’ Luke became friends with Davey Spens who will later invite him to art direct ‘The Boat Magazine’. Even though Erin and Davey, as Luke will later say, had a strong vision of how magazine will look like and it’s identity design, Luke had a freedom to experiment on the magazine spreads of each issue.
THE BOAT MAGAZINE AND LUKE TONGE The Boat Magazine is a relatively new publication first launched in 2011 by Davey and Erin Spens, married couple and founders of ‘The Boat’ creative studio (name of the magazine was adopted after the creative studio) at the same time. Launching a magazine was their passionate project not sponsored or advertised by anyone else. By day Erin and Davey were working on designs for their clients and by night they were investing in their magazine. Despite a small budget and lack of advertising this magazine became one of the most waited publication today. Why? Because of the strong idea behind each issue. Erin and Davey with a help of contributing team designed a travel magazine, but instead of advertising the destination by telling where to go and where to stay, they share a story about the city they carefully pick. The first issue of ‘The Boat Magazine’ was a great success. Team went to Sarajevo, a city that people barely knew anything about apart from the war that happened back in the 90’s. By now, they covered Detroit, London, Athens, Kyoto and Reykjavik. Each time team was aiming to tell the real stories behind every city they covered and broke the stereotypes or reputation that were mistakenly earned. (Boat-mag.com, 2014) Erin Spens in her interview for MagCulture blog, which is run by Jeremie Leslie, said: ‘It’s really incredible how a place can get a reputation that is either inaccurate or very reductive. We’ve found that the reputation of a city has a big impact on the people living there, particularly the younger generations and particularly if it’s negative. So when the microphones and cameras are handed over to the locals, you get a better idea of what it’s really like and they finally get to tell their own story, not just the one that has a catchy headline or boosts TV ratings.’ (Leslie, 2014) Davey and Erin managed to create a new and interesting way of running a travel and culture magazine which allows readers to learn another information about the world. ‘The Boat Magazine’ is not only great in content but also aesthetically pleasant. And this is where the tribute goes to Luke Tonge. Luke Tonge is 28 years old graphic designer and the art director from Birmingham, United Kingdom. He is a creative mind who has always been passionate about contemporary art, geometric typography, illustration and photography. Yet his biggest passion has always been magazines that led him to work for several publications.
‘The Boat Magazine’ team showed brilliant work that was not left unnoticed. Jeremy Leslie in his MagCulture blog mentioned: ‘A great idea for a magazine, allowing creativity to blossom for the cause of good.’ (Leslie, 2014) ‘The Boat Magazine’ also served as a great source of inspiration for the design proposal of this thesis.
a difficult task of attracting the readers and at the same time not to bore them with the repetition of the same visual language. As Rich Stapleton in the promotional video of the‘Cereal’ magazine says: ‘In designing ‘Cereal’ we wanted to create something that had a fairly minimal looking feel’. (Cereal Magazine, 2013). ‘Cereal’ team published 4 issues until now and they promise to keep on spoiling readers with quality work.
‘CEREAL’ AND RICH STAMPLETON ‘Cereal’ magazine is another new indie publication which came out last year and is focused on people’s recent interests - traveling and food. ‘Cereal’ is created by a small team of editor-in-chief Rosa Park, co-editor Richard Aslan, art director Rich Stapleton, features editor Robbie Lawrence, illustrator Jon Rich and developer Kenny Ward. Despite similarity in topic and background between ‘The Boat Magazine’ and ‘Cereal’, ‘Cereal’ is a slightly different publication with another goal that it aims to achieve and another target audience.
‘Cereal’ shows that the process of creating an identity, setting the right goals, studying the market and knowing the needs of your audience in the first place that can help in achieving better results and gain the success in a flash. ‘Interview’, ‘The Boat Magazine’ and ‘Cereal’ are three different magazines, even despite the similarity between ‘The Boat Magazine’ and ‘Cereal’. They differ visually, their teams set different goals and they are addressed to a different target audiences. The observations made from their interviews presented below will demonstrate that these differences reflect on Victoria’s, Luke’s and Rich’s art directing.
Rosa, Rich and Richard established a magazine which gives readers a different experience that people usually get from reading a book rather than from leafing through a magazine. Everything from the logotype, which has bars in between letters symbolizing book shelf, to the choice of thicker paper for inside pages and hard carton paper for cover were designed to make people treat their magazine like a book. Another similarity with a book is magazine’s simple structure - two sections about traveling and two - about food. Well thought identity, correct goals and strict adherence to the plan made ‘Cereal’ magazine the most exciting discovery of the year. But what makes this magazine so exiting? It is definitely a strong content and, as Rosa mentions in promotional video of ‘Cereal’ magazine: ‘In creating a magazine they wanted to equally treat content and design’. Magazine became popular because of its unusual visual identity. (Cereal Magazine, 2013) ‘Cereal’ always has a limited pastel color pallet and comes out with the similar cover, it is always divided into two sections, even typefaces are repeated from issue to issue. And this very minimal look quickly won a place in people’s hearts. This look also makes this magazine stand out on a market when people still associate magazines with something bold, busy, bright and experimental. The person responsible for the design of ‘Cereal’ magazine is Rich Stapleton, young British graphic designer who comes from Bristol, United Kingdom. Being a perfectionist he shows another unique way to art direct a magazine. Rich together with Rosa worked on the identity and created a template which is repeated for each issue. From one point of view, it may seem easy but in reality Rich faces
INTERVIEW In order to see how the type of a magazine change art directors performance, Victoria, Luke and Rich were asked to answer a list of questions sent by e-mail. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Original list of questions contained 20 questions but due to the busy schedule of the art directors original list was shortened up to 9 questions: 1.
How did you first involve with magazines?
2. What is it like to be an art director of a magazine and what qualities are, in your opinion, key in success for an art director? 3. What are the most and least rewarding aspects of your job? 4. What is the story behind your publication? 5. How much is your involvement in the overall strategy and positioning of a magazine and the content of an issue? 6. What inspires the creative idea behind each issue? 7.
Which was the most challenging (magazine title) issue in your career so far?
8. How difficult is it to maintain consistency issue to issue while still surprising the reader and is that the key to successful editorial design? 9. Do you have any advise for people wanting to get into editorial design? Victoria Morosovskaya and Luke Tonge found time to answer the questions but, unfortunately, Rich Stampleton never replied in the e-mail. Therefore information about Rich Stapleton and ‘Cereal’ magazine for this thesis was taken from their official website readcereal.com and promotional clip of ‘Cereal’ uploaded on vimeo.com.
