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ARCHITECTURE D E S I G N S T U D I O AIR D A N I E L

H A Z M Y

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A special thanks to my awesome group members, Samantha and Rebecca, not forgeting to Jas and Alison, my awesome tutors.


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PART 1 EXPRESSION OF INTEREST 1.1 Architecture as a Discourse 1.2 Computation in Architecture 1.3 Case for Innovation Conclusion 1.4 Notes

PART 3 RESEARCH PROJECT 3.1 Case Studies 3.2 Matrix Exploration 3.3 First Exploration 3.4 Second Exploration 3.5 Third Exploration 3.6 Reverse Engineering Project 3.7 Research Project Conclusion

C O N T E N T

PART 5 REFLECTION 5.1 Learning Outcomes 5.2 References

PART 2 THE OVERALL PICTURE 2.1 Architectural Ornament 2.2 Generative Design 2.3 The Argument 2.4 Notes

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PART 4 PROJECT PROPOSAL 4.1 Project Interpretation 4.2 Project Delivery 4.3 Design Progress 4.4 Project Proposal Conclusion

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This journal is literally a journal. H az my, Daniel

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PART 1 EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


1.0

CASE FOR INNOVATIONS


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Parametricism implies that all elements of architecture are becoming parametrically malleable and thus adaptive to each other and to the context.

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Sch u mach er, Patrick (2012).Interview : O n Parametricsm, p ub lished in Paper- Platform for A rchitectural Projects, Essays & R esearch, Is s u e 4 , Un iversity of Westminster

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1.1 A R C H I T E C T U R E A S A D I S CO U R S E

WHY architecture? Why not sculpting, painting or ceramics? What does architecture distinctly have that will benefit the Wyndham Gateway Project compared to the other design disciplines? This chapter will discuss on the reasons and also benefits of using architecture for this project in detail.

To unders ta nd why ar c h i te c tur e w i ll b e th e bes t s o l utio n fo r th i s p r o jec t, f i r s t we need to und ers ta nd a nd k no w th e mea ning o f a rchitect ur e. W h a t i s a r c h i tecture rea l l y a bo ut? Ar c hitecture ca n have v a r i o us d ef i ni tions , often incompl ete b ut m o s t o f th e times co nform to the no ti o ns o f d e s i gnin g a nd cons tructing b ui ld i ngs . 1 T h es e definitio ns s ees a rc h i tec tur e m er ely as a rt, a n o bj ect des i gne d b y a r c h i tects , w hich a re the n to b e c r i ti qued b y the s ociety s imila r to o th er k i nd s of artis ts tha t pro d uc e s p a i nti ngs a nd sc u l ptures . 2 Wil l ia ms h o w ever, d i s a gr ee with this a nd s ugges t th a t a r c h i tec tur e sh oul d be thought o f les s a s p h ys i c a l ob jects or products in s p a c e, b ut r a th er as a “co l l a bora tio n b etw e e n a r a nge o f soc ia l a nd profes s io na l p r a c ti c es th a t sometimes , but by no m ea ns a lw a ys , lead to buil dings ”. 3 Schuma cher on the o th e r h a nd , p r o vided a d efinitio n th a t w i ll b e us e d th r ougho ut this j our na l w h er e h e d es -

c r i b e d a r c h i t e ct u re a s “ a sy st e m o f c o m m uni c a t i o n s t ha t i s co n st a n t l y c h a ngi ng an d re n e wi n g i t se l f t hro u g h c o llec ti o ns o f a rt e f a ct s, kn o wl e d g e a nd p r a c ti ce s” . 4 I n o t he r wo rd s, a rchi tec tur e c a n b e a n y t hi n g t ha t g e n e ra t e s d i s c us s i o ns o r d i sco u rse , b e i t a rchi t e ctur a l th eo r ie s, b u i l t a n d u n b u i l t b u i l d i ngs , , s k e t che s, d ra wi n g s, C A D fi l e s, r end er i ngs , e xhi b i t i o n s, b o o ks, ma g a z i nes , w eb si t e s, b l o g p o st i n g s a n d m a ny m o r e. 5 T h i s d ef i ni tio n o f a rchi t e ct u re a s a d i sc o ur s e i s c o n cu rre n t t o t he d e si g n b ri e f w h e r e “ T h e We st e rn G a t e w a y sho u l d p r o p o s e ne w , i n sp i ri n g a n d b ra v e i d e a s , to g e n e ra t e a n e w d i sco u rse ” . A nd i n th i s ca se , I b e l i e v e t ha t b y u si n g a r c h i te c tur e a s a me d i u m t o g e n e ra t e a new d i s c ou rse i s a p p ro p ri a t e f o r o n e ver y r ea s o n. D i s c o ur s e ari se s f ro m t he n e w t y p e s o f a r c h i tec t u re g e n e ra t e d t ha t re a ct s to new c o nd i t i o n s t ha t ha s n e v e r b e e n s ee n b ef o r e i n t he p a st su ch a s n e w

ma t e ri a l s, n e w w a y s o f t hi n ki n g , ne w t e chn o l o g i e s, e t c. B y u t i l i z i n g t he s e n e w co n d i t i o n s, i . e . p a ra me t ri c mo de l l i n g , t hi s co u l d b ri n g Wy n d ha m Cit y t o b e a p a rt i ci p a n t i n t he cu rre n t dis co u rse . H o we v e r, my i n t e n t i s n o t o n l y t o g ene ra t e a d i sco u rse t ha t wi l l l a st a l ong t i me , su b se q u e n t l y ma ki n g a si g nif ica n t i mp a ct t o Wy n d ha m b y st i mu l at i n g a n o n g o i n g i n t e re st t o t hi s p roj e ct f o r ma n y y e a rs t o co me b u t t o al s o f o cu s o n t he l o ca l p a rt i ci p a n t s o f t h is p ro j e ct s (t he u se rs o f t hi s g a t e w ay p ro j e ct ) a n d p ro v i d e t he m wi t h e xci t ing a n d e y e ca t chi n g i n st a l l a t i o n t ha t wil l e v o ke n e w ki n d o f e xp e ri e n ce s. I wi l l n o w l o o k a t fe w a rchi t e ct u r al p ro j e ct s t ha t ha v e g e n e ra t e d a dis co u rse t o f u rt he r p ro v e my a rg u me nt o n ho w a rchi t e ct u re a s a d i sco u rse is b e n e f i ci a l fo r Wy n d ha m C i t y C o u n ci l .

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MY PERSONAL PROJECT THE HEADSPACE PROJECT 2010

Headspace Project, images taken from : http://www.melbournedesignawards.com.au/MDA2010/entry_details_v03.asp?ID=3347&Category_ID=4539

Th e b r ie f for this pro j ect th a t w a s i ntr o duced in the s ubj ect o f V i r tua l Envi r o nmen ts w a s to d es ign co m p lex geo m etr ic al st ructures tha t w ill b e f a b r i c a te d u sing pa per a nd ca n b e w o r n o n th e h ead. This co urs e run by Sta ni s la v R o uvslaki a ims to intro d uce d i gi ta l d e s i gn th inking to firs t yea r s tud ents th a t a r e study ing in a rchitecture. 6

m ent th a t s e a r c he s o u t co me s’ i s re l e v a nt to th e d i gi t a l d e si g n p ro ce ss. T hi s p a r a lle ls w i th on e o f t he t wo d e si g n p r o c es s d e f i ne d b y K a l a y whe re t hi s w o uld b e a p r o b l e m so l v i n g p ro ce ss i n w h i c h d i f f er ent so l u t i o n s a re g e n e ra t e d a nd te s te d a ga i n st g o a l s a n d p a ra me ter s , unti l a s u i t a b l e a n d a p p ro p ri a t e s o luti o n i s f o un d . 8

I n this perio d w here c o m p ute r s a nd softw are a re increa s ingly us e d i n th e ar ch itectura l rea l m; from c o nc e p tua liz ation to the co ns tructi o n p r o c es s , i t is par ticul a rl y importa nt th a t s tud ents ar e expo s ed to this new s h i f t o f th i nk in g an d co ul d util ize t h e b e nef i ts o f u sing digita l techniques i n th e i r d e s i gn pr ocess.

