ARTS 18 ART INSPIRED BY ART
8 AVANT POP designed by Elizabeth Wrobel
10 KALEIDOSCOPE designed by Elise Janciuras
12 DISSENT designed by Jennifer Ho
16 BEHIND THE SEAMS
designed by Megan Mosehauer
designed by Frances Sorrentino
20 WALL THERAPY designed by MacKenzi Martin
22 TO DYE FOR designed by Alyssa Miller
24 THE CREATIVE PROCESS designed by Claire Britt
HEALTH 28 COGNITIVE INCUBATION designed by Elise Janciuras
30 ALEXITHYMIA designed by Alyssa Miller
34 WHAT’S THAT STENCH? designed by Megan Sproull
36 GRAY AREA designed by Nick Tyler
38 LUCIDITY designed by Nick Tyler
42 FUCK designed by Sarah Bono
44 EUSTRESS designed by Eva D’Ignazio
46 HARD TIMES designed by Jennifer Ho
48 RAISING YOUR CHILD VEGETARIAN designed by Megan Mosehauer
50 PET PERKS designed by Brianna Hanley
52 PINK FOR PROFIT designed by Megan Sproull
56 THE HISTORY OF MASS SURVEILLANCE designed by Elizabeth Wrobel
70 MIRROR MIRROR designed by MacKenzi Martin
58 CLEANER, BETTER, FASTER, STRONGER designed by Elizabeth Wrobel
74 BLINDED BY THE LIGHT designed by Eva D’Ignazio
60 COMMERCIALIZED COUNTERCULTURE designed by Brittany Norton
76 PARADISE PARADIGM designed by Jennifer Ho
78 GONE CAMPING
62 CHAIN REACTION designed by Megan Mosehauer
designed by Stephen Hoefer
80 CROSSING CULTURES
66 KNOT SO FAST designed by Corrinna Corrallo
designed by Brianna Hanley
68 THE ROYALS
94 MEET ME ON MONROE
84 OBJECT designed by Sarah Bono
designed by Claire Britt
88 PROSTITUTION & PROFITABILITY designed by Nick Tyler
90 BEHIND THE INJURY designed by Mariah Lamb
designed by Sarah Bono
98 STAR STALKING designed by Bryan Harney
100 BLOOD LUST designed by Brittany Norton
designed by Bryan Harney
Positive/Negative. We don’t think there has ever been a more appropriately named project. From the ups and downs of our creative process, to the coming together of two very different sets of artists, this experience has been all about opposites. The creation of this magazine extended beyond the classroom; it was a lifestyle choice. We knew this going in, which makes us either insane or insanely dedicated (we don’t know which). We didn’t have much time to reflect on our mental health, as we were to create and produce this entire publication in just fifteen weeks.
Our most important challenge this semester was communication. Half the battle was learning how to speak each other’s language and understand a foreign point of view. From something as simple as a photographer suggesting a drop cap, to the importance of debating the cover concept, every detail held its own significance. Discovering one another’s strengths and using them to their full potential proved to be exhilarating. We feel fortunate to have had such a talented staff. Every individual brought his/her own unique energy to each aspect of the project. Our copy editors were excited to whip our
articles into shape. The production team was the backbone of the magazine. They were there the whole way; organized and on top of every update and deadline. The video team made the moving image a vital part of our creative process. The web development team created a beautiful web presence that will become the foundation for future issues of the publication. Our design directors scoured our spreads and kept our styles consistent. Every pixel was thoroughly inspected by our photo editors. Through an ongoing process from the first week, a dedicated team created an elegant cover for our printed publication. At the end, our
feature editors assessed all of our projects and chose the crĂ¨me de la crĂ¨me, ordering and arranging all one hundred plus pages. To everyone involved, thank you. Your adaptability and genuine openness made this process smooth, seamless, and a joy to work on. We are proud to have worked with each and every one of you. As seniors, this publication is our legacy. With this, we give you Positive/Negative Magazine, Volume 7.
written and photographed by Andrew Hallinan
When successful, though, they provide an One of the most culturally significant film immersion unlike any other. Noe’s Enter scenes in the last few years involves the heartfelt rendition of Britney Spears’ the Void attempts to literally put the audience “Everytime” by an amoral gangster named in the protagonist’s head; seeing what he Alien. A montage of violence and chaos sees and experiencing what he experiences accompanies the ballad. This chaos is through vibrant, shockingly effective pitted against the innocence of a pop song. visuals. Refn’s Only God Forgives willfully The director is Harmony Korine, an avantsuppresses almost al l emotion, leaving us garde extraordinaire, fusing his inherent with a dense, stylized film that must almost weirdness with the slick mainstream. The be appreciated like a photograph . These film, Spring Breakers, is a strangely real films are attempting to subvert what the audience sees as an expected experience. take on modern culture and its fantasies. One of the objectives of art has always Korine maintains the sincerity by refraining been to force the audience to question an from judgment. There can be no judgment experience or create their own narrative in the surrealistic fever dream of spring break that is presented here. outside the blatant intentions of a film. Korine is one of the current filmmakers on Korine has taken cultural touchstones such the sidelines attempting to turn cinema as Britney Spears’ music, the harsh bass of into a visceral experience. In this world, Skrillex, and the party culture of Florida’s cinema is experienced like a dream or a spring break and re-contextualized them. He drug trip, nonlinear but somehow intuitive. is questioning what we as a culture consider In his words, Spring Breakers creates to be art. Many have seen pop over the years an experience which is “hyper-poetic as a less sophisticated medium– here, it is and there exists a more liquid narrative, thrown in your face, a soundtrack to a morally these sort of micro-scenes, these flashing, ambiguous culture that is largely based hallucinatory moments that are kind of in fantasy. There is substance here, made pop poetry.” It is a landscape of moral stronger by these real flashes of pop culture. ambiguity where fantasies and desires are played out in a hyper stylized, seductive 1.“Q&A: Harmony Korine On Skrillex, Gucci Mane, world. Other recent films like Gaspar Noe’s Spring Breakers, And Why Florida Is Like A Whole Enter the Void and Nicolas Winding Refn’s Other Country,” last accessed September 15, 2013. Only God Forgives occupy this space as well. http://www.stereogum.com/1298072/harmony-koThese films are almost daring the viewers to rine-on-skrillex-gucci-mane-spring-breakers-andwrite them off as overblown style-overwhy-florida-is-like-a-whole-other-country/interview. substance endeavors. Films like this can 2. Spring Breakers . DVD Directed by Harmony come dangerously close to indulgence. Korine. United States: VVS Films, 2012.
This one’s by a little-known pop singer by the name of
Miss Britney Spears, one of the greatest singers of all
time and an angel if there ever was one on this earth.
by Elise Janciuras photographed by Caitlyn Penke
Call it art, or call it makeup. Women have been on the hunt for the best way to improve or remove their imperfections. Some women would rather do nothing than take the time to apply and reapply makeup for the perfect look. There is nothing like seeing the transformation before your very own eyes. Throughout history there have been many different methods used to achieve the most attractive look possible. “Fashionable sixth century women made their faces paler by bleeding themselves, either directly or with help of leeches. During the Italian Renaissance, women coated their faces with toxic chemicals including arsenic, lead and mercury. It was even popular to look sickly in the 19th century, when tuberculosis was considered a ‘romantic’ disease. Women of that era emphasized the circles under their eyes and used rouge to look flushed with fever.”1 One of the first known uses of prototype makeup goes back to the ancient Egyptians. Everyone knows Cleopatra, the stunningly beautiful ruler known for her conquests of the world. Cleopatra had used lipstick
from ground beetles, while other Egyptians had used a mixture of clay and water to accent their lips. Not only were the Egyptians interested in accenting the lips, they were also interested in eye makeup; even if it was mainly to ward off evil spirits. “Egyptian men and women would be seen donning a mixture of metal, lead, copper, ash and burnt almonds, all around their eyes. The circles of kohl were meant to ward off the evil eye and dangerous spirits and were also handy in def lecting the harsh desert sun.”2 Ancient Egyptians weren’t the only people to be fascinated with makeup. Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations had also found ways to help make themselves stand out from the crowd. Following historical trends, they applied ground-up minerals and stone to their faces for a touch of color on their porcelain-like skin. We have seen a rebirth of these past trends that focus on specific aspects of the face. Just recently, lipstick was all the rage and considered a necessity to be upto-date with the cosmetic world. It seems as if every makeup brand has revamped
their lipstick line and added new, bold colors into the mix. Novel bright colors of eyeliner have surfaced, soon followed by colorful mascaras. The future of makeup still has ties to some aspects of these historical trends. Historically makeup was used to make a facial feature stand out more than another, but the future will enhance and solidify everything into one. Eyes will become the most highlighted feature of the face. Bright metallics will adorn younger generations on the cheeks and eyes, creating a whole new composition. There will be an emphasis on polished, edgy creations that can be worn during the day and night. The future civilization will desire a more extravagant use of makeup, as it will be a trademark of the fashion era– no one will question it. 1. Wilcox, Christie. “Science of Makeup.” Last accessed November 10, 2013. http:// www.youbeauty.com/face/makeup-science. 2. Mol ly, Edmonds. “How Ma keup Works.” How Stuff Works, Last accessed Nove m b e r 12 , 2 013. ht t p: //p e ople . howstuffworks.com/about-makeup.htm.
The value of art as protest written by Jennifer Ho photographed by David Mitchell
It is an expression
o f s e nti m e nt toward political
and social reform.
it brings art into another dimension
Art as a form of protest is one of the strongest, yet least critically discussed movements in the visual world. Art as protest can be works in any medium with direct intent to convey a social or political message using imagery or process. In the words of Charlotte Schriwer, â€œThe meaning of protest art is in the aesthetics, it challenges personal belief as well as public opinion, and, perhaps most importantly, the nature of state control in the cultural realm.â€? It is a silent form of protest that allows individuals and other groups of individuals the ability to perceive as well as form their opinions on a specific issue.
Although this form of art has been around for centuries, it has recently gained a massive international following from individuals who have become voiceless in the cultural venues of their societies. Utilizing art to convey a perspective or opinion gives voice to the artist. “It is an expression of sentiment toward political and social reform in which individuals or groups have found a means of communicating experience, emotion, thought—covert or blatant—that seeks to address an audience for understanding in a time of deep psychological crisis and manifest despair” (Charlotte Schriwer). The use of art as protest enhances the creative process and allows new ideas to emerge regarding distinct social issues while creating a connection and transference of emotion to the audience. “It brings art into another dimension of communication, in which the message received is not simply derived from what is physically seen on a canvas or a wall of concrete, but emanates from the suggested and the subconscious and is not necessarily one of civil disobedience or anarchistic revolt, but of intellectual curiosity that brings into question the existence of a paradigmal conservatism” (Charlotte Schriwer). In other words, art as protest is considered a form of visual communication that is shaped from an individual or group of individuals to provoke action and formulate opinions. This infusion of art and politics is a a fiercely democratic and energized approach to taking a stance on social issues. Art is created with intent to be mass-produced and viewed by many by breaking out of the gilded gallery. It is created with the intent to speak directly to those affected by the issue; the piece may convince, reproach, support or be rejected by the viewer. Art as protest creates an extremely high level of visceral energy that gives it immense power in the moment in which a viewer first encounters it. It is this power that maintains the longevity and energy of the piece.
As a result of these strong ideas, protest art can have either a negative or a positive impact, ranging from possible harm or change for the better. There is great effort and chance taken when working in the realm of art as protest, but more often than not the end results are usually worth it. Even today, art as protest is a popular form of communication and should be more globally accepted.
Aesthetic qualities of various mediums allow for integration of art as protest into the fine art world. For example, wood block posters created for protest in the 1950s and 1960s in Eastern Europe have a rough and blocky style that can be seen to have directly influenced popular graphic novels, such as Sin City and The Sandman series. Similarly, murals done by the Mexican artist Orozco focus on the injustices of Spanish dominance in Mexico; many say that these murals are a strong source of inspiration in the street art movement today. As a result of art as protest, many new styles have emerged and remain in the art and design world. Styles may become introduced specifically for a stance on an issue or may fuel a new revolution through inspiration from another movement. Regardless, art as protest will continue to be intertwined amongst fine art. Another distinctly powerful aspect of art as protest is its primary focus on communication and the direct environment in which it’s produced. While much of the art world is concerned with introspection or fantasy, protest art is directed exclusively to a current moment. At its best, it can poignantly address a specific social concern while becoming a very valid and important historical document. It encompasses the viewpoint of the artist as an individual, as well as the movement they were a part of, while also conveying the ideas and emotions of the given point in time. Art as protest is all about provoking ideas. It infuses art with political, social, and/or religious issues. This art form is broad enough to incorporate all forms of art and allows for a creative approach to blossom behind the various opinions and ideas of the artist. Everyone has different views on art, but when it is used in the form of propaganda or protest, it allows for others to formulate their own opinions and provokes action. These opinions are critical; they are most often what give power to any movement or idea.
While not always the most polished or ref ined in its execution, the artistic works created within the depths of social turmoil convey a truer sense of emotion and power through the use of contemporary art. The use of low budget media, as well as haste of production, leads to more visceral work and many new stylistic directions. Additionally, at its heart, the value of this form of art is powerful by shaping, modifying, and improving the world in which we live. Protest art should now take its rightful place amongst all other accepted art, through the appreciation in life itself as well as continually provoking mind-blowing reactions. 1 . S c h r i w e r, C h a r l o t t e . “ To t he Trash Heap of History: Protest Art and t he
Up r i s i n g s ”. October
http://w w w.
publicationsmeiinsig htsto-t hetrashheap-ofhistory protest-art-and t he-arab-uprising.
B E H I N D
t h e
S E A M S
written and photographed by Chelsie Craig
“We all feel. That is why textures give me such a pathway or connection to the world. Everyone can relate, I suppose,” says Jennifer Bohn, sifting through her collection of jackets that she has handcrafted over the years as a textile artist.
Bohn is a seamstress in Philadelphia who has been a contractor for The Fabric Workshop and Museum since 1994. She creates the merchandise as well as the pieces that the exhibiting artists in the museum envision. She has crafted all her life, and although she has found a career to let her do what she loves, she doesn’t get the recognition that the visiting artists famed in the museum shows receive. Remaining behind the scenes is something that some artists just cannot handle. They need the glorification and public identity. Bohn actually finds it a convenience rather than a concern. She takes advantage of it by scheduling time for her personal work that she is consistently plugging away at. As a wife and mother of two, she extracts inspiration from life events and her children.
