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infant transportation senior thesis - daniel schaumann


infant transportation around the world


the sling there’s a problem here its become quite clear got a 6-month-old sling fanatic who is clearly an addict wakes in the mid of night screams with horrific might so outa the bed I fling and don the medicinal sling over the head the tool I fit and in it, him I sit instantly he begins to cooo, ‘tis amazing what the sling will do which route should I pursue, when he’s 20 what should I do I gotta wean him from the sling I tell you, its an addictive thing — Bondweign, Hanrath


babywearing,

vb. The practice of wearing or carrying a baby or child in a sling or other form of carrier. Babywearing is far from new and has been practised for centuries around the world. In the industrialized world, babywearing has gained popularity in recent decades, partly under influence of advocates of attachment parenting; however, not all parents who babywear consider themselves attachment parents. Babywearing is a form of baby transport.[1]

benefits of baby wearing 1. carried babies cry less. Parents commonly report, “as long as I wear her, she’s content!” Parents of fussy babies who try babywearing relate that their babies seem to forget to fuss. Anthropologists who travel throughout the world studying infant care practices in other cultures agree that infants in babywearing cultures cry much less. We have been led to believe that it is “normal” for babies to cry a lot, but in other cultures this is not accepted as the norm.

2. carried babies are “humanized” earlier. Babywearing enhances learning because baby is intimately involved in the caregiver’s world. Baby sees what mother or father sees, hears what they hear, and in some ways feels what they feel. Carried babies become more aware of their parents’ faces, walking rhythms, and scents. Baby becomes aware of, and learns from, all the subtle facial expressions, body language, voice inflections and tones, breathing patterns, and emotions of the caregiver.

3. carried babies are smarter. If infants spend less time crying and fussing they spend more time learning. Carried babies spend more time in the state of quiet alertness . This is the behavioral state in which an infant is most content and best able to interact with his environment. It may be called the optimal state of learning for a baby. Researchers have also reported that carried babies show enhanced visual and auditory alertness. Carried sling babies seem more attentive, clicking into adult conversations. Babywearing enhances speech development.


appropriate holds newborns lying down semi-reclining. On your front in sling carrier or wrap. Cradle carry with baby’s head nearest carrying shoulder or nursing hold with baby’s head opposite carrying shoulder.

newborn snuggle hold. Baby upright and facing you, knees up froggy style or feet tucked under. Wraparounds, slings, and soft carriers keep baby’s back and head well supported.

shoulder carry. Very natural position for young baby, frequently assumed without babycarrier. Comforting for baby by putting gentle pressure on his tummy to prevent reflux.

young babies with head control snuggle hold or tummy to tummy. Popular position, giving great security, comfort and visibility. Baby rides with legs around your waist, his centre of gravity above your own.

buddha carry. Older baby is more inquisitive and enjoys facing out to see the world. Baby’s legs are crossed, knees up, froggy-style; or feet tucked under. Can be more tiring.

upright back carry. Baby upright on your back with Asian-style or soft structured carrier. Also possible with wrap, but can be difficult to get your baby into position without assistance.

hip carry. Popular and “natural” carries and can be achieved with a sling, pouch, rebozo, wraparound carrier (one-shoulder carries only), hip carrier, and some soft carriers.


architypes mother - The connection between mother and baby is inherently strong. Mother wants to provide the best for baby, comforting and nurturing his development. Early on she wants to keep baby as close to her as possible. She brought baby into the world and now she wants share it with him. Safety and security for baby are of utmost importance.

father -

Father has watched mother carry their child for the last nine months and now its his turn to help. He wants to protect and teach baby. He wishs that baby will grow strong and smart. He wants to expose baby to the wonders of the world and guide him along the way. Becoming a father evokes a sense of pride and accomplishment. His inner child is reborn and he has a new best friend.

baby - The world is brand new. Everything is exciting and a new experience. Somethings make baby happy others sad. Baby can go from crying to smilling in the blink of an eye. Being held by mother or father provides a sense security and comfort. He wishes to spend every waking moment with mother and father. It doesnt take much to make baby happy but it takes even less to make him cry.


