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The Verb To Be Probably the best known verb in the world: "To be or not to be...“ SUBJECT I HE / SHE / IT YOU / WE / THEY

PRESENT

FORMS OF TO BE PAST PERFECT FORM CONTINUOUS FORM

AM

WAS

HAVE / HAD BEEN

AM / WAS BEING

IS

WAS

HAS / HAD BEEN

IS / WAS BEING

ARE

WERE

HAVE / HAD BEEN

ARE / WAS BEING

Normally we use the verb to be to show the status or characteristics of something or someone (as a stative verb = is the verb that show a state and not an action). It says what I am, what you are or what something is. PRESENT SIMPLE (STATIVE) I am a teacher

You are a student

He/She is a student

It is a car

We are all teachers

They are students

PAST SIMPLE (STATIVE) I was a student

You were a student

He/She was a student

It was a nice day yesterday We were all students once

They were students

FUTURE SIMPLE (STATIVE) I will be a student You will be a teacher He/She will be a teacher

It will be nice later

We will be teachers

They will be students

When used with the present participle of other verbs it describes actions that are or were still continuing auxiliary verb be [+ ing form of the main verb]. PRESENT CONTINUOUS (ACTIVE) I am being silly

You are being silly

He/She is being silly

It is being silly

We are being silly

They are being silly

We were being silly

They were being silly

PAST CONTINUOUS (ACTIVE) I was being silly

You were being silly

He/She was being silly

It was being silly


The Verb To Be Am/Is/Are The verb to be is used to create simple yes/no questions by simply inverting the order of subject and the “To be” verb. For example: I am a teacher (Statement) - Am I a teacher? (Question) Question

Positive Statement

Negative Statement (possible short forms)

Am I ...?

I am ... (I'm ...)

Singular I am not ... (I'm not ...)

Is he / she / it ...?

He / She / It is ...(He's/She's/It's ...)

He / She / It is not (He / She / It isn't... // He's / She's / It's not ...)

Are you ...?

You are ...(You're...)

You are not (You're not ...// You aren't...)

Am I being ...?

I am being ...

I am not being ... (I'm not being...)

Is he / she / it being...?

He / She / It is being ... (He's/She's/It's being ...)

He / She / It is not being ... (He / She / It isn't being...// He/she/it's not being...)

Are you being ...?

You are being ... (You're being ...)

You are not being ... (You're not being ... // You aren't being...)

Was I ...?

I was ...

I was not. ..

Was he / she / it ...?

He / She / It was ...

He / She / It was not ... (He / She / It wasn't)

Were you ...?

You were ...

You were not ... (You weren't ...)

Was I being ...?

I was being ...

I was not being (I wasn't being...)

Was he / she / it being...?

He / She / It was being ...

He / She / It was not being ... (He / She / It wasn't being... )

Were you being ...?

You were being ...

You were not being ... (You weren't being ...)

Will I be ...?

I will be ... (I'll be ...)

I will not be ... (I'll not be ...)

Will he / she / it be ...?

He / She / It will be ...(He'll / She'll / It'll be ...)

He / She / It will not be (He / She / It won't be ... // He'll not be / She'll not be / It'll not be ...)

Will you be ...?

You will be ...(You'll be ...)

You will not be (You won't be ... // You'll not be ...) Plural

Are we / you / they?

We / You / They are (We're / You're / They're)

We / You /They are not (We're / You're / They're not // We / You / They aren't)

Are we / you / they being ...?

We / You / They are being ... (We're / You're / They're) We / You /They are not being (We're / You're / They're not being // We / You / They aren't being)

Were we / you / they ...?

We / You / They were ...

We / You / They were not ... (We / You / They weren't ...)

Were we / you / they being ...? We / You / They were being ...

We / You / They were not being ... (We / You / They weren't being ...)

Will we / you / they be ...?

We / You / They will not be (We / You / They won't be ... // We'll / You'll They'll not be ...)

We / You / They will be ...(We'll / You'll They'll be ...)