LUKE TONGE. ‘THE BOAT MAGAZINE’
6. What inspires the creative idea behind each issue?
1. How did you first involve with magazines?
The city we focus on defines the aesthetics of the magazine. There are certain aspects of the magazine that remain from issue to issue, but the overall feel of the mag should be a response to the feel of the city. We soak in the atmosphere, study the visual language and ephemera, the signage and the natural colour palette – and then we go about trying to translate those findings into a magazine.
I have always loved magazines but it wasn’t until after I had graduated from University that I tried my hand at designing them! While in my first job I worked with a great art-director on some internal magazines for the likes of BUPA healthcare and Eurostar trains. At the same time a great friend of mine, photography Jonathan Cherry, asked me whether I would design a publication of his called ‘Blue Watch’ – a collection of his photographs of firemen. This was my first foray into a proper commercial printed piece that I was solely responsible for! It was also what lead me to become the art-director of Boat Magazine. One of the contributors was a writer called Davey Spens, who would soon be looking to start a magazine with his wife Erin, they would name after their studio, Boat. 2. What is it like to be an art director of a magazine and what qualities are, in your opinion, key in success for an art director? Being an art director of a magazine is a very great pleasure and a lot of hard work! Each magazine differs – the size, content, schedule, budget, team, aspirations etc.. – so the role of art director will vary hugely between titles. It’s very rewarding to be in control of the aesthetics of a magazine people love, but its also a big responsibility to (in the case of Boat Mag) represent the city we are focusing on in an authentic way. The keys for success as an AD are multiple, here’s just a few. Teamwork and communication. Attention to detail. Determination. A love for and understanding of print. Great layout and compositional skill. A desire to meet new people and win them over. Passion for the subject. 3. What are the most and least rewarding aspects of your job? The most rewarding aspect of the job is honestly that moment of getting the magazine back from the printers! It is still as exciting and nerve-wracking now as it was the first time around, and its great seeing peoples reactions to it. As i’ve had the opportunity to travel with Boat to various locations around the world that too is a great aspect of being involved with the magazine. The least rewarding aspect of the job is I suppose the time spent working on it into the early hours of the morning. 4. How much is your involvement in the overall strategy and positioning of a magazine and the content of an issue? My involvement in the overall strategy and positioning of the mag is quite small, same with the content. I will make suggestions about potential contributors, type designers, illustrators, photographers etc. but the team of Davey & Erin Spens have an incredible vision for the magazine and a passion for finding the best stories to cover. I act as more of a sounding board, confidant, encourager and consultant.
7. Which was the most challenging The Boat Magazine issue in your career so far? Probably either the first – as I was very new to the idea of producing a magazine so had to learn a lot on the job! The latest issue, Reykjavik, was also quite difficult, as I didn’t go out with the team and so was at a disadvantage.
'The keys for success as an AD are multiple, here’s just a few. Teamwork and communication. Attention to detail. Determination. A love for and understanding of print. Great layout and compositional skill. A desire to meet new people and win them over. Passion for the subject.'
8. How difficult is it to maintain consistency issue to issue while still surprising the reader and is that the key to successful editorial design? Great question! Its actually not too difficult once you’ve established a grid, some rules, a masthead, type families and treatments, folios etc. Those constants let you then have fun with the rest of the content – and allow each issue the space to flex but still feel like part of an ongoing family. I think its part of the key to successful editorial design, certainly the key to consistency. 9. Do you have any advise for people wanting to get into editorial design? I suppose it would be the same advise I would give to someone wanting to get into any aspect of graphic design. Read around the subject, know your history, be active in the design community, both locally and online, develop your passion for the subject by whatever means you can. Expect a lot of work for little reward, and any recognition or praise you do get will be a nice surprise. Remember that its a huge privilege to be spending your time designing, so don’t take it for granted. Get involved in magazine communities and projects – get involved with magpile, STACK, magculture, cover junkie, etc.
5. What is the story behind The Boat Magazine? The story of Boat Magazine is better told by Davey than myself! Read it here: http://www.boat-mag.com/2013/10/17/whywe-make-an-independent-magazine/
VICTORIA MOROZOVSKAYA. ‘INTERVIEW’ (translated from Russian) 1. How did you first involve with magazines? I started my career at publishing house ‘SK Press’. Furthemore I got hired by Alena Doletskaya (editor-in chief) to be a contributing designer at Vogue Russia. After 3 exciting years spent in Vogue I took a place of senior graphic designer in Glamour Russia. In 2011 ‘Interview’ launched their magazine in Moscow which Alena Doletskaya, my ex boss in ‘Vogue’, headed and I was offered a position of art director. I’m holding this position since then. 2. What is it like to be an art director of a magazine and what qualities are, in your opinion, key in success for an art director? It is very important to love and be passionate about what you are doing and in case of ‘Interview’ magazine be able to do many things at once and be patient in stressful situations which happens quite often. 3. What are the most and least rewarding aspects of your job? The least rewarding aspect I named above - contingencies and last minute changes that can damage overall design. Yet being a part of ‘Interview’ team is a unique experience which guarantees you to be in a spotlight, to meet iconic people and be surrounded by creative and positive people. It is also always rewarding to see your work printed and enjoyed by people. 4. How much is your involvement in the overall strategy and positioning of a magazine and the content of an issue? I am responsible for guiding art department team of the magazine and for final decisions before sending issue to printers. I must also be aware of new trends in design world. In addition to that I organize photoshoots and make sure everyone under my leadership knows their goals. 5. What is the story behind Interview? Question was skipped. 6. What inspires the creative idea behind each issue? Interview Russia follows the rules set in main office in New York and we are not allowed to make any cardinal changes, therefore my job as a graphic designer is limited. 7. How difficult is it to maintain consistency issue to issue while still surprising the reader and is that the key to successful editorial design?
Set the goal and follow it despite the difficulties you may face.