For many artists, art is their first and foremost love. To find the space to fit another love in is difficult, and for some there just isn’t space for both. Bohn finds challenges with staying in tune with art and the overall creative process while “life” happens. Things like marriage, kids, running a household, having control of the overall well-being and happiness of not only herself but her family are just some of the challenges she must face on a regular basis. “It’s all worth it though,” she confirms. As an aging artist, it is important to keep in touch with the latest trends and know which ones will go out of style. Determining which to immerse herself in is one of her favorite past times. She has collected an impressive library of fashion magazines and coffee table books ranging from
Vogue: The Covers to Native American Beading, all beautifully displayed in her family’s den. She confirms that W Magazine is her favorite, “although I appreciate the larger format of W, it used to be even larger. I liked it best bigger.” When asked what her next plans are with her personal work, she smirks whilst turning to her children, stating that through much persisted encouragement from her kids, she would like to design and craft her own line of five-panel caps. With these, she will focus on unexpected and diverse textured materials. Although she has worked with her hands for the past thirty years, at the age of 52, Bohn reassures us that she is only beginning, and is ecstatic about all the experiences and strengths that art still has to give her. “These hands still feel 20 years old.”
ART ART INSPIRED BY
written and photographed by Joleen Zubek poem written by e.e. cummings
There is a long history of artists inspiring other artists work: poets inspired by painters, films inspired by books, etc. We as artists are constantly borrowing from others and seeing the world in different ways. It is not uncommon that most artists spend a large amount of time researching and taking art classes of different forms; every type of art can be influential and lead you to create something new. Ekphrasis is poetry inspired by art, which has lead to several famous poems such as John Keats’ Ode to a Grecian Urn or Adrienne Rich’s Mourning Picture inspired by the painting of the same name by Edwin Romanzo Elmer. Various forms of art have inspired several other artists as well; Pablo Picasso’s sketch of Don Quixote, or Rodin’s sculpture of The Gates of Hell based off of Dante’s Inferno are just a few examples of how the art world crosses over from one medium to the next.
Creativity is one of the most interesting parts about humans. How we have invented different art forms is truly incredible, and the creative expression allowed within each is vastly different. One can say something in a painting that one may not be able to convey in words, which is why art that is inspired by other art is truly interesting. It takes on another meaning, but also a fresh pair of eyes. If two different art forms are placed next to each other, one may be able to draw parallels, but they will remain their own unique entities. The art world becomes a circle in which everyone is giving and taking; the amazing part is that just because art is inspired by other art, it can look completely different or have a different mood. This is the joy and magic of creativity.
Who Knows If The Moon’s who knows if the moon’s a baloon,coming out of a keen city in the sky—filled with pretty people? (and if you and i should get into it,if they should take me and take you into their baloon, why then we’d go up higher with all the pretty people than houses and steeples and clouds: go sailing away and away sailing into a keen city which nobody’s ever visited,where always it’s Spring)and everyone’s in love and flowers pick themselves
Reviving the Culture of Rochester, One Surface at a Time It’s somewhat ingenious when someone uses talents that usually have negative connotations, turns it around and uses it for something inspirational. Currently, Dr. Ian Wilson is doing just that to revive the stale culture of Rochester, New York. Since the summer of 2011, he has been commissioning artists from all over the world to create art on the exterior walls of Rochester’s buildings. With close to seventy murals around the city, this act of art is one to benefit the entire community. Talk about beating vandalism at its own
game! This inspirational, motivating and uplifting new game is called Wall Therapy. Spanning abstract, realistic, and graphic styles of art, these murals are definitely not going unnoticed. It is common to see curious Rochester pedestrians stopping to admire the local masterpieces. Beginning in July 2011, Dr. Wilson first came up with the idea for creating a series of murals because he wanted to thank Rochester for all it had previously given him. His gifts to the community are adding to
Rochester’s current cultural Renaissance. These images are strengthening a rebirth of culture, which creates a contagious feeling of optimism. These murals are a means to heal the city and radiate inspiration to its people. They are reenergizing the Rochester population and spreading optimism throughout the city. It is their humble and symbolic salute to Kodak, since photographic images were once the backbone of Rochester’s success. On another level, this organization is
WALL Therapy written by MacKenzi Martin photographed by Jenny McCabe
[wawl.ther-uh-pee]-noun- a public communitylevel intervention using mural art as a vehicle to address our collective need for inspiration1.
raising money through Wall Therapy festivals for X-Ray machines in developing countries. Many doctors in developing countries lack proper medical equipment, which leads to many misdiagnoses. The common thread between the art and medicine is imagery. Images are saving cities and images are saving people. The process of creating these murals moves at a rapid pace. The murals usually take about three to five days to finish, depending on the complexity of the
images. The Wall Therapy team usually contacts the artist personally or an artist will come to the organization ready to help. Then, the artists are brought to Rochester to begin their work. Erich Lehman has been a huge help to Dr. Wilson in helping to organize and advertise the events. When asked to choose a favorite, neither could decide due to the individual strengths of each mural, whether it is conceptually or technically strong. The murals are located all over downtown Rochester and are easy to come across.
The images cover quite a range of topics; anywhere from elephants and mermaids, to a tribute to Martin Luther King Jr. It is great to have a variety of styles, artists, and subject matter to personally inspire the diverse population of Rochester. 1. Erich Lehman. â€œWall Therapyâ€?. Last accessed September 24, 2013. http://wall-therapy.com/ about-wall-therapy/.
written and photographed by Lauren Loncar
nce my mother asked me, “Why don’t you feel like you can be yourself?” She was referencing the multitude of hair colors my appearance had transitioned through over a few years. I simply responded, “This is the me I’ve always felt like, I just finally have the freedom to be it.”
The art of do-it-yourself hair dye is a talent that must be learned over time, and often through several coloring fiascos. As a child, I felt my self-expression was suppressed by my father’s unrelenting disdain for the rainbow locks I so desperately craved. His hairdressing background made him a stickler for healthy hair, “normal” hair - the hair I was born with. When I graduated high school, apparently I graduated from the ‘no fun hair’ stage of my life as well. The day before I left for college, he was helping me properly spread a dark purple goop that promised ginger results over my roots. Since that moment, I’ve made it my personal mission to have every color of the rainbow appear in my tresses at least once. Four years later, I’m finishing up the rainbow with a shocking red over my whole head. Without the professional guidance of my father, how was I to continue in my exploration of color? Turning to the internet for help, I found a cornucopia of tutorials, advice, ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts,’ videos, and inspiration. The Hair/Beauty community on YouTube has to be one of the best places to turn if you’re inspired to dye
your own hair. Learning how to weed through the thousands of tutorials is important - look for channels that have more than one video and can show you their experience with the art of hair. When seeking help on the internet, keep in mind that the advice you’re consuming may be from a professional celebrity stylist, or it may be from a thirteen-year-old with access to a MacBook. Check out ratings and view counts for a channel, but don’t heavily rely on those statistics for validation. Video tutorials are the best way to get the feel for a particular technique, such as ombre or dip-dye. Watching another person execute the effect you’re trying to get is far more effective than reading over a wikiHow article. After my yearlong masquerade as a redhead, I braved bleach for the first time. Over a year and a half, I brought all my hair up to a platinum blonde. This nearly-white base made every bold Manic Panic dye I used appear as bright as possible. Deciding on a new look can be both terrifying and exciting. For inspiration, I turn to Pinterest and Tumblr. Searching keywords like ombre, two-tone, and half split hair can come up with interesting results. Keeping a hair blog for future looks is always a great way to stay creative with your color! Whether you’re going for a funky streak of dye or an all-over splash of color, dyeing your hair can be a fantastic form of self-expression. For me, having crazy hair is better than wearing lipstick or mascarait’s an addition to myself that lingers and becomes part of me for a while, releasing who I was meant to be.
Whether youâ€™re going for a funky streak of dye or an allover splash of color, dyeing your hair can be a fantastic form of self-expression, or for some of us itâ€™s just who we were meant to be. +
written and photo-illustrated by Claire Britt photographed by Jessica Schaefers
A project is assigned, a deadline is set. Class is over, and you dart out of the door. If we weren’t in Rochester, I’d say you dart outside into the sun, but, c’est la vie. Usually, we start out thinking responsibly: “I’m going to get right to work on this.” “I’ve got a great idea, mine’s going to be the best in the class.” But then, that text about dinner, that invitation to a one-time reunion of your favorite band from when you were 16, that reminder about your Baba’s 90th birthday party. Suddenly your outlook changes. “Hmm. Well I do have a week after all, I’ll just go to this one event, then I’m locking myself in my room.” Of course, it’s never just that one event. Five days go by with nothing but a paltry doodle or two, while you’re still reassuring yourself “I’ve still got plenty of time.”
Realizing the trouble you’ve landed yourself in, you claw helplessly at any threads of hope. “Maybe I can ask for an extension,” you say to yourself as you stare aimlessly at your unfinished work. “Maybe class will be canceled!” “Maybe my car will break down or I’ll get the flu!” You realize no amount of fun really outweighs the horrible feeling of turning in work you aren’t proud of, and if you could, you’d trade for all that time back.
anger Two days before the project is due, the shimmery veil of false security has suddenly vanished. Thoughts like, “Why did I wait so long?!” “There’s no way I can do my original idea in two days.” “I always end up doing this, I’m so dumb,” rush to the surface of your mind. Anger towards yourself, friends, and family permeates your thoughts as you realize the dire straights you’ve irrationally sailed your project into.
depression The night before the deadline, and you’re tasting the bitter dregs of despair. “I’m never going to make it in this field,” you think glumly, hammering out your project as the clock ticks merrily on. “This is going to be so bad, and everyone will know I put this off.”
acceptance “It’s not so bad,” you tell yourself as you blearily glance at the rising sun. “This definitely could have turned out worse.” Looking at your finished work, you know you haven’t done your best, but hope next time you’ll break out of the maddening cycle. 1. “The Five Stages of Loss and Grief.” Last accessed September 17, 2013. http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-5stages-of-loss-and-grief/000617.
Cognitive Incubation written by Elise Janciuras photographed by David Mitchell
n universities around the world, students are taught about the importance of concentration and focusing on the task at hand, leaving no time for relaxation and creativity. No matter what a person’s field of study, there is a sentiment that more education is always better. This may be true if the only goal of education is to pack as much information into one’s mind as possible, but what about creative or critical thinking? More and more neuropsychological research suggests that the one thing that can stimulate real creativity is the one thing that no one has penciled into his or her schedules: time to daydream. Jonah Lehrer, of the New Yorker, puts it perfectly when he says, “a daydream is that fountain spurting, spilling strange new thoughts into the stream of consciousness. And these spurts turn out to be surprisingly useful.”1 While everyone’s minds wander from time to time, it is generally viewed as a negative thing, something that reduces productivity. To the contrary, some of our most productive mental activity happens while we daydream. Much like sleep, daydreaming gives the mind a chance to stretch and loosen itself, activating parts of the brain that are otherwise dormant. Those parts of the brain that are activated deal primarily with creativity, as well as past memory and perspective-taking ability. This subconscious brain activity, or more importantly our awareness of this subconscious brain activity, is one of the aspects that can lead to increased problem solving ability on intellectual problems. It also calms the mind, in much the same way as meditation does for many people.
While letting your mind wander is clearly beneficial to any creative process, it must also be done consciously. There is a distinct difference between letting your mind wander and zoning out. It is of no use to anyone to sit and watch television while your mind shuts off. It is, however, quite useful to go for a walk or perform some other physical activity after an intense period of study. On the same note, it may also be even more beneficial to let your mind wander while doing strenuous mental tasks. To quote cognitive psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman, “The key to functional creativity, then, seems to be the ability to keep one’s internal stream of consciousness ‘on call’ while being able to concentrate on a task.”2 To conclude, while people endlessly stress the importance of focus and discipline in education and beyond, it might be very wise for us all to take advantage of the time when our minds wonder. You may just get the breakthrough you need. 1. Jonah, Lehrer. “The Virtues of Daydreaming.” Last accessed September 23, 2013. http:// w w w.new yorker.com/online/blogs/frontalcortex/2012/06/the-virtues-of-daydreaming.html. 2. Scott, Barry Kaufman. “Beautiful Minds.” Last accessed September 24, 2013. http://www. psychologytoday.com/blog/beautifulminds/ 201102/why-daydreamers-are-more-creative.
ly s s a and A r a c r n onca en L o Laur Lauren L y b n y e w ritt graphed b photo
he assignment was called “a found poem.” I had my headphones in as I read the description. I was supposed to choose random words and fragments to create a poem. I looked down at my iPod, immediately chopping up the lyrics and titles to my favorite songs. It then hit me; I didn’t understand the title to this one song that I loved. The song was Anberlin’s “Alexithymia.” I typed the word into Google, checking the spelling about five times. The most generic definition that appeared said: alexithymia is a psychological condition in which someone cannot understand his or her own emotions. This fascinated me, but due to homework I never had the time to do any real research. A few years later, I took a psychology class at the Rochester Institute of Technology. In that class, there was a paper with the freedom to choose any topic. I finally researched alexithymia to understand this condition.
Alexithymia is categorized as a personality trait characterized by a deficit in the processing of emotional information. A person with alexithymia can identify signs that their body gives, like sweaty palms or racing heartbeat, but cannot identify the emotion behind each signal. Along with not
being able to understand their own emotions, an alexithymic person is not going to understand emotions that another person is experiencing. The alexithymic person will not only externally appear unsympathetic, but also distant.1 This personality trait is associated with traumatic events in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse. It has also been identified as a precursor to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Affective Disorders, and Asperger syndrome.2 “Alexithymia is associated with a failure to use adaptive affect regulation processes such as modulating arousal, appropriately expressing or suppressing emotions, employing fantasy, obtaining and using social support, tolerating painful emotions, cognitive assimilation, and accommodation.”3 Not being able to process this emotional information is hypothesized as a cause of several different physical and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and compulsive or addictive behaviors. These can then cause physical symptoms and even somatic disease. Alexithymia can also lead to bad behaviors or unhealthy habits, and even “safety, nutrition, or hygiene may be impeded by the failure to experience or recognize potentially adaptive feelings such as fear, guilt, or even self-pride.”3
Interpersonal relationships may suffer when a person is diagnosed with alexithymia. The results of a study on heterosexual relationships done by Dr. Nick Frye, a Human Development and Family Studies expert, show that alexithymia scores of males were more distinct indicators of relationship quality than the female counterpart’s scores. The study concludes that alexithymia may act as an “emotional contagion”; if the male is experiencing alexithymia, the female may grow accustomed to the unemotional state and become less emotionally responsive herself. Through this period, she may also find her relationship lacking or low in quality. “This is not to say females become alexithymic; however, they may reconstruct individual emotional expectations in their relationship. For males, these violations of societal expectations may prove to create lower levels of relationship quality.”4 People who are alexithymic tend to look at relationships through pros and cons, and stereotypically move in and out of relationships easily because they don’t have that emotional connection. To test someone for alexithymia, a test called the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, or TAS-20, is used. TAS-20 is a self-reporting measurement that tests for three factors in alexithymia– difficulty describing feelings to others, difficulty identifying feelings in general, and externally-oriented thinking. Each test participant rates themselves on a one to five scale on a series of questions dealing with these topics. The question is, if alexithymia is a personality trait, can it be treated? And if alexithymia can be alleviated, will it improve the patient’s overall health? “Alexithymia appears to have negative health implications by altering physiology, prompting symptom reporting, supporting unhealthy and compulsive behaviors.”3
Beresnevaite did a study in 2000 on patients with alexithymia. All of the patients had high TAS scores and recently suffered a heart attack. They were divided into two groups randomly, a treatment and control group. The control group had two informational sessions, while the treatment group attended weekly group therapy for four months. 3 The group therapy consisted of “relaxation training, guidance in identifying and communicating feelings” with a focus in imagery, music, and “nonverbal emotional expression.”3 Psychologists believe that patients need to learn awareness. The patients practiced describing how they felt physically–learning to be aware of themselves. The goal would be if the patients could identify that their shoulders were tense, to maybe relate it to stress or anxiety. At the end of the four months, the treatment group had significantly lower TAS scores. The lowered TAS scores then “predicted better cardiovascular disease outcomes two years later.” 3 After four months, the control group did not show any changes in their TAS scores. The study proved the link between alexithymia and serious health problems. 3 Traditionally, people with alexithymia were viewed as neurotic. Alexithymia was believed to be an active defense strategy, similar to extreme denial, avoidance or repression. If alexithymia was a defense strategy, it would mean that a person is capable of emotional insight and expression if they were to stop avoiding it. Psychologists have discovered that alexithymia is truly an emotional deficiency. Alexithymics are confused by emotions and limited in understanding them, rather than actively avoiding them. While alexithymia symptoms can be lessened, there is no evidence that it can be cured completely. 1. Nauert, Rick. “Alexithymia: Emotional Disconnect Challenges Marriages.” Psych Central. Last Accessed October 17, 2013. 2. Kerr, Laura. “Alexithymia, Emotional Neglect & Capitalism: How Are They Related?” Trauma’s Labyrinth. Last accessed October 17, 2013. 3. Lumey, Mark, Lynn Neely, and Amanda Burger. “The Assessment of Alexithymia in Medical Settings: Implications for Understanding and Treating Health Problems.” Pub Med. Last accessed October 17, 2013. 4. Frye, Nick. “I’m Just Not Feeling This Relationship: A Dyadic Analysis of Alexithymia and Relationship Quality.” The National Council on Family Relations. Last accessed October 17, 2013.
