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743330 Amanda Massip gourp 13 D

CONTENTS 1.0 IDEATION 1.1 Object 1.2 Object + System Analysis 1.2 Volume 1.3 Sketch design proposal: 2.0 DESIGN 2.1 Design development intro 2.2 Digitization + Design proposal v.1 2.3 Precedent research 2.4 Design proposal v.2: 2.5 Prototype v.1+ Testing Effects FABRICATION 3.1 Fabrication intro 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v2 3.3 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v3 3.4 Final Prototype development + optimisation 3.5 Final Digital model 3.6 Fabrication sequence 3.7 Assembly Drawing 3.8 Completed 2nd Skin 4.0 REFLECTION 5.0 APPENDIX Credit Bibliography

INTRO The chosen object is an elliptical object much like the shape of donut. The initial measurements were done by placing a long ruler under the object to measure the length and vertically placing the ruler beside the fusion to measure the height. Because the measurements were made by using estimation, there were major inconsistencies, which prompted the use of other straight objects to accurately measure the height and width (much like a height scale). As for the circumference, a piece of rope was used in a similar fashion as measuring clothing.


1.1 OBJECT The chosen object is an elliptical object much like the shape of donut. The initial measurements were done by placing a long ruler under the object to measure the length and vertically placing the ruler beside the fusion to measure the height. Because the measurements were made by using estimation, there were major inconsistencies, which prompted the use of other straight objects to accurately measure the height and width (much like a height scale). As for the circumference, a piece of rope was used in a similar fashion as measuring clothing.




1.2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS The object was chosen because it complies with the theme of skin and bone. The skin in this object is also the bone part of the object. This is an integral part because this dual skin and bone system can be seen in the final design. The main focus of the system is the material and the complexity of its design. The material used here is a thick yarn/string that has been woven in a gridline pattern. It is a double layered weave with horizontal elements inside and vertical members

outside. They seem to be integrated with each other and not two separate layers which gives it the strength to hold its shape. The weave seems rather complex and seems as though its vertical and horizontal members uses the same piece of string. It is uniformly spread on the outside of the cushion piece in the middle making it look like a protective tortoise like shield.

Abandoned attempt

1.2 VOLUME The sketch model here was created with using hardened pieces of string (ready made) that were laid out in a random pattern. This weave was then weighted down by heavy objects to flatten it out. The reason this was

done with the focus on bone, testing its rigidity when not placed in a grid. This sketch model did not turn out too successful as the members kept coming apart.

1.3 SKETCH DESIGN 1 This first design revolves around the age old samurai worrior armor that stacks on eachother. Taking the sketchmodel, the ideation of bone as skin and vice versa replaced the traditionally wooden part of the armor. These ‘plates’ then become lightweight, functions as a protective layer and becomes more breatheable. During the design of this sketch, it made more sense to stick to a grid like layout to retain strength through uniformity. This type of patternning and design can be widley seen in construction materials now days.

1.3 SKETCH DESIGN 2 This idea breaks apart form the first sketch and the sketch model only focusing on the skin part of the theme. Looking like a hooded mantle, this design is meant to provide comfort through a rigid skin-like design that is meant to be comfortably worn and easy to hood like a fabric. The arrangements of the rope that seemed to make the most sense in order to retain its shape without a wearer had to be different from traditional weaving. To providie rigidity, the vertical members would be made up of a thicker material and spaced furrther apart than the thinner horizontal members, ensuring flexibility when worn but also sturdiness to allow a ‘spacy ‘ feel when the hood is up. Optionally, the hood would have a cushioned section that potentially make this design a ‘sleep anywhere’ piece of clothing.

1.3 SKETCH DESIGN 3 The third design is different from all the other designs and was created with the intention to be purely conceptual. Taking the sketch model’s rigidity, a grid pattern was made vertical and stacked horizontally. This was arranged in a scaffolding manner making it a more 3D type topography meant to mimic a city skyline. This concept design turned out to be pretty successful as it did achieve the post-apocalyptic feel that merges with the human figure. This could be interpreted as bones protruding form the shoulder.


Danial Yik 743330 Mohammad Haziq Hassan 780615 Ida Ayu Ratna Dwijayanti 813845 Ruowen Cai 798550

INTRO Moving on from the first module, the most similar designs from each of the group members were combined. They were then mediated through a quick sketch filter to figure out the basic shape that would eventually become the final design. As seen in the diagram on the right, many forms of skin and bone as well as panel and weave were explored.