Through the answers of the interviews and the information gathered though investigation on how the type of a magazine influences art directing, the following conclusions have been drawn. ‘Interview’, ‘Cereal’ and ‘The Boat Magazine’ consider design equally important as editorial, therefore art and editorial department closely collaborate and art directors position is no less important than editors in all three publications. First difference between an art director’s performance in observed publications was found while analyzing the initial stage of creating these magazines. ‘Cereal’ and ‘The Boat Magazine’ were directly designed by their teams from scratch when ‘Interview’ was designed in United Stated by M&Co Partnership. ‘Interview’s’ calligraphic logotype was created by iconic graphic designer of the 20th century and art director of ‘Colors’ magazine Tibor Kalman. Therefore Viktoria follows the template and guides set in the head office as any other art director in a branch magazine. When Rich’s and Luke’s job is pure design, Victoria is a manager. From which we can conclude that Viktoria’s job requires different skills and characteristics than Luke’s and Rich’s. She, first of all, is a leader, therefore she must be confident not only in all fields of graphic design involved in creating a magazine but also in communication and leading skills. In the first chapter of this thesis it was mentioned that Horst Mozer in his book ‘The Art Directors’ Handbook of Professional Magazine Design’ divided the art directors in three categories: ‘the artistic art directors, the virtuoso editorial art director, and a third, special creature that’s evolved within the large publishing houses, best identified as an art director whose decisions are all heavily influenced by market research.’ (Mozer, 2003, p. 10) If this statement is applied to the art directors interviewed in this chapter, Victoria fit the second category and then Luke and Rich represent the first one. ‘The virtuoso’ art director manages to be good in many tasks just like Viktoria. Apart from being a leader she is responsible for the final look of all visual material which includes magazine itself, advertising and digital version of the magazine therefore she must have an experience and background in graphic design.
Luke and Rich are a fine example of ‘the artistic art directors’. Yet in case of ‘The Boat Magazine’ its both founders - Erin and Davey - are confident in graphic design therefore Luke is not the only one responsible for visual identity. As he says in the interview: ‘My involvement in the overall strategy and positioning of the mag is quite small, same with the content. I will make suggestions about potential contributors, type designers, illustrators, photographers etc. but the team of Davey & Erin Spens have an incredible vision for the magazine and a passion for finding the best stories to cover. I act as more of a sounding board, confidant, encourager and consultant.’ (Tonge, 2013)
9. Do you have any advise for people wanting to get into editorial design?
Rich though chose to work in a magazine’s design alone consulting and collaborating with editor-in-chief Rosa
Our magazine is always full of surprises. Yet it is content wise not design. We cover new features, invite iconic people for interviews and etc. It is mostly editor’s merit not designers. Our job is to make magazine desirable for consumers. 8. Which was the most challenging magazine issue in your career so far?
Park. He sets the text, takes and edits photographs and creates the cover for each issue. Because of the hard work Rich and Rosa did in the first place - creating a strong and unique visual identity, and because this magazine is pure minimal, Rich does not spend much time on design. In ‘Cereal’ magazine case the hardest task is to choose images and edit them the way they will merge with the overall identity. Rich’s style of work is unique and can not be applied in a big and commercial magazine because that would be too overwhelming for one person. Therefore, we now see that aspects that influence art directing are the size of a publication, its visual identity and goals it aims to achieve. The conclusion drawn in this chapter proved that art directors performance now vary from publication to publication and may require differ-
ent skills. Art director can perform as a manager or as a designer, sometimes as an editor or even combine all of these skills. Luke, Rich and Victoria served as a model of imitation while designing the practical part of this thesis - ‘A-Z’ magazine. Rich Stampleton’s style of art directing was adopted while designing ‘A-Z’ magazine as it is the most effective and well thought model for imitation for a small group of people who start a magazine from a scratch. Even though the greatest source of inspiration was ‘The Boat Magazine’ - bright, diverse and more flexible. The decisions based on the experience of the art directors mentioned above the design of ‘A-Z’ magazine will be discussed in depth in the following chapter.
0.5 DESIGN PROPOSAL BRIEF To design an interesting, engaging and visually appealing magazine which is focused on travel and culture for English speakers, visiting or permanently living in Cyprus. To create a magazine aiming to fill the gap in Cyprus magazine market and improve it. At the same time it aims to show the beauty and cultural heritage of an island by promoting cities, its places of interests, stories and views. A publication which will educate and attract not only people who live in Cyprus but tourist who are one the most profitable segment in Cyprus economy. USAGE Magazine will be issued four times a year: fall, winter, spring and summer and will be either geographically or subject focused. This magazine will be used for entertaining reading and as a guide for people who aim to explore Cyprus. Magazine will come out in both print and digital form. TARGET AUDIENCE English speakers in Cyprus and tourists. Age group 18 - 55 years old.
GOAL The analysis of the ‘Cereal’ magazine demonstrated that setting the right goals will later simplify the life of a magazine team. Moreover, graphic designers from the first semester of their studies are taught that setting the right goals is one of the most important and basic rules in Graphic Design that helps to clarify the purpose of the object that is about to be designed. Before designing ‘A-Z’ magazine, which is proposed in the above brief, an analysis of the Cyprus market must be revealed. This will show where is the gap that can be potentially filled and define who will be the target audience of the proposed magazine.
ture and get a grasp of the history of the city in a modern context. Through this magazine the reader will truly meet the people of the city, understand their past and feel like the locals feel. The inhabitants all have a past, a story that should be told to anyone interested on the island of Cyprus. Nicosia has always been a city filled with talented and interesting people. The magazine will serve to show that through high quality design, the magazine will reveal the creative aspect of the last divided capital. AUDIENCE Defining the audience is a second important step in creating successful design.
The analysis of the Cypriot magazine market through sampling showed that this kind of magazine barely exist. Same can be said about the art directors position. Despite the fact that there is a potential demand, nothing decent is presented on the market. Most of the magazines are imported from Greece and English speaking countries like England and United States. The prices on those periodicals are markedly high.
Relying on only your personal taste leads to nowhere, especially when you are addressing your design (in a case of a magazine) to wide and diverse audience. As Timothy in the book ‘Publication Design Workbook’ mentions: ‘ ...the designer’s main goal is to act as a conduit for the concept in an objective way’. (Samara, 2007, p. 16)
Most of the magazines in the Cypriot market are addressed to native speakers. This is a big issue because Cyprus it is one of the most popular destination for emigrants and tourists who do not speak Greek. According to Nationmaster report 2012, 73% of the population are English speakers (is native or a second language) which is 420,000 people from the 1 million inhabitants of the island. (Nationmaster. com, 2014)
Knowing and what is even more important, understanding your audience will find answers to important questions like what are the interests of people who will purchase the magazine, what is their background, what attracts them, how do they perceive information and what will motivate them to buy a magazine, in other words - factors that influence magazine design. This information will also later help to understand their behavior and predict mistakes and difficulties they might face. Therefore studying the audience means respecting them and their needs.