stench? what’s that
written by Lauren Loncar and Megan Sproull photographed by Lauren Loncar
Olfactory Conditioning is a process that takes place in your brain and your olfactory bulb in the nose. A person’s mind will pair up a smell with something that causes a reaction; such as a memory of a person or event. Later on when a person comes across that scent again, it elicits a response corresponding to the original encounter, even if the original cause is gone. Most responses to odors are built up during childhood before knowledge of smells and their meanings develop. Odors can influence a positive or negative feeling in a person’s mind or body, and can also have an effect on behavior after an extended period of time. This is because of Olfactory Conditioning, and how those smells have a memory-emotion attachment for that person.
Although some unpleasant smells are considered to be favorites of certain individuals, bad smells have a direct correlation to how well people do at performing tasks. Bad smells will decrease
how well a person can concentrate on and perform tasks. These smells can have an effect even at a low level that isn’t consciously detectable.
Bad smells do not only cause problems in a person’s mood, the lack of smell altogether can have many negative effects. Anosmic people have no sense of smell and tend to have a higher risk of severe depression. Studies of people suffering depression have shown that they tend to have a reduced sense of smell and have a smaller olfactory bulb. If a person has bu i lt up a lifet i me of odor a nd emot iona l associat ions, t hen when t hei r sense of smel l deteriorates over t i me, t hat person w i l l have a ha rd t i me recog nizing subconscious, emotional triggers. As a person’s sense of smell deteriorates, the emotions associated with that smell deteriorate as well. Not only can a person who has a bad sense of smell and smaller olfactory bulb
suffer from depression, it is also correlated to schizophrenia. Scientists don’t completely understand the link between the lack of smell and mental illness, but they do know that depression and schizophrenia both have symptoms of persistent f lat moods. If a person no longer has a sense of smell after years of smell and emotional connections, then that person also loses subconscious emotional triggers that could bring along f lat moods resulting in depression or schizophrenia. 1. Rachel S. Herz. “Do Scents Affect People’s Moods or Work Performance?” Scientific American. Last accessed Steptember 24, 2013. http://www.scientificamerican. com/article.cfm?id=do-scents-affect-peoples. 2. Heather Grimshaw, “Good smell, bad smell” The Denver Post. Last accessed September 24, 2013. http://www.denver post.com/lifestyles/ci_11784972.
As a Floridian who’s been in Rochester for the past four years, I’ve learned how the change in seasons can affect your emotions. But for those of you who weren’t born in a subtropical climate, I’m sure you’re aware of this annual shift in mood that comes with declining temperatures and frozen tundra. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a very common and well documented disorder. It can affect nearly anybody, even those with no previous history of mental issues. Studies estimate that its prevalence in the adult population ranges from 1.4 percent in Florida to 9.7 percent in New Hampshire. It’s generally described as depressive symptoms that occur solely during one part of the year, commonly winter. Symptoms include: having difficulty waking up, over-eating, over-sleeping, difficulty
treatment. One of the most common suggestions would be light therapy, which involves sitting in front of a light box for 30 to 60 minutes. Many patients reported feeling better within a few days of treatments. While it is proven to be very effective, many find this light therapy to be an inconvenient process and several patients stop treatment for this reason.
There’s a variety of methods for managing the symptoms with varying convenience and effectiveness, ranging from antidepressants to negative air ionization. Some can even be combined for an even more efficient
An alternative to light therapy is vitamin D supplements. A daily dosage can make up for the lack of Ultraviolet B on your skin, overall a much easier process than sitting in front of a light box. Physical exercise has also been proven to be an effective form of depression therapy, particularly when combined with light therapy. This treatment wouldn’t be out of place for anyone who exercises to any degree of regularity. So while it can affect a va st a mou nt of people i n particular regions,
seasonal affective disorder has plenty of different treatments available to keep us within a positive mental frame of mind during the shifting seasons. It’s very important to maintain a positive quality of living, because depression can affect your day to day life more than you can imagine.
concentrating, withdrawal from social events, lack of energy and sex drive. These symptoms lead to depression, lack of pleasure, and pessimistic feelings of hopelessness. The cause of the disorder is commonly attributed to the scarcity of sunlight during the winter in certain regions. While sunlight may seem like a minor factor in our day-today needs, the sun has a significant effect on our exposure to melatonin and serotonin, two very important hormones in our bodies. Melatonin helps you sleep, while serotonin influences feelings of happiness and wakefulness.
naturally, without the need for a jarring alarm sound. This process is helpful for treating seasonal affective disorder, but also creates a more holistic method of waking up that some may prefer over the traditional alarm clock.
For those who don’t wish to go through this treatment, there is a more natural method of light therapy called dawn simulation. This is essentially a special alarm clock that wakes you up with light rather than sound. By timing the lights in your bedroom to come on gradually over a period of 30 minutes to 2 hours, you can simulate a bright sunrise to wake you up 36
However, despite all of this negativity, one thing I can appreciate about this dreadful weather is how much greater it makes the other seasons in comparison. Unlike Florida where it’s consistently summer, the seasonal variety can help you appreciate the nicer weather even more. 1. Friedman, M.D., Richard A. “Brought On by Darkness, Disorder Needs Light.” The New York Times. Last accessed November 10, 2013. www. nytimes.com/2007/12/18/health/18mind.html?_r=0
w r it ten by Nick Tyler photog raphed by A nd rew Ha l li na n
We spend a third of our lives asleep, but what if you could be conscious while you’re asleep? This paradox is actually possible through lucid dreaming, which allows you to be in control of your dreams while you’re experiencing them. You might ask, “Why would I want to control my dreams?” to which I’d reply “Why not?”
It’s an incredible sensation, considering the infinite variety of forms your dreams could take, only being limited by the scope of your imagination. How amazing would it be to just casually fly through the Swiss Alps or climb the Eiffel Tower solely by the will of your mind? Normally, dreams are like raging rivers that we are helplessly thrown into without any grasp or sense of control, just going with the current and whichever direction it takes us. Dreams can also assume frightening or negative environments; with lucid dreaming you can easily change the environment to your choosing. Lucid dreaming is a much-desired feat, yet it’s not easy to obtain for most people. One of the problems stems from not being able to remember dreams in the first place.
It’s unfortunate when you experience an interesting or significant dream but you can’t remember it after waking up, or when some nights it seems like you didn’t have any dreams at all. We actually have dreams every single night, but it’s usually difficult to recall our dreams precisely because they happen in our subconscious. However, there are some ways to help remember your dreams. It’s commonly recommended to start keeping a journal or diary of your dreams, something as simple as a notepad or journal to keep at your bedside. It’s important to record whatever you can remember as soon as you wake up. This is when your dream will be most memorable; a few minutes later and it will likely be lost forever. Keeping a journal is essential 40
to help you start remembering your dreams and becoming more aware of them altogether. Recording your dreams can also help you identify common trends or themes in them, which can make them much easier to recognize while you’re experiencing them. This is imporant because normally we aren’t able to tell that we’re dreaming, there is a complete suspension of disbelief. This is the second common problem people have with attaining lucid dream states. In our dreams, we often conjure up bizarre and unrealistic scenarios, like a f lying sailboat or a f laming glacier. These things may seem totally plausible while asleep, but then fall apart like a house of cards as soon as we wake up.
In order to control your dreams, you need to be able to realize when you’re in them, and this is usually the difficult part for most people. It’s very easy to fall into a dream, surrender your logic and believe everything you see, but there are some tricks that can help you realize when you aren’t awake. This strategy is rather challenging, but it can be really helpful if pulled off. Basically, you start training your mind to consciously check for something on a routine basis whenever you’re awake, and this serves as a reality check. Whether it’s looking at your reflection or at a certain birthmark, it should be something unique to you, permanent and independent from your environment. You have to consciously start doing it, and often, kind of like developing a habit.
This may seem outlandish and strange, but training your mind to challenge reality is elementary towards attaining lucid dream states. If done effectively, your subconscious will start to do the same thing when you’re asleep. While asleep, we are in a pseudo-comatose state where our mind is creating these vivid hallucinations that we call dreams. Obviously, our brains aren’t perfect, and this explains why dreams are often unrealistic and far-fetched. If you were to attempt to look at your reflection or birthmark while dreaming, the details are unrefined (if there at all). Your reflection is likely to be warped and distorted, or your birthmark may look strange or be a different color. Noticing this inevitable difference is what helps you realize that you’re actually not awake!
This initial realization can be enough to scare someone into waking up, and this happens often. However if you can keep going, this is when it starts to get really interesting. From this point on you can gain control of your dream, and shape it to whatever form you desire. This can drastically change the quality of your dreams, making them something to even look forward to, transforming the mundane and casual dream into a nightly excursion through your imagination. It’s definitely not an easy task; it demands some discipline and conscious effort, but once attained I think this has some amazing benefits. Just imagine how much your dreams can benefit from the ability to manipulate them yourself, think of it as an investment to your subconscious well being.
CAN SWEARING HELP WITH PAIN RELIEF? written by Sarah Bono photographed by Amelia Katz
Damn! Bitch! Balls! Shit! Ass! We recognize these profanities as words that have been ‘forbidden’ or frowned upon when used in every day language. British doctor Richard Stephens conducted a study where he had individuals keep their hands in ice cold water for an extended period of time. This caused an obvious sense of pain or discomfort, which was ultimately his goal. He found that swearing can help ease short-term pain. The study consisted of two rounds. In the first round participants were asked to repeat a ‘neutral’ word while their hands were in the ice water. In the second round, they were asked to repeat swear words while their hands were still in the water. The results showed that the participants who repeated the swear words were able to keep their hands in the water twice as long than when asked to repeat the neutral words.
swear words are able to reach deeper parts of your brain that are more closely related to emotions. But if you use ‘fuck’ like you use ‘hello’ (you know who you are), then you have caused your body to become immune to this emotional response, which lessens your chances of natural pain relief.
DAMN BITCH BALLS
Sounds a lot better than having to resort to Advil right? Unfortunately there is a minor flaw that was revealed within this study. Like anything else, the more you do something the more you become immune to it. People who use swear words often (60 plus times daily) had the same results when swearing and when using a neutral word. Swearing causes an emotional response, which leads to “stress-induced analgesia”; this is when adrenaline becomes present in the body and causes a natural form of pain relief. More so than other words,
Most of society has been brought up on the belief that these words have more significance than other neutral words, because it is seen as ‘inappropriate’ or ‘unprofessional’ to use words like ‘bitch’ or ‘fuck’ in an average sentence or conversation. If you find that you ‘save’ swear words for the right moment then you’re in luck! If you refrain from cursing it is proven that swearing will help you in a time of need. If you are in a situation where you are unable to access medical attention or painkillers, swearing will be able to help you get through the pain. The study also hints at an underlying link between pain tolerance and swearing. “In the context of pain, swearing appears to serve as a simple form of emotional selfmanagement. Whether swearing has beneficial effects in other contexts is something we would like to explore in the future,” says Stephens about his studies. 1. Joelving, Frederik. “Why the #$%! Do We Swear? For Pain Relief.” Last accessed November 3, 2013. http:// www.scientific american.comarticle.
cfm?id=why-do-we-swear. 2. Paddock, Catharine, PhD. “Cursing Relieves Pain, But Not If Over-Used.” Medical News Today. Last accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/238525.php.
/yooâ€™stres/ moderate or normal psychological stress interpreted as being beneficial for the experiencer written by Eva Dâ€™Ignazio and Ethan Herrington photographed by Ethan Herrington
tress. While itâ€™s often viewed as a negative, stress possesses the unique ability to spur creative progress. Many people, especially those in the arts, perform better under pressure. The stress of a pending deadline or busy schedule can help encourage unconventional ideas and unique viewpoints in the face of a difficult or challenging problem.
This phenomenon of beneficial stress is known as eustress, as opposed to distress, the most commonly thought of form of stress known for its negative emotional and physical side effects. Studies have shown eustress has a strong ability to cause tasks to be viewed as a positive challenge rather than a negative threat. This sense of challenge serves to motivate and focus efforts onto the task at hand, often leading to unexpected and highly effective solutions. In the words of psychologist Larina Kase, “Stress is often accompanied by a breakthrough in creativity. If your mind is completely normal and comfortable, you will not have any reason to see things differently.”1 This relationship between stress and performance is best summed up by the Yerkes-Dodson Law. This law dictates that human performance varies with stress. At
low stress levels, performance is equally low, as people tend to be unmotivated. With increasing stress, performance also increases, until a point at which stress then begins to impede one’s ability to perform.2 This parabolic response to stress is epitomized by encroaching deadlines for creativity based tasks. Often, when one feels there is a large amount of time remaining until the solution is needed, there is a lack of motivation and no driving force to spur productivity. Once the proximity of a deadline or the importance of a task is apparent, the pressure of the situation encourages the synthesis of ideas and prompts the focusing of efforts. However, as a deadline approaches, or other stressing factors begin to accumulate, the resulting stress begins to impede performance; creativity as well as productivity suffer as a result of too much stress.
