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THEORY COLOR BY DANIT SHNEIDERMAN


HI! I’m Danit

About myself

I love watching the sunset everyday. Its always a surprise, since I never know what combination of colors I will be entertained with.


I am from Miami, but I was raised in Caracas . I come from a big family, with my parents and my three siblings…. And my husband Ben <3.

I have lived in Caracas, Toronto and Miami.

I LOVE Cooking…! Eating (good food) Painting Biking Exploring the world Art All music (all!)

About myself

I speak Spanish, English and Hebrew.


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Table of contents

COLOR + Theory - M1 COLOR + Design - M2 COLOR + Psychology + Perception - M3 COLOR + Balance - M4 COLOR + Healthcare - M5 COLOR + Your Camera - M6 COLOR + Rhythm - M7 COLOR + Retail - M8 COLOR + Scale - M9 COLOR + Hospitality - M10 COLOR + Variety - M11 COLOR + Workplace - M12


M1. COLOR + Theory

Color theory is the study and practice of a set of principles used to understand the relationship among colors. Color theory has been studied for decades and new ideas and practices are continuously unraveled. The role color plays in art, design, and other allied professions is important to using color successfully.

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McCormick Tribune by Renzo Piano

This chapter thought me about the basics of color theory. - The proper vocabulary and terms for variations of color, like the difference between hues, values and shades. - The technical theory behind the color, and how the human eye perceives it. - The way light is elemental and it changes the perception of color.

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M2. COLOR + Design

This chapter helped me understand the relationship between color and a given design. It was important to follow a specific palette and overall style. Here you will find an analysis of the work of the architect Luis Barragan, and his use of color.

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The House and Studio of Luis Barragan is a patrimony of the UNESCO World Heritage, and it was built in 1948. It was the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house and studio in the suburbs of Mexico, designed to serve as a vacation/work space. It is an example of the International Modern Movement, which reflects the architects style and heritage. The house is made with concrete, and t has 3 levels, a private garden and a terrace; all in within 12,490 SF.

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The faรงade of the house is very simple and unornamented. Its made with exposed concrete and it has a few openings. This is to blend in with the neighborhood. The cold grey concrete can be deceiving, but once inside, the Pandora box of colors, light and experiences will be opened.

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In this space the light enters in an angle and fractured. This effect opens and brightens the room in a singular way; it creates an interesting game with the shadows and possible movement. The walls are white as well as the furniture; these two blend together while making the space look brighter. The yellowish ceiling helps to accentuate natural light, while the texture of the wood texture adds some character. The rest of the color in this composition is brought by the wooden stairs, the yellow floor and canvas accent. The architect uses an analogous chromatic scheme.

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The white walls of this room gives it the ability to transform, in a similar way as the vestibule does. The morning light brightness the room, but as the day goes by the hues and tonalities change. The room gets an intense yellow tonality, when the sunlight hits the yellow tone of the hallway. The room has a monochromatic scheme, and the table and light fixture accent in the corner are complementary to the composition.

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The white walls of this room gives it the ability to transform, in a similar way as the vestibule does. The morning light brightness the room, but as the day goes by the hues and tonalities change. The room gets an intense yellow tonality, when the sunlight hits the yellow tone of the hallway. The room has a monochromatic scheme, and the table and light fixture accent in the corner are complementary to the composition.

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M3. COLOR + Psychology + Perception

Our minds work in a way we cannot explain. Color has a huge influence on how we perceive and understand space. In this chapter I learned that psychology is very influential in how we see colors. Each person responds to color differently. I analyzed the French movie Amelie, and understood the role of color in that specific film.

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SCENE ANALYSIS Major Character – Amelie Scene - Introducing Amelie This scene is from the beginning of the movie and it’s the first time that we meet Amelie. The main character is introduced in a sequence of peculiar shoots in red, green and yellow. The color green and yellow are predominant in these scenes, these colors don’t contrast one anther, so its pleasant to look at. This analogous color scheme is calming and creates a nostalgic mood. The color red complements the color scheme of the scene, since the color is located in the opposite side of the color wheel. This hint of red in the beginning of the movie is a key element that carries through the entire film. The color red is used to represent Amelie’s childhood and it’s a key in the characters development.