The analysis showed that magazines presented on the Cypriot market are lifestyle tabloids focused on fashion and celebrities and special interest magazines like cars and sports. The market lucks a nicely designed and written magazine for English speaking target audience. Therefore, the aim of the practical application of this thesis is to propose a new magazine title, for the English speaking target audience. The purpose of this magazine is to introduce or re-introduce Cyprus to visitors and locals by revealing different aspects of life and culture in Cyprus. Thus content should be appealing, articles will be nicely written and, visually, information and aesthetics will be different from what already exist in the market. The aim is that the design and typography will honor the content. In addition to that, there were 1,637, 797 people visiting Cyprus this year (January to August 2013) who are also potential readers of an English speaking magazine, focused on traveling. It would also serve as a great guide for people who are exploring Nicosia and the rest of the island. (Mof.gov.cy, 2014)
In order to create a successful magazine, target audience must be always kept in mind.
‘Whether you’re designing a Web site or a medical device—or something somewhere in between—your audience is comprised of the people who will benefit from that design. And the totality of your audience’s experience is profoundly impacted by what you know—or don’t know— about them.’ (Weinschenk, 2011, p. 11) In order to collect information about the potential audience of ‘A-Z’ magazine an online survey was created using one of online survey generator called SurveyMonkey.com. It is the most effective, quick and relevant way of collecting data which requires a little effort from responders and helps to receive replies from wide and diverse audience. Another goal of a questionnaire is to see if ‘A-Z’ magazine will be commercially successful in Cyprus or it is doomed to failure.
A journey is always a source of inspiration and Nicosia is the place for people to get inspired by unique styles, trends, architecture and culture that are preserved since the founding of the city. A culture and travel magazine in Cyprus can also be used as a promotional tool for local people. By sharing new locations, places and products to a touristic audience, the economy of the island will improve. The magazine can be used as a platform to help local businesses thrive. The proposed magazine will urge people to want to discover Nicosia and other cities in Cyprus, to embrace its cul-
All of the responders are living in Cyprus, some of them are both English speakers and native speakers and some of them do not speak Greek. 1.
People were asked to answer a list of 10 questions:
2. What is your age?
3. What is your gender?
4. How often do you read magazines?
5. How many magazines do you read per month? 6. What urges you to buy a magazine? 7.
What type of magazine are you mostly interested in?
8. Do you prefer online or printed publications?
9. Do you read any Cypriot magazines? If yes please specify 10. Do you think that Cypriot magazine market needs an improvement?
11. If there was a culture and traveling magazine for English speakers in Cyprus would you buy it?
31 responders completed the questionnaire. Male and female responders were almost equal in number: Women - 58.06 %, men - 41.94 %. Age group is 18 - 44 where 51.61 % of responders is 18-24 years old, 45.16% - 25-34, 3.23% 35-44 years old.
Half of the responders read magazines moderately often, when another half is divided between slightly often and not at all often. To clarify it a similar question was asked about how many magazines do they read per month. Results showed that 61.29% of responders read up to 3 magazines per month and 16.3% read 5 and more.
Almost all the responders buy magazines because of its content (75%), 53.57 % are attracted by nice design, 10.71% rely on the past experience and habit and 21.43 % are intrigued by advertising. In order to understand potential target audienceâ€™s interests a question about which type of the magazine they prefer the most was asked. Results showed us that:
70.97% of responders give their preference to Art/Design and Architecture topic 38.71% - lifestyle
41.94% - fashion | traveling 19.35% - sports | food 9.68 % - interior.
In the internet era people still prefer printed magazines (64%) over online (35.48%).
89.83% of responders do not read Cypriot magazines and 90.32% think that Cypriot magazine market needs an improvement. And finally 77.42% of responders would buy travel and culture magazine for English Speakers in Cyprus.
From the analysis of questionnaires the following conclusions are drawn: the target audience is 18-35 years old, both male and female, purchasing up to three magazines per month, mostly interested in lifestyle, fashion, travel, art, design and architecture and looking for a well design publication with strong content. This knowledge is valuable in creating a visual identity of â€˜A-Zâ€™ magazine.
A-Z MAGAZINE DESIGN PROCESS
0.6 DESIGN PROCESS
nowledge gained through the research was applied in creating ‘A-Z’ magazine.
The main aim of this design proposal was to observe how it is to be a contemporary art director who has also an experience and skills in photography, illustration, editorial and advertising. This art directing style is similar to team behind ‘The Boat’ or ‘Cereal’ magazine. Questionnaire revealed that people who live in Cyprus are concerned with today’s Cypriot magazine market condition and also proved that people are interested in travel and culture publication for English speakers in Cyprus. Therefore ‘A-Z’, if correctly and nicely done, can gain success and fill the niche in the Cypriot market. VISUAL IDENTITY. ‘A magazine is often considered its own brand because it is widely circulated, resonates deeply with its audience, and differentiates itself from others of its genre through positioning and marketing.’ (Samara, 2007, p. 19) Magazine’s visual identity plays an important role, especially for a magazine that aims to join and be successful in the market. Well-designed and unique branding promotes magazine and makes it noticeable and purchased. The branding of a magazine includes its style, masterhead, cover image, graphic elements and format. Masterhead is obviously, one of the strongest elements of branding that differentiate one specific magazine from another. Yet, some of the magazines can hardly be recognized if masterhead is covered. For example women magazine all put a beautiful woman on the cover so if masterhead is covered ‘Marie Claire’ can be confused with ‘Harper’s Bazaar’, same happens with tabloids, interior, lifestyle, economics, gadget magazines and etc. Therefore today, when periodicals copy each other’s style, designers try to come up with some kind of hallmark element which will later be a sign of recognition. One of the examples is wink used by ‘I-D’ magazine on their covers. ‘A-Z’ visual identity is meant to achieve what Luke Tonge mentioned in his interview: ‘The city we focus on defines the esthetic of the magazine. There are certain aspects
of the magazine that remain from issue to issue, but the overall feel of the mag should be a response to the feel of the city. ‘ (Tonge, 2013) Therefore the major goal was to create an identity that will somehow reflect the Cypriot culture. Instead of referring to ancient mythology, most common way of representing Cyprus, I listened to my own experience, specifically to what Cyprus means to me and what makes it different. List of key words that I came up with while brainstorming included culture, family, bright, Mediterranean, sunny, summer, diverse, old, architecture, food, happy, busy, loud, traditional, conservative and so on. After shortening the list I ended up with diverse, traditional, bright, happy, loud. And that is how the proposed magazine were meant to look like. NAME ‘The naming of a magazine is a subtle business- it should be evocative and memorable but timeless, too. And preferably hint at what’s inside.’ Jeremy Leslie. (Leslie, 2013) Despite the fact that name is a very important part of the identity which may place a magazine in favorable light or make it fail, the naming process of the proposed magazine did not take me that long. Magazine is called ‘A-Z’, a phrase which is commonly used in many countries (Greek version is alpha to omega) and means ‘everything’. Therefore name shows that magazine covers everything about the city or subject it is focused on. Additionally to that, letters A and Z stay next to each other in the word ‘magazine’ which is helpful in forming a recognizable logotype. Yet ‘A-Z’ does not truly represent the topic of the magazine and that is why the tag line ‘the art of traveling’ was added bellow so that the reader would get a hint on what is inside. MASTERHEAD The main task in creating a masthead of a magazine is a choice of a typeface. Magazine masterheads are usually pure typographical and does not have a symbol.