As with anything in life, moderation is key. With the right level of stress, performance can be optimized, resulting in creative output greater than that which can be achieved in an entirely stress free environment. As we’ve all experienced in life, too much stress can be overwhelming and impede work, as well as have negative physical and emotional consequences. So, like all things, even stress can be good for you in moderation, spurring innovative ideas and helping motivate creative minds around the world. 1. Heohongtham. “4 Positive Effects of Stress.” Last accessed September 24, 2013. http://heohongtham. hubpages.com/hub/4-Positive-Effects-of-Stress. 2. Changing Minds.org. “Yerkes-Dodson Law.” Last accessed September 27, 2013. http:// changingminds.org/explanations/motivation/ yerkes-dodson.htm.
I have a problem with them keeping condoms locked up because itâ€™s creating a barrier.
HARDTIMES The ethics of keeping condoms behind locked doors written and photographed by Amelia Katz
Practicing safe sex just became a whole lot more expensive and embarrassing. Across the country, thousands of awkward, acne-prone teenage boys on the cusp of sexual awakening are casing the birth control aisle of their local drug store, ambitiously grabbing the extra value pack of extra-large, extra-ribbed condoms and nervously avoiding eye contact with the checkout girl. But the rising prices of latex may make this universal male rite of passage a thing of the past. All condom manufacturers are being forced to raise the sale price of their products as much as 30%, doubling the cost of all natural rubber latex. According to the Financial Times, the price of latex is up 65% since the spring of 2010. Largely to blame is the heav y storms and torrential rains during the rubber harvests in Southeast Asia, where most of the raw natural material is harvested. Not only are Americans being forced to grapple with the unprecedented rise of the pr ic e of t he c om mon contraceptive; the large and small-scale condom ma nu facturers all over the world are feeling the pressure. “We have been forced to buy latex at high prices which is impacting our bottom l i ne ,” s a id Rajneesh Jain, director of Secure PersonalCare, an Indian based condom manufacturer. z Unable to deal with the rising costs of the raw materials, several similar companies have been forced to shut doors. Largely due to this staggering increase in price, more and more drugstores and markets around the world are experiencing serious condom theft. Some stores are experiencing wipeouts of 50% of their stock of prophylactics. Walgreens is among one of many stores who keep their condoms in highly visible areas to prevent theft, but some lock up their contraceptives alltogether.
Ca rol Hively, a spokeswoma n for t he Walgreens pharmacy chain, notes that Walgreens locations that have placed their condoms behind t he counter have been instructed to return them to public sales floors. “It’s our policy not to lock up condoms,” Hively says, “shrink can vary from store to store, but in general it is in the interest of the public good and safety to keep the condoms unlocked.” 1 Stores like Osco, a chain acquired recently by CVS, locked their condoms behind the pharmacy counter until recent months. “I have a problem with them keeping condoms locked up because it’s creating a barrier,” 2 says Joanne Coffman, director of patient s e r v i c e s f o r P l a n n e d P a r e nt h o o d o f Wisconsin. “Instead of being humiliated or embarrassed, I am just thinking they will have sex without them.” 1 In London, stores put their condoms in locked plastic boxes that must be unlocked by asking a store employee. Think checking out with your condoms was embarrassing? Try asking a manager to unlock the box while he stands behind you as you case the shelf for your favorite featherlight Durex. So what does this mean for those teenagers a nd t hei r seem i ng ly i nsat iable sex ua l appetite? Either risk sheer embarrassment or don’t buy condoms at a l l, a nd t he latter only spells out one thing: catastrophe. 1. Financial Times. “Supply fears send rubber to record high,” Last accessed September 1, 2013. http:// w w w. f t . c om /i nt l /c m s /s //3 c 6 f f b 8 4 -18 0 2 -11e 0 9 0 33 - 0 014 4 fe a b 4 9 a , Aut hor i s e d =f a l s e . ht m l . 2 . The E conomic Times. “Rubber prices to ma ke condoms a costly affair.” Last accessed September 1, 2013. http://articles.economictimes. i nd iat i me s .com /2 010 - 0 9 -13/news/276255 6 8 .
Raising Your Child
VEGETARIAN Is it hindering their self-expression? written by Megan Mosehauer and Chelsie Craig photographed by Chelsie Craig
Does this necessitate the need to tell Sure, the decision to be a vegetarian is not them they should think eating meat is a negative one, but it is a large commitment an awful act? That it is unethical because and personal choice that should be made it is murdering animals? This is what solely by the individual. As a vegetarian, the vegetarian parent thinks and it is raising your offspring to be vegetarian as a common reason why people don’t eat well seems like a no-brainer—an obvious meat, so explaining this belief to a kid choice. This may not be the case; even seems logical. However, it may not be as though there are plenty of ways to get the cut-and-dry as it seems. A child hearing same nutrients that one finds in meat (e.g. this distinction between vegetarians and nuts, legumes, etc.), a lack of nutrients meat-eaters from his/her own endearing essential for maintaining physical health parent can be confusing for the child as isn’t what may be harming the child. they may wonder, “Why do my friends at The larger problem may be the effect that school eat meat?” If they being raised vegetarian are taught such beliefs, will has on the social aspect of If they are taught they think the meat-eaters growing up. of the playground are such beliefs, will unethical and cruel people? Think about the first years they think the If so, their parents must be of a child interacting with meat-eaters of the as well. Instilling in a child other children, specifically playground are that eating meat is wrong in pre-school and grade will undoubtedly cause the school. One of a child’s unethical and child to look down on those main concerns at this cruel people? who do eat meat. This will young age is making give the child unnecessary friends and fitting in with reason to draw a distinction between his/ their peers. This can certainly become a her self and others, and possibly treat others struggle if the child cannot have certain differently as a result. foods that his/her peers are sharing at lunchtime. It might seem like a small piece Raising your child vegetarian is a very of a kid’s day at school, but lunchtime is just dangerous decision. It is a decision that the as social and prevalent as recess and showchild should make for his/her self when and-tell. School-aged children tend to want they are ready to do so, probably when to go along with the crowd, so denying a they are knowledgeable enough to make child the ability to truly fit in with their an educated decision about the beliefs they classmates during one of the most social want to possess. Telling a child that they parts of the day is sure to weaken self-esteem must believe something simply because it levels indefinitely. is their parent’s belief is imposing on the child’s self-expression and the development Children will inevitably have questions, for of his/her own unique identity. example, “Why should you not eat meat?”
written by Brianna Hanley photographed by Katie Kanazawich
or thousands of years, people have owned animals for assistance with jobs or companionship. They have helped us out with multiple aspects of life that are not possible on our own; such as pulling heavy objects, sensing things undetectable with mere human senses, and bringing a feeling of love and care. Something we don’t readily realize about keeping pets however, is that they also bring substantial health benefits. Whether it’s physical or emotional health, pets can be a great source of wellness to all who decide to include them in their households.
A sizable advantage of owning a pet is the motivation to be more active. From an online Reader’s Digest article, “A study of more than 2,000 adults found, not surprisingly, that dog owners who regularly walked their dogs were more physically active and less likely to be obese than those who didn’t own or walk a dog.”¹ Pets, such as dogs, that require assistance when going outside give the owners a new purpose for exercising and becoming lively. This often becomes routine, so both the pet and owner become accustomed to an active lifestyle. Another reason pets are beneficial is their ability to fend off animal-related allergies. A common misconception of keeping pets, specifically with children, is that it is much more likely for someone to contract allergies from the constant interaction with animals and their dander. What actually happens, though, is that pet owners build up an immunity to the allergens introduced to them.
According to the article “Top 5 Health Benefits of Owning a Pet” on the Animal Planet website, “University of WisconsinMadison pediatrician James E. Gern has conducted a number of studies that demonstrate having a pet in the home can actually lower a child’s likelihood of developing related allergies by as much as 33 percent.”² Unfortunately adults who already have allergies to animals won’t grow immune to them after the fact, but for those looking to immunize their children from such allergies, keeping pets is a great option. One’s emotional health can also be enhanced from interactions with a pet. “Pets offer an unconditional love that can be very helpful to people with depression,” says Ian Cook, M.D., a psychiatrist and director of the Depression Research and Clinic Program at UCLA.³ Additional points in the article explaining this included uncomplicated love, the power of physical touch, the responsibility of owning a pet and how it “adds a new and positive focus on your life,” and the increase of chemicals in your brain that help you feel good. It’s no wonder why there are millions of pictures and videos on the internet relating to pets; they inherently bring out the good feelings in us and improve our moods swiftly. Overall, the perks of owning an animal companion are expansive and varied. It is possible to live a life free of the responsibilities of a pet, however the bonuses are hard to ignore. Having a pet truly benefits your life. 1. Reader’s Digest. “Are Pets Good for Your Health? Do Dogs, Cats and Guinea Pigs Offer Health Benefits to Their Owners?” The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. Last accessed November 10, 2013. http://www.rd.com/health/wellness/ are-pets-good-for-your-health/. 2. McCandless, Sara Grace. “Top 5 Health Benefits of Owning a Pet.” Discovery Communications, LLC. Last accessed November 10, 2013. http:// animal.discovery.com/pets/benefits-of-pets.htm. 3. Doheny, Kathleen. WebMD, LLC. “Pets for Depression and Health Can your depression problems improve when you interact with your pet?.” Last accessed November 10, 2013. http://www. webmd.com/depression/features/pets-depression.
THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF BREAST CANCER AWARENESS written and photographed by Ethan Herrington
This October, the NFL has made a push for breast cancer awareness like no other; everything from pink cleats to pink ribbons painted on fields. While all of this is done for the purpose of “raising awareness,” there is a large amount of money being spent, and not all of it is going where most people think. The NFL donates 11.25% of the total retail price for this year’s pink football merchandise to the American Cancer Society, and only 71.2% of funds received by the ACS go directly to cancer research and treatment. So for every 100 dollars spent on pink NFL merchandise, eight dollars actually makes its way to cancer research, a much smaller amount than most consumers would expect from a charitable campaign.
of donations to cancer research. While attempts to cure cancer are admirable, a large number of these companies are merely attempting to increase profits. Consumers are statistically more likely to support a brand that claims to give money to a “good cause.” This in itself isn’t necessarily a problem, but for many companies the actual donations to cancerbased charities are often a miniscule percentage, or are capped at a small amount, regardless of the amount of product sold. In this way, the donations made are a small expense fronted by the companies in order to capitalize on the goodwill of average consumers and to stay relevant in the face of the cancer awareness trend sweeping America.
The NFL is not alone, however. An everincreasing number of corporations have begun to introduce product lines covered in pink ribbons accompanied by promises
One of the largest pink campaigns has been run by Yoplait brand yogurt, which provides a ten cent donation to Susan G. Komen for each pink yogurt lid
that is mailed in by customers. However, t he re i s a l i m it t o t he annual donation made by Yoplait, with no mechanism in place to alert consumers when this cap has been reached. One might also ask why Yoplait would require the hassle of yogurt lids to be cleaned, collected, and mailed back, rather than just making a donation (which in 2009 was $1.5 million and constituted only 0.1% of their net sales) directly to a breast cancer based charity. The answer to this is quite simple: a quiet, one time donation would not attract as much attention and consumer preference a s a susta i ned ma rket i ng c a mpa ig n playing on consumers’ natural desire to help a charitable effort. The biggest misconception in breast cancer funding however, can be found in the largest breast cancer charity itself.
Susan G. Komen is a charity that holds the trademark on both the now ubiquitous pink ribbon logo, as well as the phrase “ for t he Cure.” During t heir 2009-2010 fiscal year, Komen repor ted $40 0 mi l lion in earnings. O f t h i s , on l y $95.5 million (26.5%) went
to research and treatment for breast cancer, themaincauses that most consumers assume their donations will go towards. The rest is divided among education and health screening services (52.1%) and fundraising and administrative costs (21.3%). Among these administrative costs includes a controversial CEO salary, which was $459,406 in 2010, and has since increased to $684,00 as of 2012. These figures have garnered criticism as the new salary is roughly $250,000 more than the average salary for charities of comparable size. So while buying pink products may be the easiest and most trendy way for consumers to try and help fund breast cancer research, the most effective route is to research various charities and contribute to them directly. This ensures the money they are donating is going where they expect, and is making it there in its full amount. 1. “Throwing a flag on possible pinkwashing by the NFL.” Daily Kos. Last accessed November 4, 2013.
story/2013/10/21/1249399/-Throwinga-flag-on-possible-pinkwashing-bythe-NFL. 2. Hall, Katie. “Pinkwashing.” Uneasy Pink. Last accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.uneasypink.com/2009/10/ pinkwashing.html. 3.Sulik, Gayle. “The Battle For the Cure – The Phrase, That Is.” OUPblog. Last accessed November 8, 2013. http://blog.oup.com/2010/12/breastcancer. 4. The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, Inc. (2010). “Consolidated Statements of Activities”. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplemental Schedules. 5. Myers, Lisa, and Talesha Reynolds. “Susan Komen CEO’s salary draws fire as donations drop, races are canceled.” NBC News.
accessed November 8, 2013. http://investigations. nbcnews.com/_news/2013/06/10/18869742susan-komen-ceos-salary-draws-fire-asdonations-drop-races-are-canceled.
written by Elizabeth Wrobel photographed by Andrew Hallinan The U.S Department of State approves the creation of Cipher Bureau, also known as the “Black Chamber.” The “Black Chamber” was a precursor to the modernday National Security Agency.
1952 Supreme Court rules that Fourth Ammendment (rights against unreasonable search and seizure) applies to surveillance for domestic threats, and warrants are required.
1978 After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush signs off on a secret NSA domestic spying program. Congress passes The USA Patriot Act that expands domestic surveillance.
2005 Congress passes the Protect America Act which expands the goverment’s warrantless eavesdropping authority by lowering warrant requirements.
2012 Obama defends the goverment’s surveillance programs following media reports that federal authorities had gained access to personal emails and files through servers of major technology companies. Obama says the programs were overseen by federal judges and by Congress.
1919 President Truman establishes the National Security Agency allowing the Defense Department to consolidate surveillance activities after WWII.
1972 The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act was passed in response to reports by the Church Committee showing widespread abuse of government wiretaps. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court is set up to consider secret warrent requests for domestic spying.
2001 The NSA spying policy is revealed by The New York Times. The investigation exposes the agency’s widespread, warrantless wiretapping of telephones and emails.
2007 The Director of National Intelligence reveals that procedures of the goverment’s surveillance program had been found unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment.
2013 1. Debenedetti, Gabriel. "History of Mass surveillance in the United States." Reuters. Last accessed October 13, 2013. http:// www.reuters.com article/ 2013/ 06/07/-usa-security-recordsfactbox idUSBRE95617O20130607.
