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IT

18 May 2018

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CONTENTS

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4. Contributors

10. Canon vs Nikon

5. Editor’s Note

12. Twitter and the Current World

6. The influence of Technology on Fashion 8. Rhodes University Finds a Solution for E-waste

14. Pros and Cons of Smartwatches

18. South African Schools Go Digital 20. Technology Inspires a Poet 22. The Net and Bullying

16. Technology the Dangerous Master

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Contributors Zukanye Madakana Head Editor

Noxolo Manyati Publisher

Daniel Goldberg Head Photographer

Hlombe Gwaxula Head Designer

Lazola Jikwana Production Manager

Yandiswa Calane Marketing Director

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From the editor

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ot so long ago my team and I had our first meeting. Before the meeting, I had asked the whole team to bring a piece of paper on which they wrote about everything they understood about technology. Their views waere interesting, with two members of the group writing two different definitions for technology. Noxolo Manyati, the publisher, defined technology as a system that is used to solve problems and make people’s lives easier. Daniel Golberg, the photographer, defined technology as a collection of tool systems that make it easy to create, manage and interchange information. Both definitions are correct, I like the idea that technology makes life easier but the reality is that it does come with its complications. Technology influences a variety of aspects on planet earth ranging from fashion, education, identity, careers, sexuality, culture, environment and many more examples. With this in mind, IT has incorporated a variety of pieces about different topics derived from the aspects mentioned above. There are feature articles on fashion, social media, education, accessories, etc. Because we know that readers are big fans of rlevance, we made sure to fill IT Magazine with a wide variety of articles and topics. Technology changes people’s lives and makes them easier. In the future you will be noticing incredible innovations, more than merely just what you are going to read in IT. Who knows, we might even have robots preparing lunch boxes for our children in the future. An example of incredible change that has been brought by technology is the innovation of cellphones which have evolved to break communication bridges and make the world feel ‘smaller’. Be aware that in indigenous times there was no technological communication that allowed people to feel intimacy but today such bridges have been combated. IT is going to outline the exciting and relevant things that we have witnessed in the presence and under the influence of technology. A big thanks to my team!

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The Influence of Technology on Fashion “Technology is one of the factors which influence an individual’s sense of fashion” By Zukanye Madakana

sexual or regional identity.

Nwabisa Sigele, a Rhodes University student looking up a fashion influncer’s page on Instagram. Photo: Zukanye Madakana

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lothing and fashion allow people to project information about their personalities. This consequently causes society to attach symbols and statuses to those people. So does fashion clothing speak for people? and are people defined by the way they wear their clothes? Do clothes demonstrate an individual’s lifestyle? Such questions are very popular in the minds of young people today. Often these questions are not answered, so people form conclusions based on how others wear their clothes.

The complexity of comprehending fashion and its agendas arises from the lack of knowledge of its meanings and symbols. This is elevated by the notion that societies attach symbolic references to fashion clothing. For example the ‘Cool kid’ type which are assumed to be quite ‘cheesy’ are labelled ‘Cool kids” mainly because of the way they wear their clothes They wear clothes that are currently trending on social media and often try to mimic celebrity outfits.

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They are assumed to listen to trending music. So the question is “Are they called cool kids because of the way they dress? Does ‘cool’ identify their personalities? Fashions and clothing styles do not have the same meaning to everyone. The meanings have a contrast to the extent that symbolic thoughts, images and attachments emerge around clothing signs; these are different between various social strata and cultures therefore fashion clothing does not necessarily say much about an individual’s identity. Indeed young people’s choices of clothing are informed by the societies they are part of. Societies condition these young people and instil a sense of culture in their minds. Culture, which is transferred from one generation to the next. Societies inform the clothing choices of young people by normalizing certain items of clothing. When one comes out with a different style of clothing they are made to feel like outcasts, as though they belong to a different society.