2.1 SKETCH DESIGNS While the sketchs were made to determine the basic form for the model, the group split up to try various weaving methods that would eventually become the skin. These can be seen in the diagrams above. They revolved around layering strips of paper and other materials of varying widths and dimensions to create a unique pattern as potential to be included into the design in the module.

2.2 DESIGN PROPOSALS This is an initial idea that the group created that revolved around panel and folding. During the sketch model phrase for the woven skin, this precedent was found, and built upon which let to many interesting patterns that were created from paper. Similar to the (ASDFGHJK) reading, 3D patterns were created using only paper and was then tested on our model (Rebecca). The idea seemd very promising at the time and was developed by Haziq and then devoleped further by Rebecca who made the 3D model shown on this page. This idea would wrap around the left side of the

head wrapping around the neck and extending down the back tackling one side of the face and back for its personal space definition. The pattern used here is heavily based on triangular shaped folds. This idea was later abandoned as it was decided that it was a common design and many other of our peers would have had a similar design.

2.2 DESIGN PROPOSAL 1.1 This is the first digital model created as part of the Woven Ivory theme that focused on skin and bone. Taking the back of the head to the tailbone as the personal space that the team decided, this design was inspired to show the boundries defining personal space. In this version, the backbone piece follows the natural curvature of the human body to act as a support . It has protrud-

ing ribs that has sharp ends to clearly show that this space should not be disturbed. The head piece consists of an intergrated weave in the shape of a grid that protects the neck up part of the wearer. The neck and waist have special members that would have been the part that attaches to the body of the wearer.




2.2 DESIGN PROPOSAL 1.2 Building on the same idea as in the previous version, design V1.2 focused on the bone parts making them more dense towards the top and bottom in terms of ribs. The curvature of the spine has drastically changed from following the natural shape of the human anatomy, to curving outwards, away from the body. This was done to further define the personal space of the wearer. The head piece has the most change in this version, looking more aggresive and lacking in the woven skin pattern like in V1.1. This changed the entire outlook and theme of the model, which them team agreed. It is more ag-

gresive and speaks for itself in terms of personal space definition. Taking into considerations of this design, it was ensured that the wearers comfort would not be affected. The wearing mechenism now changed as the neckpiece was no longer part of the model but the waist piece was. At this stage, it was agreed that th waispiece alone could support the weight of the model, and that the weaving pattern has yet to be added in.





2.3 SKIN AND BONE The precedence on the top left is a floating fishnet installation in germany by (ADFGH). This was used in conjunction with the image above found on Pintrest by (KHKJHG) to inspire the weave wto be used with the design of V1.2. A few sketch models were created in a way to demonstrate Volume using strips or polypropelene creating a very interesting pattern. The sketch model created (bottom left images) was in a constant mode of tension to allow for the creation of the 3D curves and is held in placed using a series of pins. The potential in the sketch model was very high.

This ima self. Sim also co outwar also cre hourgla waist a adding

age above by (FGHJK) demonstrates a weaving pattern but with the bone structure itmilar to the object I had choosen in the first module, this design is both skin and bone, and overs the part of the personal space that was choosen by the team. This image ins[ire the rd curve for the spine and the increased density for the ribs. Several sketch models were eated by inspiration of this image. From here, design adjustments were made and the ass shape was morphed so that the pinch point would be at the neck instead of the high as the personal space definition that the group decided to do stops just at the tailbone g a sharp pointy end.

Early sketches of intergration of weave designs with the V.1.2 were drawn at this stage which then were later inputted into Rhino to create the digital models.

2.4 DESIGN PROPOSAL 2.1 At this stage, V2.1 mixes V1.2 with a gridded weave which started the completion of skin and bone intergration. The weave here was done in a grid pattern that varied in width towards the bottom of the design as an attempt to give more depth to the design. As for the neck up, a similar pattern is applied. The mergins of skin and bone at this stage was far from finished. What could be said at this point of development is that the aggresive look was dampened at the spine parts as the ribs were now covered with the weave. This gave it a more shell

look which changed the tone of the design from an aggresive tone to ward of danger, to a protective tone that shields the wearer from harm. The headpiece however, still keep the tips sharp and pointy and because it can be seen from the front, still kept a somewhat aggresive look. This contradiction still worked but changes were set to be implemented in later development. The waistpiece mechenism is still the main point of contact for the wearer at this stage.