The masthead of the proposed magazine will be the word ‘magazine’ with ‘A-Z’ highlighted in the middle. In order to do so a display font with variety of styles was needed. The first choice was Hagin Caps font found on font fabric website. It is a modern serif font with 2 styles that comes only in capitals.It was too inconspicuous to be a masterhead, even in a big size, and looked too conservative. Therefore Hagin Caps was changed to Lovelo font designed by Renzler design, Vienna, Austria. It comes in 3 styles: Line light, Line bold and Bold and also only in capitals. Lovelo line light was used for the word magazine and letters ‘A-Z’ were highlighted by Lovelo bold. FORMAT Format plays an important role in usability of a magazine. A list of factors have been considered while choosing a format: target audience, when and where will they read a magazine, content, type and size of a magazine. For example if it is a coffee table magazine it can be big and heavy or if it is carried around it must be compact. The biggest range of formats is seen in the fashion and style magazines, some of the titles give their readers a choice, for example, ‘Cosmopolitan’ and ‘Glamour’ magazines come in two sizes - big and small. Format is also sometimes used as a hallmark element. For example ‘Big’ magazine comes in a very big size and can be hardly confused with another publication. The format of the proposed magazine is 210x275 cm, quite a common size for a magazine, it can be easily carried with a reader when he or she discovers Cyprus and at the same time comfortable read at home. COVER ‘The cover makes half of the magazine’s impact. A bad cover is barely noticeable, diluted in the crowd of other publications at a newsstand; a good cover jumps out at you.’ Marc Atlan, art director, Big: Los Angeles VIP special. Magazine’s cover directly motivates the reader to buy a magazine and that is why it must be well thought and designed. In such a competitive means of mass media like magazines new publication that people are not familiar with can only be noticed if well advertised or has an eyecatchy cover. Designers use quite a lot of tricks to attract the reader: bright colors, screaming titles, unusual images and patterns. Magazine cover is another important element of branding, magazine team always carefully think what cover style they will adopt and will later repeat for each issue. Good examples of ‘cover as a hallmark’ are ‘Cereal’ magazine which always has a pale and simple image on white or beige background or ‘Collect’ magazine - it usually has a photograph of an object on bright cover.
the hardest and the most stressful task. Experimenting with a wide variety of different photographs was unsuccessfully as they weren’t effectively catching the attention of the viewer. Situation changed when a nice illustration of Nicosia walls was found on one of the buildings in the old city area. The decision was taken for the illustration to be used in order to test its effectiveness. After few color adjustments it worked well and won a place on the front cover. The simplicity, roughness and incompleteness of the illustration worked well and the wall texture also helped in creating a special feel. Good cover should always give a hint on what is inside but not ‘foretell the issue’s content’ as Martin Fox said in the article ‘The Art in the Archives’. (Fox, 2010, p. 33) An illustration of Nicosia walls perfectly suits a publication dedicated to Nicosia, attracts potential buyers and gives a hint of what magazine is about. BACK COVER Back cover is usually given for advertisers. In stead of placing someone’s else work I designed an illustration promoting Cyprus.The major idea was to attract the viewer with brightness and happiness because this is the experience and the mood viewer is supposed to receive from being in Cyprus. INSIDE PAGES AND TYPOGRAPHY ‘There is only one type of designer — the type that cares about type.’ Rohan Nanavati As mentioned before, ‘A-Z’ magazine design aims to reflect Cyprus and Cypriot culture - diverse, different, bright and rich. In order for this to be achieved, the use of bold colorful titles and color photographs were employed. First issue of ‘A-Z’ magazine is dedicated to Nicosia. Therefore the major source of inspiration was the capital of Mediterranean island. The most difficult task while designing the first issue was to find content that will be both interesting for natives and tourists. Therefore the neutral topics like history, traditions, interviews and food were chosen as a content. Another problem that was raised during the design of this magazine was to find the appropriate content/text and, due to the fact that this magazine was created by a designer, a big emphasis was given on images. A lot of time was spent on searching for nice shots and over 200 photographs of Nicosia were done. The aim here was to satisfy both native people and tourist by making photographs that will be interesting for both groups. Luckily, Nicosia is a beautiful city that has a lot of fantastic views.
Therefore in order for a magazine to be noticed, cover must be treated the most.
The proposed magazine is an image driven magazine so photographs played an important role influencing the layout and the grid, so the decision was made that photographs would occupy a full spread or a half of a spread.
As mentioned above, magazine cover is the first element that readers deals with, but cover is usually designed at the very last moment, when everything else is done. Same happened in a case of ‘A-Z’ magazine. It was also
Together with advertising magazine has 62 pages which are grouped in 5 sections: 1. Historical part (the roots and Cypriot traditions) 2. Exploring Nicosia (advices on what to do and reviews of
places where to eat) 3. Photography (food bazaar and old city walks) 4. Interviews and recipes. 5. The poem. Each section is divided by advertising and has its own opening page. Opening pages can be recognized by titles set in Core typeface family. Typography plays a huge role in designing a magazine because it sets the mood of a publication. Especially important is a font used for titles. Core family beautifully acted as a mood setter, because of its style magazine looks very playful and fun. Core is designed by Hyun-Seung Lee, Dae-Hoon Hahm, Min-Joo Ham and awarded as the most popular font of 2013 and rising star of 2013. Core is one of the layered type families which are very popular and oftenly used today. The main idea of this fonts is to create different combinations by layering styles. Core typeface allows to create up to 551 variations. (MyFonts.com, 2013)
Typography for the main body text is a great area of focus for a designer. A lot of parameters must be considered like typeface, type size, paragraph style, line length and etc. to make text legible and readable. For the main body text two typefaces were used - sans serif Casper and serif Marta designed by Russian typographer Michael Chereda. Both families have 3 styles - bold, italic and regular which helped me to create a hierarchy inside the text. Casper is used with Core typeface for opening pages and 2 articles and Marta is set for the rest of the text. Detailed typographic specimens can be seen in the attached â€˜A-Zâ€™ manual. Depending on the length, text runs over 1, 2 and 3 columns. Paragraphs are left justified. The aim of the text was to compliment and supplement the photographs and that both elements to act as an organic whole.
