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2nd Edition, June 2011 Copyright (c) 2011 by Daniel Dolan All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used without the author’s permission, unless for educational purposes. For all inquiries, contact Daniel Dolan


ADAPTIVE REUSE:

By Daniel Patrick-Ryan Dolan


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction . . . . . (01-04)

Site Analysis . . . . . (33-40)

Abstract . . . . . . . . (05-12) Thesis Statement . . . . 09

Site Photos . . . . . . (41-54)

Adaptive Reuses . #1 . . . . . . . . . #2 . . . . . . . . . #3 . . . . . . . . . #4 . . . . . . . . . #6 . . . . . . . . .

Project . . . . . . . . . (55-88) Process . . . . . . . . . 57 Master Plan. . . . . . . 59 Program . . . . . . . . 61 Material Reuse . . . . . 63 First Floor Plan . . . . . 65 Second Floor Plan . . . . 67 Third Floor Plan . . . . . 69 Elevations . . . . . . . 71 Section . . . . . . . . . 73 Details . . . . . . . . . 75 Kinetic Wall . . . . . . . 77 Perspectives . . . . . . 79 Model Photos . . . . . . 85

. . . . . .

. (13-24) . 15 . 17 . 19 . 21 . 23

Precedents . . . . . (25-32)

References / Works Cited . . (89-90)


INTRODUCTION

INSPIRE CREATIVITY INTERACTION COLLABORATION

Hidden within Forgotten Space is potential transformation. This potential lies in discarded materials. Adaptive Reuse of reclaimed material revives space. Instead of wasteful occupation, an imaginative creation occurs. Like a rose growing from the cold concrete, the right patch of dirt can harness life, beauty and inspiration.

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10


INTRODUCTION

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05

Abstract People are the life force of Buildings. Without humans, building would be nothing more than raw materials, waiting to be transformed. A building’s identity is created through its interaction with its occupants. The relationship between function and space is dynamic between people and buildings. Without humans, buildings become stagnant.

1.


ABSTRACT

Architecture is much more than a building, it is life harnessing space. It is an entity that not only affects its inhabitants, but also its entire surroundings. A direct connection exits between site and architecture; it is paramount that the two form a symbiotic relationship, one in which both nature and architecture don’t just coexist, but rather benefit from one another. Buildings have an obligation to their inhabitants as well. The must promote good health and overall well being, while maintaining order. When buildings maintain their symbiotic relationship, a community thrives. This is architecture’s responsibility to society.

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07


ABSTRACT

All over the world spaces exist with remarkable potential, waiting to be unleashed. An abandoned warehouse stands motionless and quite, forgotten, begging for transformation. Imagine inside a Living Gallery:

Living Gallery: A niche of creativity that thrives on itself, turning open space, people, and process into art.

Vacant spaces should attract designers, developers, and ideas rather than the usual crime and blight. Forgotten space can be reclaimed and through successful interactions, derelict space can be recharacterized, reversing the downturn of a neighborhood and creating excitement in the community.

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09

Thesis Statement One abandoned building, skillfully selected, renovated under sustainable and regenerative ideals, and re purposed as a low-cost, mixed-use Living Gallery has the ability to re-establish culture, pride and ownership while revitalizing the area and encouraging responsible gentrification.

Adaptive Reuse brings new life to forgotten materials. Worthy materials exist, waiting to be reclaimed, reused or disassembled to be reconfigured and recycled. Only Imagination limits the possibilities changing abandoned space into a creative place.


ABSTRACT

Art becomes the nucleus and final creation of this emergent system.

Transforming a “forgotten� space is an opportunity to positively impact and reshape a community. Artists are the perfect occupants because if wealthier tenants displace them, they are not ruined. Instead, they move on to another low-rent district and begin the cycle anew.

Gentrification: The process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle-class or affluent people into deteriorating areas that often displaces poorer residents

This building will become the artistic center of a cultural awakening. Artisans create culture and exposure, drawing the attention of investors. Art, as a final piece and during production, creates connections through the bond of fabrication, interpretation, appreciation, and fascination. Connections create community. Community forms culture. Culture molds community. Community establishes connections. The three: community, culture, and connections, propagate each other. Art becomes the nucleus and final creation of this emergent system. This Living Gallery will produce an artistic overflow that will inspire interaction and collaboration and anchor for future adaptive reuses in the area.