Similar to the previous V2.1, V2.2 is almost identical in using the same bone structure and having the weave located at the same spots. This difference here is that the weave is replaced with vertical threads that run down from the neck line to the tailbone, and a semicular pattern for the heade piece. A noticeable difference between the two versions is that because the density of the weave is low, the bone can be seen much more clearly. This counteracts with the previous model’s change of tone. As it can be seen, This model still keeps its

aggresive outlook. Eventhough only the tips of the ribs are pointing out, the sharpness and sgressigve look has not been dampened by the weave. At this stage, this was the preferred ddesign and improvements were made based on this model. What the team realised was that the thickness of the weave greatly affects the outlook of the model, and it brought into light something previously not thought about.




2.5 PROTOTYPE + EFFECTS TThe segment we chose to 3D print is the headpiece, which is the main focus of our chosen personal space. We scaled down the prototype, due to specifications required to use the 3D printer. The outcome of our 3D printed prototype was underwhelming, As the individual pieces printed did not follow our rhino model, thus disabling us from creating the flushed joint.

The effect that we ended up creating was biomimicry where the design looked largely similar to the skeletal structure ot a hand. Although it was intended to have the design mimic the spine and bones, this effect from poor 3D printing quality and assembly gave a really biological and pimal feel with this model. In addition, the weave that was attempted was also not succesful as at this stage, the intergration of the weave on the physical model was not throughly thought through.


Danial Yik 743330 Mohammad Haziq Hassan 780615 Ida Ayu Ratna Dwijayanti 813845 Ruowen Cai 798550

INTRO Taking the previous physical model into a critical analysis session, the model was not very successful because of a few key reasons. One being that the 3D printing serviced that was outsourced, was not very well done, rendering the parts to have an unorganised assembly. The other was the weave part due to the thickness of the string used (lack of material testing). What the team learned from this is that even with precisely inputted specifications, fabrication would not always turn out the was it was intended. Post fabrication was also something that we as a group did not consider at this stage. Moving forward with those points in mind, several more concept sketches were made to give arough idea of what we wanted the final design to look like at this stage of development.

3.2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT I & II At this stage of the development, the team decided to take a step back and explore various method of fabrication and various systems to create the main bone system. These images were a suggestion from out tutor Amanda as she suggested the use of ratan or soft wood with the conjunction of little 3D printed brackets to morph the material into any 3d shape of our choosing.

Testing began from taking its basic concept and making a version of it ourselves. The method used here were to cut out the brackets using foamcore board in the shaped of ‘O’s which is the easiest shape to create varying degrees of slopes. The connectors in between were toothpicks which greatly sped up the process of combination. The binding agent used to further strengthen the sketch models was a hot glue gun ensuring extra

strength and rigidity. What the group learnt from this exercise was that it was far more complex and time consuming than what was originally thought. This was an underestimation of translating the design from paper to a physical model. The final product turned out successful but further testing was done with other concepts.

This attempt utilises straws to replace the ratan and plastercine to replace the brackets. This attempt was just an exercise to figure out the system and planning necessary if the plan were to go through using ratan. At this stage, it was already determined to be far more complex and because the straws were not reliable as a building material, this idea was quickly abandonned.

3.3 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT III Thiis section of prototype development consiss of various testing of materials and systems. To ensure a productive process, a small section was selected (rib section) to have a consistent and efficient result. Thie first material tested is using foam core as a base to create the spine. A few layers of foamcore board were cut as shown in the diagrams below and stacked to create a solid centre core for the spine while using a single foamcore piece for each rib. After figuring out the tabbing system, the entire structure was assembeled and glued and then covered with plastercine. As the material

plaster was buildable, several layers were built on eachother to provide strength. This made a mini system of skin and bone on its own. It was visually successful as it gave th right texture and feel that the group was trying to achieve. However, it was too heavy and the connections (eventhough tabbed) were not strong enough to withstand the compression from the weave.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT IV This next prototype testing uses crafting mesh wire and air drying clay. Maintaining the same part of the main prototype for testing, the construction of this model began by morphing the mesh into the intended shape. The entire structure was built with the mesh leaving the structure hollow. The second part of this prototype test is covering the surface using airdrying clay by making strips and laying them down to wrap the mesh structure. water was used as the binding agent. The prototype was then left to dry

over a few days. The outcome was also aesthetically satisfying, however, major problems were encountered. once the material dried. Cracks were visable throughout the prototype and it became very fragile as wel as brittle. pieces of it came off while transporting the prototype to class. It was fairly heavy and not further testing attempt was done with this material.

