Page 1


1. ........................................................................................................................................... Precedents Location Site Response Structural Response Environmental Response Constructional Approach

01 02 03 04 05

2. .................................................................................................................................... Site Response Site Location Existing Solar Study Proposed Solar Study Temperature & Wind Water Study Geological Study

06 07 08 09 10 11

3. ........................................................................................................................ Structural Response Systems Implemented Loading and Structural System Structural Plans Material Build Up Assembly Process

12 13 14 15 16

4. ................................................................................................................ Environmental Response Sustainable Considerations Heating, Cooling and Fire Strategy Lighting and Acoustics

17 18 19

5. .................................................................................................................... Construction Response Manufacturing Process Detail Locations Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Contents

20 21 22 23


01

[ National Assembly Wales ] Richard Rogers Partnership Cardiff, Wales Gross Internal Floor Area 5308 m² Completed in 2005

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Precedent Study


[ Site Characteristics

&

02

Response ]

Cardiff, Wales

Monthly High Temperatures

2 J

3 F

8 M

13 A

19 M

21 J

23 J

Monthly Low Temperatures

23 A

19 S

14 O

7 N

4 D

-2 J

Being in the UK the temperature in Wales does not get too high which means that it is of similar climatic experience to Berlin and what learnt from the precedent study can be applied to the building in Berlin.

Summer Wind Rose

-2 F

2 M

4 A

9 M

12 J

14 J

Daily Sunlight Hours

14 A

11 S

7 O

3 N

1 D

3 J

3 F

5 M

9 A

9 M

Annual Solar Path in Cardiff

11 J

10 J

9 A

7 S

5 O

3 N

2 D

Wales in comparable with the solar angles throughout the year as Germany with relatively low sun positions in comparison to warmer climates.

The bigger issue in Wales is the cold weather and being able to maintain the heat within a building when the temperatures drop.

Annual Wind Rose

Foundation System

Borehole on site Top Soil Concrete

0m

Clay

Clay/Broken Chalk WATER LEVEL

Winter Wind Rose

6.2m

Broken Rock/Chalk 9.8m

The test for the structural engineers in this project was building on top of an existing dock so the foundation system was complex to manoeuvre around this obstacle.

Like the site in Berlin, there is a high water table as building built next to the sea the ground is very porous meaning that a hybrid pile foundation system was used.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Precedent Study


03

[ Structural Response ] Long Section

The roof perimeter cantilevers up to 12m diagonally at the corners, and the beams that support it are tapered and precambered to reduce dead load effects. The longitudinal roof members that form the undulating roof profile simply span between arches and ties. All other longitudinal members are straight, simply-supported beams except for the primary continuous element between each column location. The funnel is hung in tension from the arching shell structure, without vertical support from the reinforced concrete structure below but with its base horizontally and torsionally restrained by horizontal diagonal ties which connect back to the concrete ring beams. The funnel geometry was generated by taking a horizontal and approximately elliptical cut through the top of the arching shell. Following the plan of the debating chamber, the funnel base is circular, 12.0m and this resulted in the lower portion of the funnel being defined by horizontal concentric circles and its upper portion having a transitional length that develops a circular profile to that of the elliptical 11. Front entrance. profile (Fig 15). 3.6m The roof is stabilized laterally by pairs of inclined Top of prestressed rods. Lateral loads on the roof are Above the funnel, the lantern structure supports the lantern glazing and t column transferred to the tiesare by in-plane bracing,solely by the concrete. The static loading such as the roof The dynamic load within thestability building carried almost cowl (Fig 12). The glazing draws light into the debating chamber via an in the roofby plate designed to act ascolumns, a stiff carried into the concrete frame into the foundations and funneland arehence supported theissteel structural conical mirror directly above the debating chamber in the lantern centre ( diaphragm and dispersed into (Fig the 16). ground. The main steel columns are laterally braced to provide extra strength in turn

14. Public areas around the funnel.

Typical panel

41.5m Cylinder

Dome Glazing line

0

25m

The Welsh National Assembly was designed to be an open an inviting space to the public. Richard Rogers wanted transparency as the main driving factor, the main choice I have chosen this precedent, due to my design aspiring to be transparent to give the public the impression that no other archives from the Stasi are being hidden from them. In this they would have nothing to fear on approach.