Pr o b lem s o lvi ng , ho we v e r, i s a p ro ce ss th a t d o no t a ll o ws f o r hi g h cre a t i v i t y a nd i nno v a ti o n t o o ccu r b e ca u se t hi s p r o c es s m e r ely u si n g d i g i t a l t o o l s t o a c c o m p li s h go al s a n d o u t co me s t ha t a r e p r ec o nc ei ve d e a rl i e r. The o t he r d e s i gn p r o c es s d e fi n e d b y K a l a y i s p u z z l e m a k i ng w h e r e d e si g n i s a p ro ce ss o f d i s c o ver y. T h i s e n a b l e s t he g e n e ra t i o n o f d i f f er ent k i nd s o f so l u t i o n s d e f i n e d b y a s et o f p a r a me t e rs a n d whe re t he e nd o utc o m e i s u n kn o wn . 9

Th e c ours e w a s s tructure d to gi ve e m ph asis on ‘gra d ua l , ite r a ti ve d e velo p men t tha t s ea rches o utco m e s b y ex p o s in g in itia l concepts to d i f f e r ent m e d i a , tech niques , contingencie s a nd m a te r i als’. 7 Th e ph ra s e ‘gra dua l , itera ti ve d evelo p -

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T h e Hea d s p a c e p ro j e ct w a s u n fo rt u na te ly li m i ted t o t he p ro b l e m so l v i n g p r o c es s d ue to l i mi t a t i o n s o f ha rd w a re a nd s o f tw a r e th a t a re re a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to s tud ents . 10

S t u d e n t s we re e q u i p p e d wi t h fre e b a si c so f t w a re wi t h b a si c f u n ct i o n s t ha t l i mi t s d e si g n i d e a s. p ro ce ss a n d o u t co me s. T he i ssu e o f l i mi t a t i o n s i n wha t d i g i t a l so f t w a re ca n a chi e v e v e rsu s scri p t i n g wi l l a ri se re p e a t e d l y i n t hi s j o u rn a l . D e sp i t e b e i n g ri g i d l y i n v o l v e d i n o n l y p ro b l e m so l v i n g , t hi s he a d sp a ce p ro j e ct wi l l se rv e a s a st a rt i n g p o i n t t o t he Wy n d ha m g a t e w a y p ro j e ct whe re d i g i t a l d e si g n p ro ce ss wi l l b e u se d .


S TAT E O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T S ARCHITECTURE DISCOURSE - STRUCTURAL SKIN

Monocoque 2, Neri Oxman, New York, 2007

I n Mo d ernis m mo ve m ent, e f f o r ts h a ve b ee n ma d e to free th e f a c a d e o r th e skin o f a buil ding fr o m c a r r yi ng s tr uc tu r al l oa d. Le Co r b us i er ‘ s D o m i no Hous e idea w a s ve r y i nf luenti a l a nd affected modern a r c h i tec tur e gr e a tly in the twentieth centur y w h er e la r ge g las s wind o w s a nd s tr i p w i nd o w s a r e ac hiev a bl e. Tha t, by i ts e lf , h a s c r e a ted a popul a r d is cours e a t th a t ti m e a nd in fluenced ma ny a rc h i te c ts . A r c h i tec tu r e a re perceived as li gh tw e i gh t a nd flex ibl e.

O ne s m a ll s ca l e e x a mp l e b y N e ri O x ma n , t he ‘ M o n o co q u e 2 ’ cl e a rl y a p p ro a che s th i s i d e a . Mo n o co q u e me a n s ‘ si n g l e she l l ’ i n Fre n ch. Thi s p ro j e ct u se s Vo ro n oi p a tter n to p ro d u ce t he st ru ct u ra l ski n . T he d e n si t y o f t he p a t t e rn s, t he d i st ri b u ti o n o f s h ea r-st re ss l i n e s a n d su rfa ce p re ssu re i s co n t ro l l e d p a ra me t ri ca l l y by v a r yi ng th e re l a t i v e t hi ckn e ss o f t he v e i n -l i ke e l e me n t s b u i l t i n t o t he ski n . Wi t ho ut th e us e o f co mp u t a t i o n a l t e chn i q u e s a n d p a ra me t ri c d e si g n , u n d e r n o rmal c i r c um s ta nce s t hi s wo u l d n o t b e p o ssi b l e .

How ev er, there is a n i nc r ea s i ng i nter est in where the fa ca d e i s b ei ng s tr uc tu r al a nd a t the s a me ti m e p r o vi d i ng or n a menta tio n to gi ve vi s ua l i nte r es t, defying a l l of the Mod er ni s t vi e w o f a r ch it ecture tha t s ho ul d h a ve f r ee f a c a d e and not being o rna m e nte d . I n o th er word s , a new dis cour s e o n s tr uc tur a l skin ha s genera ted. M any exa mpl es ca n b e s ee n no t o nly in a rchitecture but als o i n o th e r d e s i gn in dus tries s uch a s fas h i o n, p o tter y a nd ar t tha t l ooks into s ki n a s a s tr uc tur e .

Monocoque 2, Neri Oxman, New York, 2007

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The Times Eureka Pavillion, Nex architects, London, 2011

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On a s l ightl y l ar ger s c a le , th e Ti m es Eureka Pa v il ion by N ex A r c h i tec ts a ls o a ppl y the s a me i d e a o f s tr uc tur a l s k i n in their d es ign. T h ey to o , us es Vo r o no i pa ttern, but us ing th e c e llula r s tr uc tur e o f pl a nts a s a p r e c ed e nt. Si m i la r ly i n this ca s e, pa ra me tr i c d es i gn w a s us ed to genera te this o utc o m e . A no th er thing to no te, is th a t th e m a ter i a l us ed fo r this pa vil ion. T h e m a te r i a l th a t w a s us ed is timber. T h i s p r o je c t us e s ti m ber in a n unconventi o na l w a y i n w h i c h o nl y pa ra metric d e s i gn c a n a c h i e ve.

Ho w e ver, ca n t ho se e xa mp l e s me n ti o ned e a rl i e r p ro v e t ha t st ru ct u ra l ski n c a n b e u se d i n a l a rg e sca l e b u i l d i n g ? T h e ne x t e xa mp l e b y Z a ha H a d i d d e mo ns tr a te s t he fe a si b i l i t y a n d p o ssi b i l i t y o f th i s i de a i n t he a rchi t e ct u ra l re a l m.

e f f e ct o n l y b u t a l so co rre sp o n d s t o t h e sp a t i a l o rg a n i z a t i o n wi t hi n t he buil di n g . T he p a t t e rn s t ha t e mp l o y e d h e r e is I sl a mi c g e o me t ri ca l mo t i fs u n l i k e t h e p re v i o u s e xa mp l e s t ha t u se s Vor onoi p a t t e rn .

T h e M a r s a D u b a i re si d e n t i a l t o we r b y Z a h a Had i d i l l u st ra t e d t he p o t e n t i a l o f us i ng st ru ct u ra l ski n i n a b u i l d i n g . Pa r a m e tr i ca l l y d e si g n , t he f e n e st ra t i o n o f th e s k i n i s n o t t he re f o r d e co ra t i v e

Marsa Dubai Residential Tower, Zaha Hadid, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2005

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Fibrous Tower, Kokuggia, 2008

K okug gia , a l s o tries to pla y a r o und w i th this ide a of s tructure as s k i n th r o ugh on e of his co nceptua l wor k th e F i b r o us Tower. In this pro j ect, aga i n s i m i la r to the r es t of the exa mpl es m e nti o ned , utiliz es vo rono i-l ik e s tr uc tur a l s h ell that is l o a d bea ring. Th i s a llo w s e a c h floor to be free fro m a ny c o lum ns . N o t on ly tha t the us e of s truc tur a l s k i n i s inter esting but the us e o f p a r a m etr i c m odeling a ctua l l y a l l o w th e f a c a d e c onfig ura tio n to fol l ow th e p r o gr a m m atic functions in the b ui ld i ng. F o r example, bigger a pertur e/ les s d e ns e to allow mo re s unl ight i n a nd s m a ller aper tur e/dens e to bl ock th e s unli gh t.

A s w e c a n s ee , a rchi t e ct u re i s a fi e l d th a t i s a lw a ys mo v i n g fo rw a rd i n a r a p i d s p e e d , ge n e ra t i n g d i sco u rse a s i t go e s a m o ng the a rchi t e ct s, cri t i cs a s w e ll a s th e p ub l i c. I ce rt a i n l y b e l i e v e th a t b y us i ng a rchi t e ct u re a s t he me d i um a nd us i ng t he mo st l a t e st t he o r i e s , tec h ni que s a n d t e chn o l o g y f o r t hi s ga te w a y p r o je c t, ho p e fu l l y t hi s wi l l cre a te a n o utc o m e t ha t i s n e w , i n n o v a t i v e , a s w ell a s genera t i n g a n e w d i sco u rse th a t w i ll b enef i t Wy n d ha m. Fibrous Tower, Kokuggia, 2008

I n hin ds ight, this might b e th e new r u le for a rchitecture for th e tw e nty f i r s t c en tu r y in co ntra s t to th e f i ve r ules o f ar c h itecture propos ed by L e C o r b us i er. This woul d then crea te ne w p o s s i b i li ties b y freeing up a l l c o lum ns i n th e b u ildin g. Co mpo s ed o nl y o f s tr uc tur a l skin and fl oor pl a tes th i s a llo w s f o r m ultiple s pa tia l orga nis a ti o n th a t c a n never be a chiev ed before. Fibrous Tower, Kokuggia, 2008

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PROGRESSION OF S T R U C T U R A L S YS T E M PAST

- Load bearing exterior and internal wall - Fixed spatial organization

PRESENT

- Load bearing columns - Limited spatial organization

FUTURE

- Load bearing external wall - Free spatial organization

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1.2 CO M P U TAT I O N I N A R C H I T E C T U R E WHAT are the advantages of computation in architecture? Can Computer-AidedDesign (CAD) improve architectural design? Will the future of architecture solely depend on computers and dismiss the traditional method and process of designing? This chapter will look at both the advantages and disadvantages of using computers in architecture and how these informs a new shift in computer design through scripting.