3.4 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT V This is continued testing and the first full attempt at creating the entire model. It was crafted by hand using a material called blue foam (or high density foam). The process is shown in the images above starting from the board being cut into pieces which was then processed further into the shape and processed further with carving and eventually sanding down to a fine matte finish. This was done for the entirity of the model. Upon getting all the pieces, they were attached using

pieces of dowel to provide extra strength. The outcome was not as expected because of the inaccuracies made during measuring and manual fabrication of prototype. The design was not symmetrical, nor did it reach the detail of the 3D model of V2.2. However the group decided that because of its visual appearence, finish, and lightweightness, this material is going to be the one used in the final design.

After manually frabicating the full physical prototype, the next step was to combine the bone part with the skin element which was the weave. To start this process, several experiments with different materials and techniques were tested. A pattern was created by the group members to become the base of the weaving designs. As seen above the first attempt was using a soft and silky type string which yeilded less than desireable results. The next attempt uses a hard wire that was hard to manipulate. To do this technique, pliers were used to curve and twist the wire and a wire cutter was used to clip off the excess. At

this point the weave and the bone were seperate elements and the combination method was as simple as attaching the ‘hoops’ tothe top and bottom rib pieces. Because of the material uses, it was hard to make the weave pattern smaller or denser. This resulted in a very messy unsymmetrical look when combined with the bone. The final prototype outcome (shown above) had a primal look to it. Further testing was aggreable among the team as fabrication did not go the way it was intended.

3.5 FINAL DIGITAL MODEL The development of the final prototype began with the decision to move on from manual fabrication in to CNC milling. The decision was influenced by the previous prototypes as the problem identified is that symmetry and accurate scaling of the design couldnt be achieved by manual fabrication. This was proven after many testing effects and materials. The decided material to work with was high density foam which was millable by CNC, lightweight for the wearer and easy. As the form for the bone has already been de-

termined, the only remaining changes is to adapt the design for the CNC milling process and inputting the designs into the provided template. As for the weaving skin, the design based on the predetermined pattern that was used in the previous prototype. This section was 3D modelled but would be manually fabricated.


SEQUENCE The fabrication sequence began with using the boolean command to seperate each individual piece. Each piece was then split into half down the middle as the CNC mill in the fab lab is a 3-axis pint mill. This means that one of the surfaces must be flat. Initial designs included 3 axis curves (top left picture) which when split in half, did not create a flat surface. Some adjustments were made and then the pieces were laied out on the template to fit into the parameters. After laying them out, the file was sent to the CNC lab for printing which took a significant amount of time.

Once the milling process was comp to be manually removed and filed time as the parts were fragile. beca the spine came in two parts. Each rangement according to the rhino using a special polystyrene glue and through the spine.

plete, the pieces that were stuck to the board had d down with sandpaper. This process took a long ause of the CNC milling requirement, every rib and h part was carefully labelled according to the arfile template. The parts were then stuck together d each rib was reinforced with toothpicks skewered

The weave part of the model was manually created from the assembled bone to ensure a perfect fit. This also ensured the intergration of the weave into the bone, complementing eachother. Once the weaving was done, it was carefully removed from the bone to allow for the parts to be painted.

The group decided on the color scheme for the final design. The bone was coted with several layers of white paint. The parts were seperated and each layer was carefully applied after a brief period of letting each coat dry. The method choosen fto color the weave was using ink dye which included a process of boiling and mixing chemicals as shown above.

OPTIMIZATION The weaving was originally done as a single piece without the bone element as a base. this allowed the pattern to be determined and the selection of the best string type. however, during this phrase, the woven skin didnt have much intergration with the bone as it was an entirely seperate piece. The attaempts at intergrating the woven skin was not as succesful. It provided the function of a cover and aesthetic, however, the group thought that the potential of function the weave could provide in terms of strengthening the ribs was high. With the intergration of the two elements in mind, it was then decided that the woven parts should ienvelop the bones providing the right amount of tension thus strengthening the entire model itself. The outlook of the model was also considered and adjustments were made to ensure the theme stuck to its original planning, which was aggresive looking whilst having a strong defensive look.