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11


ABSTRACT

The proposal is to reuse one large abandoned building in Berkeley, CA to create an artist’s community. This city is full of artists and deep with cultural character. A “Living Gallery” will breed culture and community alongside art and create a niche for all three to thrive. While the community strengthens, further revitalization will be supported and encouraged. The adaptive reuse of four other buildings on the same city block will occur incrementally as the community succeeds. The master plan will be executed in the following order: 1) 2) 3) 4)

Mixed-use Artist’s community Deli, Retail Restaurant, Private Gallery, Offices Community Theatre, Music Studios, Book Exchange

The 5th and final stage in gentrification and revitalization will be the transformation of the artists community into an art museum. This allows the artists to begin the process elsewhere, while having a home for their art.

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Adaptive Reuses

Adaptive Reuse is the backbone of cradle to cradle design. Things regarded as trash can be transformed into elegant and functional objects. Materials fill Junk yards and forgotten spaces, where they remain, yearning for a new life.


ADAPTIVE REUSES

2.

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Adaptive Reuse # 1

A single Skil Saw inspired the creation of place and interaction. Tools allow materials to be transformed through the window of imagination. Once a water bed frame, this bench’s materials were discarded on the side of the road. Now, its adaptive reuse invites social interaction between neighbors, transforming an otherwise uninviting area into life harnessing space.


ADAPTIVE REUSES

Dwarf Lemon Tree

Sage

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Adaptive Reuse # 2

This seat and terraced planter box were once an entertainment center, left on the side of the road as trash. The furniture’s materials were reclaimed and transformed using attributes of the original form as design elements. What once lay on the side of the road now harnesses life, creates food and constructs positive space. Oregon Giant Peas


ADAPTIVE REUSES Lemon Thyme

Elegant Lettuce

Red Giant Mustard

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Adaptive Reuse # 3


ADAPTIVE REUSES

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Adaptive Reuse # 4

Large scale printers produce large quantities of cardboard tubes as waste. This adaptive reuse creates organization, functionally opening space for more beneficial uses.


ADAPTIVE REUSES

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Adaptive Reuse # 6 All of the materials, aside from the electrical system, have been salvaged In this piece. Discarded wood was reclaimed from a portable building recently deconstructed on Cal Poly campus. A planer restored the beautiful wood grain that was hidden under years of weather damage. The corroded locker facade was recovered from a junk yard in Atascadero. Deep in a pile of scrap, it remained waiting to find its true potential. Individual wood pieces were inlaid into each locker door. These pieces were designed to create a rich surface while utilizing the form of the locker facade to cascade light. All materials have been left in their natural state to demonstrate the raw beauty contained in each found object. Locker Facade Original Condition

Discarded wood from recently de-constructed portable on Cal Poly campus


ADAPTIVE REUSES Final Transformation

Cradle to Cradle Award Winner

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3.


PRECEDENTS

Precedents

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The Union

Jonathan Segal San Diego, California 2006

Original Use: Textile manufactures union hall Adaptive Reuse:

Two affordable live work lofts and his own architectural office. In addition, two parking lots are now developed to include 13 individual “for rent” sustainable town homes. In addition the architect incorporated spaces used by a convenience store and gas station within the plans

Roof

Sustainable Pathways:

mounted photo voltaic panels and landscaping with drought tolerant plants

Lessons Learned:

Adaptive reuse does not have to look “old” or weathered. Repetition creates harmony.

4.


PRECEDENTS

Center on Halstead Gensler

Chicago, Illinois 2007

Original Use:

Historical building

Adaptive Reuse:

Reclaimed brick from the existing building were reused to create a feature wall within the Center. The 135,000 square foot program includes a two-level parking garage, a grocery store on the ground floor, a three-story atrium entrance to the community center. Meeting rooms, a resource center, a computer lab, and offices comprise the second floor, with a gym, a theater and a roof garden on the third floor.

Sustainable Pathways: Leed Silver

Lessons Learned: Lobby space creates an interesting overlap in three programs, grocery, community, and entertainment, while different levels distinctly separate the three.

28 5.