R E T T E B , R E N R A E E G CL N O R T S , R E T S A F
aphed otogr h p d e n a n ue t h i w ritt L dney by Sy
WHAT YOU DON’T KNOW ABOUT DIESEL FUEL When people think of diesel powered engines they might think of the loud, old, dirty rattling trucks from the 70s. Today diesel engines are growing as the newest trend in fuel efficiency. Long offered abroad, diesel passenger cars are growing in popularity in the US, as we search for an affordable fuel efficient car needing fewer trips to the pump. The number one reason people are slowly gravitating toward diesel fuel is better fuel economy. Diesel fuel delivers 15-30% better mileage than regular gasoline. Even with the advances in the gasoline powered engines, the diesel combustion engine, developed by Rudolf Diesel in the late 1800s, is still more fuel efficient and has more power. These cars perform best on the highway and are perfect for anyone who has a long commute. Some have reported getting nearly 50 miles to the gallon when driving on the highway. You will never hear about a diesel car not living up to its high miles per gallon rating. If anything you will hear the opposite, with owners bragging about exceeding their mileage ratings. The diesel even performs well in city mpg ratings, not as well as it does on the highway, but still better than its gas counterparts. Not only does a diesel engine get higher mpg, it also has cleaner emissions. Diesel fuel does not involve any electrical sparking in the engine, it uses compression of the fuel to cause a spark. Additionally, many models also include tanks of urea, which produce ammonia to reduce nitrogen and other carcinogens from the exhaust. There is a reason diesel has often been used for large trucks that need to pull large loads. That reason is torque. Torque is an engine’s ability to accelerate or pull heavy loads. Diesel has fantastic torque, allowing for acceleration and power when pulling a large cargo or trying to pass another vehicle. The high torque also allows for a more fun, sporty ride. You’ll be impressed by the pickup when behind the wheel of a new diesel sedan. Diesel engines work best at higher speeds, adding the ability to travel very long distances. A new VW Passat can get up to 800 miles on one tank of gas driving on the highway.
The ability to drive for so long makes the engines very durable and long lasting. Which, in the long run, leads to less depreciation and a higher resale price. As always there are concerns about diesel cars, but most of this stems from consumers not being familiar with the product. In Europe, diesel cars have been available for quite some time and about half of cars sold are diesel. In the US diesel cars take up less than 5% of new cars sold. The largest concern coming from US customers is price. Diesel engines are more expensive to make so there is a higher up-front cost. Typically a diesel car is only $1,500 more than its gasoline equivalent, but this cost balances out with fewer trips to fill up the tank. If you look at the price of diesel at the pump it’s usually not that much higher than the price of gas. The second concern and a likely cause for lack of diesel options is availability and access to the fuel. As the demand for diesel fuel goes up more gas stations will have a diesel option. Currently, more than half of the gas stations in the country have diesel at the pump. Most people in the US do not buy diesel cars because they are not aware of their benfits. This leads to fewer manufacturers developing diesel cars because there is less demand. Germany’s Volkswagon has not stopped promoting diesel fuel, despite the small demand. They have been manufacturing diesel cars for several decades and selling them in Europe. They finally came over to the US with the increase demand for fuel efficiency and higher federal fuel economy. VW offers seven different diesel models and wants to offer every one of their models with a diesel option in coming years. VW accounts for over 70% of diesel car sales in the US. Their fellow German manufacturers, Audi, BMW, and Mercedes are also offering diesel sedans for sale in the US. With the slowly growing demand for diesel engines, Chevrolet, Mazda, and Chrysler Jeep are producing new diesel models. This will hopefully make more people aware
that diesel is a feasible option and not just for trucks anymore. Several other companies like Ford, Honda, Lexus, Subaru, and Volvo all have diesel models but they are only available in Europe. Some manufacturers, like Toyota and Mitsubishi, are choosing to focus on making hybrid vehicles instead of diesel options. Hybrid, plug-in, and E.V. cars are much more expensive than diesel or gasoline cars, therefore not available to as many people. Some diesel cars can actually have lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions than hybrids. Hybrids also have consistently disappointed their drivers with not meeting their advertised mileage. You don’t hear that from diesel drivers. Diesel drivers also don’t complain about the hybrid style driving, which avoids the gas pedal. With diesel you can drive however you like and still get high mileage. Over time we will run out of fossil fuels and have to move onto plug-in and EVs. Currently that technology is too expensive for the average consumer; something needs to change to reduce our overall carbon foot print. Diesel cars are a good intermediary to use less fuel. Rainer Michel, the vice president for product planning at Volkswagon of America has said, “Diesel is far less expensive than plug-ins and EVs, with better range and performance. This technology is available today.” 1. Lawrence, Ulrich. The New York Times, “Efficiency, Imported From Europe.” Last modified July 19, 2013. Accessed September 26, 2013. http:// w w w.ny times.com/2013/07/21/automobiles/ efficiency-imported-from-europe. 2.Deaton, Jamie Page. U.S. News, “Diesels Save Fuel, But Do they Save Money?.” Last modified May 28, 2013. Accessed September 26, 2013. http://usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/carstrucks/best-cars-blog/2013/05/Diesels_Save_ Fuel_But_Do_they_Save_ Money/.
written and photographed by Sydney Luethi
The fashion world has always taken influences from what was going on around it. An interesting choice of influence was the very people who were trying to turn their back on the fashion world: Punks and Grunge. These styles developed from necessity by up-andcoming musicians of the time to deal with a lack of monetary funds. The commercialization of such trends goes against everything those people stood for. Their deliberate stance against the system became a part of it. Punk culture developed in the 1980s around bands like The Clash, The Ramones and the Sex Pistols. Their style evolved from nonconformity and a lack of money. As Johnny Rotten, the lead singer for the Sex Pistols, said: “Safety pins... that was poverty... lack of money. The arse of your pants falls out, you just use safety pins.” The original punk style came from people repurposing their old and used clothing because they couldn’t afford new clothing. This is what made safety pins, patches and ripped jeans large parts of punk style. Punk style was a statement against the recession and then-current state of the British government. Punks have always tried to go against fashion and sometimes literally destroy pieces of clothing. Their goal was to insult others with their clothing whether it be a shirt with women’s breasts printed on the front or bondage themed accessories. “Its credo was D.I.Y. You couldn’t just buy your way into punk, you had to create it.” These factors made it a perfect thing to commercialize because those who wanted to seem punk, but not put in the effort to make their own pieces, would buy them if they were sold. The worst part was the bands that were leading the movement couldn’t afford to buy the clothing their followers were wearing. Punk entered the high end of fashion when Zandra Rhodes made a dress with fake rips and chains on it in 1977. Since then, fashion designers have added the safety pin or chain aesthetic to their clothing. The Metropolitan Museum of Art even did an exhibition on punk’s influence on fashion.
“Punk was antifashion,” Details editor James Truman said. “It made a statement. Grunge is about not making a statement, which is why it’s crazy for it to become a fashion statement.” Grunge developed on the West Coast of the United States with the rise of the in Seattle. Bands like Jam and especially Nirvana started in Seattle and slowly grew to mainstream fame. Grunge style was extremely laid back, verging on not caring. It was all about large loose silhouettes for comfort and practicality, flannels for warmth, and big boots to keep one’s feet dry. “It wasn’t just low-maintenance, it was no-maintenance.” The grunge scene had a different approach to the fashion world than the punks. Those who dressed in a grunge style simply didn’t care. They wore thrifted clothing because it was inexpensive and easy. This is why it was so strange for it to influence the fashion world. Marc Jacobs had a grunge influence for his Spring collection in 1992 and it caused him to lose his job at Perry Ellis. Grunge was not as widely accepted in the fashion world but had more of an impact on the treatment of fashion as a statement. It marked a change in the treatment of the silhouette of clothing from the sharp lines of the 80s to the more loose lines of the 90s. It was a change in the expectations of commercialized fashion. 1. Bolton, Andrew. Punk: Chaos to Couture. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. 2. Hannon, Sharon M. “Punks: A Guide to an American Subculture. ABC-CLIO, 2009. 3. Voguepedia. “Grunge.” Last accessed Novermber 10, 2013 http://www.vogue.com/voguepedia/Grunge. 4. Voguepedia. “Safety-Pin Punk.” Last ccessed November 12. 2013. http://www.vogue.com/voguepedia/SafetyPin_Punk.
CHAIN REACTION TRENDS FOR FALL 2013 written by Megan Mosehauer and Katie Kanazawich photographed by Katie Kanazawich
FALL IS UPON US, and it is
once again time to put away your tank-tops and favorite pair of shorts and fetch your sweaters and jackets from the back of the closet. As the weather gets colder and your wardrobe once again shifts into a new season, it’s time to wonder: “Is my fall wardrobe from last year still trendy?” Worry no more—we’ve got you covered. We’ve collected ten designer and celebrity influenced fashion trends straight from the runway that will keep you looking chic for fall 2013.
From celebrities like Rihanna and Miley Cyrus, to Kanye West and Wiz Khalifa, the gold chain is a huge trend for fall. Boldly accentuate your neck with a single linked necklace. You’re guaranteed to find the style for you from highly-polished or flat gold to round links or flat links. Check out places like Banana Republic, Balenciaga, and AllSaints for some styles.
This fall, designers like Rag & Bone, Thakoon, and Prada are amongst the designers who are ditching over-the-top patterns for more classic, simple ones. Plaid, pinstripes, and houndstooth are just some of the patterns that appeared on the fall runway. While patterns certainly add a fun quality to your outfit, don’t over-do it! Pair a classic pattern with solid shades for just the right amount of flair in your outfit.
Designers love monochromatic outfits this fall. The most popular colors: navy blue, green, and shades of gray. While Michael Kors debuted steamy gray outfits from head to toe, Oscar de la Renta featured headto-toe gray with a pop of color and navy blue gloves. Shades of green—anywhere from emerald to army—are the “it” color of fall 2013, thanks to the influence from designers like Marc Jacobs and Richard Chai Love, along with many others.
Not only are beanies super practical for chilly fall weather, this season they are super fashionable. You’ll catch Cara Delevigne rocking this look frequently. Beanies are warm, affordable, and they’re great to cover up any bad hair day. Alexander Wang, BCBG, and DKNY are among the designers who featured beanies on the runway this fall; they paired beanies with chic dresses and jackets, which emphasizes the contrast between the two items. Don’t be afraid to rock a beanie with a semi-formal outfit this fall.
Not interested in the monochromatic look? No worries—blocks of color are all the rage this season. Louise Goldin, Rag & Bone, and Reed Krakoff are just a few of the many designers who love this look for fall. Some color block items can stay neutral, while some have a burst of color. Try a jacket with a few blocks of neutral colors—it will go with any outfit and keep you looking stylish every day!
Ever feel like your efforts are wasted putting together an outfit that just gets covered by your outerwear? Well forget it this season, because bold outerwear is here! This trend is inspired by the runway looks from Rachel Zoe. Get out there and invest in something fun and versatile that makes a statement. Try to avoid crazy colors and keep it neutral for the best pairing options.
The classic red nail will never go out of style, but this season they’re especially in fashion along with some new colors from brands we love. Some of our favorite shades of red are Trafalgar by Dior, and Camelia by Dolce & Gabanna.
With the cold weather approaching, layering is a great way to express yourself and stay warm. Inspirations for this look were taken from BCBG and Yannis Viamos this season. Try mixing textures, like a sheer top with leather bottoms. Make sure you pair opposites so your outfit isn’t too bulky.
Just ask designer Erickson Beamon—a bold statement necklace can instantly perk up even the most plain and simple outfit. Add a chunky, bright necklace to a neutral outfit for the perfect pop of color. Be sure to keep your other jewelry to a minimum, and layer this necklace on a solid t-shirt. A statement necklace commands all the attention!
We all love leggings. I mean, lets be real; they’re comfy and they look good. Fear no more! They are still trending, but we’re flaring it up with patterned leggings this fall. Celebs like Taylor Momsen and Dakota Fanning are rocking this look, pairing them with loose fitting tunics and jackets or t-shirts. Wear them however suits you, because they’re so comfy you’ll need a pair for every day of the week. 1 .“ Tr e n d Wa t c h : S t a t e m e n t N e c k l a c e s .” Last accessed October 21, 2013. http://w w w. p or t l a nd mont h l y m a g . c om /s t y le a n d - shopping /shop-ta l k /a r ticles/trendwatch-s t a t e m e nt-n e c k l a c e s - ju l y-2 013 . 2. G u s t a s h a w, M e g a n . “ F a l l 2 01 3 ’s M o s t Wearable Fashion Trends,” accessed Oct 9, 2013, http://www.glamour.com/fashion/2013/02/fall2013-most-wearable-fashion-trends#slide=1. 3. Hillman, Joanna. “New York Fall 2013 Trend Report”. Last accessed Oct 9, 2013. http://www. harpersbazaar.com/fashion/fashion-articles/ top-fall-2013-trends#slide-1. 4. “The New Neutrals: Warm,” Last accessed Oc t 9, 2 013. ht t p://w w w.el le.com / beauty/ makeup-skin-care/best-nail-polishes-for-fall2013#slide-21.
T O KN SO T S FA Julin arrah F y b d he tograp nd pho a n e t it wr
WHY AMERICAN WOMEN ARE WAITING LONGER TO TIE THE KNOT In recent years, we’ve seen women waiting longer than ever to get married. Women aren’t yearning for their prince charming to come and sweep them off their feet, but rather they’re working as hard as they can to become successful career women. It is speculated that modern and independent women are focusing more on their wants and needs, rather than concentrating immediate effort on tying the knot and raising a family. This sassy single lady aspires to be free to make her own choices. All the while she’s resisting the societal pressures to settle down and become a baby-making machine. The vast majority of American women still agree that they want to get married at some point, however fewer are actually doing so. Many of these leading ladies feel that there are many more opportunities outside of an early marriage. We are no longer viewing women as reproductive vessels. Career options are becoming more readily available and attainable for the modern woman. The new average age for marriage in America is 27, which is at a historic high. The definition of the institution of marriage is also being reconsidered. Couples are treating marriage as a capstone experience or a way to signify to others that they have “made it” into a successful relationship. Many hold the view that marriage is appropriate only after one has completed
everything else on their life’s checklist such as an education and a stable job. It is thought of by the modern couple that marriage should be saved until after individual successes are accomplished. Less than half of all women 18 or older in the U.S. are married today, making this the lowest percentage since the turn of the century. Many couples live together, have children, and have productive lives outside the confines of marriage. Delayed marriage has elevated the socioeconomic status of women and their partners. It allows women to reach other life goals, and reduces the odds of divorce for couples now marrying in the U.S. Women enjoy an annual income premium if they wait until 30 or later to marry. It is proven that women who wait longer to tie the knot bring in a much larger annual income rather than if they had married earlier. Delayed marriage has also helped to bring down the divorce rate in the U.S since the early 1980s; couples who marry in their early twenties and especially their teens are more likely to divorce than couples who marry later. So move over, Prince Charming! You’ll just have to wait your turn! 1. Hayes, Erin. “More Americans Waiting Longer to Marry.” Last accessed October 19, 2013. http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/ story?id=130884.
written and photographed by Brandon Mercer
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, more commonly known as ‘The Mounties,’ were established in 1873. However, women were not accepted fully into the force until 1974. Prior to their complete initiation women played roles such as fingerprint technicians, matrons, and jailors charged with tending to and escorting female prisoners. Almost 40 years later, women are finally speaking out against the sexism they have experienced since being on the force.