baby wearing options wraps/slings -

A simple strip of cloth makes an elegant and comfortable baby sling. A little learning is required to wrap adjust and tie cloth, but basic methods can be mastered in minutes. Versitale positioning and materials options. Wraparound slings can be short, for quick one-shoulder carries, or longer, to distribute the baby’s weight evenly over two shoulders and the caregiver’s torso and hips.

hip carriers/ mei tais

Hip carriers and Mei Tais are slightly more structured than simple slings. With less fabric to cradle bay, they generally work better for older babies (over six months). Baby is in a more upright position all the time, rather than lying horizontally. Like a sling, the hip carrier fits across your body with baby resting on your hip.

soft structure

Most of the soft structured carriers are loosely based on the traditional mei tai, with buckles, padding and clips added. Many offer the option of facing in when they’re very youngor out when they gain more head control. Designed to be easly put on and adjusted, some models of offer additional lumbar support to displace the weight of carrying a baby on your front.

frame/backpack

Heavy duty construction and high performance materails are often barrowed from hicking backpacks. These rugged baby carriers allow you to take baby along for outdoor activities such as long walks or hikes. Frame baby carriers have sturdy metal frames, waist straps and lumbar support that evenly distribute your baby’s weight to reduce strain on your neck and shoulders.


wraps/slings -

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

Moby Wrap $ 40 - 60 Birth-35lbs 100% Cotton/No fastners

Maya Wrap $ 50 - 95 Birth-35lbs Padded 100% Cotton/ Metal D-Rings

Zolo Sling $ 90 - 120 Not Reported Organic Cotton + Silk/ Metal D-Rings

Features -Uses the entire back and shoulders to -Wear newborns through toddlers in a -High end matierials and fashion the distribute weight. orriented style variety of positions. -Wide piece of fabric to wrap over both shoulders.

Mama’s Milk $ 25 - 95 Not Reported Stretch (97% Cotton 3% Spandex) Adjustable (Cotton/Aplix fastner) -Two designs: Stretch + Adjustable -Design allows for easy slip on and off

-Built in pocket for keys, diaper, cell phone, etc.

-Wide fabric for support.

Pros:

Pros:

Pros:

-Easily adjustable pouch.

-Huge visual impact.

-Easily adjustable pouch for both designs

-Adjusts to fit both parents -Large front pocket in the end of the -Washable cotton/spandex fabric -Develops a strong and secure -Unpadded, open tail that allows for sling. -Nurse easily & discreetly attachment to parents with multiple perfect adjustability positions. -Can be uses as a nursing cover Comments Pros: -Multiple different hold positions.

-Tie Fastening allows for a high degree -Lighteight breathable fabric with just -Simple D-ring adjustment. enough padding of adjustability. -Pouch design allows for multiple -Simple +versatile - Grows with Child. different holds - Washes easily. Cons:

Cons:

-Simple tube pouch design -Small ammount of fabric is good for storage

Cons:

Cons:

-Ambiguous shape makes positioning -Somewhat of a learining curve for difficult. poitioning

-Huge Visual impact.

-Ambiguous shape makes positioning difficult.

- Long length of fabric always ends up dragging on the floor as you put it on.

-Expensive

-Bold coloways and patterns

-Material difficult to clean

-Tube design can close around baby’s face.


wraps/slings -

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

New Native $ 36-58 Birth-35lbs 100% Cotton+ Organic Cotton/ No fastners

Features -Simple design slips on and off -Curved bottom keeps baby in the sling.

Comments Pros:

Walking Rock Farm/Sling Baby $ 58-68 Birth-22lbs Fleece/Air Max Fabric/Cotton Adjustable side release buckel

-Double-sling design offers 8 different -Simple one piece design positions to carry baby, including -Huge variet of designer print fabrics -Quick transfers with buckle. twins -Light sewn-in padding -Nylon webbing support strap with -Matching baby hat and sash included fabric pouch attatched. -9 different sizes for correct fit. -Enables discreet breastfeeding, - Multiple avaialable fabrics for warm facilitates skin to skin or kangaroo or cool climates care Pros:

-Multiple poisitions as child grows

-Non adjustable correct sizing is imperative.