The Colors What is the difference between Color and Colour? Both words mean the same thing and its spelling depends on the country where the word is written. The word Color is used in United States. The word Colour is used in the rest of the English-speaking countries (England, Australia, NZ etc.) The names of the more common colors in English appear in the chart below: What is the difference between Gray and Grey? The same as with the difference between color and colour, it depends on the country. The word Gray is used in United States. The word Grey is used in the rest of the English-speaking countries (England, Australia, NZ etc.) Word order with colors There are three ways that you can use a color in a sentence to describe something: 1. To Be + Colour. e.g. My car is blue. 2. Colour + Noun. e.g. The blue car is mine. 3. Colour is the Noun. e.g. Blue is the colour of my car.

Light - Dark - Bright You can also talk in shades (or intensity) of color in English by using such expressions as: Light is the opposite of Dark. Bright: a strong colour that is easy to see. Helen has dark green eyes. His light grey hair made him look very distinguished. Her bright pink lipstick doesn't look good. The words Light, Dark and Bright are placed before the color. Colors + ISH If you are not exactly sure how to describe a color, we normally use the suffix -ish. e.g. Greenish (= approximately green but not exactly green) The sunset is a beautiful pinkish-purplish color today. His shirt is lightish blue in color.


The Numbers There are two main types of numbers: Cardinal Numbers - 1 (one), 2 (two) etc. (Used mainly for counting) Ordinal Numbers - 1st (first), 2nd (second) etc. (Used mainly for putting things in a sequence)

Ordinal Numbers In English 1st - first

19th - nineteenth

2nd - second 3rd - third

20th - twentieth 21st - twenty-first

4th - fourth 5th - fifth

22nd - twenty-second 23rd - twenty-third

6th - sixth 7th - seventh

30th - thirtieth 40th - fortieth

8th - eighth 9th - ninth 10th - tenth

50th - fiftieth 60th - sixtieth 70th - seventieth

11th - eleventh 12th - twelfth

80th - eightieth 90th - ninetieth

13th - thirteenth 14th - fourteenth

100th - hundredth 101st - hundred and first

15th - fifteenth 16th - sixteenth

200th - two hundredth 300th - three hundredth

17th - seventeenth 18th - eighteenth

1,000th - thousandth 1,000,000th - ten millionth


The Countries Remember I am from Chile. To Be + from + country Singular: Country Plural: Countries

Country Afghanistan Argentina Australia Belgium Bolivia Brazil Cambodia Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt

Language Persian - Pashto Spanish English French / Flemish Spanish Portuguese Cambodian French / English English / French Spanish Chinese Spanish Spanish Spanish Danish Spanish Spanish Arabic

Country El Salvador England Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Haiti Honduras Indonesia Iran Ireland Israel Italy Japan

Language Spanish English Estonian Amharic Finnish French German English Greek Spanish French / Creole Spanish Indonesian Persian Irish / English Hebrew Italian Japanese

Country Jordan Kenya Korea Laos Latvia Lithuania Malaysia Mexico Morocco Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Norway Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland

Language Arabic Swahili Korean Laotian Latvian Lithuanian Malay / Malaysian Spanish Arabic / French Dutch English / Maori Spanish Norwegian Spanish Spanish Spanish Tagalog / Filipino Polish

Country Portugal Puerto Rico Romania Russia Saudi Arabia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Wales

Language Portuguese Spanish Romanian Russian Arabic Spanish Swedish Swiss Chinese Tajik (Persian) Thai Turkish Ukrainian English Spanish Spanish Vietnamese Welsh / English


The Nationalities The word 'Nationality' is not often used in spoken English. It is a formal and official word and it appears more frequently in written English. You will find the word 'Nationality' is used a lot in the travel industry and for immigration. We almost never say: What is your nationality? We usually say: Where are you from? OR Where do you come from? To tell someone your nationality you DON'T say: My nationality is Chilean. You say: I'm Chilean Remember I am Chilean To Be + Nationality Country Nationality

Country

El Salvador

Singular: Nationality Plural : Nationalities

Salvadorian/Salvadorians

China Country

Germany

Nationality Chinese/Chinese Nationality German/Germans


Daniel Urrutia