36.5m

26.0m Elevation Funnel panel Cylinder

reducing the need for larger columns.

Transition Dome

1st Floor

Foundation System Section Line

Elevation Primary and Secondary Roof Structure Funnel

Standard Steel Module of Roof

15. Geometry of typical panel and funnel panel.

12. Wind cowl and lantern. 16. Principal structural elements.

13. Structural isometric force diagram. Primary roof structure

17. Roof column head. Tension

Stability structure

Compression

18. Ground anchorage of inclined roof tie.

The wind cowl rotates like a weather vane with the wind direction and the leeward pressures draw out the warm air from the chamber. To punctuate the sense of floating and lightness of the roof structure, mullions stop at the same level as the top of the primary columns, and a connected to a header beam or transom spanning 4m between horizonta which project in plan diagonally from the top of the column. On the gable supplemented by a planar horizontal truss spanning 26m Loadingheader Pathbeam of isRoof primary columns. The faรงade between the top of the mullions and the roo simply comprises a glass panel with the roof connection absorbing any d vertical roof movements. Structural principles

The roof form responds to the natural and efficient flow of forces within th plate and considers the bending behaviour of a simple beam with cantile either end. Asymmetrical loads create bending effects that necessitate a structural depth along the length of the roof plate. Primary uniform loads resisted by arching action between the columns and beam action in the c A minimum structural depth is maintained by offsetting the arch springing from the cantilever beams at the column position. This results in a resistin being generated over each column location. Within each module, two primary arches span 26m, inclined at about the aperture in the funnel bay, giving a span/depth ratio of 1:8. The vertic the base of the arches is resisted by the columns and the horizontal thru transferred through the in-plane diagonal cantilever struts and balanced b offset ties at the edge of each module (Fig 13).

The Arup J 10 The Arup Journal 2/2006

N

0

25m The column loads and spacing and ground floor loads were such that conventional spread foundations in the made ground were not feasible, due to unacceptable total and differential settlements, and so the foundations were piled. Bored piles were used to alleviate excessive noise acoustically and geologically. The Building is built on the existing east dock in Cardiff providing difficulties coming to a foundation system

The main structural frame for the roof is consistent of 6 modules, 5 of which are standard then the 6th which is a funnel into the debating chamber allowing for lighting and ventilation into the space.

The roof modules respond to the natural and efficient flow of forces within the folded plate and considers the bending behaviour of a simple beam with cantilevers at either end.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

The steel space-frame takes the load bearing of the roof down the primary columnar structures braced by the secondary structure which absorbed some of the load.

Precedent Study


[ Environmental Response ] Location of Debating Chamber

04 Inside of Debating Chamber

Effects of the Wind Cowl

Cooling Effect of Passive Cowl Temperature 째C 24.0 23.5 23.0 22.5 22.0 21.5 21.0 20.5 20.0 19.5 19.0

Location of Upper Foyer

N

0

25m

The ribbed inside of the debating chamber, alongside insulation, provides acoustic buffering to and from the upper foyer and surrounding areas to retain a calm atmosphere for debates in the chamber.

Natural ventilation is the default cooling mechanism. The rotating wind cowl ventilates the debating chamber via the funnel hung from the roof. Natural lighting is provided to the chamber via the glazing beneath the cowl. Additional Cooling and heating are supplied by earth heat exchangers, with heat pumps and 27 boreholes drilled 100m into the ground.

Upper Foyer

Exterior Louvres

The upper foyer has ambient lighting due to the overhanging roof in cooperation with the external louvres allowing diffused light in giving the space a calm feel. Which is welcoming against the timber cladded interior.

On the south west side of the building the glazed facade incorporates louvres to allow in diffused light to produce a calm feeling in the low Cardiff evening sun preventing excessive solar gain and glare.