0.7 CONCLUSION M
agazines passed through two decades and remain being one of the most loved means of mass media.
Magazine market today is divided into two categories - print and digital. Therefore modern art directors have a choice to work either for print or digital publication. Despite the fact that digital is not able to give us what print can - tactile experience, comfortable reading, sharp photographs; digital is able to do what print can not interactive text, animated illustrations, movable graphic elements and etc. Therefore there is a tendency for magazines to become all digital today or at least launch a digital version. And art directors performance change and require completely new skills than even five years ago, not to mention a century ago. What is more exciting is that no one knows how magazine market will change over next five or ten years. While magazines will be presented on the market, no matter digital or print, art directors will plod and devote themselves to magazine world, adopting to the new trends, technologies and times. This thesis demonstrates how important the art directors position has been for a decade, how many iconic people contributed in magazine design, leaving a mark not only in the history of magazines but in the history of graphic design and how desirable and interesting this job is today.
Interviews with Luke and Victoria helped in gaining knowledge on the actual experience of being an art director and this information allowed to compare art directors performances in different types of magazines. Conclusions made, based on their answers, show how diverse and interesting art directors position can be. No wonder why many graphic designers are dreaming of holding art directors position. For this thesis the role of the art director of a new magazine was tested. And the goal of diversifying dismal Cyprus magazine market by creating a travel and culture publication for English speakers in Cyprus was set. Working on the proposed magazine called ‘A-Z’ was a great experience and a chance to get in the shoes of an art director. Making a 60 page publication from a scratch was a challenge. A lot of skills were used like editorial, photography, image making, illustration, branding, advertising, packaging and printing in order to create a visually appealing, balanced and interesting publication. When designing an ‘A-Z’ magazine a lot of factors needed to be considered, from its readability, legibility and usage to its potential success in the market. Yet, at the same time, it was an interesting process, which gave a room to creativity and allowed training and experimentation of the graphic design skills acquired though studying.
0.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS ◉ Ambrose, G. and Harris, P. 2005. Image. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA Pub. SA. ◉ Aynsley, J. 2001. A century of graphic design. London: Mitchell Beazley. ◉ Bergström, B. 2008. Essentials of visual communication. London: Laurence King Pub. ◉ Crowley, D. 2003. Magazine covers. London: Mitchell Beazley. ◉ Duperray, S. and Vidaling, R. 2003. Front page. [London]: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ◉ Foges, C. 1999. Magazine design. Crans-Près-Céligny, Switzerland: RotoVision SA. ◉ Frost, C. 2003. Designing for newspapers and magazines. London: Routledge. ◉ Heller, S. and Ballance, G. 2001. Graphic design history. New York: Allworth Press. ◉ Kalman, T. and Kalman, M. 2002. Colors. New York: Thames & Hudson. ◉ Mcalhone, B. and Stuart, D. 1998. A smile in the mind. London: Phaidon Press. ◉ Moser, H. 2003. The art directors’ handbook of professional magazine design. London: Thames & Hudson. ◉ Rivers, C. 2006. Mag-art. Mies, Switzerland: RotoVision SA. ◉ Samara, T. 2007. Publication design workbook. Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport. ◉ Taylor, S. 2006. 100 years of magazine covers. London: Black Dog. ◉ Weinschenk, S. 2011. 100 things every designer needs to know about people. Berkeley, Calif: New Riders. ◉ Williams, M. 2006. Thinking visually. Lausanne: AVA Academia. ◉ Wigan, M. 2008. Text and image. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA. ARTICLES ◉ ‘A handle on the name game’ 2011, Creative Review, 31, 8, pp. 58-59, Art & Architecture Complete, EB SCOhost, viewed 15 October 2013. ◉ Fox, M. 2010, ‘The Art in the Archives’, Print, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 33-37. ◉ ‘Graphics [discuss] 03. Can good design sell magazines?’ 2005, Creative Review, 25, 7, pp. 39-42, Art & Architecture Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 January 2014. ◉ Leslie, J 2012, ‘The whys & wherefores’, Creative Review, 32, 4, pp. 66-67, Art & Architecture Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 15 October 2013.
◉ Lin, V. 2002, Big magazine: What’s the big idea?, Graphis Inc, New York. ◉ ‘No celebs, fluoros, or bad typography here’ 2011, Creative Review, 31, 11, pp. 90-91, Art & Architecture Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 January 2014. WEBSITES ◉ Adcglobal.org. 2014. Art Directors Club / Hall of Fame. [online] Available at: http://www.adcglobal.org/archive/ hof/ [Accessed: 15 Jan 2014]. ◉ AIGA | the professional association for design. 2014. [online] Available at: http://www.aiga.org/ [Accessed: 15 Jan 2014]. ◉ Architectural-review.com. 2011. 1986 August: An Interview with Neville Brody, Art Director of The Face. [online] Available at: http://www.architectural-review.com/ archive/1986-august-an-interview-with-neville-brodyart-director-of-the-face/8611931.article [Accessed: 15 Dec 2013]. ◉ Boat-mag.com. 2014. Boat Magazine | Travel to the heart of a city. [online] Available at: http://www.boat-mag.com/ [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014]. ◉ Boat-mag.com. 2014. Why We Make an Independent Magazine | Boat Magazine. [online] Available at: http:// www.boat-mag.com/2013/10/17/why-we-make-an-independent-magazine/ [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013]. ◉ Cereal Magazine. 2014. About. [online] Available at: http://readcereal.com/about/ [Accessed: 12 Jan 2014]. ◉ Designcouncil.org.uk. 2014. Editorial design | About design | Design Council. [online] Available at: http://www. designcouncil.org.uk/about-design/types-of-design/ graphic-design/editorial-design/ [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013]. ◉ Fontsinuse.com. 2014. Magazines - Fonts In Use. [online] Available at: http://fontsinuse.com/in/2/formats/11/ magazines/2 [Accessed: 10 Jan 2014]. ◉ It’s Nice That. 2012. It’s Nice That : The brilliant boat magazine does London and pulls it off in style. [online] Available at: http://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/boatmagazine-london [Accessed: 10 Nov 2013]. ◉ Krissixenakis.com. 2014. The Designer as Editor by Krissi Xenakis. [online] Available at: http://www.krissixenakis. com/thesis/ [Accessed: 1 Nov 2013]. ◉ Magazine Designing. 2013. History of the Magazines. [online] Available at: http://www.magazinedesigning. com/history-of-the-magazines/ [Accessed: 4 Nov 2013]. ◉ Media.interviewrussia.ru. 2014. About Interview Magazine. [online] Available at: http://media.interviewrussia. ru/en/about/ [Accessed: 11 Dec 2013]. ◉ Magazine Designing. 2013. Meet the Editorial Team. [online] Available at: http://www.magazinedesigning.com/
meet-the-editorial-team/ [Accessed: 1 Nov 2013]. ◉ Magazine Designing. 2013. Mehemed Fehmy Agha – First Art Director. [online] Available at: http://www.magazinedesigning.com/mehemet-fehmy-agha-first-art-director/ [Accessed: 1 Nov 2013].
exclusive-interview-with-rawan-hadid-founder-of-wherever-an-out-of-place-journal [Accessed: 11 Jan 2014]. VIDEO ◉ Cereal. 2013. [video] UK: Raspberry and Jam.