A ll th e prev io us exa mp les th a t w er e disc u ssed in the prev io us c h a p te r a ll have simil a rities . Apa rt fr o m a n a r c h i tec tu r e tha t mov es a w a y f r o m th e c o nven tiona l s tructura l s ys te m , a ll o f th e m em ploy ed co mputa tiona l tec h ni que s i n or der to a chiev e tho s e o utc o m e s . U ndoub tedl y, w ithout the us e o f c o m p uter s or digita l techno l og y, th o s e i ntr i c ate for ms ca nnot be ea s i ly p r o d uc e d . S in ce its firs t intro d ucti o n, C o m p ute r A ided- Des ign (CAD) w a s us e d jus t a s a tool to speed up the cons tr uc ti o n d r a w ing in the d o cumenta tio n p r o c es s . 11 I t w as no t a ctua l l y util ize d to gener a te desig n s in the des ign p r o c e s s . Ch r i s topher Al exa nder quote d : “ A d i gi ta l com puter, is es s entia l l y , th e s a m e a s a hu g e a rmy of cl erks , equi p p ed w i th r ule b ooks , pencil a nd pap er, a ll s tup i d and entirel y w ithout initi a ti ve , b ut b e ab le to fo l l o w exa ctl y m i lli o ns o f p r e cisely defined opera tions . � 12 Over th e yea rs s o me a rch i tec ts tr i e d to accom p l is h more with c o m p ute r s a nd incor pora te it in the des i gn p r o c es s . Howeve r, us ing digita l tec h no lo gy to Natwest Media Center, Future System/Amanda Levette Architecture, London, 1999

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Natwest Media Center, Future System/Amanda Levette Architecture, London, 1999

aid with the des ign p r o c es s i s a ne w th ing in a rchitectur e , s o th ey lo o k e d at t he s hip buil d ing i nd us tr y. Ko la r evi c (2003 ) d es cribed th a t b ui ld i ngs a nd ships a re s imil a r in m a ny w a ys : “ Both s hips a nd bu i ld i ngs a r e la r ge ob jects , w ith s imil a r ly c o m p le x s e r vi c e sy stems a nd interc o nne c te d s p a c e s in h abited by peo pl e ( i n th e c a s e o f pass enger s hips ) a n d s er vi ng s p ec i f i c fu n ctions . B oth ha v e to r e s p o nd to simil a r env ironmenta l i nf lue nc e s a nd fu n ctiona l requirem ents . B o th r e p r esent s ignifica nt und er ta k i ngs th a t r equire s ubs ta ntia l f i na nc i a l a nd m a ter ial res o urces . B o th r e ly o n s i m i la r pr incipl es , methods a nd p r o c es s e s o f design, a na l ys is a nd p r o d uc ti o n. � 13 Sh ip buil ders a re no w w o r k i ng o nly with three-d imens io na l d i gi ta l m o d els fr om the des ign s ta g e s to th e p r o d uc tion s ta ges , witho ut r e lyi ng o n c o nve ntiona l cons truction dr a w i ngs . 14 Natwest Media Center, Future System/Amanda Levette Architecture, London, 1999

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Natwest Media Center, Future System/Amanda Levette Architecture, London, 1999

This allows a rchitects to d e s i gn b eyo nd the lim it of the two- dim e ns i o na l c o nstr uctio n d ra wings . This a ls o e na b le s ar c h itecture to become m o r e c o m p le x an d c an inco rpora te curv e d ge o m etr i e s that is difficul t to a chie ve b y no r m a l m ean s. Ther e a re a l o t o f exa m p les o f b ui ld ing s tha t us ed the s a m e te c h ni que s an d proces s es s imil a r to th e s h i p b u ildin g indus try toda y a nd o f th em is the Na twes t Media Ce ntr e b y F utur e S y stem tha t w a s co mple ted i n 1 9 9 9 . This pa rticul a r buil d ing uti li z e s th e sh ipb u il ding technol o gy f r o m i ts ea r ly stages to its fa brica tio n. T h e d i gi ta l tec h nology us ed compri s e s o f s o p h i s tic ated s oftw a re tha t s hi p b ui ld i ng a nd aer on autics ind us try ha ve a t th a t ti m e. A n other exa mpl e tha t is a p p li c a b le to this c ontext of us ing d igi ta l tec h no lo gy is Gehr y’s G uggenheim Mus e um i n B i lb ao. By us ing CATIA comp ute r s o f tw a r e, Geh r y w a s a bl e to pro d uc e th e b ui ld ing ’s tr a d ema rk o f und ula ti ng c ur ves

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a nd no nr ep etit i v e g e o me t ri e s. Thi s CAT I A s o f tw a r e whi ch w a s cre a t e d f o r a i r p la ne s a nd shi p b u i l d i n g i n d u st ry , w a s us e d i n a larg e sca l e a rchi t e ct u ra l p r o jec t f o r th e f irst t i me b y G e hry ’s fi rm. T h i s i m m e r s i o n o f so p hi st i ca t e d d i g i t a l tec h no lo gy w i th a rchi t e ct u re ha s g re a t ly i nc r e a s ed th e p ro d u ct i v i t y a n d a ccu r a c y o f b ui ld i ng d e si g n . T he f re e d o m t o d e s i gn s o m eth i n g o u t o f t he o rd i n a ry ge o m etr i e s w a s a l so a chi e v e d t hro u g h th i s d i gi ta l te c h n o l o g y. Pa r a d o x i c a lly, de sp i t e t he a d v a n t a g e s a nd f r e e d o m th a t co u l d b e a chi e v e d i n d e s i gni ng, a n a rchi t e ct i s st i l l l i mi t e d to th e c a p a b i li ty o f t he so ft w a re . Thi s i s b e c a us e th e s o ft w a re s t ha t a rchi t e ct s a r e us i ng to d e si g n a re b a si ca l l y p ro gr a m m ed b y a p ro g ra mme r who p ro vi d es jus t b a s i c t o o l s fo r d e si g n i n g . 1 5 T h i s c a n b e s e e n a s a l i mi t a t i o n f o r c r ea ti vi ty. B ur r y p ro p o se d t ha t i n o rd e r to ta k e d e s i gni n g wi t h d i g i t a l t e chn o l o gy f ur th e r, i t’s t i me t ha t a rchi t e ct s t o b e f a m i li a r w i th scri p t i n g .

I n hi s a rt i cl e , B u rry d e f i n e scri p t i n g a s a me d i u m t ha t “ a l l o ws t he u se r t o a d a p t , cu st o mi se o r co mp l e t e l y re co n f i g u re so ft w a re a ro u n d t he i r o wn p re d i l e ct i o n s a n d mo d e s o f wo rki n g ” . 1 6 S cri p t i n g t hu s ca n b e se e n t o g i v e t he a rchi t e ct o r d e si g n e r t he f u l l co n t ro l o f hi s d e si g n p ro ce ss, fo r e x a mp l e , b y i n p u t t i n g se v e ra l ru l e s o r co n st ra i n t s o n ho w a d e si g n co u l d b e g e n e ra t e d . T hi s i n t u rn , cha n g e s t he d e si g n p ro ce ss t o a b o t t o m-u p a p p ro a ch ra t he r t ha n j u st cre a t i n g fo rms fro m t he p re i n st a l l e d t o o l s t ha t co me a l o n g wi t h t he so f t w a re . S cri p t i n g a n d p a ra me t ri c d e si g n o ft e n co me s t o g e t he r. Thro u g h scri p t i n g , whi ch d e fi n e s t he p a ra me t e rs, ca n o n l y a d e si g n b e i n g ca l l e d p a ra me t ri c. A n d f o r t hi s g a t e w a y p ro j e ct , scri p t i n g wo u l d b e o n e o f t he t o o l s fo r t he d e si g n p ro ce ss. G ra ssho p p e r, a p l u g i n f o r t he R hi n o so ft w a re wi l l a l l o w mo re i n d i v i d u a l co n t ro l co mp a re d t o t he l i mi t e d ca p a b i l i t y o f t he R hi n o so f t w a re .