The stainless steel cowls drag the hot air up out of the debating chamber in turn cooling the space as illustrated. Which leaves the seating area at a cool 19 degrees Celsius.

Single Stage Louvres

The idea of louvres is to disallow direct sunlight into an area, I can use this idea to allow indirect sunlight into a gallery area without compromising views and natural lighting.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Precedent Study


15. Geometry of typical panel and funnel panel.

[ Constructional

&

Material Approach ]

Top of column

26.0m

16. Principal structural elements.

Elevation Funnel panel Cylinder

Construction of funnel

Upper Foyer

17. Ground Roof column head. Anchorage

Primary roof structure

Transition

Stability structure

Dome

16. Principal structural elements.

The Natural light in is allowed by the mass of open space created by the space framed roof in which I want to use in my design 14. Public areas around the funnel.

41.5m Cylinder 12.0m

Dome Glazing line

36.5m 3.6m

Exploded Material Use

Roof Column Head

Elevation The roof perimeter cantilevers up to 12m diagonally

15. Geometry of typical panel and funnel panel.

Typical panel

of Inclined Roof Tie

18. Ground anchorage of inclined roof tie.

Funnel

The main funnel is hung from the ceiling and braced by the secondary structure. The timber cladded roof is set on the steel frame on a plywood base and to get the flush finish with no holes the cladding was attached adhesively leaving a very crisp looking interior. 10 The Arup Journal 2/2006

The roof is stabilized laterally by pairs of inclined prestressed rods. Lateral loads on the roof are transferred to the stability ties by in-plane bracing, and hence the roof plate is designed to act as a stiff diaphragm (Fig 16).

Top of column

26.0m Elevation Funnel panel Cylinder

at the corners, and the beams that support it are tapered and precambered to reduce dead load effects. The longitudinal roof members that form the undulating roof profile simply span between arches and ties. All other longitudinal members are straight, simply-supported beams except for the primary continuous element between each column location. The funnel is hung in tension from the arching shell structure, without vertical support from the 17. Roof column head. Primary roof structure concrete but anchors with its to aid in The reinforced building is bracedstructure by the below ground The main loads from the roof Stability structure base horizontally and torsionally restrained lateral bracing and rotational movement by 18. Ground anchorage main column of whichroof the tie. head of inclined horizontal diagonal ties which connect back to the concrete ring beams. The funnel geometry was generated by taking a horizontal and approximately elliptical cut through the top of the arching shell. Following the plan of the debating chamber, the funnel base is circular, and this resulted in the lower portion of the funnel being defined by horizontal concentric circles and its upper portion having a transitional length that develops a circular profile to that of the elliptical profile (Fig 15). The roof is stabilized laterally by pairs of inclined prestressed rods. Lateral loads on the roof are transferred to the stability ties by in-plane bracing, and hence the roof plate is designed to act as a stiff diaphragm (Fig 16).

are taken down the is above.

Transition Dome

10 The Arup Journal 2/2006

Funnel

Elevation

15. Geometry of typical panel and funnel panel.

16. Principal structural elements.

Primary roof structure Stability structure

17. Roof column head. 18. Ground anchorage of inclined roof tie.

The transparency of the Welsh National Assembly is what made me choose this as my design driver was The roof is made up of 6 module pieces 5 normal and 1 funnel down into the debating chamber. The 10 The Arup Journal 2/2006 to keep the archive transparent so as to appear inviting and come across as not hiding anything else from part of the structure I am interested in is the build up of the timber interior cladded roof. them.

To get a feel for how the building was constructed I created this 3D model to help get my head around how they constructed it using limited resources.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Precedent Study

05


06

[ Site Location ] Checkpoint Charlie, Berlin, Germany

Germany

Site Location looking from South

Berlin

Site Location looking from North

Site

The site is opposite Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin, a key focal point in tourism and culture in Berlin with it being best known crossing point of the Berlin Wall, of which was situated on this given site. The Architecture in the centre of the city is a wide variety due to structures being destroyed during the cold war and the second world war. The site itself, on ZimmerstraĂ&#x;e, is home to a small museum to Checkpoint Charlie and the Berlin Wall. The history relating to the site provides great opportunity to be input into the design.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Site Response


[ Solar Study - Existing ] Sun Path Summer Solstice

07

Shadow Study These composite plan in constructed from the shadows from 8 am, 10am, 12 noon, 2pm, 4pm and 6pm. This was constructed to illustrate the paths that the sun takes and the overshadowing caused from neighbouring buildings.