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SCENE ANALYSIS Major Character – Amelie Scene – Hidden Box The predominant color on this scene is yellow; we see different tints of yellow and a few browns. The scene is well illuminated, but the yellowish tint gives it a nostalgic and daydream quality. This contributes to Amelie’s magical and surreal world. The color yellow expresses hope, optimism and wisdom. It is not a causality that Amelie has a revelation in this scene, she finds a treasure box hidden in her bathroom, this gives her a new project, a bit of hope to her fantasy world. The brown tones show the comfort and security that Amelie feels in her own home. Where she can daydream and feel safe with her thoughts. There are small hints of red in this (and every) scene. The color red represent Amelie, her childhood and her magical world.

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SCENE ANALYSIS Major Character – Amelie and the worker at the video shop Scene – Amelie at the video store looking for Nino Amelie found true love (Nino), a guy who is eccentric and unique like her. The scene has an analogous color scheme with brown, red and gold hues. It also has some vibrant blue elements. The analogous palette helps to create a calming and relaxing mood. Amelie is calm and decide to find Nino. The complementary color in this scene (blue) stand out to create bring a specific idea or meaning to the shot. The blue color creates an imbalance, it represents a disparity in Amelie’s magical and fantastic world; she is looking for her true love. Amelie is consciously having

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SCENE ANALYSIS Major Character â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Amelie, Collignon, Lucien Scene â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mr. Collignon Key Amelie wants to return the key to Mr. Collignon. After Collignion embarrass and mistreat his assistant (Lucien), Amelie decides to make a copy of the key. The color scheme in this scene follows the same pattern as the rest of the movie. The palette is conformed by an accented analogic colors; a series of analogous shades with a complementary one. The green-beige scene creates a dreamy environment, which follows into Amelie's fantastic reality. The color red symbolizes Amelie and her character. The scene turns drastically form a green predominant palette, to a red predominant. This change occurs when Amelie gets angry at the grocery man due to the way he treated his employee. The change of colors in the scene represents Amelie change of mood, from humble to angry.

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Amelie This movie takes place in a dreamy version of Paris. This mood was successful by the complementary paring of red and greens throughout the whole movie. The director used this combination of colors, and was able to set and change the moods by variating the quality of the colors. He manipulated the shades and tints in order to bring emotion and hidden meanings to the story. The movie falls in a composition of scenes composed with accented analogic palettes. The most common scenes are structured by a green-yellow-beige analogous palette, which creates the daydream environment where Amelie lives. These scenes are usually intervened with a complementary color - which are usually shades of red â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and it represents Amelie and the evolution of her character.

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M4. COLOR + Balance

This chapter thought me about balance and how color is a key element to design a well balanced space. There are different ways I which color plays this roll, depending on symmetry, asymmetry and radial designs.

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COLOR + Theory

Balance refers to the relationship of different hues t one another when each is perceived to be equal in perceived visual weight. It is described by three types -Symmetry: when elements on either side of an amplified axis are equally balanced. - Asymmetry: its more chaotic, we see it when there is no relation to the design elements. - Radial: balance is achieved by the equal rotation of design elements around a central axis.

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Color balance is the striving to achieve the point of equilibrium between two or more forces. Is a means whereby harmony, peace, and connections can be made between observer and to which is observed. There are several types of color balance: - Value Contrast: to show r emphasize differences between two objects. - Hue balance: complementary colors are those colors that when placed next to one another intensify the other hue. Intensity contrast: is the relative darkness or dullness of a color. - Size of color area: the larger the amount of color used, the lighter it will appears. 17


M5. COLOR + Healthcare

Healthcare facilities must create a light, inviting and safe environment for their patience. Color is essential for this, since it has a direct effects the psychological, emotional and physical health of people.

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Theory COLOR + Sick Kids Hospital, Toronto

People in health-care settings who are vulnerable, healing, or aging have been understood to be influenced by colors used in interior design. It is not surprising then that a fair amount of research and inquiry has been undertaken on the use, role, myths, and impact that color can have on people in healthcare settings.

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Theory COLOR + Phoenix Children’s Hospital

There are a few key elements that can be defined and altered depending on the choice of color. - Color for calming or arousal: the intensity of a color has more impact on people than the color itself. - Color and spaciousness: the saturation and brightness of a hue can have a huge impact in the way we perceive the size of a space. - Color and thermal comfort: color should not be applied indiscriminately by designers as a means to “warm up” or “cool down” a space.