I b e l i e v e t ha t b y u si n g scri p t i ng t hi s g a t e w a y d e si g n p ro j e ct , i t wil l a b l e t o p ro d u ce a n o u t co me t hat fl e ct s t he z e i t g e i st o f a rchi t e ct u r e t hi s t i me t ha t wi l l sp u r d i scu ssi o n s ma n y y e a rs t o co me .

f or be rein f or

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Frank Gehry, Spain 1997 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Frank Gehry, Spain 1997

14


1.3 CASE FOR INNOVATION CONCLUSION

A rchi t e ct u re ha s n o t a l w a y s b e e n j u st a b o u t a b u i l d i n g t ha t ho u se s p e o p l e a n d a ct i v i t i e s, b u t a l so a me d i u m t ha t re f l e ct t he so ci a l , p o l i t i ca l a n d e co n o mi c cu l t u re o t t he t i me . I n t hi s D i g i t a l A g e , a rchi t e ct u re ha s a l so p ro g re sse d t o ca p t u re t he z e i t g e i st o f t hi s fa st mo v i n g a d v a n ce me n t i n t e chn o l o g y. S cri p t i n g i n d e si g n i n g wi l l b e t ha t fo rce t o p ro p e l a rchi t e ct u re fo rw a rd . The re a so n s o n why a rchi t e ct u re sho u l d b e t he ri g ht me d i u m f o r t hi s g a t e w a y p ro j e ct wi l l e n su re t ha t t he b ri e f a n d e xp e ct a t i o n s o f t hi s co mp e t i t i o n ca n b e f u l l y re a l i z e d . E xa mp l e s o f kn o wn a n d su cce ssf u l p ro j e ct s we re sho wn t o fu rt he r d e mo n st ra t e t he ca p a b i l i t y o f a rchi t e ct u re t o g i v e ri se t o a d i sco u rse . Thi s i s a l so i n l i n e wi t h t he e xp e ct a t i o n s o f t he co u n ci l t o p ro d u ce n o t o n l y a n o u t co me t ha t ca n b e e xp e ri e n ce d l o ca l l y b u t a l so i n t e rn a t i o n a l l y. I st ro n g l y b e l i e v e t ha t b y d o i n g t hi s, Wy n d ha m wi l l b e se e n a s t he f o re f ro n t o f a rchi t e ct u re a n d d i g i t a l t e chn o l o g y , sho wi n g t he wo rl d e x a ct l y a b o u t Wy n d ha m’s i n t e n t i o n t o mo v e fo rw a rd a n d b e i n v o l v e d i n t hi s D i g i t a l I n f o rma t i o n A g e .

15


1.4 NOTES 1

2

3

4

Patrick Schumacher (2011), “Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System”, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture, (Chichester : J. Wiley), pg. 1 Matthew Rampley (2005), “Exploring Visual Culture”, (Edinburgh University Press), pg. 107 Matthew Rampley (2005), “Exploring Visual Culture”, pg. 108 Patrick Schumacher (2011), “Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System”, pg. 1

5

Patrick Schumacher (2011), “Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System”, pg. 2

6

Stanislav Roudavski and Anne-Marie Walsh (2011), “The Headspace Project: Computer-Asisted Fabrication as an Introduction to Digital Architectural Design”, in CIrcuit Bending, breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16 th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectura l Design Research in Asia. ed. by Christiane M. Herr, Ning Gu, Marc Aurel Schnabel and Stanislav Roudavski, pg. 581

7

Stanislav Roudavski and Anne-Marie Walsh (2011),“The Headspace Project: Computer-Assisted Fabrication as an Introduction to Digital Architectural Design”, pg. 583

Yehuda E. Kalay (2004), “Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design”, (Cambridge, Mass.: MITPress), pg. 14

Yehuda E. Kalay (2004), “Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design”, pg.15

10

Stanislav Roudavski and Anne-Marie Walsh (2011), “The Headspace Project: Computer- Assisted Fabrication as an Introduction to Digital Architectural Design”, pg. 585

8

9

11

12

13

Mark Burry (2011), “Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming”, (United Kingdom : J. Wiley), pg. 14 Alexander Christopher (1964), “Notes o n the Synthesis of Form”, (Harv ard) Kolarevic Branko (2003), “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”, (New York: Spon Press), pg. 8

16


14

Kolarevic Branko (2003), “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”, pg. 9

Mark Burry (2011), “Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming”, pg. 34

15

16

17

Mark Burry (2011), “Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming”, pg. 8


Any serious “rethinking” of architecture at the start of this century cannot be undertaken without upsetting the structure and emphases of the traditional profession, of traditional typologies, and of traditional modes of envisaging the architectural subject [...].

Vidler, An th on y (2 0 0 0 ), “ Review of R ethink ing A rchitecture and The A naesthetics of Arch itetu re by Neal L each ” , Harvard Desig n M ag azine, 11, p p 1-4, p g . 3

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PART 2 THE OVERALL PICTURE


2.0

THE ARGUMENT


2.1 A R C H I T E C T U R A L O R N A M E N T

O r n am en t i s t h e f ig u r e t h a t e merges from t he mat eri al substrat e, the exp r e s s i o n o f e mb e d d e d f o rc e s through processes of const ructi on, as s em b l y a n d g row t h . I t is t h rough ornament that mat eri al t ransmi t s af f ec t s . O r n a m e n t s is t h e r e f o r e n e c essar y and i nseparabl e from t he obj ect. Moussavi, Farshid and Lopez, Daniel (2009),”The F u n c t i o n o f F o r m ” , ( B a r c e l o n a : A c t a r, N e w Yo r k ) , p g 8

Or nam ent in a rchitectu r e h a s b e e n explor ed in different w a ys th r o ugh o ut h istor y. H ow orna ment is d e f i ne d a ls o ch an g es w ith time. Mou s s a vi a r gue s th at “ a rchitecture needs m e c h a ni s m s th at all o w it to become c o nne c te d to cu ltur e.” 1 And in ord er to a c h i e ve th i s , sh e sugges ted tha t orna m e nt i s th e m ediu m tha t connects a r c h i tec tur e a nd c u ltur e. 2 P r evious to the Ind us tri a l R evo luti o n, ar c h itecture w a s a l l a bo ut o r na m enta tion and d eco ra tion. For e x a m p le , i n histor ic times , the G ree k s h a ve a p plied decora tio n on s tr uc tur es i n a fair ly litera l ma nner to sp r e a d s to r i es , c r eate power, a nd increa s e a w a r e nes s of r elig ion which were c o nc ur r e nt o f the cu lture during tha t p e r i o d o f ti m e . A par t from tha t, in a p a tr i a r c h a l s o c iety , the Greeks ha d di f f e r ent o r d er s that h av e different mea n i ngs a nd r ep r esentatio n. The Doric O r d e r i s m o r e m asc u line co mpa red to th e I o ni c O r d e r wh ic h is mo re feminine.

The Porch of the Caryatids, Erectheion, Greek, 421 BC

T h e s a m e c a n b e se e n wi t h G o t hi c c h ur c h es th a t u se s st a i n e d g l a ss, s c ulp tur es a nd d ra wi n g s o n t he w a l l s to tell s to r i es , a t t he sa me t i me i n c r ea s i ng a w a r e n e ss o f C hri st i a n i t y w h i c h p r o vi d e a co n n e ct i o n b e t we e n th e i lli te r a te c o mmu n i t y. Temple of Hera in Selinunte, Sicily, Italy,

21


An example of stained glass in Gothic Churches. Image taken from : http://www.pmb.sg/?p=1377

O rn a me n t co n t i n u e d t o p l a y a n im p o rt a n t ro l e i n a rchi t e ct u re u n t i l t h e e a rl y o f t he t we n t i e t h ce n t u ry. M o d e r ni st a rchi t e ct s t ri e s t o ma ke a rchi t e ct u r e mo re “ si n ce re ” a n d b y t hi s o rn a ment a t i o n w a s e l i mi n a t e d e n t i re l y t o e x p o se t he st ru ct u re a n d f u n ct i o n s o f th e b u i l d i n g e xp l i ci t l y. A d o l f L o o s cl a i me d t ha t o rn a me n t at i o n i s a cri me a n d t hi s i s a p p a rent i n hi s b u i l d i n g , S t e i n e r H o u se , whic h l a ck o f d e co ra t i o n o f a n y so rt a t a l l . 3 H o we v e r, L o o s’ st a n d o n n o t u sing o rn a me n t a t a l l ca n b e d e b a t a b l e as t he re we re cl a i ms t ha t t he i n t e ri o r of t he S t e i n e r H o u se w a s f u l l y d e co ra te d wi t h a n i ma l s f u r whi ch i s o n e fo rm of d e co ra t i o n . 4

Steiner House, Adolf Loos, Vienna, 1910

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John Lewis Department Store, Foreign Office Architects, London, 2008

Aoba-Tei Restaurant, Hitoshi Abe + Atelier Hitoshi Abe, Sendai, Japan, 2005

Dior Ginza, Office of Kumiko Inui, Tokyo, Japan, 2004

I n th e recent perio d , the r e h a s b e e n a n ew take on orna ment. A c c o r d i ng to M oussa v i, orna ment ca n o nly e x i s t i f i t ser ves a function o r purp o s e. Sh e m entioned tha t o rna ment “has no i nte nti o n to dec ora te, a nd there is i n i t no h i d den mea ning. At the bes t ti m es , o r na men t b ecomes a n “empty s i gn” c a p a b le of g en era ting a n unl imite d num b e r o f r esonances .” 5 M ost b uil dings toda y ca n b e s ee n to apply this notion o f o r na m enta ti o n. Th e Dior s to re in G inza a p p li es o r n am enta tio n in terms of p e r f o r a te d sc r eens tha t bl o cks s unl igh t a nd vi e w s of the interior. The pa tte r n o f th e p er for ated fa ca de a l s o a cts a s a n a d ver tising bra nd for tha t par ti c ula r s to r e . Th e John Lew is Dep a r tm e nt Sto r e dec or at iv e fa ca d e a l s o f unc ti o ns i n a sim ilar w a y. The Aoba - Te i R es ta ur a nt in ter ior o f perfora ted s ur f a c e w a s us e d as a spa tia l pa rtitio n. Ap a r t f r o m th a t, th e perfo ra ted s urfa ce’s p a tte r n w e r e meant to es ta bl is h a v i s ua l d i a lo gue b etween the interio r a nd e x te r i o r.