Initially, the ribs were milled so that its base is flat. This posed a problem as attaching each rib to the main spine posed as a problem. Deciding to manually booleaning the ends of each rib to sit flushed with the spine was our first response at optimizong the joints. It was then decided that glue was not sufficient for the model to hold its form. Further response prompted the use of toothpicks (like in the previous prototype as as means of utilising what had been discovered during the previous exercises. This worked well as each joint

was not co toothpicks a sue was figu the design o and waist p design deve use of a ch to connect was quickly that it was u to the weigh the wearers

onnected by booleaned pieces, and polystyrene glue. The next isuring out the connection system for onto the wearer. as the neck piece piece had been removed through elopment, initial ideas included the hoker and a series of thin threads the model to the wearer. This idea y abandonned as testing showed uncomfortable for the wearer due ht distribution that was choking at s neck.

The solution to this problem took some time and further testing of materials. The idea of using velcro came into discussion. Inital thoughts were that velcro would not support the weight of the model and that it would make the model too flimsy when worn by the wearer. The concerns were quickly dismissed when testing the material. The velcro was able to hold the model in place. To achieve this, the 1st part of the velcro was sewn onto the shirt of the wearer to further strengthen the adhesive. The second part of the velcro was

placed on the model itself with thread wrapping around the spine with the same intention as the shirt. The two points of contact with the wearer were determined (neck and tailbone) and the testing yeilded successful results. The diagram above demonstrates how the model looks and point of contact with the wearer displaying the protection of the group’s choosen personal space.

3.7 ASSEMBLY DRAWING The assembly of the parts is drawn here. The difficulty was to ensure each rib goes to its designated spot, that was solved using a simple numeral labelling technique. The weave shown here as a seperate piece is actually intergrated between each rib.


4.0 REFLECTION The overall experience from start to fish for this design was interesting yet challanging as each design day presented new challanges as well as new ideas. The experience of doing this in a group setting provided a new platform for us as a group, bouncing ideas off as well as collaborating different strengths while picking up on eachothers weaker aspects only to boost the group dynamic as a whole. In the beginning, combining ideation from each group member and bouncing off ideas to create designs were a challange for the group. After an adjustment to our approach, the group leaned towards our strength of coming up with different systems of skin and bone and panel and weave. This provided a plethora of choices which then lead to a filtration and combination precess which then went through comparisons with precedence. As the group decided to create something unique, we combined our designs while amplifying our individual design styles. This was an important step in learning how to collaborate successfully keeping each member satisfied with the combined outcome. During the development phase,, suggestions started coming easier which led to more and more productive sessions. With each week of testing, new ways of design and fabrication were discovered. Personally, this group focused experimenting as a whole on many manual fabrication techniques including familiar and unfamiliar types of materials all the while learning about digitization, from physical models and vice versa. At the middle point of the process, the groups individual strengths were determined and group workload was split. Challanges arised when the group discovered that digital fabrication or anytype of fabrication has its limits in terms of the resemblence of the created product to its original intended design. Although not a surprise for handcrafted models, the notion of post fabrication was not taken seriously and was percieved to be the easy part. This then led to the discovery of the many challanged of post-fabrication. The group as a whole experienced difficulties in meeting dead lines because of the underestimated post fabrication time requirements. Another challange was materiality and having issues

with finding a suitible material to be used for both skin experimenting with various methods of fabrication and semester however, several of our prototypes sti;ll did no every group members suggestion started to be taken s trust between each member in the critical analysis of could not have been possible as every option and de However, fabrication might have been improved given parts of the model being broken, and augmented du ficial to have extra parts lying around to ensure the clo outcome was hugely successful and demonstrated th of my proudest project yet.

and bone. This ttranspired to the group minimising risk by d materials. This risk management was implied through the ot come out as intended. During the late stages of design, seriously as each input was valuable, earning the sense of our designs. Any improvements to the design as a group esign idea had been exhausted even to each dead end. n time and luxury of an abundance of material. with many uring the ost fabrication stage, it would have been beneosest finish to the final outcome. That being said, the final he entire groups work and design eaqually, making it one

5.0 APPENDIX pg 27, 59 - Ida Ayu Ratna 2017

Jewel : leManoosh -

Janet Echelman man-013.jpg



Janet Echelman Boston 2-

Stephanie Bila Body Jewellery 2010 -

The Rise -

The Rise – bespoke geometry -


Ching, Francis D. K. (1990): Basic Orthographic Methods. In Drawing- A Creative Process, Van Nostrand Reinold, pp. 146-159

Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design : function, form, technique, 1700-2000 / Adrian Heath, Ditte Heath, Aage Lund Jensen

Cheng, R. (2008). Inside Rhinoceros 4 / Ron K.C. Cheng. Clifton Park, NY : Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2008.

Sommer, R. (1969). Personal space : the behavioral basis of design / Robert Sommer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1969.

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