These injustices gained national attention after Janet Merlo, among few others, came forth with two decades worth of accounts including sexist remarks, pranks, derogatory comments, and various double standards she experienced while serving the force. In one specific account, Merlo’s supervising corporal ostensibly made a comment to her then boyfriend, Wayne Merlo,“Janet is the right height because you can lay a six-pack of beer on her head while she gives you a blow job.” Other incidents included receiving profane items in her work mailbox such as a dildo and a fictional pamphlet entitled “Training Courses Now Available for Women” which contained a list of over 30 degrading made-up seminars. Merlo claims to have suffered from severe depression and PostTraumatic Stress Disorder during and following her employment with the RCMP because of these incidents. Although many have spoken out before her, Merlo was the catalyst for nearly 300 female Mounties to come forth in March 2012. Like many others, her case file was filled with allegations of gender discrimination and sexual harassment within the RCMP. Of the 300 attesting women, each has
individually expressed the notion that there are exponentially more who have not come forward to speak out against this discrimination. Sandy Zaitzeff, one of the leading attorneys in this case had this to say on the matter: “These cases rank with the saddest cases that I’ve ever had. In many cases there are failed relationships, failed marriages and referred PTSD to the children and that’s what makes it very sad. These women bear the burden and they’ll likely bear this burden for the rest of their lives.” With statements given from women of all ages and ranks within the force it was clear that no particular sub group was targeted more frequently, but women as a whole were victimized. While these allegations have tainted the image of an organization that prides itself on integrity and honesty, these claims have remained unproven and left the government unwavering in its non-guilty stance. While the case sorts through the ominous lists compiled of violations against its female employees, the women of the RCMP can only hope that this will shed some light on discrimination within the force, and be the stimulus for future changes to ensure the safety and respect of female Mounties across Canada. 1. James Keller. “Lawyer for women Mounties urges RCMO to sett le ha rassment case” Vancouver: The Canadian Press, 2013. 2 . Dene Moore. “Hundreds of women come forward in RCMP harassment class-action lawsuit”. Vancouver: The Canadian Press, 2012 . 3. James Mackenzie. “Troop 17: The Making of Mounties” Calgary, Detselig Enterprises, 1992.
T H E T RU E R E F L E C T I O N S O F FA I RY TA L E S written and photographed by Caitlyn Penke
airy tales have taken on a skewed perspective that there will always be happy endings; or that the perfect Prince Charming will save the damsel in distress. There is more to these tales than the Disney renditions have led on, having strayed so far from the original classics.
Fairy tales aren’t just about fantastical worlds that one could only dream about living in, but they are also reality– a reality jam-packed full of the greatest adventures. A timeline of events where the impossible becomes the possible, secrets are revealed, and challenges in life are questioned. As a child progresses into adulthood, believing in fairy tales is viewed as inappropriate. To better morph into the ideas of society, dreams are lost and more attainable ones are found. However, to the adults who still hold onto these tales of folklore and pass their ideas on to the next generation, there are many life values that can be gained and used to educate society. A fairy tale isn’t just about slaying ogres to win the hearts of a poverty ridden town, or waiting centuries for the perfect man to wake a princess from eternal sleep with his kiss. They are about the deeper metaphors that are hidden in the entangling plot lines. Fairy tales represent real life situations, even if they are a much more embellished version. While mystical creatures aren’t real, fairy tales depict allegorical foes that can be related to everyday obstacles and prove that these metaphorical monsters are able to be conquered. Every day has a new battle to fight, and these struggles can be overcome with hard work and patience.
Fairy tales are more than nonsense; they encourage people to keep on dreaming, growing, and exploring.
Simply, a fairy tale is a different vehicle of truth – a unique form that delivers a distinctive message that, in combination with life, morally shapes an individual. To an extreme, these tales may not be completely realistic, but they are, by far, tales that are relatable. Characters in these realms suffer from complications, as would an ordinary person. Battles against one’s inner anxieties, hostilities that are faced with another person, disputes over wealth, or on a simpler note, crusades on jealousy, greed, honor, and the like. In the end though, a lesson is learned and morality is gained. Whether the fight is for love, courage, hope, or sacrifice, it takes hard work and perseverance to overcome these obstacles that more than likely are faced on a day-to-day basis. This benefit is only one of many. Another precise reason these tales are enjoyable is that fairy tale characters are relatable to our own personal character. Through the delivery of these stories, sometimes it is easier to see intangible goals with a special clarity by detaching from the everyday world. Fairy tales are more than nonsense; they encourage people to keep on dreaming, growing, and exploring. They strengthen wonderment and curiosity for the world. It takes a certain kind of person to take these tales and turn them into reality, whether it is by spreading moral messages, exploring the unimaginable wonders of the world, or by retelling and fabricating new stories through art. Storytelling rouses one’s imagination and strengthens our will to create. Stories of heartbroken maidens are more than enough to spur the imagination and take inspiration in conceiving our own original renditions of a tale. An artist can take the plots of these unrealistic worlds and turn them into a reality by using magic from the imagination – another lesson taught to the readers of these fables. Children who grow up reading such tales lead more adventurous lives because they seek to recreate these worlds in our own reality. Aside from encouraging the world to be creative, fol k lore also has important educational purposes. The classics are written with exquisite vocabulary and
unique play on words that keep the reader engaged through the entirety of the tale. A child that reads these tales will expand their vocabulary at an earlier age by challenging their minds and enhancing their knowledge, as well developing a taste for rhyme. Another reason why fairy tales are important in early development is that they teach children that there is evil in the world. A story wouldn’t be interesting without an antagonist, but the plot lines don’t hesitate to hide the idea that there are villains in real life. These stories encourage young minds to question how they can better change the world, and better change themselves. The authors of these tales give innocence to the story at hand, but also don’t hide the realities to be faced. Children learn to never give up on their dreams, but rather keep on reaching for the seemingly impossible. In most of these stories, the protagonist almost always overcomes their struggles, but beforehand is faced with misfortune. Bad things happen to everyone, but it’s what you make of the situation that helps you grow. If such stories always had sad endings, there would be much less, if anything, learned. One of the key points fairy tales teach the reader is that disappointment and failure don’t signal the end of a struggle, but rather they are a continuation to a greater success. Through the more modern tales, there is a skewed idea that there is always the ‘happily ever after.’ However, sticking to the classics, these tales teach young minds at an early age that yes, there may be happy endings to one tale, but also leads to the idea that in other stories there are bitter endings. Fairy tales have a reality to them. The stories have a sugarcoated truth, and they don’t hesitate to present them in a glorified manner. They may be written in fantastical worlds, but that doesn’t mean the lessons behind them aren’t real. These fantasies can be made into a new truth through creative and inspirational minds. An understanding of these tales can lead to a gain in moral character, but most importantly these types of tales enlighten the reader and teach them perseverance.
written by Eva D’Ignazio and Sarah Holden photographed by Sarah Holden
How light pollution is affecting our star gazing and more
In January of 1994, the city of Los Angeles was in total darkness. A major earthquake had knocked out the power, and a few frantic residents called emergency centers to report a “giant, silvery cloud.” That “silvery cloud” turned out to be the Milky Way, seen for the first time in decades by residents of Los Angeles. Reducing the visibility of stars is one of the most obvious side effects of light pollution. In the case of cities like Los Angeles, “sky glow” is very common. Sky glow refers to the large halo of light that surrounds urban areas, caused by extraneous light that is directed upward into the atmosphere. As
other parts of the world continue to develop urban areas and use more power, light pollution is expected to increase. It has been estimated that almost two-thirds of the world’s population cannot look up and see the Milky Way with their naked eye. Sky glow is not the only form of light pollution. Light trespass is when artificial light from sources such as street lamps flood into unneeded areas, glare is light that shines horizontally, and over-illumination is wasted light, such as keeping lights on all night in an empty building. All of these examples create light pollution and waste billions of dollars of energy. 74
As well as being economically careless and destroying the beauty of the night sky, light pollution also negatively affects our health. Studies have shown that an increase in artificial light during night time hours can lead to an increase in depression, headaches, and sleep issues. Artificial lights can lead to a decrease in melatonin, which helps regulates the body’s internal clock, and lack of sleep leads to a weaker immune system. Some studies have found a link between excessive lighting and breast cancer. Animals are also negatively affected by light pollution. Sometimes birds will sing at odd hours because of the environmental
confusion caused by artificial lights. An article from 2008 National Geographic Magazine informs us that “scientists have determined that long artificial days—and artificially short nights—induce [abnormal] early breeding in a wide range of birds. And because [this] allows for longer feeding, it can also affect migration schedules.” It can only be assumed that as light pollution increases, more animal behaviors will be modified and negatively affected.
many street lamps have spill light that often shines upward. A smarter light would be a full cutoff street lamp that directs all of the light downward, which reduces the amount of light spilling into the atmosphere. Other ways of reducing light pollution include turning off unneeded lights and reducing the power of lights. Perhaps if we take steps to reduce light pollution, we won’t need an earthquake to remind ourselves of the beauty of the sky.
So, what can be done to reduce light pollution? Surprisingly, the answer isn’t necessarily fewer lights, but smarter lights. A common example would be street lamps;
1. Klinkenborg, Verlyn. “Our Vanishing Night.”
4. Lighting Research Center, “Lighting Answers.”
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g leusercontent .com /at t ach ment /u /0/?u i=
2i k= 8 dc d 6 4 8 d14 & v iew= at t& t h=14 21f 7 70 25b21398&atid= 0.1&disp=inline&realattid =f_hnkojqbw0&safe=1&zw&saduie=AG9B_P_. 2. Fox 13 News, “Stars Vanish as Light Pollution Increases.” Last accessed November 8, 2013. http://fox13now.com/2013/04/25/starsvanishas-light-pollution-increases/. 3. Chepesiuk, Ron. Environmental Health Perspectives, “Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution.” Last accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC2627884/.
I awoke to a changed world. Where there were once towering skyscrapers, nature now flourishes. Animals run free around us and we help each other survive. The once polluted oceans are now clear and the rivers flow freely and wildly through the land. I feel as though I have been reborn and given a second chance: a chance to live in harmony with the world around us. I, and others like me, the survivors, now have a chance to remake our world and create a perfect society. We can succeed where our ancestors have failed and we can be one with our surroundings. I am thankful. This world is now my Utopia. I can begin again. 76
W hen I was young, life was overrun by technology, and everyone was disconnected from each other. Development was in cities and industry, slowly destroying all that the world had to offer. People fought, countries were at war, and our actions were slowly deteriorating our planet. I was afraid, afraid of what was to come if nothing were to change. Then it happenedâ€“ catastr ophe hit. I donâ€™t remember much except for snippets of a journey that brought us to safety and after thatâ€“ nothing.
This is utopia. Man has removed his inf luence from earth and now Mother Nature can rightfully claim what is hers. I have been waiting for the time when life is in balance again.
written by Jennifer Ho photographed by Ryan Vazquez
This is utopia. Man has finally removed all natural inf luence from the world. Technology and Industry now spearhead the development of the future. I have been waiting for the time when Man is finally dominant over Mother Nature. Our society was once overrun by the organic world. We were susceptible to disease and dependent on nature to provide us with the nutrition necessary for survival. People grew old, people diedâ€“ we were pawns to the creators of this universe. Thatâ€™s how we lived our lives until the day that everything changed. It was a miracle, a technological miracle that provided humanity with a way to be in control. It started with a few volunteers who were brave enough to trust in the brilliance of the unknown. As decades passed, we no longer aged and we no longer depended on the natural world for survival. As society saw success, more joined us, and after centuries of progress, we managed to create our world. Our current world is of our creation. Cities stretch across every inch of the planet. People are united in a way that our ancestors never dreamed. There is no more fighting; there is no more hunger. We have created this perfect world and we plan to live in it. Forever. I am thankful. This world is now my Utopia. I can begin again.
written by Stephen Hoefer photographed by Allison Pfefferle
Have you gone camping and wondered how you survived? Well, you probably didn’t do some of these “don’ts”. If you have gone camping you probably have realized that a lot can go wrong, and will, if you don’t know what you are doing, or what to watch out for. Don’t ever light an open fire. Lighting an open fire can turn into a disaster and destroy anywhere from a few trees to hundreds of acres. Most campsites are extremely f lammable due to all of the trees, leaves, and plants that grow. Here are some easy ways to avoid wild fires. Make sure you always have a way to extinguish a fire by always having a bucket of water and sand available. Never leave a fire unattended; clear all the extra debris away from the site before you start the fire, and be sure to fully extinguish a fire when you are finished with it. Don’t leave food unattended. Before you leave any campsite to go hiking, swimming, or whatever you may do, tidy up the site. No matter what food, wrappers, or garbage you may have, you must make sure that they are all properly secured and taken care of. No matter how small or insignificant a wrapper may be, it can attract unwanted animal encounters, big or small. An easy tricks to avoid fines or unwanted animals is to put all food back
in a safe storage container, or bring an extra container just for trash that is air tight and can be brought back with you when you leave your site. Don’t pick a campsite that is on low ground or close to water. If you are lucky it will not rain while you are camping, but unfortunately, it might. While camping, it is very important to stay dry if it rains; this will prevent depression and possibly getting sick. You never want to set up your camp too close to a pond or lake. After a good rain, the water level can creep up and take over your camp which can wash away all of your belongings and get all of your possessions wet. In addition, it will pollute the environment with all of your belongings and trash. Take precautions by setting up camp on higher ground, securing all belongings when you are sleeping or away from your site, and of course keep belongings off the ground. The point of this article is not to discourage you from camping, but to keep you and the environment safe while making camping more enjoyable. Whether you learned something or not, don’t forget to follow these simple rules to help your camping trip be successful and enjoyable no matter the conditions or the misfortunes.
onsidered one of her seminal works, Judy Blume’s Are You There God, It’s Me, Margaret deals with struggling to find religion in a family of split faiths. While the two sides of this article don’t detail the hardships of puberty (you’re welcome), it does illustrate the struggle of finding peace between who you are, and who you want to be.