23

F r o m th e f e w e x a mp l e s a b o v e , i t i s c le a r th a t a p a r t f ro m b e i n g d e co ra t i v e , th e r e m us t b e a re a so n f o r i t t o b e th e r e i f no t i t i s n o t a cce p t a b l e . T hi s i s a ls o tr ue i n a ll a rchi t e ct u ra l e d u ca t i o n no w a d a ys w h e re e v e ry d e si g n mo v e s th a t a r e ta k en mu st ha v e a re a so n , a n d “ p ur e b ea uty” i s j u st n o t o n e o f t he m.


“

From universal testimony of travellers it would appear, that there is scarcely a people, in however early a stage of civilizations, with whom the desire for ornament is not a strong instinct. Jones, O w en (1856). The G rammar of O rnament (Lond on: Day and son), p . E13

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2.2 G E N E R AT I V E D E S I G N

Wh at i s ex a ct l y m e a n t by g e n e ra t ive d e s ign? Si mi l ar t o how ornament have generat ed a lot o f d i s c u s s i o n s , g e n e ra t ive d e s ig n i s al so rel ati vel y new area i n archi tecture. B ef ore arch i t e ctu r e , g e n e ra t ive d e s ig n has been used wi del y i n the I nformati on Tech n ol og y a n d S c ie n c e d is c ip lin e s . T hi s chapter wi l l tr y t o l ook at t he di fferent d ef in i t i o n s o f g e n e ra t ive d e s ig n by d if ferent peopl e and at of thi s chapter, hopeful l y an un d e r s t an d i n g o f w h a t g e n e ra t ive d e si gn real l y i s can be achi eved.

Gener ative d es ign d iffe r s i n m e a ni ng in different d is cipl ines . I t h a s o nly b een extens iv el y us ed in a r c h i te c tur e as a des ign to o l in the re c ent d e c a d es . Below a re s o me o f the d e f i ni ti o n th a t r elates to a rchitecture: 6

“Generative design is not about designing the building - It’s about designing the system that builds a building.” - Lars Hesellgren “Generative design systems are aimed at creating a new design processes that produce spatially novel yet efficient and buildable designs through exploitation of current computing and manufacturing capabilities”. - Kristina Shea “Generative design approach works in imitation of Nature, performing ideas as codes, able to generate endless variations.” - Celestin Soddu “A basic form, pattern, or object is automatically modifies by an algorithm. The result: infinite random modifications of the starting solution (within a solution space set by the designer).” - Frank Piller

25

“Generative Design Process is about the modeling of initial conditions of an object (it’s “genetics”) instead of modeling the final form. “ - Paolo Fontana “An over aching computational method; in essence an incremental specification of design logic in a computational form that eventually yields with a design space open for exploration of alternatives and their variations.” - Halil Erhan “On the other hand, as the digital method becomes capable of applying computer language to design, an object can change the range of influence and apply diverse variation. One of the phenomena which apply this technological progress systematically to a design process is what we call “Generative Design”.” - JUNGLIM Architecture Korea A s w e c a n se e f ro m t he a b o v e d ef i ni ti o ns o f g e n e ra t i v e d e si g n , i t s o m eh o w i ne vi t a b l y mu st re l a t e e i t he r to na tur e o r co mp u t e r p ro g ra mmi n g la ngua ge . Ho w e ver, a ll o f t he m a l so ha v e co mmo n i d ea s o n h o w g e n e ra t i v e d e si g n wo rk.

I t i s e sse n t i a l l y a b o t t o m u p a p p ro a ch u si n g mo st o f t e n t ha n n o t scri p t i n g l a n g u a g e t o g e n e ra t e e n d l e ss v a ri a t i o n s a n d p o ssi b i l i t i e s. A p a rt fro m t ha t , i n st e a d o f ma ki n g f o rms, t hi s who l e p ro ce ss i s a b o u t fi n d i n g fo rms. The re su l t a n t fo rms t ha t a re t he n d e fi n e d a s “ g e n e ra t e d d e si g n s” . T he re a re ma n y w a y s t o a chi e v e a g e n e ra t i v e o u t co me . O n e ca n si mp l y u se g e n e t i c a l g o ri t hms, sw a rm ma t t e r, a g e n t b a se d , a n d ma n y o t he r d i ff e re n t p ro ce sse s t o g e n e ra t e a d e si g n . H o w i s t hi s re l e v a n t t o t he Wy n d ha m g a t e w a y P ro j e ct ? I t hi n k t ha t g e n e ra t i v e d e si g n i s o n e o f t he t e chn o l o g i ca l a d v a n ce s i n a rchi t e ct u re t ha t ca n a ct u a l l y re l a t e d t o t he cu rre n t cu l t u re a n d z e i t g e i st o f o u r t i me . Thi s wi l l b e e x p l a i n e d f u rt he r i n t he n e xt cha p t e r.


E X AM PL E O F GE N ER ATIVE DES IG N

Circ le s

Inputs

Parameters

Output

M u l t i p l e p oints on the c irc le M inimum and maximum offset of circl e

M inimum and maxi mu m nu mbe r of point s o n ci rcle

M i ni mu m and maxi mu m d e g re e o f ro t at i o n

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2.3 T H E A R G U M E N T

Th e cha nge s bro u ght about by the Inf ormat ion Age and globaliz at ion, as it s most radical m a n i f e sta t i o n, a r e hav ing a dram atic and profound impact on societ ies, economies and c u l t u re s wo r l dw i d e. A rchitects , as they have done for cent uries, are t r ying t o int epret t hese ch a n g e s a nd f i nd an appropriate expres s ion for an archit ect ure t hat capt ures t he zeit geist o f t h e daw n o f t h e Inf orm ation A ge, w hich befit s t he informat ion revolut ion and it s effect s.

Ko l a r ev i c . B r a n ko ( 2 0 0 3 ) , “A rch i t e c t u r e i n t h e D i g i t a l A g e : D e s i g n a n d M a n u f a c t u r i n g ” , ( S p o n P r e s s : N e w Yo r k ) p g 2 7

I total l y a gree w ith th e quo te a b o ve b y K olarevic tha t a rchit ec tur e h a ve a lw ay s been a bout trying to c a p tur e th e z eitgeis t of tha t tim e. We a r e no w livin g in the Info rma t i o n A ge w h e r e com plex da ta a nd infor m a ti o n tr a ve ls ac r oss o ver the w o rl d ever y s ec o nd . M oussa v i a l s o a grees th a t “ m a ny b uildings o f the tw entie th c e ntur y c o ntin u e to effectivel y rel a te to c ultur e” . 7 An d a rchitects a chieve th i s th r o ugh or n am enta tion a s expl ai ned e a r li e r i n th e or na ment cha pter. However, w ith this comp le x i ty a nd th e n eed t o orga nize a l l the r a nd o m d a ta in to s omething more us ef ul, a new kind of orna menta tion ha s a r i s e w h i c h is data vis ua l iza tio n. Accor d ing to Fried ma n ( 2 0 0 8 ) , th e “ main go a l o f da ta v is ua li z a ti o n i s to com m unica te informa ti o n c lea r ly a nd effectiv el y thro ugh gra p h i c a l m ea ns . 8 He als o mentioned t h a t s o m eth i ng doesn’t ha v e to be bo r i ng to b e f unc tional. This ha s cha ng e th e vi e w o n