Summer Solstice

8am

10am

12 noon

2pm

4pm

6pm

8am

10am

12 noon

Composite Shadow Plan

2pm

4pm

6pm

Average annual solar level

Average annual solar level

Average annual insolation on existing buildings

Summer Solstice

Summer Solstice

Composite Shadow Plan Winter Solstice

Sun Path Winter Solstice

Wh/m²

Hours 8+

1200+

7

1050

6

900

5

750

4

600

3

450

2

300

1

150

0 Winter Solstice

The chosen part of my site benefits from high levels of solar exposure during the summer months due to high sun and no overshadowing from neighbouring buildings. Although on the other hand in winter the same cannot be said as the tall buildings block all but a little of the sun for the most of the day, it is only higher levels in the building that can obtain solar gain in the winter.

0 Winter Solstice

Due to the high level of solar exposure in the summer and the low levels of expose in winter a strategy will have to be applied to keep the building cool in summer and also retain the little heat it can obtain in summer from the sun.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Site Response


08

[ Solar Study - Proposed ] Summer Solstice

Composite Shadow Plan

8am

10am

12 noon

2pm

4pm

6pm

8am

10am

12 noon

2pm

4pm

6pm

Due to the high solar gain on the main two faรงades in summer the south and the west side will require a cladding system will be applied so as to limit the solar gain in the transparent building design.

Winter Solstice

Composite Shadow Plan

In winter the site gets very little solar gain meaning that the spaces that will benefit from any extra light are to be placed on the upper levels, using the scar down the middle of the building as a main point of solar dispersion into the building helps the building gain some natural light that can be obtained during the winter months.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Site Response


[ Wind

&

09

Temperature Study ]

Monthly High Temperature - Berlin

2 J

3 F

8 M

13 A

19 M

21 J

23 J

23 A

19 S

Monthly Low Temperature - Berlin

14 O

7 N

4 D

-2 J

-2 F

2 M

4 A

9 M

12 J

14 J

14 A

11 S

Summer Wind Rose

7 O

3 N

1 D

Winter Wind Rose

Daily Sunlight Hours

3 J

3 F

5 M

9 A

9 M

Annual Wind Rose

11 J

10 J

9 A

7 S

5 O

3 N

2 D

The average temperatures are comparable between Wales and Germany so the systems implemented within the Welsh National assembly can be applied in a similar manner to my design concepts.

Summer Site Wind Conditions

With the main direction of wind coming from the west and south this will be a consideration into how the natural ventilation techniques will be applied.

Summer Wind Flow 2D

Winter Wind Flow 2D

The high level winds over the tall buildings near the site in summer can be very beneficial to draw heat up through the building in turn cooling the building like the Welsh National Assembly

Winter Site Wind Conditions

Annual Prevailing Wind

On the site due to the high level winds street level is kept ventilated via the hot air being dragged up by the winds via vortices keeping it calm and cool at road level. This same principle is used in the Welsh national assembly and a similar passive ventilation technique is to be applied in my design.

Due to the Cross winds in winter what is to be the main entrance will need some form of wind breakage to prevent unsettling winds from picking up against the archive centre. Although this wind could be used to draw excess heat from the archives below and use it to passively heat the private upstairs areas.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Site Response


[ Water

&

10

Acoustics Study ]

Average Rainfall Per Month (mm)

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

Water Table Depth

Average Precipitation Runoff per Year

Hand crank water pumps are still available in Berlin. With all water treatment plants being located outside of the city centre to avoid distressful smells in the middle of the city.