29

The Ferry Building SMWM

San Francisco, California 2008

Original Use: Primary point of arrival and departure to and from San Francisco Adaptive Reuse:

The project includes 175,000 square feet (16,258 square meters) of second- and third-floor Class A office space and 65,000 square feet (6,039 square meters) of ground-floor retail space, including a popular Bay Area organic farmers market, open-air cafĂŠs, and restaurants.

Sustainable Pathways:

Bike locks. Natural lighting, Cross ventilation.

Lessons Learned:

Interesting program relationships and privacy gradients. A successful farmers market leads to a lively environment conducive to revitalization. Not only does a farmers market draw in consumers, but also artist looking to display their works.

6.


PRECEDENTS

The Green Building (fer) studio LLP

Louisville, Kentucky 2008

Original Use:

A narrow 110 year old former dry goods store

Adaptive Reuse:

A glass spine that ascends through all three floors. A 15,000 square foot mixed-use facility housing a cafĂŠ, a gallery, event spaces, an indoor-outdoor courtyard, complete with a green wall vertical garden. The second and third floors house offices and studios for local businesses. Throughout the building they left original brick walls and wood beams exposed and re purposed leftover wood into custom furniture and floor materials.

Sustainable Pathways:

Solar panels, geothermal wells, and an energyrecovery unit that captures hot and cold air to redistribute throughout the facility

Lessons Learned:

Contrast of old and new building materials and techniques creates a desirable aesthetic.

30 7.


31

Tate Modern

Herzog & de Meuron London, England

Original Use: Power Plant

Adaptive Reuse: Modern art museum “This is a kind of Aikido strategy where you use your enemy’s energy for your own purposes. Instead of fighting it, you take all the energy and shape it in unexpected and new ways.” Sustainable Pathways: Reuse of building materials

Lessons Learned: Tate modern became a symbol of renewal and the beginning of gentrification. A nearby arts center and theatre now draw crowds and there are future plans for more projects in the area. In addition, 2,400 jobs and $80 million annually in income for London were projected.

8.


PRECEDENTS

Sawtooth Studios Francis J. Plym

Berkeley, California

Original Use: West Coast headquarters for Kawneer storefront manufacturing plant Adaptive Reuse:

1972 the factory was divided into 35 spaces of various sizes, which became filled with artisans, small industries, artists, crafts people, theaters and schools. The building continues to be an integral part of the industrial area and neighborhood that grew up around it, still housing the manufacturing and work spaces for which it was built.

Sustainable Pathways: Reuse of original natural lighting Lessons Learned:

Just a few blocks south of the project site, this artists community serves as a perfect example for 30 years of success. Narrow hallways are not conducive to gathering or creating community.

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Site Analysis


SITE ANALYSIS

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Flow Existing Flow Diagram


SITE ANALYSIS

Connection creates Culture through Interaction Traffic Flow

Public Artists Created Culture

Abstract representation of desired Cultural Influence

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37 9.

Responsible Gentrification Gentrification is not always viewed in a positive light. It is associated with the displacement of a culturally rich lower class, largely responsible for the property value increase. Revitalization and Gentrification go hand in hand. A positive gentrification is culturally constructive and happens at a judicious rate. Berkeley has a diverse demographic of sustainably minded individuals ripe for a cultural reawakening. All it would take is a single spark to ignite an artistic wildfire. Homes in 94710 have increased in value more than average homes in Berkeley

Northwest Berkeley is gentrifying. There are laws in place to prevent owners from raising rent rates too abruptly. Gentrification will happen at a reasonable pace, but keeping the movement positive and culturally rich is key. Spenger’s, fresh fish grotto, was a catalyst for this gentrification. The commerce it brings is welcomed, but the Yuppy culture is not true to Berkeley’s cultural heritage. This building, on this site, will anchor as the cultural yin to the yuppy yang.


SITE ANALYSIS

Zoning Manufacturing Mixed Use Light Industrial Mixed Use Residential Single Family Residential Two Family Residential Multiple Family Residential West Berkeley Commercial

Spenger’s fresh fish grotto

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Sun Path

Psychrometric Chart

Average Wind Speeds in Mph


SITE ANALYSIS

Climate

9.