27

o r na m ent to a who l e n e w l e v e l . I a ls o b e li eve t ha t t hi s n e w ki n d o f o rna m e nt r e f le c ts t he cu l t u re o f o u r t i me a nd a r c h i te c ts sho u l d t ry t o p o rt ra y th i s i n th e i r a rchi t e ct u re . I nte r es ti ngly, d a t a v i su a l i z a t i o n s a re o f te n a c h i eved t hro u g h scri p t i n g b y w r i ti ng c o d es t ha t l i n ks si mi l a r i n fo rm a ti o n to ge th e r t o f o rm so me t hi n g th a t i s no t o n l y u n d e rst a n d a b l e b u t b e a uti f ul a t the sa me t i me . D a t a v i su a li z a ti o n c a n al so b e ca t e g o ri z e d u n d e r gener a ti ve d e si g n . T hi s v i su a l l a n gua ge i s a ls o sl o wl y b e i n g u n d e rst o o d b y th e p ub li c . Ho w d o e s th e s e a l l re l a t e s t o t he Wy n d h a m Ga tew a y p ro j e ct ? T he p ro p o sa l i s to li nk th e tw o co n t ro v e rsi a l d i sco u rse ; o r na m ent a nd g e n e ra t i v e d e si g n t o ge th e r, a s b o t h re fl e ct s t he cu rre n t c ultur e o f o ur t i me . W i th th e ur b a n f a b ri c b e i n g co n g e st e d w i th ta ll f unc t i o n a l t o we rs, o rn a me n t w o uld c e r ta i nly b ri n g a se n se o f i n d i v i -

d u a l i t y t o d i st i n g u i sh d i ff e re n t b u i l d i n g s f ro m e a ch o t he r. T he sa me i s p ro p o se d f o r Wy n d ha m, t o cre a t e a d e si g n o u t co me t ha t i s n o t o n l y b e a u t i fu l b u t a l so ca n b e a n i co n t ha t p u t s Wy n d ha m o n t he wo rl d ma p . Thi s ra d i ca l a p p ro a ch wi l l ce rt a i n l y cre a t e a n e w d i sco u rse b y i t se l f a n d ho p e fu l l y a n e w g e n re o f a rchi t e ct u re . Wi t h t he l a n g u a g e o f v i su a l o rn a me n t b e i n g u n d e rst o o d b y t he wi d e r p u b l i c, a n a p p ro p ri a t e re sp o n se i n a rchi t e ct u re sho u l d a l so fo l l o w , t o f o rm so me t hi n g t ha t i s b e a u t i fu l a n d me a n i n g fu l .


An example of data visualization. Image taken from: http://www.rethinking-architecture.com/introduction-parametric-design,354/

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2.4 NOTES

1

Farshid Moussavi (2006), “The Function of Ornament”, (Barcelona: Actar) , pg. 5

2

Farshid Moussavi (2006), “The Function of Ornament”, pg. 7

3

Adolf Loos (1908), “Ornament and Crime”, (reprint Vienna: InnsBruck)

4

Tim Schork (2012), mentioned during the final crit on May 31 st 2012

5

Farshid Moussavi (2006), “The Function of Ornament”, pg. 8

All of these defintions were taken from this site: http://generativedesign.wordpress.com/2011/01/29/what-is-generative-desing/, accessed 15 th May 2012

6

7

8

29

Farshid Moussavi (2006), “The Function of Ornament”, pg. 7 Vitaly Friedman (2008), “Data Visua lization and Infographics”, in Graphics, Monday Inspiration, January 14 th , 2008


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If architecture is to remain convergent with culture it needs to build mechanisms by which culture can constantly produce new images and concepts rather than recycle existing ones. Mous s av i, Far s hid (2 0 0 3 ) pg 9

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PART 3 RESEARCH PROJECT


3.0

THE RESEARCH


33


This is where all the fun starts. H az my, Daniel

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Gustav Metzger, Acid Action Painting , 2006

F i ve w o r k s th a t we re e x a mi n e d c o ns i s ts o f Ja c kso n P o l l o ck, H a ro ld C o h en, Gust a v M e t z g e r, B i o t hi ng a nd Ko k ugg i a . U p o n a n a l y z i n g th e s e c a s e s tud i e s, t he re we re si x c o m m o n s i m i l a ri t i e s t ha t ca n b e i d e nti f i ed .

Swarm Matter, Kokuggia, ongoing research

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Harold Cohen,New Digital Image by AARON, 2007

He nc e , to s ta r t o f t he re se a rch p r o jec t, w e d eci d e d t o l o o k u p a f ew d i f f er ent g e n e ra t i v e d e si g n w o r k s b y v a r io u s p e o p l e . A p a rt f r o m a r c h i tec tu ra l p ro j e ct , we a l so lo o k e d a t gene ra t i v e a rt b y a f e w a r ti s ts . T h e r ea so n why we cho se to a na lyz e th o s e wo rks i s t o i d e n t i f y th e s i m i la r i tie s i n o u t co me s t ha t w er e p r o d uc e d t hro u g h g e n e ra t i v e p r o c es s e i th e r m a n u a l l y o r co mp u ta ti o na lly.

Biothing, Fabware, 2008

Jackson Pollock Autumn Rhythm,1950

3.1 C A S E S T U D I E S


A N A LYS I S OF C A S E S TUDIES

HAROLD COHEN

GUSTAV METZGER ORGANIC

LINEARITY KOKUGGIA

SIMILARITIES

SHOWS

DYNAMISM AND MOVEMENT

USING

BOTTOM UP APPROACH

INTERSECTING LINES

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SPACE JACKSON POLLOCK

BIOTHING

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3.2 MAT R I X E X P LO R AT I O N T h e s i m i la r i ti e s t ha t we ha v e i d e n t i f i ed th en b e c a m e o u r co n st ra i n t s a n d p a r a m eter s f o r o u r re se a rch p ro j e ct . We e x p lo r e d the se p a ra me t e rs wi t hi n a m a tr i x to tr y a n d p ro d u ce a s ma n y v a r i a ti o ns o f d e si g n o u t co me s a s p o ss i b le . We m a na ge d to g e n e ra t e a ra n g e n u mb e r o f i nte r es ti n g d e si g n n o u t co me s. O ne o f th e m o st i n t e re st i n g o u t co me s w e h a d w a s the t hre e -d i me n si o n a l i t y o f s o m e o f th e d e si g n s b u t i n fa ct t he y w er e a ll jus t two -d i me n si o n a l .

The n e x t st e p i s t he n t o co n fi rm i f o u r ma t ri x e x p l o ra t i o n st i l l co n t a i n t he n o t i o n o f a l l t he si mi l a ri t i e s t ha t we ha v e a n a l y z e d e a rl i e r. H o we v e r, i n st e a d o f t ry i n g t o fo cu s o n a l l o f t he p a ra me t e rs, we d e ci d e d t o j u st fo cu s o n o n e , whi ch i s t he d y n a mi sm a n d mo v e me n t . We b e l i e v e t ha t i t w a s t he mo st re l e v a n t o n e t o Wy n d ha m, b e ca u se t hi s g a t e w a y p ro j e ct i s a l l a b o u t re p re se n t i n g t he d y n a mi c cha n g e o f t he Wy n d ha m C i t y a n d t he fo rw a rd mo v e me n t o f i t s co mmu n i t y.

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MAT R I X E X PLO R ATION A N A LYS IS LINEARIT Y

STATI C

39

DYN AMISM AN D MOVE ME N T


MAT R I X E X PLO R ATION A N A LYS IS POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SPACE

STATI C

DYN AMISM AN D MOVE ME N T

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3.3 F I R S T E X P LO R AT I O N

A fter a na l yzing a l l th e v a r i ety o f d e sig ns from the ma tri x , w e c a m e to th e c oncl us io n tha t l ines th a t h a ve no t o nly a higher degree o f c ur v a tur e b ut a ls o have a v a riety of und ula ti ng s h a p es i n the s a me l ength o f li ne s h o w s m o r e dy na mis m a nd mov em ent. We a l s o dis cov ered t h a t w h en th e p o s i tive s pa ce is thinner a nd m o r e o r ga ni c in s ha pe tha n the ne ga ti ve s p a c e , th a t will a l s o pro d uce m o r e d yna m i s m a nd m ov ement.

41

By us ing a l l of this i nf o r m a ti o n, w e sele cted the d es ign a b o ve f o r f ur th er exp l ora tio n. The re a s o n w e s e lec te d this des ign is beca us e no t o nly i t d o es portra y s ignifica nt mo ve m ent a nd d ynamis m, it a l s o give s th e i llus i o n o f thr e e-d imens io na l ity w h i c h w e qui te liked .

O nc e w e h a v e t he mo d i fi e d t he d e si g n , w e w a nte d t o e xp l o re o n w a y s o n ho w to m a k e t he l i n e s mo re t hre e -d i me n s i o na l a nd n o t j u st o n a si n g l e p l a n e . So w e ex tru d e d t he l i n e s u p w a rd s a n d us i ng a s s o ci a t i v e t e chn i q u e t o co n t ro l h o w m uc h t he l i n e s a re e x t ru d e d .

However, w e a l l a gr e e d th a t th e i nter secting l ines o n the d e s i gn w a s go i ng to very ha rd to fa bri c a te . We th en d e c ide d to mo d ify the li ne s to m a k e s ur e tha t they were not ov e r la p p i ng o n e a c h other.

T h e n w e se n d t he d e si g n t o b e f a b ri c a te d . W h e n t he mo d e l w a s i n f ro n t o f o ur e ye s an d n o t i n t he mo d e l sp a ce i n th e s o f t w a re , we ca n a n a l y z e t ha t m o d el f ur t he r t o se e ho w we co u l d i mp r o ve i t o n t he n e x t o n e .