The main feature of Berlin’s geology is its high water table providing force upwards on buildings, meaning the for basements and foundations they will have to be reinforced to avoid the rising water tables from pushing through the fabric of the building.

The site is victim to the highest levels of waterfall runoff per year. This means the building will require good protection from the surface water run off.

D

The rainfall graph is the inverse shape of the precedent study in Cardiff. With summer receiving more rain than winter and vice versa in Cardiff.

Acoustic Plan close up of site

Water Service Locations

Acoustic Plan near site

Acoustic Section around site

Due to being situated on the crossroads of a main road in the centre of Berlin the site suffers from high levels of acoustic activity. It is also set above the tunnel of the underground train which produces large levels of intermittent acoustics to the local area of the site.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Site Response


11

[ Geological Conditions ] International Chronostratigraphic Chart

Hydro-geological Section of Berlin

Geological Plan of Berlin

Site

Site

Using the international Chronostratigraphic Chart I was able to translate the Hyrdo-Geological section which was originally in German. This is a chart illustrating the geological formation differing periods of time. We are currently in the Holocene era in the Quaternity which is broken down from Cenozoic time of which is a part of the Phanerozoic time which is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal life has existed.

Borehole Locations Near Site

The stretched out section allows for greater interpretation of the hydro-geological breakdown of the first 200m below the high water table of Berlin. Due to these conditions the ground is unstable and the foundations most suited are raft and micro pile hybrid systems.

Borehole Compositions Borehole 1

Borehole 2

The stretched out section allows for greater interpretation of the hydro-geological breakdown of the first 200m below the high water table of Berlin. Due to these conditions the ground is unstable and the foundations most suited are raft and micro pile hybrid systems.

Site Section Geology Imposed Borehole 3

Borehole 4

Borehole 5

Sand

Glacial Till

80m

Clay/Silt Sand Clay/Silt Sand Glacial Till Sand Clay/Silt Glacial Till

Borehole Borehole Borehole Borehole Borehole

5 4 3 2 1

Taking the data from several boreholes near and on the site which are all on average 80m deep the composition between the Sand, Glacial Till, Clay and Silt is formed.

Using the data from the boreholes a three dimensions representation of the geological conditions on the site is extrapolated to be used to inform decisions on depth of foundations for good grounding with respect to the building.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Site Response


[ Structural System Basement

&

Reinforced In Situ Secant Pile Foundations

Cedar Cladding

12

Ground Considerations ] Steel supporting frames

The chosen foundation system is a secant pile foundation which is bored down and cast in situ to 15 meters to find good ground standing with the poor ground conditions chosen in hybrid with a raft, but the reason for secant piles is the large excavation needed in which to create a 6 meter high tanked basement with a drained cavity for the archive storage. The larger piles take the load from the main structural V-columns which take the load of the roof and concrete floor slab of the second floor. This has been chosen over other options due to its effectivity with water retention with the high Berlin water table. Rock anchors are also used to prevent up thrust from the rising water table to damage the archives.

The cladding system that sits on the steel from is cedar wood that is all flush with no connection due to adhesive sheeting that binds the cedar and the plywood, which is bolted to the steel frame with flush nuts.

Using the same idea as the Welsh national assembly the main structure for the internal cladding comes from a steel frame in which the cladding system will be attached to. The steel bracing in my building also help with the span of the basement level and glazing fixtures in the roof and curtain wall. This is used over various other techniques as the building has to remain lightweight to retain the transparent design driver.

In Situ Concrete

The ease of use with concrete and the latent fire and structural qualities helped me to make the decision to use in situ cast concrete for the core, floor and thermal massing wall on the north side.