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Helen DeVos Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital

- Color in health care consensus: there are some points which designers can base their thinking on regarding color in health-care environments, and they are: influence, perception, context, space definition, weight and volume, room size, monotony, operating rooms, elderly, time, skin tones. - Color and aging: older people perceive color differently, many diseases alter the eyes and it can change the color. Color in health-care settings is equal as important as the design itself. We all perceive color in a different way, anyhow, the impact of color on people in these settings is important.

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M6. COLOR + Your Camera

Color hangs when ne sees it through a camera lens. Textures, light and contrast change into a new version of the scene you are looking at. Following, you will see pictures taken by me, where I tried to capture the true colors.

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Hollywood Beach


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Toronto


M7. COLOR + Rhythm

Rhythm is movement, it is a natural evolutionary trait in nature that can be transfer to interior spaces. When rhythm and color work together, they highlight specific elements or moments on a given space.

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Nature is a big source f inspiration for architects and interior designers. The patterns, color palates and texture combination we see outdoors, can be easily represented in a built environment. There are main five types of rhythm, associated with color: - Repetition: is the systematic orderly succession of identical design elements. - Alternation: occurs when two design elements are repeated in sequence.

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- Progression: involves the repetition of similar elements with a continuous change. - Continuation: refers to the placement of ne or more colors throughout an interior. -Radiation: uses a concentric color arrangement. Color and rhythm highlight the important architectural and interior elements. The use of color also can be seen as a tool to signal users to better orientate them in a space.

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M8. COLOR + Retail

As we already know, color has a big influence in how we perceive spaces. When it comes to retail, there are several things that can enhance the costumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience. For example, contrasting colors can create a focal point in a space. Also, people tend to see color first and the object second. So when it comes to marketing, understanding this is a key element to have a more successful product.

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L’OCCITANE – The Store

L’OCCITANE’S signature color is yellow. This is inspire by the ‘Immortelle’ (the eternal) flower; a wild plant that grows in France. This yellow flower never dies, because of its unique oils and minerals. L’OCCITANE’s signature and best seller collection is made with ‘Immortelle’ extracts. The second most prominent color in L’OCCITANE stores is a bright blue, which is the yellows complementary color. We can see the combination of these two colors all over the store, in the products, packages and decoration.

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The storeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s walls are painted with a vivid yellow. The rest of the other architectonic elements in the store have colors complementary to the yellow. We can see wood furniture and stairs, terracotta vases and brown tables. We can see a more intense variety of hues in within the products. All the packages are designed with bright colors like, yellow, blue, fuchsia, green, orange, red and others. 30


The combination of the bright yellow in the walls and the dark wood the furniture creates great contrast of value. The bright colors add energy to the store, while the dark elements help to grab the clients attention. We can find more contrast once we analyze the merchandise itself. Each product has a contrasting element, which accentuates the light/dark relationship between the productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s color composition.

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The back wall of the store is all painted in yellow and it has a sentence in big letters on it. The rest of the store walls are covered with decoration or serve as backwall for display. Due to the difference of the way this wall was treated, in comparison to the rest of the store, it works, we can call it a design feature. It captures the viewers eye, it calls for attention. The simplicity of this walls, helps to emphasize its importance. The message on it talks about the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history.

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In this store we can find 3 main textures. The flowers, wood and metal. The combination of them helps to recreate the atmosphere of the Provence region in France; where the brand originated. The more rustic parts of the decoration aim to resemble to barns in the Provence. The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Immortelleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; flowers are everywhere and even though theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re dry now, they still look very alive. The flower pots are often combined with dried lavender flowers. Wood can be seen all over the stores, in the stairs, tables, boxes and any other staging furniture they might have. The wood elements are combined with metal bars, either to serve as a structural element for the furniture or to decorate.

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The storeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s walls are painted with a vivid yellow. The rest of the other architectonic elements in the store have colors complementary to the yellow. We see wood furniture and stairs, terracotta vases and brown tables. We can see a more intense variety of hues in within the products. All the packages are designed with bright colors like, yellow, blue, fuchsia, green, orange, red and others.

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M9. COLOR + Scale

A proportion system is very important while designing, it can provide an accurate color proportions. Proportion is defined by the size relationship between elements and the visual composition. Whereby scale, refers to the size of a shape in relation to the human body.

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There are six key elements to consider for color proportioning: 1. The color with the largest proportional area is the dominant color. 2. Smaller areas are subdominant colors. 3. Accent colors have smaller areas but they offer contrast. 4. To create contrast, place a small area with a light color on a dark background or vs. 5. When using large areas with light hues, the whole are will appear light. 6. Alternating colors by intensity rather than proportion will change the perceived visual mix of color.