Wha t we fi n d o u t w a s t ha t t he mo d e l g e n e ra t e d a n u n e x p e ct e d o u t co me : mo i re e f f e ct whe n t he we mo v e t he mo d e l a o ru n d i n re l a t i v e t o t he v i e we r a n d v i ce v e rsa . We t ho u g ht t ha t t hi s w a s i n t e re st i n g a s we ma n a g e d t o g e n e ra t e a n u n e xp e ct e d o u t co me whi ch i s i n l i n e wi t h t he p ro ce ss o f g e n e ra t i v e d e si g n . D e sp i t e t he e x ci t e me n t f ro m t he u n e x p e ct e d i l l u si o n e ff e ct t ha t w a s g e n e ra t e d , we i d e n t i f i e d t ha t t he mo d e l w a s j u st i n t e re st i n g whe n l o o ke d a t t he t o p b u t n o t so mu ch f ro m t he si d e s. We t he n p ro ce e d b y p u t t i n g t hi s f e e d b a ck onto t he next d e si g n e x p l o ra t i o n st a g e .

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FI R S T E X PLO R ATION DES IG N PROC ES S

43


“

Much like other design methods, the use of prototypes, precedents, and metaphors is intended to provide the designer with a starting point from which to develop the new design. K a l ay, E. Ye h u d a (2 0 0 4 ). Arc h i te c tu re ’s N e w M e d i a : P r i n c i p l e s , Th e o r i e s , a n d M e th o d s o f Co mp u te r-Ai d e d D e s i g n , p g 2 5

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44


3.4 S E CO N D E X P LO R AT I O N

F or th e s eco nd mo d el w e w e r e i nter ested in expl oring further th e m o i r e effect, thus w e el o nga te d th e s ur f a c e h opin g tha t the v is ua l e f f e c t i t p r o duces ca n be exa ggerated c o m p a r e d to th e firs t model we mad e. Th e lin es a re mo re reg ula r a nd s ti ll tr y in g ha rd no t to intersec t w i th ea c h other. Compa red to the fir s t m o d e l, th i s one giv es mo re o f a cl o th li k e e f f e c t which w a s quite interes t i ng. F or m the prev io us mod e l, w e h a ve identified tha t there w a s a la c k i n vi sual power from the s ides , a nd to s o lve th is, we decid ed to extrud e th e li ne s i n b oth directio ns . Wh en w e fa brica ted thi s m o d e l, w e wer e dis a ppointed a s th e m o i r e e f f e c t w as n o t a s s tro ng a s th e f i r s t m o d el. Th e extrus ions on the both s i d e s w e r e n ot ver y s ucces s ful in m y o p i ni o n, a s it doesn’t l o o k bea utiful a t a ll. I f th i s model is to repres ent o rn a m e nt, I th i nk a lot of peo pl e woul d dis a gr ee .

45


I n t he e n d , i t l o o ke d mo re o r l e ss l i ke a co n t o u r mo d e l . Fro m b o t h o f t hes e e x p l o ra t o ry mo d e l s, we l e a rn e d t h at t he l i n e s b y i t se l f o n t he t wo -d i mensi o n a l p l a n e we re f a r mo re i n t e re st i ng a n d o rn a me n t a l whe n i t i s e xt ru d e d t o f o rm a t hre e -d i me n si o n a l o b j e ct . S o me o f t he fe e d b a ck we g o t su b st ant i a t e s f u rt he r wha t we ha v e a n a l y z e d a s we l l , t ha t i t i s n o w a y n e a r a b e a u t if u l o b j e ct . Thi s w a s b e ca u se we we r e e n g ro sse d i n t ry i n g t o a chi e v e t h e mo i re e ff e ct whi ch w a s n o t o u r main f o cu s. O u r ma i n f o cu s i s g e n e ra t ive o rn a me n t a n d cl e a rl y i n b o t h o f our e a rl y mo d e l s, we ha v e n ’t e xp l o re d t hat co n ce p t e n o u g h.

H o we v e r, i t i s wo rt h n o t i n g t ha t w e a l so g e n e ra t e d a n o t he r u n e x p e ct e d o u t co me f ro m t hi s mo d e l . We fo u nd o u t t ha t i f we mo v e t he p o l y p ro p y l e ne she e t s i n o n e d i re ct i o n si mi l a r t o a wi n d mo t i o n , t he p o l y p ro p y l e n e she et s cre a t e d a so me ki n d o f ki n e t i c mo t ion t ha t i s si mi l a r t o N e d K ha n ’s A rt i c ul a t e d C l o u d p ro j e ct . N o ma t t e r ho w e x ci t e d we we re a b out b o t h t he g e n e ra t e d o p t i ca l i l l u si o n and t he ki n e t i c mo v e me n t , we ha d t o go b a ck a n d t ry t o a n a l y z e o u r ca se st u di e s a n d o u r ma t ri x e xp l o ra t i o n a g ain t o p ro p e rl y re p re se n t o u r i d e a s i n our f i n a l o u t co me a s we we re d e fi n i t e l y of f t ra ck wi t h o u r d e si g n co n ce p t .

46


3.5 T H I R D E X P LO R AT I O N

Th is time, reviewing o ur m i s ta k e s f r o m th e fir st tw o expl ora tio ns , w e w e r e d eter m ined to come up wit h a b ette r d esign tha t woul d ful l y enc a p s ula te o ur whole co ncept fo r this ga tew a y d es i gn com petition. I t w as tough, to be hon es t, w e s tr ugg led to co me up w ith a go o d d es i gn. However, with the hel p f r o m o ur tuto r s and fr om rev iewing a ga i n o ur i ni ti a l analy sis a nd compa red th e m to o ur matr ix expl o ra tion, w e m a na ged to d efin e m ore pa ra meters o n h o w to m a k e a desig n tha t is mo re orna m e nta l. Wh at w e ha v e k nown s o f a r i s th a t our fir st two initia l expl o r a ti o n m o d els do not res embl e a ny of th e gener a ti ve desig n work s tha t we a n a lyz ed i n th e ear lier s ta ge. Ours were t o o s i m p le a nd did not s ho w the co mpl e x i ty a nd i nter ac tion betw een d ifferent e lem ents . Besides, w e a l s o rea l ize d th a t o ur d e sign h ave to s ta y a s l ine s o n th e tw o dim ensio na l pl a ne a nd t r y to f i gur e a

47

w a y to m a k e i t t hre e -d i me n si o n a l f o r p e o p le to ex p e ri e n ce . We lo o k e d a ga i n a t t he f i rst i n i t i a l d e s i gn th a t w e c h ose fro m t he ma t ri x a n d w e r e c o nf i gur ed t he d e si g n a b i t mo re . T h i s ti m e w e le a v e a n y l i n e s t ha t we re i nter s e c ti ng a s i t i s so a s t o p re se rv e th a t o r na m enta l a n d co mp l e x q u a l i t y o f th e d es i gn. B ef o r e w e ne s te d t he l i n e s a n d g e t i t to b e f a b r i c a te d , we f l i p p e d t he d i re cti o ns o f th e li n e s i n G ra ssho p p e r i n h o p e to get s o me u n e x p e ct e d re su l t . A nd tr ue eno ug h, a f t e r we b u i l d t he m o d e l, w e m a n a g e d t o cre a t e so me th i ng th a t w h a t we t ho u g ht re p re se n t s s o m eth i ng th a t i s b e a u t i fu l . T h e m o d el p o s s e ss si mi l a r q u a l i t i e s o f th e ge ner a ti ve d e si g n wo rks we a n a lyz e d . We w er e v e ry ha p p y whe n we m a na ged to a c hi e v e t hi s. O ne o f th e r e su l t f ro m fl i p p i n g t he li nes i n Gr a s s h o p p e r w a s t ha t t he l i n e s

p u she d i t se l f u p w a rd s sl i g ht l y whe n we p i n n e d t he m d o wn o n a su rfa ce . T hi s t he n t u rn s t he who l e d e si g n t hre e -d i me n si o n a l . S o , we d e ci d e d t o u se t hi s si mi l a r t e chn i q u e a n d p ro ce ss fo r o u r fi n a l d e si g n f o r t he g a t e w a y p ro j e ct whi l e t ry i n g t o f i t i n wi t h t he si t e co n t e xt . T he p ho t o s o f t he mo d e l t a ke n we re a b l e t o i l l u st ra t e mu ch o f o u r a rg u me n t .