◉ Nationmaster.com. 2014. NationMaster - World Statistics, Country Comparisons. [online] Available at: http://www. nationmaster.com/index.php [Accessed: 1 Oct 2013].
◉ Nytimes.com. 2014. Log In - The New York Times. [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/24/arts/ design/24allner.html?_r=1& [Accessed: 29 Oct 2013].
◉ Viktoria Morozovskaya. 2013. Interview on art directing a magazine. [Interview]. 18 Nov 2013.
◉ Luke Tonge. 2013. Interview on art directing a magazine. [Interview] D. Fedotkina. 18 Nov 2013.
◉ PolicyMic. 2013. Exclusive Interview with Rawan Hadid, Founder of ‘[wherever]: an out of place journal’. [online] Available at: http://www.policymic.com/articles/32777/
0.9 REFERENCE OF FIGURATIVE ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 5-6 FIGURE 1 Timeless Graphic Design of Cipe Pineles 1910 - 1991. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.graphic-design. com/DW_18_FOUR [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 2 Mehemed Fehmy Agha. 2010. [image online] Available at: http://www.arcadja.com/auctions/en/agha_mehemed_fehmy/artist/95963/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 3 Alexey Brodovitch. 2011. [image online] Available at: http:// visualcommunicator-kawsar.blogspot.com/2011/03/myitap-presentation.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE4 Tibor Kalman. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://projectswatches.com/architects/tibor-kalman-1949-1999/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
PAGE 11 FIGURE 5 5.01 Mehemed Fehmy Agha Mehemed Fehmy Agha. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.vogue.com/voguepedia/Mehemed_Fehmy_Agha [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.02 Alexey Brodovitch Alexey Brodovitch, Life and Livelihood. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://graphicdesign.cias.rit.edu/ alexey/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.03 Cipe Pineles Cipe Pineles. 2008. [image online] Available at: http:// designhistorymashup.blogspot.com/2008/10/cipepineles.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.04 Bradbury Thompson Bradbury Thompson. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www3.uclaextension.edu/mastersofdesign/ designers/bradbury_thompson.cfm [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.05 Walter Allner Walter Allner. 2013. [image online] Available at: http:// inewsdesign.com/2013/03/18/blast-to-the-past-meetwalter-allner/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.06 Henry Wolf Henry Wolf. 2005. [image online] Available at: http:// freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~prohel/ stories/henry_wolf.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.07 Tibor Kalman
Tibor Kalman. 2011. [image online] Available at: http:// bzeines.wordpress.com/2011/07/19/fk-committees-afew-words-from-tibor-kalman/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.08 Neville Brody Neville Brody. 2012. [image online] Available at: http:// www.creativebloq.com/computer-arts/computer-arts200-neville-brody-3128177 [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.09 David Carson David Carson. 2009. [image online] Available at: https:// www.ted.com/speakers/david_carson.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 5.10 Marcelo Junemann Marcelo Junemann. 2008. [image online] Available at: http://theclinicsemanal.blogspot.com/2008/06/ jnemann-y-banchieri-defienden-su.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
PAGE 13-14 FIGURE 6 Mehemed Fehmy Agha. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.vogue.com/voguepedia/Mehemed_Fehmy_Agha [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 7 7.01 “Vogue,” July, 1932. 2010. [image online] Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/designfacts/4551669930/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 7.02 Vanity Fair. 2005. [image online] Available at: http:// www.popcultmag.com/criticalmass/culture/magazines/magazines0.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 7.03 ‘Vogue’ cover. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://www.magazinedesigning.com/mehemetfehmy-agha-first-art-director/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 7.04 Vanity Fair Magazine Cover, Aug. 1934. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://library.rit.edu/gda/designer/ dr-mehemed-fehmy-agha [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 7.05 Vogue Magazine Cover 1932. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://library.rit.edu/gda/designer/drmehemed-fehmy-agha [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 7.06 Vanity Fair Magazine Cover. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://library.rit.edu/gda/designer/drmehemed-fehmy-agha [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 8 Alexey Brodovitch, Life and Livelihood. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://graphicdesign.cias.rit.edu/alexey/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 9 9.01 Harper’s Bazaar, 1940. 2012. [image online] Available
at: http://rmgdesign.tumblr.com/post/11999687438/ hollyhocksandtulips-harpers-bazaar-herbert [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 9.02 Harper’s Baazar. 2011. [image online] Available at: http://nazarenaluzzi.wordpress.com/2011/09/22/ alexey-brodovitch/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 10 Cipe Pineles. 2008. [image online] Available at: http:// designhistorymashup.blogspot.com/2008/10/cipe-pineles.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 11 Cipe Pineles (art director) / Cover / Seventeen / 1949. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.studyblue.com/ notes/note/n/modern-graphic-design/deck/1743853 [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 12 Bradbury Thompson. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www3.uclaextension.edu/mastersofdesign/designers/bradbury_thompson.cfm [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 13 Walter Allner. 2013. [image online] Available at: http:// inewsdesign.com/2013/03/18/blast-to-the-past-meetwalter-allner/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
PAGE 15-16 FIGURE14 Fortune. Walter Alner. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.pinterest.com/hectordexet/walter-allner/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 15 Henry Wolf. 2005. [image online] Available at: http:// freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~prohel/ stories/henry_wolf.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 16 ‘Esquire’ cover. Henry Wolf. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.revelinnewyork.com/blog/11/03/2009/ henry-wolf-graphic-designer [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 17 Tibor Kalman. 2011. [image online] Available at: http:// bzeines.wordpress.com/2011/07/19/fk-committees-afew-words-from-tibor-kalman/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
Feb 2014]. FIGURE 22 ‘Esquire’ cover. Henry Wolf. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.revelinnewyork.com/blog/11/03/2009/ henry-wolf-graphic-designer [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
PAGE 17-18 FIGURE 23 Marcelo Junemann. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://theclinicsemanal.blogspot.com/2008/06/jnemann-y-banchieri-defienden-su.html [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 24 see pages 43-46
PAGE 20 FIGURE 25 Victoria Morozovskaya. 2014. [image online] Available at: https://www.facebook.com/vika.lurie [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 26 ‘Interview’ magazine cover. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://hattiestewart.com/projects/interview-magazine [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