Another factor which influences one’s sense of fashion is technology, especially in the modern days. For example social networks such as Twitter, Facebook and Instagram have significant power to influence people. On these social networks people follow fashion pages, magazines and celebrities. The fashion pages, magazines and celebrities influence fashion in a way that the people who follow derive ways to dress from them. Because some famous people have large numbers of followers on social media they act as role models and therefore hold a lot of power to influence people in terms of fashion.. When an individual chooses to follow a fashion trend, they must be allowed to explore themselves through clothing. It does not matter what kind of clothing one prefers, it is their choice. Not everyone follows fashion trends so those who do not follow will react weirdly towards those who follow. Also clothing might be gendered but if a male for example chooses to wear female clothing, they must be accepted and not rejected for their choice. Their clothing choice does not necessarily determine their


Alungile Boqwana, 20, wears a vintage two piece which is influenced by her mother. Photo: Zukanye Madakana

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Rhodes University Student Finds a Solution For E-waste “when you throw your electronics away, they must go somewhere”

Wires that indicate the interconnectedness of technology in society. Photo: Daniel Goldberg By Yandiswa Calane

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hodes University students conducted afuneral for technological waste. It was at the Drostdy lawns. Those who attended the funeral were wearing black, resulting with curious strollers.

The idea was to lay to rest the old computers, fax machines, broken cell phones, printers and other technological components. However, these gadgets had no set destination. The goal was to encourage the recycling of e-waste and to send the message to people about the e-waste crisis faced by the world . According to People magazine and the Planet Organization, technology waste pollution is increasing every year by 10%. Electronic waste releases toxic and hazardous chemicals which have negative effect on an individuals’ health and it’s also not environmentally friendly. The Go Green reports, that electronic waste gives off dangerous chemicals such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants. When the gadgets are disposed improperly, these hazardous

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materials pollute the air, contaminate the soil, and leachinto underground water sources. There are also high health risks ranging from kidney disease and brain damage to genetic mutations. Sindiswa Mlatsha a second year student from Rhodes University said that she hoped people could be more aware of the pollution caused by the improper disposal of technology.


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The iPhone 8 Plus. Photo: Hlombe Gwaxula


Canon vs Nikon By Daniel Goldberg

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better value for money with the base cameras of both brands offering a similar price, however the difference is that Canon’s base camera model outranks its Nikon counterpart.

The nature of photography often develops the topic into an argument regarding which camera is superior. This argument usually ‘waffles’ on, however it is based on solid foundations. As cameras retail for more and more expensive prices, the debate continues. Due to the largescale investment that photography has developed into, camera choice has grown to play a much larger role than ever before.

Often people that are investing in base model DSLR cameras will be looking to get introduced into the world of photography and for new photographers, Canon is a better choice. The Canon user interface and operating system is designed to be easy to use to allow for a “plug ‘n play” effect. This is especially convenient for new consumers that are attempting to use their new Canon straight out of the box. The interface and operating system found on Nikon cameras is in no way below industry standard or inferior to the competition, but it is overall less user-accessible than Canon’s system.

However, the argument hardly ever reaches a conclusion, even if the answer is rather simple: one should invest in Canon cameras, simply for practical purposes. Canon’s products offers

Dylan Gray, a photojournalism student, told the story of his Nikon D5100. He ordered his brand new D5100 online. Shortly after it arrived, he realised that the camera’s autofocus

ameras and photography have become a huge part of culture at Rhodes University. The university is well-known for its Journalism department which places a lot of emphasis on photojournalism. Due to the mainstream nature of cameras and DSLR’s, debates often arise among photographers about the two most common camera makers, namely Canon and Nikon.

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did not work. When he researched the problem, it was found that many Nikon cameras had been found to be faulty. He said that there were many YouTube forum-type videos which explain the defect and provide information on how to easily fix the problem at home. He also added in that quite a few of his peers have also found it difficult to trust Nikon when Canon cameras are known for their toughness, durability, and superior quality. As a result, Canon are a more favourable company to invest in and appear to function as a more organised and established company when compared to Nikon. Despite Nikon’s cameras showing a generally high build quality with similar (if not identical) long-term characteristics, there is a general agreement that Canon cameras are a better investment. At the end of it all, camera choice is unimportant when one considers the idea that the best camera in the world is the one that’s in their hands.


