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In 1986, company founder Robert Faber began researching the differences between the qualities of film processed in telecine and standard videotape. His findings were that there are three main film aspects to isolate and reproduce for video: motion characteristics, contrasting and grayscale, and grain pattern. He began developing the actual design for the Filmlook process and built the prototype in 1988. The process was first unveiled at an open house presentation held at the Sheraton Universal Hotel (then the Registry Hotel) in Universal City, California in January 1989. The basic idea of Filmlook is to give productions shot on videotape the look of film origination, and is intended on being money and time-saving alternative to shooting productions on film. Invented in 1989, the Filmlook image processing was first used in a test run in a 1991 episode of the ABC sitcom Growing Pains titled “Not With My Carol You Don’t”. However, the

first television series to regularly use Filmlook was Beakman’s World, a kid-oriented science series which ran from 1992–1996 on CBS. In 1995, Filmlook was used on the LL Cool J sitcom In the House. However, when the series moved from NBC to UPN in 1996, the series began using unprocessed video. In recent years, Filmlook has become known for its use on nearly all Disney Channel Original Series made from 2002 to 2008 (except Phil of the Future which was shot on film). That’s So Raven, which at one point was the channel’s most-watched series, was the first Disney Channel show to use the processing. Since then, four other original series on the channel have had their taped product processed by the company: The Suite Life of Zack and Cody, Hannah Montana, That’s So Raven spinoff Cory in the House and The Suite Life on Deck. Filmlook processing has also been used on segments within the Nickelodeon series “The Amanda Show” for commercial parodies and the


In 1986, company founder Robert Faber began researching the differences between the qualities of film processed in telecine and standard videotape. His findings were that there are three main film aspects to isolate and reproduce for video: motion characteristics, contrasting and grayscale, and grain pattern. He began developing the actual design for the Filmlook process and built the prototype in 1988. The process was first unveiled at an open house presentation held at the Sheraton Universal Hotel (then the Registry Hotel) in Universal City, California in January 1989. The basic idea of Filmlook is to

give productions shot on videotape the look of film origination, and is intended on being money and time-saving alternative to shooting productions on film. In video technology, 24p refers to a video format that operates at 24 frames per second (typically, 23.976 frames/s when using equipment based on NTSC frame rates) frame rate with progressive scanning (not interlaced). Originally, 24p was used in the non-linear editing of filmoriginated material. Today, 24p formats are being increasingly used for aesthetic reasons in image acquisition, delivering filmlike motion characteristics. Some vendors advertise 24p products

24p material can be converted to the PAL format with the same methods used to convert film to PAL. The most popular method is to speed up the material by 25/24 (4%). Each 24p frame will take the place of two 50i fields. This method incurs no motion artifacts other than the slightly increased speed, which is typically not noticeable. As for audio, the ~4% increase in speed raises the pitch by 0.7 of a semitone, which again typically is not noticed. Sometimes the audio is pitch shifted to restore the original pitch. If 24p footage cannot be sped up, (for example if it were coming through a live NTSC or HD feed) it instead can be converted in a pattern where most frames were held on screen for two fields, but every half second a frame would be held for three fields. Thus

the viewer would see motion stutter twice per second. This was the common result when programs were shot on film or had film portions, edited on NTSC, and then shown in PAL countries (mostly music videos). NTSC to PAL conversion also tends to blur each film frame into the next, and so is seen as a sub-optimal way to view film footage. 30p can be preferable over 24p since performing a standards conversion to 25i PAL has fewer technical complexities – any NTSC-PAL converter will do. The larger differences between the 30p and 25i framerates will cause less noticeable motion artifacts upon conversion. The process of transferring 24frame/s video at 25frame/s rates is also the most common method for ingesting 24p film rushes into a non-linear


A film score (also sometimes called background music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film’s soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects, and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental or choral pieces called cues which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question.[1] Scores are written by one or more composers, under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film’s director and/or producer, and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer. Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Western classical music, but a great number of scores also draw influence from jazz,

rock, pop, blues, New Age ambient music, and a wide range of ethnic and world music styles. Since the 1950s, a growing number of scores have also included electronic elements as part of the score, and many scores written today feature a hybrid of orchestral and electronic instruments. Since the invention of digital technology and audio sampling, many low budget films have been able to rely on digital samples to imitate the sound of live instruments, and many scores are created and performed wholly by the composers themselves, by using sophisticated music composition software. Songs are usually not considered part of the film’s score,[3] although songs do also form part of the film’s soundtrack. Although some songs, especially in musicals, are based on thematic ideas from the score (or vice-versa), scores usually do not have lyrics, except for when sung by choirs or soloists as part of a cue. Similarly, pop songs which are “needle dropped” into a specific scene in film for added emphasis are not considered part of the score, although


Letterboxing is the practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the film’s original aspect ratio. The resulting videographic image has mattes (black bars) above and below it; these mattes are part of the image (i.e., of each frame of the video signal). LTBX is the identifying abbreviation for films and images so formatted. The term refers to the shape of a letter box, a slot in a wall or door through which mail is delivered, being rectangular and wider than it is high.


The Film Look  

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