PAGE 21 FIGURE 27 Luke Tonge. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://instagram.com/luketonge [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 28 ‘The Boat’ magazine spread. Detroit. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://luketonge.com/#/boat-magazineissue-2-detroit/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 29 ‘The Boat’ magazine covers. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://www.boat-mag.com/pastissue/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 30 ‘The Boat’ magazine spread. London. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://luketonge.com/#/boat-magazineissue-2-detroit/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 18 Neville Brody. 2012. [image online] Available at: http:// www.creativebloq.com/computer-arts/computer-arts200-neville-brody-3128177 [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 19 Queen Elizabeth for ‘Colors’ magazine. Tibor Kalman. 2012. [image online] Available at: http://www.edwinhimself. com/blog/2012/10/22/channeling-tibor-kalman/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 32 ‘Cereal’ spread. 2013. [image online] Available at: http:// minimalissimo.com/2013/07/cereal/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 20 ‘The Face’ spreade by Neville Brody. 2010. [image online] Available at: http://kingygraphicdesignhistory.blogspot. com/2010/05/roxy-1980s-face-neville-brody.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 21 David Carson. 2009. [image online] Available at: https:// www.ted.com/speakers/david_carson.html [Accessed: 15
FIGURE 31 Rich Stampleton. n.d. [image online] Available at: http:// readcereal.com/about/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 33 ‘Cereal’ spread. 2013. [image online] Available at: http:// minimalissimo.com/2013/07/cereal/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 34 ‘Cereal’ spread. 2014. [image online] Available at: http:// shop.readcereal.com/product/volume-three [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
PAGE 26 FIGURE 35 Luke Tonge. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://luketonge.com/about/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 36 Victoria Morozovskaya. 2014. [image online] Available at: https://www.facebook.com/vika.lurie [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 37 ‘The Boat’ magazine spread. Detroit. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://luketonge.com/#/boat-magazineissue-2-detroit/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 38 ‘Interview’ magazine cover. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://www.justjared.com/2009/03/13/zac-efroncovers-interview-magazine/ [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014]. FIGURE 39 ‘Interview’ magazine cover. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://www.magxone.com/misc-magazine/scarlettjohansson-interview-magazine-february-2013/ [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
24.01 ‘The Face’ spreade by Neville Brody. 2010. [image online] Available at: http://kingygraphicdesignhistory.blogspot.com/2010/05/roxy-1980s-face-neville-brody.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 24.02 ‘Arena’ magazine spread by Neville Brody. 2009. [image online] Available at: http://www.dezeen. com/2009/10/08/arena-homme-by-neville-brody/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 24.03 ‘Arena’ and ‘The Face’ magazine by Nevile Brody. 2009. [image online] Available at: http://www. smashingmagazine.com/2009/11/06/the-beauty-of-london-in-design/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.04 ‘Inteview’ Russia by Victoria Morozovskaya. 2012. [image online] Available at: http:// www.interviewrussia.ru/ life/aprelskiy-nomer-zhurnala-interview-rossiya [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
Vanity Fair cover illustrated by Paolo Garetto, December 1931. 2008. [image online] Available at: http://observatory.designobserver.com/entry.html?entry=7047 [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 24 part 1
24.06 ‘Seventeen’ magazine cover. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://www.pinterest.com/newmanology/seventeen-magazine/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.07 Brodovitch Harper’s Bazaar. 2014. [image online] Available at: http:// uncleeddiestheorycorner.blogspot. com/2009/03/immensely-influentialalexey-brodovitch.html [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
24.11 ‘Arena’ magazine spread by Neville Brody. 2009. [image online] Available at: http://www.dezeen. com/2009/10/08/arena-hommeby-neville-brody/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.08 ‘Interview’ magazine cover. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://hattiestewart.com/projects/interview-magazine [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.09 ‘Esquire’ cover. Henry Wolf. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.pinterest.com/takeherout/henry-wolf/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.10 Vanity Fair cover illustrated by Paolo Garetto, December 1931. 2008. [image online] Available at: http://observatory.designobserver.com/entry.html?entry=7047 [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
Bradburry Thompson. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://www.cre8vty.com/ DesignNow/2012/02/21/jbradbury-thompson/ [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
Bradburry Thompson. 2014. [image online] Available at: http:// masctechnicalprowess.blogspot.com/2012/05/green-promofor-gumdrop-bin-bradbury.html [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
24.15 Colors magazine cover. 2014. [image online] Available at: http://emz2687.wordpress. com/2007/10/03/magazinecovers/ [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].
24.14 ‘Ray Gun’ magazine cover by David Carson. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www. chris-ashworth.com/ray-gunpublish/ray-gun-magazinecovers/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014]. 24.13 ‘Ray Gun’ magazine cover by David Carson. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www. chris-ashworth.com/ray-gunpublish/ray-gun-magazinecovers/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.12 ‘Ray Gun’ magazine cover by David Carson. n.d. [image online] Available at: http://www.chris-ashworth.com/ ray-gun-publish/ray-gun-magazinecovers/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.18 ‘Esquire’ cover. Henry Wolf. 2013. [image online] Available at: http://www.burningsettlerscabin.com/?tag=henry-wolf [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
FIGURE 24 part 2
24.19 ‘Interview’ magazine cover. 2011. [image online] Available at: http://trend-forward. blogspot.com/2011/06/two-iconic-magazines.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.20 Fortune 500 magazine cover. 2011. [image online] Available at: http://www.printmag. com/design-inspiration/walter-allners-conceptual-simplicity/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.21 ‘Harper’s Bazaar. 2009. [image online] Available at: http://uncleeddiestheorycorner.blogspot.com/2009/03/immensely-influentialalexey-brodovitch.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.22 ‘Harper’s Bazaar’ cover by Alexey Brodovitch. 2009. [image online] Available at: http://fashionartdaily.blogspot. com/2009/11/the-history-of-fashion-magazine.html [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
24.23 ‘Seventeen’ magazine cover. n.d. [image online] Available at: http:// www.aiga.org/medalist-cipepineles/ [Accessed: 15 Feb 2014].
10 APPENDIX QUESTIONARRIE Surveymonkey.com. 2014. SurveyMonkey: Free online survey software & questionnaire tool. [online] Available at: https:// www.surveymonkey.com/ [Accessed: 20 Feb 2014].