I chose this system as it gives the greatest aesthetic finish without being overly unsustainable.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Structural Response


[ Loading

&

13

Structural System ]

Dead Loading Dispersion

Structural Build Up Composition The main structure is consistent of the 8 steel V-columns that give the building the ability to have an expanse of open space whilst keeping the foundation away from the neighbouring building to aid in the construction process on site. The concrete core provides a spine from the in situ concrete wall which aids in retention of heat to the north of the building. The divide between immediate public and private is provided by the cedar cladding system with the upstairs being divided into offices, piecing room, counselling rooms and reading room by acoustically insulated stud walls. Primary In-Situ Concrete Primary Steel Beams Secondary Stud Walls Secondary Cedar Cladding System Secondary Glazing

The dead loading of the lightweight roof as illustrated above is taken through the primary steel columns and into the secant pile foundations and dispersed into the ground. The weight of the in situ concrete floor slab is taken again through the primary loading structure of the steel columns.

Live Loading Dispersion

Structural Bracing System The glazing system provides lateral bracing and rotational bracing from the elements assisting the primary structure. The steel frame in the cladding system also provides extra rotational bracing in the primary structure.

The weight of the 300 metric tonnes of archives is dispersed into the ground via the secant foundations. The live loading of the main building is mainly taken through the steel columns dispersed into the foundations and into the ground. Ground floor loading is taken through the primary structure of the floor into the foundations and dispersed again into the ground.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Structural Response


14

[ Structural System Plans ] Scale 1:200 Basement Level

Ground Floor

First Floor

Second Floor

32m

13m

13m

7.5m

7.5m

11m

7.5m

7.5m

Primary In-Situ Concrete Primary Steel Beams Secondary Stud Walls Secondary Cedar Cladding Secondary Glazing

The basement is constructed of reinforced cast in-situ secant pile foundations with a principle span of 32m which is aided by the steel structure above which is cast into the raft foundation hiding it from view.

The ground floor has a mass of open space provided by the large steel columns allowing this expanse of open space, with dividing space provided by the cedar cladding system on steel frame.

The seminar rooms on the first floor are held up primarily by the cladding system steel frame and then braced by the steel V-columns.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

The spaces on the top floor are divided up by non load bearing stud walls with the structure being provided by the primary steel columns and concrete floor slab.

Structural Response


15

[ Structural Build Up ] Exploded Axonometric of Building Fabric

Secondary Glazing System

Pre-Fabricated Glazing Panels with Passive Ventilation Cowls

Secondary Roof Structure Corrugated Aluminium Sheets

Primary Steel Supporting Structure Pre-Fabricated Steel Beams

Cladding Fixture Plates

Plywood Sheets Fixed to Primary Structure

Primary Concrete Private Circulation Core

Secondary Cladding System

Primary Concrete External Wall

Secondary Stud Walls

Secondary Stud Walls

Steel Folded Staircase

Cedar Soffit Cladding on Adhesive Sheeting

Reinforced Cast In-Situ Concrete

Pre-Fabricated Steel Stud Walls

Reinforced Cast In-Situ Concrete

Prefabricated Steel Support by Steel Wires

Pre-Fabricated Steel Stud Walls with Timber Cladding

Primary Concrete Floor Slab

Cladding Fixture Plates

Reinforced Cast In-Situ Concrete

Plywood Sheets Fixed to Primary Structure

Secondary Cladding System

Cedar Cladding on Adhesive Sheeting

Cladding Fixture Plates

Primary Steel Supporting Structure

Plywood Sheets Fixed to Primary Structure

Pre-Fabricated Steel Beams

Secondary Glazing Curtain Wall

Pre-Fabricated Laminated Double Glazing Panels

Secondary Cladding System

Cedar Cladding on Adhesive Sheeting

Secondary Solar Shaders

Pre-Fabricated Lightweight Steel Frame Clad in Cedar

Primary Steel V-Columns Pre-Fabricated

Primary Concrete Floor Slab Reinforced Cast In-Situ Concrete

Primary Foundation Pile Caps In-Situ Cast Concrete

Primary Steel Supporting Structure Pre-Fabricated Steel Beams

Primary Foundation Ring Beams In-Situ Cast Concrete

Primary Concrete Basement Floor Slab Reinforced Cast In-Situ Concrete

Primary Secant Concrete Foundations Reinforced Cast In-Situ Concrete

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Structural Response


16

[ Assembly Process ] Construction Process

Firstly the secant piles are bored into the ground and cast in situ

The ground is then excavated out and ring beams and pile caps added

The steel bracing structure is then added after the archive racks are lowered in and protected from the elements