DAN’S STORY My parents emigrated from Taiwan in the early seventies and though America proved to be quite a challenge, they eventually settled down, bought a house in Houston, and had kids. Despite being born 20 years after they first laid eyes on Lady Liberty, the home I grew up in was still very Asian. Before I could walk, a wok was more familiar than a skillet, and my caring grandfather treated every bump and scrape with Tiger Balm ointment. That’s about where I draw the line though; growing up in Texas is an indoctrintion in all things great, like Tex-Mex, big trucks, and big beef. Despite my number-one Santa request three years running (cowboy boots and hat), my parents stuck me in violin lessons and Chinese language classes every Saturday for 13 years. Eventually, I was two grades behind my age in Mandarin, and I was better at “The Devil Went Down to Georgia,” than anything by Vivaldi. By high school, some cocktail of a surly adolescent attitude, the wear of raising three children, or the increasing tuition of language classes, forced my parents to drink the kool-aid: their third son was by no means Asian. It wasn’t just at home, though. The kids in kindergarten made it clear that the lunch room would be easier if I swapped soy sauce for ketchup. But the street isn’t one way. No matter where I call home, there’s been an increase of not only Asian culture, but population too. Even though looks of pity from Chinese friends accompany poor attempts to muddle through conversations in Mandarin, I’ve accepted the 90/10 split American-Asian that I am.
written by Dan Wang and Brianna Hanley photographed by Dan Wang
Asian culture, specifically Japanese culture, has continuously shaped my identity and interests. Living in Northwest Pennsylvania, it’s hard to imagine how I developed such a love for a country on the other side of the world. Whether it was special visitors to my seventh grade geography class, Japanese missionaries during the four years I attended Seneca Hills Bible Camp, or a close friendship with Mizuki, a Japanese foreign exchange student, something about all things Japan clicked, and I’ve never looked back. The distinct air of the language, allure of attention-holding entertainment, and food that is both delicious and healthy, delighted me. Ironically, America did not have as much freedom to me in comparison. Ever since middle school, it was my goal to someday experience these unfamiliar sights for myself, to live out the adventure of my adopted Japanese culture. Last year through Study Abroad, I fulfilled my dream. After years of hoping, I lived and traveled in Kyoto for six weeks. More than anything, I realized how much I love and appreciate both my native and my adopted cultures. It’s easy enough to jump on a bandwagon and get caught in a mindset that certain cultures or countries are more preferable than others, and I was shocked to find aspects of American culture that I missed while abroad. Somewhere between standing out in a crowd, or not being able to fully understand the language around you, I found that the grass isn’t always as green as you thought it’d be. While I still dream of going back to Japan, I’m pretty content as an American living as a Japan-ophile.
sexualization of female collegiate athletes
written by Sarah Bono photographed by Chelsie Craig Women have endured hardships since the beginning of time. Although things have improved immensely, there is still plenty of room for improvement. I felt it was important to pay homage to our female athletes, specifically college athletes. Female athletes should represent power, strength, and courage. Instead, they have been portrayed as objects commanding no respect. They have fewer fans, and “fans” that only come to admire their bodies when they are required to wear revealing uniforms, rather than for their skills and ability. They also usually have inadequate practice space and equipment. To gain a better understanding, I interviewed individuals who experience this firsthand on a day-to-day basis. The interviewees have remained anonymous, but include a DI Women’s Hockey player, DIII Women’s Lacrosse player, and a male interviewee from the DIII Men’s soccer team, all of whom are Rochester Institute of Technology student athletes.
Anonymous Female RIT Women’s Hockey NCAA DI Athlete
Do you feel as appreciated as male athletes? I think in our situation at RIT, I do in a sense. I know that we are so spoiled with our facilities and what we are given. However, strictly compared to the men, I would say they do have an advantage over us. Their games sell out (which they should– it’s men’s hockey, much more valued than women’s hockey anywhere, not just here), and they are perceived as being more important. Ever since I started, it has gotten progressively better in terms of equality among the two teams, but I would say that from my freshman year to now, the differences are pretty small.
Do you feel that your uniforms represent you in a negative way? I don’t think our uniforms represent us in a negative way at all, but that is probably because we wear the exact same uniform as any other men’s or women’s hockey team. If I played a different sport such as soccer or lacrosse, or even volleyball, then I think that might be a little bit different.
Do you think others view your body as a symbol of strength or sexuality? I think it is more a symbol of strength. Hockey is an extremely physically demanding sport. We don’t just train to run, or to lift heavy weights, we train to do those things as well as foot speed, stick handling, agility among others, and then put all of that together on the ice, with teammates and
Do you feel as appreciated as male athletes?
RIT Women’s Lacrosse NCAA DIII Athlete
No, way more people go to guys’ games rather than the girls’, and I always feel like guys are getting more privileges than females.
Do you feel that your uniforms represent you in a negative way? Yes. For lacrosse we wear skirts, and I feel some people just want to come to our game because girls are playing a sport in skirts. Even though we wear spandex underneath: there is nothing to show!
Do you think others view your body as a symbol of strength or sexuality? Sometimes both. I know that some view female athletes as very butch looking depending on the sport. However, some others may think that being really fit and active is a very sexy look.
coaches. In that sense, I would definitely see this as a symbol of strength. We don’t flaunt our bodies during our games; we’re completely covered up. The most you would ever see of our bodies is during warm-up or workouts, and that isn’t as “seen” as during our games.
Personal story of sexual harassment while playing your sport: I don’t know if it would be “harassment” exactly, but when I was about 10 and I was playing boys hockey, I got cut from the rep team (competitive) because I was a girl. Some of the boys on the ice would literally make fun of me and say that I wouldn’t make the team because I was a girl. One of those boys in particular was the coach’s son... Needless to say I wasn’t ever his biggest fan, even when we went to high school together.
Personal story of sexual harassment while playing your sport: During practice one day when it was hotter out, we were all wearing just our pinnies and shorts (like we normally do on warmer days). Next to our turf field, there were construction workers that were working on building the new ice rink for our hockey team. I was over by the sideline to get a ball from the ball bag, so I bent down to get one and I heard one of the construction workers say “yeah, you bend over and reach for that ball.” At first I thought I was just hearing things, but then my other teammates were like, “Did you hear that? Did he really just say that?” That is when I felt really uncomfortable the rest of practice, because these old men construction workers were just staring at us the rest of our practice.
What is your age and year in college?
Why do you go to watch female athletes?
RIT Men’s Soccer NCAA DIII Athlete
I’m 21. I’m a senior.
Sometimes they’re hot. Lots of female athletes are butch though. Other times it’s just because they’re my friends and I’m trying to make them something more.
Who is your favorite female athlete, and why? Probably Serena Williams or Julie Hall. Serena Williams because she is so driven and dedicated. I respect that in any profession. Julie Hall because she’s so damn beautiful.
Do you view female athlete’s bodies as a symbol of strength or sexuality? I view them as both. I am definitely attracted to female athletes because I respect a woman who takes care of her body.
PROSTITUTION PROFITABILITY written and photographed by Sarah Holden
Running a legal brothel is expensive. Between the work permits, licensing fees, property taxes, and “live entertainment” taxes, all of a sudden the whole operation sounds a lot less… sexy. I am, of course, referring to the twenty or so legal brothels found in the state of Nevada. Unfortunately, that number may decline if the legal prostitution industry continues to lose money in the aftermath of the most recent recession. For those that are unaware, 10 of Nevada’s 17 counties allow the operation of legal brothels. Large brothels can have over thirty working women, while smaller ones may only have two or three. All but the largest brothels are seeing a reduction in their profits. In the last ten years, gross revenue has dropped 40 to 50 percent, and the number of legal brothels has been cut in half.
“offer[s] a lot more specials and discounts and incentives.” She says that “People are looking for deals.” Nevada locals are also not a reliable source of income for the brothels and the girls who work there. Nevada has been one of the slowest states to recover from the recession, with a current unemployment rate of 9.5 percent. Also, most brothels are located in the rural areas of Nevada where people are scarce and average incomes have fallen.
property taxes as well as sales tax to the state on any brothel merchandise. With such expenses it’s hard for brothels to compete with illegal online services and independent prostitutes. Some brothel owners seem to be optimistic about the future as the economy pulls itself out of the recession, but the internet, unfortunately, is here to stay. So the prostitution industry of Nevada still has a lot to compete with in the coming years. 1. Farnham, Alan. “Hard Times for Nevada’s Legal Brothels”. ABC News. Last accessed September 24,
Another factor that is responsible for the falling state of the brothel industry is the rise of the internet. It is easier than ever to set up rendezvous online and bypass the legalities set up by the state. Many girls have switched to illegal prostitution through the internet. So why are so many brothels suffering Although it’s more dangerous, they don’t financially? One reason is the pinched have to split their fee with the house, which pockets of their most popular clientele… means they can charge less while making truck drivers. With the rise of gas prices, a larger profit. truckers no longer have the disposable income to visit brothels as often as they did The houses normally take 50 percent of the in the past. Many establishments rely on cut from a girl’s session. This may seem like a truckers as their main source of income. lot, but brothels pay a large amount of money Other clients are continuing to visit their to the county. The four brothels in Lyon favorite “girls” but are simply spending County paid $369,600 in business-licensing less than they used to. Brook Tayler, fees and $17,800 for work permits during a prostitute at the Moonlite Bunny ranch, the last fiscal year. They also paid room and 88
2013. http://abcnews.go.com/Business/nevadabrothel-industry-slump/story?id=20098496. 2. Rosenberg, David. “The Precious Women of Nevada’s Brothels”. Last accessed October 2, 2013. http://www.slate.com/blogs/behold/2013/06/17/ jane_hilton_precious_is_a_series_of_intimate_ portraits_of_women_who_work.html. 3. Vekshin, Alison. “Brothels in Nevada Suffer as Web Disrupts Oldest Trade”. Last accessed September 28, 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/ news/2013-08-28/brothels-in-nevada-shrivel-asweb-disrupts-oldest-trade.html. 4. Morris, Chris. “As Nevada’s Brothel Industry Faces Hard Times, A Few Establishments Are Beating The Odds”. Last accessed September 29, 2013. http://w w w.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/28/ nevada-brothel-industry_n_3831685.html.
BEHIND THE INJURY A LONG ROAD TO RECOVERY written by Mariah Lamb and Mercedes Castro photographed by Mercedes Castro
Pretend for just a second you are a collegiate athlete. You have spent countless hours preparing, training, and working harder than you have ever worked before. You are stronger than you have ever thought that you could be, and able to perform at a level that you thought was unattainable. You are feeling as if you are on top of the world: ready to go and unstoppable.
that I took my physical health for granted before my injury. Once I was on the road to my recovery, I wasn’t going to stop. I did everything that I could to strengthen myself. There is a saying that a stallion cannot reach its fullest potential until it is first broken. And I wanted to test that.”
But then, in just a split second, all of those feelings are taken away from you. Athletes are hard-workers, dedicated motivators, and strong competitors. An injury can take all of this hardworking motivation away from them in an instant. Injuries not only take away the sense of being a winner from an athlete, but can disrupt their life goals as well. Physical and emotional strength along with the will to fight, are what an athlete needs to keep them going and to keep them prepared for a quick and painless recovery. Giving up is not an option for athletes and neither is failure. Peter Coutts, the captain of the RIT Swimming and Diving team, learned this the hard way. An offseason soccer accident left him with a serious leg injury that he is still recovering from today. “Everything that I had worked for went down the drain after my injury. I felt like my freedom had been stolen. I realized
Eva D’Ignazio currently plays defense on the RIT Lacrosse team. She was also a victim of an injury that caused her lacrosse season to be put on hold. “Being injured was really tough. Not only was it the first spring in fifteen years that I had to sit on the sideline, but it was also the first time I had to let my body rest and heal. Getting back into shape was a slow, frustrating, yet rewarding process.”
The time that it takes for an athlete to heal can be painstaking. A person never knows how long it will take for their body to be well enough again to restart competition. One person who knows this very well is one of RIT’s athletic trainers, Tiffany Reichman. In her time as an athletic trainer she has seen countless injuries and recovering athletes in collegiate sports. “At times it’s amazing to see the athlete that emerges from an injury, especially a serious and seasonending ailment. The growth and maturity gained by being forced to sit out of their sport can be inspiring. The insight from a new perspective is priceless, yet the depression that creeps in can be unimaginable.” Reichman continues, “Nothing gives an athletic trainer more joy than saying to an athlete that they can return to their sport, and nothing is harder than pulling an athlete from competition. But we all consider the implications that can occur if returned too quickly. There is such a fine line, and the last thing you want is a small injury to become season-ending, or even career-ending because they weren’t prepared to return back to sport.” Getting injured is the easy part of athletics. Having to remove yourself from something you are so immersed in is difficult and is cause for a long road to recovery.
The tragic story of over-indulging in social media
written by Farrah Julin and Bryan Harney photographed by Farrah Julin
Bethany doesn’t notice that she is surrounded by a beautiful view and separated from society; she has a Snapchat notification, and can’t let her friend feel forgotten. She’s also checked into Foursquare every stop on the way to the beach, and uploaded two Instagram shots to her Twitter and Facebook. She got to show off her ‘beach bod’ so her friends can comment on her swimsuit. Who knows, she might just make it her new profile picture. Her young life cannot go undocumented. Bethany is #atthebeach, but she’s only concerned with her phone. With billions of people on social media sites; have individuals lost touch with the human experience?1 With the ultimate duo of Smartphones and seemingly unlimited Wi-Fi or data connections, humans everywhere have allowed technology to take over their lives. Back in 2009, for example, Hugh Jackman interrupted a scene from his Broadway performance of Steady Rain to tell an audience member to turn off their ringing cell phone. “Come on, just turn it off…unless you’ve got a better story,” Jackman said. Not to mention, the whole incident was recorded on a cell phone from a separate audience member, which is illegal.2 It’s okay though, right? It became viral on YouTube… Illegally recording during a Broadway show is just like Bethany, who is unable to enjoy the beauty of the beach. They both exemplify how easily people disconnect from the real world and plug-in to the virtual world. It’s this exact disconnect that diminishes the beauty of any art, culture, or nature we are surrounded by. Excessive social media users are so obsessed with their online social life that they lose sight of the magnificent life around them.
Generation Y and even Generation Z have been born and raised in this digital world and don’t know what life was like before. They thrive off the instantaneous digital feedback. However, we can’t blame this fixation entirely on the younger generations. The fascination with sharing stories or photos with family and friends isn’t a new concept. That being said, it has never been easier to open your door to the world than it is now. It’s this social media ease that creates the obsession. Let’s take Sprint, a leading wireless service provider, as a supporting example. They market themselves by stating, “the miraculous is everywhere: in our homes, our minds. We can share every second in data dressed as pixels. A million roaming photojournalists uploading the human experience, and it is spectacular.” 3 Are awkward cross-processed ‘selfies’ and bland statements about our ‘every second’ really ‘spectacular’? Yes, mobile devices are incredibly helpful as a personal assistant, but are easily overused to the point of obsession. Some people may even feel withdrawal or anxiety if they’re away from their devices too long. The most beautiful and memorable moments can be yours and yours alone. Life does not have to be one big round of show and tell. So, don’t be like Bethany. Put the phone down and look around. #enjoytheview 1. Statistic Brain. “Social Networking Statistics.” Last accessed September 24, 2013.
statisticbrain.com/social-netwrking-statistics/. 2. “Hugh Jackman: The Cell Phone Incident,” CBS News video. Last accessed September 22, 2013. http:// www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=5367248n. 3. “Sprint iPhone 5: I Am Unlimited.” Ads Of The World. Last accessed September 22, 2013. http://adsoftheworld.com/media/tv/sprint_ iphone_5_i_am_unlimited.
written and photographed by Amelia Katz
hen I first relocated to Rochester in the fall of 2010, it didn’t immediately strike me as a food city. It’s a city made up of neighborhoods, all better accessible by car than on foot, and somehow with a lack of congruity to connect them all together. But after almost four years here, I’m learning that this is what makes Rochester so unique in terms of food. Wherever you are, whichever neighborhood you find yourself in, there’s guaranteed to be some excellent food or drink mecca a few blocks away.