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Other methods to establish proportional relationships: - Golden section: a mathematical formula where an objectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s with is to its length as its length is to the sum of its length plus with. - Fibonacci sequence: a series of numbers where each number in the sequence is the sum of the two proceeded numbers. - Le Modulor: proportion system developed by Le Corbusier. It is based on the human body proportions. - Natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proportions: proportional evolution is evident in flora, fauna and other natural elements. 37


M10. COLOR + hospitality

This chapters deals with variety in colors and how it is used in hospitality spaces. Variety is a principle of design that is concerned with the combination of one or more color elements that use line, shape, texture, and/or pattern to create diversity and contrast in an interior space. Following, is displayed an analysis if the 1 Hotel in Miami Beach, where we took into consideration the hotel color scheme and its multiple ways to use and combine them.

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The overall palette of the 1 Hotel is a mix of wood + sand + ocean tones. To recreate the freshness this hotel has, all rooms are accentuated with green plants. The overall color scheme of this space, is clearly inspired by Miami. This is why the hotel has a beach-like atmosphere. Color + Line - The reception area feels fresh and bigger than it really is. This is due to the horizontal panels that separate the space, but still maintains the visual flow. Color + Shape - The round accents in the table maintain the organic feel of the hotel. Also, the round or circular theme can be seen throughout the whole building. Color + Texture - The color green can be seen everywhere, mainly in plants. The green wall cut through the monotony of flat surfaces. It adds more dynamism and helps to maintain the natural atmosphere of the hotel. Color + Pattern - The wood stairs behind the front desk emphasizes a linear a repetitive composition. Since it was finished with reclaimed wood, each plank is unique, but yet, they all work together creating a different pattern in the space.

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The pool area is even more earthy than the interior of the hotel. The pallet is more vivid, but it stills maintains the same color scheme as the rest of the hotel. Anyways, the dominant color in this space is the neutral beige of the wood.

Color + Line - The big beam that delimits the cabanas area creates a transition between spaces. These elements work like a frame to emphasize the space inside. The white in the bottom creates a contrast with the wood, accentuating the linearity. Color + Shape - Next to every extension chair there is a square table with a round lamp. The roundness maintains the organic feel of the space. Once will say that the square table breaks with the hotel theme, but since its made with wood, it also enhance the natural atmosphere. Color + Texture - The floor is made with tiles that mimic reclaimed wood. The break between each tile creates a texture that is only accentuated by the different tones on each tile. Color + Pattern - The wooden furniture with white cushions resembles the furniture inside the hotel. The combination of these two colors, plus an organized repetition of the extension chairs, creates a pattern and rhythm.

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M11. COLOR + Variety

When it comes to rendering, color has to be chosen with a lot of thought. Ideally, se should follow the basic rule of 60-30-10. Where 60% of the space is covered with the dominant color. 30% with a secondary color and the remaining percentage with an accent color. Ideally, we should also balance the colors we use. Tints should be used for dominant colors, tones for secondary colors and hues for the accent pieces.

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M12. COLOR + Workplace

In this chapter we will be analyzing a workspace where color is an important element in the design. In order to promote innovation, the office space must be innovative as well. The use of color is one of the simplest way to achieve this, when the palette is chosen and used correctly. The project we are analyzing is Pandora Media Inc. in New York City, designed by ABA Studio.

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ANALYSIS COLOR + LINE The structure of the office is exposed all over. The beams and columns are visible creating a linear continuity and rhythm.

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COLOR + SHAPE Irregular shapes in walls and acoustic panels break with the linear design of the space. Curves can be seen in furniture, ceiling pieces and glass shades. COLOR + Texture The vertical elements on the wall, create an image that is continuous throughout the whole wall. It animates the space in a creative way. From close, one can appreciate the texture of the wall. COLOR + PATTERN Bigger offices are located in the middle of an open floor plan. Circle dots are used in the translucent walls of these meeting rooms, this gives the room a sense of privacy. These dots are all around the building, and they create dynamism and movement throughout the office.

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CONCLUSION We have done a few exercises like this one. Now, when I analyze spaces, I feel like my eye is train to identify these elements better. I have learned that they key element to a successful space, in art, is the use of the right color and the right palette. These choices will help you transform an average looking space into a more innovative pace.

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Color Theory by Danit Shneiderman  
Color Theory by Danit Shneiderman  
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