The primary steel columns are then installed onto of the pile caps and bolted into place

The core and the thermal massing wall are then cast in situ

The steel frame for the classing system is then installed attaching to the foundations and steel columns

The roof is then installed

The plywood is then fixed to the steel frame where the cedar is to be cladded

The cedar cladding is then installed

The final concrete cast is poured of the upper floor

Stud walls then erected

Finally the glazing system is then attached to its framing and the external solar shaders added completing the build

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Structural Response


17

[ Sustainable Approach - Programme ] Scale 1:500

1. Archives

The archives are to be stored underground which limits the environmental impact on them, which means because of the concrete thermal mass provided by the secant foundations less energy input is required to maintain the humidity levels and temperature. The local air exchange is irrelevant in these archives as all the papers are closely packed Due to the archives in question, all documentation from the Stasi on the German population, not being very old the grade to keep them at is A which is of good control with slight fluctuations and slight seasonal changes. The are to not exceed 20°C to prevent the deterioration of material from the heat. The deterioration rate is doubled for every extra 10°C hence the necessity to maintain this level. The space is to be artificially lit as to avoid external environmental impact and the level will be 200 LUX. The archives are on mechanical rollers, but due to the infrequent use the heat expended is not enough to warrant a great amount of ventilation with the air changes to be 1 every 10 hours this is due to ventilation being often citied as an inhibitor of fungal growth which is to be limited. The relative humidity is to remain around 30-40% which again help retard the process of deterioration of the material.

1. Gallery

1. Public Seminar Room 2. Private Seminar Room The lighting levels in both seminar rooms will be 300 LUX. Both spaces are to be similar in their environmental factors with air changes of 10 per hours due to the public and close interaction in the space. The temperature is to be regulated, with the aid of the insulation in between the system frame, at a temperate 20°C.

1. Offices

The gallery is to be protected from direct sunlight and is suited to a light level of 250 LUX of which artificial lighting will be required in winter. 10 air changes per hour due to public use of space. The space is naturally ventilated by the chasm which draws the air from the gallery up and out of the building to keep it cool.

For ease of working the offices are to have light levels of 500 LUX which is provided in the closed spaces by the floor to ceiling curtain wall with additional artificial lighting provided which the unpredictable environmental impacts hinder this. Air changes are to be at 5 per hour and maintained at a temperature of 20°C for optimal working conditions

2. Reception

2. Piecing Room

The same as Gallery space but with light level being 300 LUX which is provided by the gap in solar shading which means no further artificial lighting is required in summer.

3. Scanning Room

After the archives are delivered they are scanned and put into the storage archives. The air changes would be 5 per hour due to machinery in the room.

4. Delivery Bay

The open space of delivery has light coming in from in between the cast concrete floor and cedar cladding system at a nice 150 LUX with the air changes being 10 per hour as there will be forklifts operating in the area on a regular basis.

Due to the archives being handled in this room and detail needed artificial lighting is required to produce a level of 1000 LUX for working on detailed procedures in piecing the jigsaw of a puzzle that is the torn documents. To further protect the documents the room must not exceed 20°C and be protected from direct sunlight hence the location of the room.

3. Supervised Reading Room

The same as the piecing room but for suitable reading conditions the lighting level is maintained at 500 LUX which

is done by the solar shaders

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Environmental Response


18

[ Environmental Systems ] Ventilation

With the installation of passive venting system in the roof glazing the high wind flow over the site drags the warm air from inside up through the scar of the building leaving the spaces cool and temperate.

Distribution of Services

Location of plant room on ground floor

Exploded axonometric of distribution of services through the building

Cooling in Archives With the archive having its own separate climate to the rest of the building to maintain the structural integrity of the material contained the ground thermal mass does not fluctuate as much as above the ground so requires less energy in external ventilation and cooling but the space it to be mechanically kept at 16 degrees Celsius.