More than one factor has contributed to the rise in elevated food culture; the gentrification of the South Wedge for the past decade has introduced more than one fantastic new eatery, as well as the introduction and growing hipness of farm-to-table cooking in the northeast. We travelled to three different neighborhoods in Rochester, and highlighted three places we found to represent the growing food culture in this city. For the South Wedge, we selected Open Face, where bottles of vintage Moxie can be found among plates of ginger carrots and pickled beets. For the Neighborhood of the Arts, we picked Joe Bean, a coffee bar and roastery that is introducing the first inhouse artisan brewed coffee in Rochester. For North Goodman, we chose Good Luck, whose gorgeous interior is equally matched by its inspired cocktails and ever-changing menu.
Nestled in the east end of the Neighborhood of the Arts lies Joe Bean Coffee Bar and Roastery. It’s not your typical café; if you’re looking for a place to cozy up in a big armchair with headphones and your laptop, you’re in the wrong place. The bar-style layout and warm, rustic tones and textures encourage conversation and a relaxed community vibe. A part of what they call the “slow foods” movement, Joe Bean is committed to building a presence for third wave coffees in Rochester. Each bean is roasted with an exceptional amount of care and concern for the craft; the individual discerning flavors in every cup can be pretty astounding. So, if you’re a coffee aficionado, take a seat at the coffee bar and the baristas at Joe Bean would be happy to tell you about their beans, down to the exact temperatures at which they’re roasted.
not only are they DELICIOUS they are absolutely GORGEOUS
Open Face is my quintessential Rochester lunch spot. It’s not exactly a place to go to people watch (for that, take a walk on Park Ave.), but seriously, the sandwiches are unbeatable and their tea collection is to die for. I walk into Open Face, and immediately I breathe in the smell of their fresh loose-leaf tea. It’s my favorite part of the small eatery, as it’s always a pleasure to see tea treated with such delicacy and respect. The sandwiches are top of the line; not only are they tasty, but they are absolutely gorgeous when they come out of the kitchen. If you’re in favor of beets, the side of pickled beets is an absolute necessity; their stunning vivid magenta color makes it hard to tear the eyes away from them long enough to eat. 96
GOOD LUCK Good Luck has no sign. Save for a mural on the brick wall by the back entrance, there is nothing announcing the hippest restaurant and bar in Rochester. They don’t need it, and haven’t since their opening in 2008. Good Luck was founded by the three partners behind Java’s and Cure, two other wellestablished Rochester hangouts. Originally, the plan was to put together a small wine bar or café, nothing fancy. When I heard this I laughed, because Good Luck is a sprawling, 150-seat restaurant with a full kitchen and massive bar that is always
had to be some consistencies,” explained Cerankosky. Dan Martello, Good Luck’s executive chef since its opening, is responsible for the restaurant’s delicious, everchanging menu. Inspiration has as much to do with the menu changes as seasonality; every Tuesday, Martello drives through the Finger Lakes and fills his truck full of local fruits and vegetables. One could say the style of food is typical of farm-to-table cooking, but Italian influences are apparent as well. There’s always a hand-made pasta on the
packed, and the top restaurant choice for most locals. When I asked Chuck Cerankosky, one of the three owners, how the restaurant grew to what it is now, the answer was french fries. “We just thought, we have to have french fries. And if we have french fries we have to have a fryer. And if we have a fryer, we have to have a Hood system…. And it just evolved from there.”
menu (the recent sweet potato cannelloni was divine) and the vegetables, especially the red lentils, are just incredible. The plates are all to share, making for a pleasant community vibe, and a perfect location to take a date.
Two of the three partners in Good Luck are graduates from RIT’s industrial design program. It’s because of this that I’d attribute the impeccable industrial-chic décor, furniture, and lighting that makes the overall experience at Good Luck so pleasurable. There’s a method behind the madness; the mismatched antique chairs and silverware are complimented by sets of dishes and napkins. “We didn’t want it to look like a thrift shop in here, you know? There
The bar is always crowded, regardless of the day of the week, and absolutely packed on weekends. Grabbing a place at the actual bar becomes somewhat of a sport, and other customers will actually ask you if you’re about to leave so they can nab your spot. I’d attribute this to the excellent and unique cocktails as well as the ambiance. They boast originals as well as the classics, each go for $10 a pop. Expensive but worth it; you’ll see an appearance or two by homemade celery bitters, Thai basil, ‘orange dust,’ and even Sriracha.
StAr StALkInG written by Bryan Harney photographed by Allison Pfefferle
Standing in front of the wall of photos, news clippings, and posters is Derek. He’s been obsessing over Katy Perry for the last two years and it has consumed his life. He follows her Twitter with staggering intensity and even sends direct messages hoping to get a response. He has started blogs about her blog and fan pages for his fandom. Derek has a problem. He is consumed by America’s celebrity culture and can’t retain his grasp on reality. This might sound like a terribly written crime drama script, but this form of obsession is a legitimate issue for some people. Even at a lower intensity, the kind of people that compulsively purchase and follow the news and gossip of the stars don’t know how to take themselves away. They get so wrapped up in what the latest news is on their celebrity crushes that they miss out on the little things in their own lives. If this form of behavior continues without modulation, then it can evolve into something much more severe. This isn’t just some form of unexplainable phenomena. This culture stems from the 90s, when there were two major sources for celebrity news, one televised and one print: “Entertainment Tonight” and People
Magazine. After the turn of the millennium, we saw the proliferation of weekly glossy magazines, as well as a huge increase in televised celebrity news programming and shows dedicated to following their lives directly. This was followed in short succession by the rise of the internet as a news resource, hence the onslaught of celebrity blogs.1 People young and old have grown to be obsessed with the lives and actions of actors, athletes, musicians, and performers. America has amassed a culture that has become consumed with all of the gossip, relationships and even clothing of the stars. It has become more than just autographs and signatures.
no good for individual growth and development and can also leave people living vicarously through the lives of people on the big screen. Who wants that kind of life? Younger people who develop these obsessions and infatuations start to believe that they don’t need to work hard to accomplish anything in their lives. This leaves many young kids aimless and not capable of understanding the meaning of hard work.2 This isn’t a good sign for generations that will soon ‘be in charge.’ Hopefully, this is a fad that will blow over. 1. Piazza, Jo. “Americans Have An Unhealthy Obsession With Celebrities.” Huffington Post: The Blog. Last accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.
So who is to say that we can’t enjoy our celebrity culture? It is a part of our society right? The issue is that the line between fanhood and stalker is blurred by all of the different forms of contact that a person can have with the stars. With all of the ways to follow celebrities on social media, blogs, and television it’s easy to get completely consumed in the life of someone you may never meet. For some it is escapism, and others fantasy. Regardless, these kinds of obsessions are
huffingtonpost.com/jo-piazza/americans-unhealthyobsession-with-celebrities_b_1385405.html. 2. Richardson, Sam. “Nicola Benedetti: Today’s children need culture, not celebrity obsession.” The Telegraph. Last accessed November 8, 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/9387824/ Nicola-Benedetti-Todays-children-need-culturenot-celebrity-obsession.html.
written by Brittany Norton and Brandon Mercer photographed by Brandon Mercer
There is a decadent history of vampire lore that has made the supernatural tale quite the cult phenomenon, but it is recent years that have transformed this once spooky phenomenon into what The New York Times is simply calling ‘vampire lust.’ The degradation of this genre says a thing or two about today’s society.
he lore of the vampire has existed long before literary publication, and the monster has varied in its form world wide. Despite the recent sexualization, vampires world wide continue to be united by one trait: the lust for human blood. Since the beginning, this has been the bulk of the vampire story. Stories of the vampire go back to undated folk tales, although at this point the term “vampire” wasn’t in use. In Trinidad, the tale of the vampire revolves around a woman who takes the form of fire to sneak into people’s homes and suck their blood at night. In Maya, the tale is of the Blackman, a winged black demon who, in addition to cannibalism, attacks women with a six-foot long penis to produce identical spawn. The Blackman can only be killed by being impaled through the heart. While these both contain traits that we are familiar with today (and indeed some we are not), vampire lore most familiar to western culture is said to go back to Babylonian times in the Middle East, where it was believed that the undead could take the form of nocturnal birds and survive on blood. Interestingly, none of the tales mention vampires assuming human forms. Scientists connect the concept of vampires with the medieval misconceptions about postmortem decay. In the medieval age, any unexpected death with decay patterns that the current medical science could not explain was considered to be a supernatural phenomenon. The middle ages contained an inexplicable amount of deaths, leading many to blame it on the acts of the undead vampires. This led to a vampire hysteria
vampire legends are born
that perhaps overshadows the one we see today; sparkling men and lustful teenage girls were nowhere to be found. Vampires were considered an epidemic of the 1600s, but the earliest public hunt of a vampire can be dated back to 1440 in France. The 1600s pandemic started in Transylvania and created a mass hysteria that led to multiple vampire hunts throughout the years. The Western world faced these horrors as well. In 1892, the family of Mercy Lea Brown was believed to be cursed with vampirism and after her death her brother was forced to consume her burned organs in order to bring the curse to an end. He died a short time later.
However, it is certainly the last few years that have turned the hysteria-inducing monsters into pop-culture sex objects. 2005 was the start of the immensely popular Twilight series and often takes the hit as the “downfall of vampires.” However, the craze the series helped induce also led to a series of overly
However, the popularity here isn’t in the fashion itself but in the admiration of the vampire image. Today’s vampires, without the horror element, are simply described as perfect, sexy, and inhumanly attractive. Many people seem to miss or ignore the inhuman aspect, and this look has often become the ideal image for one’s self or significant other. This image of the vampire belongs in the pages of a story book or in the fashion spread of a magazine, but when it becomes a part of America’s already skewed body-image, society’s method of dealing with hardship could really just become a hardship of its own.
It is certainly the last few years that have turned the hysteria-inducing monsters into pop-culture sex objects .
The literary craze of the vampire started in the early 19th century, but no book of its time has achieved the fame of Bram Stoker’s Dracula, published in 1897. Whether through the novel itself or through its multiple film adaptations, we’re all aware that Dracula’s character was not without sexuality or sophistication. However, it doesn’t fail to pay homage to the horror of the world’s past vampire hysteria, and has been considered “the most terrifying and titillating vampire novel of all time.”
sexualized vampire themed television series such as the HBO hit True Blood.
The sexuality of the vampire continued to evolve with the Dracula film adaptations when approaching the 21st century. In 1992, Gary Oldman’s role as Dracula incorporates romantic charm towards the heroine. The 2000 adapatation starring Gerard Butler certainly brings sexuality into play by also incorporating attractive female vampires into the mix.
Regardless of the reasons, the popularity certainly ref lects on the structure of today’s society. After all, the vampire craze has impacted society far beyond a few raunchy television specials. The fashion world has also picked up on the dark glamour of the vampire world. The contrast of pale skin, black, and blood reds certainly can not be aesthetically faulted.
Many people are asking why this vampire craze has stormed recent pop culture. The New York Times suggests that these undead characters are being used to “personify real-world anxieties.” Certainly we are in a time of hardship and real life terror attacks. Some suggest that vampires incorporate these characteristics, and finding romance within this allows for hope.
The increasing sexuality of the vampire character in today’s culture is impossible to miss, and the more flattering the image of the vampire gets, the less flattering the image of the society it reflects. 1. Shepherd, Annie. “The Evolution of the Vampire in Fiction and Popular Culture.”
September 25, 2013. http://www.lagrange.edu/ resources/pdf/citations/2010/11Sheperd_ English.pdf. 2. Radford, Benjamin. “Vampires: The Real History.” Last accessed September 25, 2013. http://www.livescience.com/24374-vampiresreal-history.html.
1440 vampire hunts start in France
hunts peak with mass hysteria in Transylvania 1600
3. La Ferla, Ruth. “A Trend With Teeth.” New York Times. Last accessed September 25, 2013. http://www. nytimes.com/2009/07/02/fashion/02VAMPIRES. html?pagewanted=1&_r=2.
novel Dracula is published
Twilight is published
Dracula movie takes romantic twist
True Blood premieres
1 Denis Defibaugh
11 Jennifer Ho
23 Mercedes Castro
2 Lorrie Frear
12 Sydney Luethi
24 Sarah Holden
13 David Mitchell
25 Katie Kanazawich
26 Jenny McCabe
3 Claire Britt
27 Caitlyn Penke
4 Chelsie Craig
14 Brianna Hanley
28 Allison Pfefferle
15 Ethan Herrington
29 Ryan Vazquez
16 Stephen Hoefer
30 Joleen Zubek
5 Mariah Lamb
17 Lauren Loncar
6 Nick Tyler
WEB/IPAD TEAM PHOTO EDITORS 7 Andrew Hallinan 8 Amelia Katz
18 Sarah Bono 19 Farrah Julin 20 MacKenzi Martin 21 Jessica Schaefers 22 Daniel Wang
DESIGNERS 31 Corrinna Corrallo 32 Eva Dâ€™Ignazio 33 Bryan Harney 34 Elise Janciuras 35 Megan Mosehauer 36 Brittany Norton
9 Brandon Mercer
37 Frances Sorrentino
10 Alyssa Miller
38 Elizabeth Wrobel 39 Megan Sproull
JEFFREY G. KATZ
ROSS & BETSY TAUBMAN
DALE PHOTO & DIGITAL
DONNA R. GILBERT
MIGUEL A. CARDONA
From all of us at Positive/Negative Volume 7, we would like to offer our gratitude to all of the contributors and sponsors of this yearâ€™s magazine. Your help and support enables us to realize the full potential of this magazine. Thank you to RIT President Destler, The School of Design, and The School of Photographic Arts and Sciences for your generous donations to our publication. Thanks to The RIT Photo Store for camera and equipment support. Thank you to Erich Lehman, our technical guru, who was kind enough to offer a world of useful advice and introduce us to the magic of Xinet.
Thank you to our friends at Book One and Monroe Litho for finishing and binding this yearâ€™s edition of Positive/Negative. Thank you to Barbara Giordano and John Dettmer, our friends at PAL, for their support in helping the magazine transition to print. Thank you to Squarespace and Sarah Haas for our web presence and continuing partnership with Rochester Institute of Technology. A big thank you to our special production assistants, Sarah Bono, Ryan Vazquez, and Manuel Carrera.
Thank you to Nathan Pacelli for his knowledge and expertise. Lastly, thank you to the creators of Positive/Negative Volume 7. Our class would like to offer our unconditional thanks and gratitude to our professors Denis Defibaugh and Lorrie Frear, our rocks and fearless leaders who provided guidance and support through this entire process. Thank you for everything.