No

Hot Slings $ 40-105 8-35 lbs Cotton Spandex Fabric/ No Fastners

-Patented design.

-Small ammount of fabric folds up to -Easy on and off design small size for storage. -Simple size adjustment -Washes easily. -Multiple positions

Cons:

Baby K’Tan $ 58-68 Birth-42 lbs Cotton Spandex fabric/ Fastners

Cons:

Pros:

Pros:

-Very versatile 8 positions.

-Simple design with multiple beutiful print options

-Comfortable stretch cotton. -Washable and small packout size.

-Washable and air dry

-Grows with child

-Flods to small size for storage

Cons:

Cons:

-Tube design can close around baby’s -Learning curve to master all positions -No adjustablility sizing is imperative face. -Correct fittment takes a lot of -Tube design can close around baby’s -Tube design can close around baby’s -Support? adjustment face. face. -Too stretchy?


hip carriers/ mai thais

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

Original Hip Hammock $ 48 Birth-32lbs Cotton/Hemp/Nylon Cordura

Cuddle Karrier $ 70 Not reported Padded nylon webbing

Walking Rock Farm Hip Carrier $ 78 - 92 6 months - 45 lbs Cotton fabric and nylon webbing straps/ plastic side release buckles

Mei Tai Baby $ 84 - 95 Not Reported Cotton Fabric/No Fasteners

Features -Nylon webbing waist strap and over -Claims 8 differnet mode design -Supportive hip strap with attatched -Build it yourself option sholder strap with adjustable side including carrier, high chair restraint, parent pocket - triple layer fabric and triple stitch release buckels. diaper bag, and car seat carrier -Multiple fabric options for both warm consturction for structure and cool climates -Moisture wicking fleece lining. -Wide tieable straps -Flip up or down neck collar.

-Padded shoulder strap

-5 differnet positions.

-Soft padded lining

Comments Pros:

Pros:

Pros:

Pros:

-Mature design and construction.

-Simple + versatile

-Solid construction and materials

-Tie fastenrs alows for adjustability

-Multiple tastful fabric options.

-Adjustable

-Versatile design -Babys range of motion

-Beutiful fabrics and construction methods

Cons:

Cons:

-Easy on and child positioning.

Cons:

Cons:

-Single shoulder strap can cause -Minimal construction lacks support strain for parent with heavy child or for child. extended use. -Glorified fanny pack -No padding for straps.

-Washable

-Vauge instructions and questionable -Ambiguous shape can make positioning difficult. security in alternative poitions -No neck support -One should strap causes strain

- minimal neck support


hip carriers/ mai thais

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

Baby Hawk $ 80-140 Birth-45 lbs Cotton/Nylon webbing and side release fastners

Ellaroo MeiHip Carrier $ 80 Infants with neck control-35lbs 100% organic cotton/ plastic buckels

Kozy carrier $ 90-105 Birth-toddler Canvas structure with cotton design front

Sew Liberated Mei Tai Pattern $ 11+ Materials Not Reported DIY for user/Tie design

Features -Two diferent models: Tie on and strap-Easy on buckels at shoulder and waist -Simple universal design alows many -Sewing patterns for Mei Tai baby body shapes and sizes carrier on straps -Multiple designer fabrics -Foldable neck support colloar

-Wide shaped shoulder strap cups the -Wide padded canvas straps shoulder for support -Available pocket option

-Ultimate customization for both fabric and sizes

-Reversable for lefty poisitiong and alternative color

- Curved fabric upper provides head/ neck support

Pros:

Pros:

Pros:

-Construction Quality

-Supportive Secure shoulder strap

-Durable construction + materials

-Affordable

-Design your own options

-Mature design

-Versatile position that grows with the -Customizable child

-Multiple hold positions

Comments Pros:

-Simple trusted design

Cons:

-Simple tie design with neck support Cons:

Cons:

Cons:

-Single shoulder strap can casue a lot -Tie designs can be hard to secure for -Requires sewing and design skills some -Tie models are difficult to position at of stress for parent -Heavy materials can make for a hot first. -Minimal neck support baby -Expensive


soft structure

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

Becco Baby Carrier Euro-Baby Red Castle Sport Ergo Baby Baby Bjorn $ 120 $ 84-150 $ 130-140 $80 -140 Birth-35 lbs Birth-40 lbs 7 - 45 lbs 8-22lbs 100% Cotton padded structure/Ny- 100% Cotton padded structure/Ny- Cotton fabric and nylon webbing Lightweight fabric with 3D mesh straps/ plastic side release buckles lining lon webbing straps lon webbing straps

Features -Proprietary clips for easy self positioning -Seat is adjustable for comfort -Baby faces in or out -Multiple available accesories to keep baby clean and warm Comments Pros: -Mature design and construction. -Multiple levels of support and comfort between models that all share same basic design -Easy to secure baby by oneself

-Padded shoulder and waist straps -Inner pannel secures baby inside -Patented Multi-positional carrier of carrier for secure hold -Easy to Breast-feed using carrier -Wide lumbar support hip straps -Adjustable and detachable -Front or back positions with built in pocket for baby hood headrest. -Infant insert allows for newborns -Upper chest/back straps -Wide paded hip and shoulder -Built in sleeping hood and pocket -Removable head/neck support straps pannel Pros:

Pros:

Pros:

-Comfratable for both parent and baby

-Heavy duty hiking inspired construction.

-Mature design, construction, materials and finishing

-Wide hip straps provide excelent -Can accomplish back position by oneself due to inner support support pannel

-Multiple different positions, front hip, and back.

Cons:

Cons:

Cons:

Cons:

-Expensive

-No outward facing positions

-Can be hot for baby

-Limited product lifetime due to sizing

-Nursing is difficult because of inner pannel

-Near impossible to use back pack -Heavy duty construction can be position by oneself. confining

-All the weight is on parents sholders causing stress with extended use

-Semi Structured construction doesnt allow for easy storage


soft structure

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

MaxiMom Belle Baby $ 130-150 $ 100-120 Twins and Triplets 7-30lbs Birth-45 lbs Polyester,organic cotton,and hemp Cordura and Nylon Webbing/ Adjustable side release buckels options/ Steel D-Rings

OkkaTots Baby Carrier Infantino Front 2 Back Rider $ 40 $ 90 8-32 lbs Birth-25 lbs memory foam straps and breatable 100% Eco cotton/ Elastic shoulder mesh panels/Propritary Clips straps

Features -Lightly padded waistbelt, shoulder -Specifically desgined for carrying -Easy buckling system exclusive to -Baby faces in or out the front 2 back rider straps and seat area. twins and triplets. -Sholder starps and waist belt with -Croosover back straps.

-Removable head support panel cradles sleeping baby. -Baby faces in or out Comments Pros:

-Multiple combinations of positions -Adjustable lumbar support helps prevent back strain and ways to wear -Toy strap and bottle pocket

-Removable pouch goes on easily like a diaper. Attaches to a mall -Bib folds and snaps down for baby shopping cart

Pros:

Pros:

-Unigue child attatchment system -Memory foam straps facing forward

-Economical -Good support for parent with even -Attatchment systems allows for the addition or transfer of indiviual -Lightweight breathable material weight distribution babys between parents. -Many different available high -Comfortable for large variety of quality materials for same design -Heavy duty construction sized parents Cons:

sewn in pocket

Cons:

Cons:

-Unavoidable stresses caused by -Clips hard to release -Too little padding can cut of circulation in baby’s arms and legs carrying multiple children -Poor adjustability/hard to put on by oneself -Constraining, adjustment for baby makes carrier feel unsecure -Not enough support/weak structure