Location of plant room 3D wire-frame

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Environmental Response


[ Lighting

&

19

Acoustics ]

Lighting

Acoustics

Solar Study from Solar Shaders in Gallery Area

Summer 10am

Summer 1pm

Acoustic Absorption from Panelling

Winter 10am

View from first floor walkway looking into the private seminar space

Acoustic absorption of the cedar cladding build up

Build up of cedar cladding design

Winter 1pm

Summer 4pm

Winter 4pm

The solar shaders have been designed after numerous configurations to allow just dispersed light into the building at ground level as it is to be used as a gallery space, with the addition of tinted glass will allow comfortable light levels for this required space. In summer the space is well lit from dispersed light.

During the winter period there is a lot of overshadowing with the low solar arc so the lower space will need to be artificially lit to aid in light levels in the reception and gallery area.

Natural Light Diffusion into Building

View from reception looking up to the public seminar space

The main structural build up of the timber cladded interior is such that the insulation within the steel frame structure absorbs the bulk of all acoustic noise from the gallery and reception which help to keep the seminar and upstairs areas from being overwhelmed with noise. This absorption in conjunction with the designed shape of these boundaries provides good acoustic buffering into spaces adjacent to the main area of activity which is the gallery and reception.

Acoustic Deflection

The scar straight down the middle of the building allows good levels of natural light into the seminar spaces and private areas upstairs. The exposed concrete floor helps with light bounces and illuminates the space further.

The space between delivery space and public foyer and gallery will need to be acoustically buffered to prevent unwanted noise from the deliveries to disperse into the space. The shape of the downstairs gallery is such that it allows sound to reverberate around so as not to be dispersed into the private and sensitive spaces upstairs such as the counselling and reading rooms

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Environmental Response


20

[ Manufacturing Process ] Steel Beam Production

Cladding Manufacturing

Lump Ore

Fine Ore Sinter

The cedar trees are firstly allowed to grow to maturity on plantation

Coal Pellets Coke

They are cut down when mature and taken to factory Blast Furnace

Natural Gas, Oil or Coal

Oxygen Blast In the factory they are then cut into usable strips Hot Metal Air

Oxygen

Recycled Steel

Recycled Steel Where they are then treated Open Hearth Furnace

Basic Oxygen Furnace

Crude Steel

And finally stacked and ready for transportation to site Shaped into universal beams on a mill

The process of creating the steel beams is an energy consuming process, but due to the structural integrity and life span of such material it is justified when using as a building material as its structural bearing weight to mass is so great.

The use of timber to clad the majority of the building is a decision based on the recyclability of timber after its life span in the building is up.

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Construction Response


20

[ Construction Details ] Building Section

Detail 1

Detail 2

Detail 3

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Construction Response


21

[ Construction Detail 1 ] External Curtain Wall Roof Junction Scale 1:5

Cedar Cladding Adhesive Sheet Plywood Damp Proof Membrane Steel Frame Aluminium Flashing Strip Corrugated Aluminium Sheet Roofing Insulation Bespoke Steel Beam Steel Column Glazing Fixture Spider Glass Fixture Glazing

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Construction Response


22

[ Construction Detail 2 ] Typical Detail of Cladding Scale 1:5

Cedar Cladding Adhesive Sheet Plywood Steel Beam Insulation Flush Bolt Steel Plate

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Construction Response


23

[ Construction Detail 3 ] External Curtain Wall Floor Junction Scale 1:5

Damp Proof Membrane Reinforced Concrete Raft Insulation Steel Column Steel Base Plate Grouting Screed Granite Floor Insulated Glazing Fixture Sealant Spider Glass Fixture Double Glazed Laminated Glazing External Paving Bolt Guide Hole Ground Sand Filler Hardcore

Daniel Lomax

C3310227 AT3 Year 3 Stasi Archive

Construction Response

Stasi Archive - Technology Building Study  

Technology Building Study of a project based on the Stasi Archive in Berlin. Final year project of undergraduate BA (Hons) Architecture

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