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3.6 R E V E R S E E N G I N E E R I N G P R O J E C T H I L L’ S P L AC E BY A MA N DA L E V E T T E

A t t he sa me t i me whe n we we re e x p l o ri n g t he ma t ri x, we a l so t ri e d a re v e rse e n g i n e e ri n g p ro j e ct b y l o o ki n g a t t he H i l l ’s P l a ce p ro j e ct b y A ma n d a L e v e t t e . E v e n t ho u g h t he who l e i d e a b e hi n d t hi s b u i l d i n g i s re fl e ct i o n , whi ch i s o n e f o rm o f o rn a me n t t o d i st i n g u i sh a b o ri n g b u i l d i n g f ro m t he re st , i t i s st ri ct l y o u t o f co n t e x t fro m o u r a n a l y si s. N o t o n l y o u r o rn a me n t mu st b e g e n e ra t i v e , t he y a l so ha v e t o b e co n st ra i n e d t o t he p a ra me t e rs t ha t we ha v e i d e n t i f i e d f ro m e a rl i e r. T hi s p ro j e ct , ho we v e r, d i d b e n e f i t u s i n t e rms o f l e a rn i n g n e w t e chn i q u e s i n G ra ssho p p e r a n d ce rt a i n l y t hi s co u l d b e u se f u l whe n t he t i me co me s t o u se it. T hu s, we co n ce n t ra t e d o n t he ma t ri x t o l o o k f o r so l u t i o n s t o t he g a t e w a y d e si g n p ro j e ct . 10 Hills Place, Westminster, Future System/Amanda Levete Architects, 2009

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3.7 R E S E A R C H P R O J E C T CO N C LU S I O N

I t hi n k o u r re se a rch p ro j e ct we nt a b so l u t e l y we l l . T hro u g h p ro t o t y ping a n d ke e p i mp ro v i n g t he d e si g n , w e ma n a g e d t o a rri v e t o whe re we a re at t hi s p o i n t . T hi s i s o n e v a l u a b l e l e ss on, a p a rt fro m t he re se a rch a n d a n a l ys is st a g e s. T hi s t a u g ht me t ha t we n e e d t o ke e p t e st i n g i n o rd e r t o kn o w what ’s wro n g a n d ho w we ca n co n t i nue mo v i n g fo rw a rd . I n re g a rd s t o t he p ro j e ct p ro p o sa l , w e ha v e a l re a d y i d e n t i f i e d t he t e chn i q ue a n d p ro ce ss t ha t we w a n t t o u s e t o g e n e ra t e o u r fi n a l d e si g n . T h is p ro ce ss wi l l t he n b e u se t o f i t w it h t he si t e co n t e xt a n d l e t t he o u t com e t o su rp ri se u s. Wi t h t he f i rst t wo e xp l o ra t i o n s, t hi n gs d i d n ’t g o a s we l l , b u t t ha t d i d n ’t st op u s fro m g o i n g f o rw a rd . I n st e a d , w it h a l i t t l e p u sh a n d he l p , we ma n a ge d t o i d e n t i fy wha t we n t wro n g a n d wor k o n t he m . The n e x t p a rt wi l l l o o k a t ho w we p ut o u r d e si g n o n si t e a n d fi n a l l y a rri v e t o t he fi n a l d e si g n .

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PART 4 PROJECT PROPOSAL


4.0

THE PROPOSAL


4.1 P R O J E C T I N T E R P R E TAT I O N

“

Wyndham City had been addressing the issue of its image by undertaking significant works to upgrade the condition and aesthetics of its streetscapes, open spaces and parks. As part of this program, it has established this Gateway Project.

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Th e b r ief mentioned tha t W ynd h a m Cir y h ad been trying ha r d to i m p r o ve th e aesthetics of its s ur r o und i ngs which is in l ine with ou r c o nc ep t o f g en er ative o rna ment. Ou r pr op os a l intends not o nly to c r e ate something bea utiful to th e eye b ut also something tha t ca n b e ex p e r i en ced b y the us ers . Apa rt f r o m th a t, w e ar e also pro po s ing tha t our m e th o d o logy , pr oces s a nd our under s ta nd i ng o f g en er ative orna ment wil l c a p tur e th e cu r r en t zeitgeis t. By utilizing the current te c h no lo gy, in this ca s e, s cripting in a r c h i te c tur e , fr om th e des ign s ta ges to th e f a b r i c a tion stages , this a ct by it s e lf a ls o p ut Wy ndham in pa r w ith the c ur r ent z ei tg eist. F u r ther more, o ur proposa l w i ll d e f i n itely g enera te a new d is c o ur s e b y i tself as we a re d el ibera te ly us i ng tw o most c ontrov ers ia l w o rds i n a r c h i tec t-

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ur e: ge ner a ti ve d e si g n a n d o rn a me n t . We a ls o b e li eve t ha t o u r d e si g n sho u l d no t o nly c a p tur e t he mo me n t o f t he ti m e b ut a ls o tri e s t o ha v e t he se n se d yna m i s m a nd mo v e me n t , re p re s e nti ng th e a c t i o n o f ho w t he wo rl d k e e p s c h a ngi ng a n d ho w Wy n d ha m i s c h a ngi ng.

We ho p e t ha t o u r d e si g n wi l l b e a r mu l t i p l e me a n i n g s a n d re p re se n t a t i o n t o d i ff e re n t p e o p l e whi ch wi l l ke e p e v e ry o n e o n t a l ki n g a b o u t i t . We b e l i e v e o u r d e si g n i s t he so l u t i o n t ha t Wy n d ha m i s l o o ki n g f o r t o re p re se n t i t s g ro wt h a n d p ro sp e ri t y.


4.2 P R O J E C T D E L I V E RY

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PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT

PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT CITY CENTRE

MAIN ROAD

SITE

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AGRICULTURE


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4.3 D E S I G N P R O G R E S S I O N

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4.4 P R O J E C T P R O P O S A L CO N C LU S I O N

Form the images, it could be seen that our design fulfills most of our constraints and definitely shown dynamism and movement. We strongly believe that this large scale project that covers the whole site will be not only the talk of the town but also in the world. Imagine yourself driving under and through the installlation, imagine what kind of experience will you get from the images that were shown previously. We believe that those experiences will change every single time. It is to our opinion as well, that this design is beautiful and ornamental. If Wyndham proceed with our design , there will be no doubt that Wyndham City gets what they have asked for in their brief and at the same time create an identity of their own.

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PART 5 REFLECTION


5.0

THE REFLECTION


5.1 L E A R N I N G O U TCO M E S

Parametric modeling is not something new to me. I have read, heard and seen about parametric modeling however, never had the chance to really get into it and apply in my design studio project. I find that the introduction of parametric modeling in this studio was the best decision. Not only to prepare us for the Master’s Studio, but also to be in par with the current trend in the architectural world. Over the period of this semester, I have definitely learn and grow so much as a designer. I have managed to improve my presentational and layout skills. Furthermore, I am very proud with myself to learn and improve myself with few different software like Rhino, Grasshopper, Illustrator, and InDesign. My illustration skill is also improving and I did manage to learn how to render with V-Ray sometime in this semester. I hope to take my rendering skills further in the future. I was also very pleased when the crits all loved my photography. The learning curve for Grasshopper was hard as first but after I had the understanding of data structures and how to manipulate them, designing with Grasshopper had become much easier. I am looking forward to learn more about Grass

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hopper and it’s potential. I also hope to expand into scripting after the exams. I am also very grateful to have hardworking group members as well as dedicated tutors to provide help and guidance. This was one reason that helps to push and propel me forward with the supports given. Without a doubt, I am very pleased with the quality of our works throughout this semester and certainly we have learn so much from each other. My group and I divided tasks according to our interest and specialty, and we find that this method works the best for us as we enjoy doing what we like. However, we do share and teach each other about everything that we have done and I think this complements one of the learning objectives, to work together as a team. The method that my group uses to tackle this deisgn project was something new to us, but we find it very useful as a design tool. By researching and backing up our argument and design intent by scholarly articles and opinions, we made our proposal more convincing. I will definitely will use this method again in the future to support my design ideas and intent. Besides, all the readings that were provided were all very

interesting and eye opening. This studio is honestly a very tough one, especially it is only first introduced in this semester, but I enjoyed it completely. Nothing beats more than having your design fabricated. I still remember the first model that we fabricated, and once we got it we were like a bunch of kids who just got a new toy. The fabrication process also allows me to learn the protocols on what we should do to fabricate our design effectively without having any errors. This studio has provided me with a kick start to continue in parametric architecture and reinforce my passion for architecture. I hope to improve and use the skills and techniques that I’ve learned for a real building project. I would love to see how parametrics can be used in that context. All in all, I have learned so much within this short period of time and I am not planning to stop using and improving what I’ve learned. I hope to be able to use the skills I have for the next studio.


5.2 R E F E R E N C E S

Branko, K. (2003), “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”, (New York: Spon Press), pg. 3-62 Burry, M. (2011), “Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming”, (United Kingdom : J. Wiley), pg. 8 - 71 Christopher, A. (1964), “Notes on the Synthesis of Form”, (Harv ard) Friedman, V. (2008), “Data Visualization and Infographics”, in Graphics, Monday Inspiration, January 14 th , 2008 Kalay, Y.E. (20 04), “Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design”, (Cambridge, Mass.: MITPr ess), pg. 1 -25 Loos, A. (1908), “Ornament and Crime”, (reprint Vienna: InnsBruck) Moussavi, F. (2006), “The Function of Ornament”, (Barcelona: Actar) , pg. 5 - 14 Rampley, M. ( 2005), “Exploring Visual Culture”, (Edinburgh University Press), pg. 102-116 Roudavski, S. and Walsh, A.M. (2011), “The Headspace Project: Computer-Asisted Fabrication as an Introduction to Digital Architectural Design”, in CIrcuit Bending, breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16 th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. ed. by Christi ane M. Herr, Ning Gu, Marc Aurel Schnabel and Stanislav Roudavski, pg. 579 - 648 Schumacher, P. (2011), “Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System”, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture, (Chichester : J. Wiley), pg. 1 -28

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University of Melbourne Studio Air Final 2012