-Machine washable Pros:

-JPMA certified. Meets requirements of ASTM- F-2236 Soft Infant Carrier Standard

Cons: -Learnign curve with multiple detatchable pieces -Smaller fit


frame/backpack carriers

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

Deuter Kid Comfort III $ 280 6 months w/ neck support-48.5lbs Aluminum Frame Cordura and ripstop nylon construction

Tough Traveler Filly Carrier Sherpani Rumba Superlight Vaude Butterfly Comfort $ 198 $ 170 $ 280 6 months - 60 lbs 6 month-55lbs Independant sitting - 4lbs Aluminum frame Polyurethane coated Aluminum frame Heavy duty polyesterAluminum frame/ 67% Recycled Fabric Polyester

Features -Adjustable child seat features a five- -Spacious floor compartment point harness system -Adjustable torso support -Back and bottom storage. -Adjustable headrest with cover -Integrated sun roof protects from the -Foot supports elements and bushes and branches -Sun and rain protection -Kick stand -Kick stand

-Five point sfatey harness for child

-Exclusive Five Point Chest Plate

-Full seat and high padded sides

-Load lifters and stabilizer straps

-Adustable torso height for parent

-Large mesh back pocket

-Load control and sternum straps

-Lower storage compartment

-Foldable kickstand

-Stirrups for improved child’s leg circulation

Pros:

Pros:

Pros:

-Easy to Use

-Multiple convienint features

-Fold up for compact storage

-Lightweight design

-Great support and adjustability

-Multiple models available for day hicks to extedend hicking trips

Comments Pros:

-Strong Construction -Convienent with allot of additional storage pockets

-Supension loading eleviates strain on -Price parrent -Safety harness for the child, sturdy stand

-Very lightweight -Sutable for hiking, snowshoeing, and XC skiing

Cons:

Cons:

Cons:

Cons:

-No head support on sides

-Large and expensive

-Aluminum frame can leave black marks on clothing/skin.

-Lacks some comfort options

-Uncomfortable

-Safety harness hard to adjust -Bland styling


frame/backpack carriers

Name Cost Age/Weight Range Construction

Kelty TC 3.0 Transit $ 130-180 6 months-40 lbs 450-denier poly/brushed nylon

Features -Adjustable seat and fully padded frame

Chicco Smart Support Backpack $ 90 6months-40lbs Aluminum frame cordura structure

Kokopax City Carrier $ 100 6 months-35lbs Aluminum Frame Cotton/Poly blend fabric seat

Phil&Teds Metro Carrier $ 150 16-44 lbs Aluminum frame/Nylon fabric

-Height adjustable seat for a customized ride

-five-point harness

-Removable Sun Visor

-lightweight frame -Ventilated back panel wicks moisture -Energy-absorbing lumbar padding in -adjustable and padded shoulder away from the body breathable mesh straps -5-point adjustable safety harness; -Water-resistant canopy with sun -sturdy kickstand for easy loading adjustable, padded shoulder straps visor and zip-off rain cover protect -handy pocket from the weather -Zip-off diaper bag; changing pad -Kickstand for stabilized loading Comments Pros: Pros: Pros:

-Changing Pad -Removable Rain Cover -Ventilated Fabric for Air Flow

Pros:

-Child view mirror

-Extra pockets for celphone and keys -Provides 360 view for baby

-High style and craftsmanship

-High quality build and materials

Versatile sun shade

-Lightweght minimal design

-Amble space for baby

-Good for small parents and babies

-Security

Cons:

0

-Autodeploy kick stand

Cons:

Cons:

Cons:

-Minimal Storage

-Sternum strap not suited for plus sized parents

-No hip strap only lumbar support bar, -Comfort and support for some with somewhat unsecure extremely large or small bodies

-Kickstand deployment is not secure and can cause confusion

-Lack of support straps makes handleing heavy loads difficult

-Pockets just open no organization -No neck support for sleeping child


Preliminary research