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Site Photos


SITE PHOTOS

First site visit First impression Man w/ easel : Perfect

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Adaptive Reuse: Gallery

Metal Shop


SITE PHOTOS

Retail

Gallery

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4th Street Panorama


SITE PHOTOS

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Gilman Street Panorama


SITE PHOTOS

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5th Street Panorama


SITE PHOTOS

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Camelia Street Panorama


SITE PHOTOS

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SITE PHOTOS

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PROJECT

Project Process . . . . . . . . . Master Plan. . . . . . . Program . . . . . . . . Material Reuse . . . . . First Floor Plan . . . . . Second Floor Plan . . . . Third Floor Plan . . . . . Elevations . . . . . . . Section . . . . . . . . . Detail. . . . . . . . . . Kinetic Wall . . . . . . . Perspectives . . . . . . Model Photos . . . . . .

57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 85

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57 Preliminary Form Model Iterations

Process

Density Investigations

Path View Overlook Exploration


PROJECT

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Final Parti


59 Proposed Design Overlaid on Existing Satellite Image


PROJECT

Master Plan

High Volume Traffic H Bus Route

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PROJECT

Program

Preliminary Program Iterations

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63 Digital Model of Existing Building

Existing Floor Plan

Existing Elevations Existing Drawings provided by Marcy Wong Donn Logan Architects


PROJECT

Material Reuse Reclaimed:

Roof Material Structure Masonry Wall

Reconfigured:

Lights (50) Corrugated Steel Exterior Windows (9) Solid Core Doors (22) Roll-up Doors (8) Exploded Axonometric of Reused Materials

Recycled:

Steel Beams (1,000+ft.) Corrugated Steel

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PROJECT

First Floor Plan 1a. Cafe Intrigue

1,030 sq. ft. 1b. Cafe Community Gallery 450 sq. ft.

2a. 4th Street Live/Work Apts

500 sq. ft. 2b. 4th Street Live/Work Studios 225 sq. ft.

3. 4th Street Studios 100 sq. ft.

4. Barrel Vault Loft Studios 150 sq. ft.

5. Barrel Vault Living Gallery 4,150 sq. ft.

6a. Wood shop

2,380 sq. ft.

9. 5th Street Private Galleries 700 sq. ft.

10. Moment Frame Studios 130 sq. ft.

11. Moment Frame Living Gallery 5,970 sq. ft.

12. Multipurpose Space 1,620 sq. ft.

13. Event Space

15,000 sq. ft.

14. Phase 2 Deli 1,770 sq. ft.

15. Phase 2 Retail 2,030 sq. ft.

6b. Wood shop Gallery

16. Phase 3 Restaurant

7. Statue Garden

17. Phase 3 Boiler Room Private Gallery

1,460 sq. ft.

8a. Metal Shop

2,270 sq. ft. 8b. Metal Shop Gallery 1,130 sq. ft.

6,790 sq. ft.

3,100 sq. ft.

18. Phase 4 Book Exchange 4,370 sq. ft.

19. Phase 4 Community Theatre 11,720 sq. ft.

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PROJECT

Second Floor Plan 1a. Cafe Interior Balcony

230 sq. ft. 1b. Cafe Exterior Balcony 670 sq. ft.

2a. 4th Street Live/Work Loft Apts 500 sq. ft. 2b. 4th Street Live/Work Studios 225 sq. ft.

3. 4th Street Studios 100 sq. ft.

4. Barrel Vault Loft Studios 120 sq. ft.

5. Barrel Vault Living Gallery 1,970 sq. ft.

6a. Large Finishing Rooms 200 sq. ft. 6b. Small Finishing Room 140 sq. ft. 6c. Finishing Storage 110 sq. ft.

7. Mechanical Room 250 sq. ft.

8a. 5th Street Live/Work Apts

260 sq. ft. 8b. 5th Street Live/Work Studios 100 sq. ft.

9. Moment Frame Studios 130 sq. ft.

10. Moment Frame Living Gallery 4,170 sq. ft.

11. Multipurpose Exterior Space 1,620 sq. ft.

12. Phase 3 Offices 6,790 sq. ft.

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PROJECT

Third Floor Plan 1. Finishing Room Exhaust 2. Third Floor Studios 100 sq. ft.

3a. Live/Work Apts

260 sq. ft. 3b. Live/Work Studios 100 sq. ft.

4. Moment Frame Living Gallery 6,330 sq. ft.

5. Community Kitchen 910 sq. ft.

6. South side Studios 110 sq. ft.

7. Existing Rooftop Terrace 6,790 sq. ft.

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Elevations


PROJECT

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PROJECT

Section INSPIRE CREATIVITY INTERACTION COLLABORATION

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Details

Operable Mechanical Roof Open

Operable Mechanical Roof Closed


PROJECT 9” Wooden Handrail Wooden Baluster 1/2” Metal Wire

Wooden Decking Corrugated Steel Finished Ceiling Moment Frame Steel Column

EXTERIOR

Steel Truss Existing Asphalt shingles Purlins Wooden Truss Existing Moment Frame Existing Steel Column Anchor Bolt Window Assembly

INTERIOR CMU Wall

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Kinetic Wall

Preliminary Kinetic Wall Iterations

Collaboration is the ultimate way to breed connection, community, and culture. This Kinetic Wall is an opportunity for the community to collaborate. Individual elements require different size groups to move. Flipping the walls inside out reveals concealed art and provides pathways into the Living Gallery.


PROJECT Final Photos of Kinetic Wall

The 5th Street Private Galleries, all have individual Kinetic Walls. When Completely opened, these walls create a corridor of art and cultural expression from the sculpture garden to the event space. Each wall provides the comfort of being able to work on it closed after hours, and open it for appreciation during the day.

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PROJECT

Living Gallery Barrel Vault

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PROJECT

Living 4th Street Live/Work Loft Apts

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PROJECT

Living Gallery Moment Frame

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Model Photos


PROJECT

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PROJECT

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References Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Print. Glasner, Barbara. Chroma: Design Architecture & Art in Color. Boston: Birkhauser Verlag AG, 2010. Print. Rabun, Stanley , and Richard Kelso. Building Evaluation for Adaptive Reuse and Preservation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2009. Print. Swaback, Vernon. Creating Value: Smart Development and Green Design. Washington D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 2007. Print. Wagner, Fritz , Timothy Joder, and Anthony Mumphrey Jr.. Urban Revitalization: Policies and Programs. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1995. Print. Wilson, James. Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy. Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1966. Print. Wolchonok, Louis . The Art of Three-Dimensional Design: How to create space figures. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959. Print. Existing Elevations and Floor Plans Provided by Marcy Wong Donn Logan Architects


REFERENCES / WORKS CITED

Works Cited 1. Rich, David. “Machu Picchu.” Alternative Travel, Around the World travel, Destination Guides, Travel Articles on GoNOMAD.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 June 2011. <http://www.gonomad.com/destinations/0902/mp-images/machu-picchu-large.html>. 2. ”A Complicated Kindness” Anthology | Novel: Miriam Toews, Anthology: Jacklene Habib.” FreeWebs. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 June 2011. <http://www.freewebs.com/jackyhabib/microdramas.html>. 3. “Spaces that inspire solitude, contemplation and creative work.” Interior Design Ideas, Interior Designs, Home Design Ideas, Room Design Ideas, Interior Design, Interior Decorating. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 June 2011. <http://www.home-designing.com/2011/01/spaces-that-inspire-solitude-contemplation-and-creative-work>. 4. “jonathan segal architect.” jonathan segal architect. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.jonathansegalarchitect.com>. 5. ”Gensler.” Gensler. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.gensler.com/#projects/21 6. “BCV ARCHITECTS.” BCV ARCHITECTS. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. <http://www.bcvarch.com/commercial_and_community/food_marketplaces/san_francisco_ferry_building/>. 7. “The Green Building, (fer) studio LLP - Building Types Study - Architectural Record.” Architecture Design for Architects | Architectural Record. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. <http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/bts/archives/adaptiveReuse/10_The_Green_Building/default.asp>. 8. Craven, Jackie. “The Tate Modern in London - Designing the Tate Modern.” Architecture and House Styles and Building Design. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. <http://architecture.about.com/od/museum1/ss/TateModern.htm>. 9. “Berkeley, California (CA) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news, sex offenders.” Stats about all US cities - real estate, relocation info, house prices, home value estimator, recent sales, cost of living, crime, race, income, photos, education, maps, weather, houses, schools, neighborhoods, and more. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2011. <http://www.city-data.com/city/Berkeley-California.html>.

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