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Brian Garman attempts to perform camera-ception. Photo: Daniel Goldberg


Twitter and The Current World

Tristan van Rooyen, An avid Twitter user. Photo: Daniel Goldberg By Hlombe Gwaxula

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witter is an online application that allows its users access to news and social networking services. On this, application users are able to post and interact with messages known as tweets. Tweets are usually short each tweet consists of 280 characters or less. This size restriction stimulates the focused and witty use of language. The size restriction on this application also makes it scan-friendly, in other words, one is able to capture the essence of a story quickly.

user notes that she receives news from around the world on Twitter.

When someone posts a tweet it is because they believe that it is interesting and will be useful for his/her followers. Majority of Twitter users tweet for recreational purposes this then empowers people to become amateur journalists who describe and share things they found interesting about their day. Since its development the application has gained over 8 million users in South Africa.

Twitter is also used by some to gauge public opinion on various topics. The application has had a huge influence on science. It is a rich data

Twitter has and is still being used in connection to politics. The application has become a platform for people to spread political messages, raise awareness to various political topics and coordinate collective action. Examples of these collective actions would be #blacklivesmatter, which protests the violence against black people, and #ZumaMustFall, that actively put pressure on the former president Jacob Zuma to step down. Tshiamo Lesegane, an avid Twitter

A two-way communication between consumers and various businesses has also been opened up by Twitter. The application is used by some businesses as a platform to advertise services and products and it is used by some start-up businesses for publicity. Twitter also makes it easy for consumers to publicly complain about a company, thus forcing the company to repair its faults quicker and the application allows for the company to reply to customers easier. Thus

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“Twitter provides me with real news stories in a funny way that is extremely easy to read. That is why I love this app”

“Technology is best when it brings people together.” source for scientists.

reducing customer support costs. The flow of information from around the world is not just controlled by the Associated Press it is also being tweeted now. Twitter has made it possible for people to post about a story each time a story breaks. Giving anyone the opportunity of being a journalist. When it comes to relationships, Twitter connects people from all over the world using things they have in common, such as political concepts and adored fashion designers. The culture of sharing personal information is promoted by this application. Twitter users share their emotions and opinions regarding a certain topic. A student from Rhodes University Khanyi Radebe says that she has made many friends from accross the world via Twitter. She says that Twitter gives her suggestions of people whose lives she might be interested in and she started following them. “Twitter for me is a platform where I am able to ask genuine questions about a problem that I and have people from around the world answer me with their own solutions” – Khanyi Radebe. Social networks have helped shape the society we live in, from the economy to the language to the politics. It is important to note the effects social media has on society.


An engaged twitter user

Photo: Daniel Goldberg

An engaged twitter user

Photo: Daniel Goldberg

A group of friends laughing over a tweet

Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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PRO’S AND CONS

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SMARTWATCHES

“Keeping up with my health is a primary thing, the smart-watch helps me to do that and I know how many foot-steps I take a day” BY: Lazola Jikwana

Apple Watch Series 1 38mm Space Grey Aluminium Case, With Black Sport Band. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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echnology has become an essential piece to the lives of many and few are able to imagine a life without it. The world is constantly changing and technology changes and evolves with it. The evolution of smartwatches has both positive and negetive effects. These days smartwatches are turning into a ‘cult’ phenomenon. More organizations are producing smartwatches (even the conventional watch organizations like Fossil) because of its substantial market. People clearly love the concept of smart watches and are willing to invest in them. Like many things, competition has been beneficial to consumers. Currently Apple and Samsung are involoved in a production-rivalry for the title of ‘ultimate’ smart watch. When analysing the pros of smartwatches. Smartwatches bring a never-before-seen convenience level. Smartwatches allow you to make and recieve phone calls, take photos, check your vitals and so much more. Rhodes stu-

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dent Simphiwe Hale believes that you can easily access information with smartwatches. Smartwatches help with health and fitness as they give you a chance to check your progress, so you can practice each day to meet your objectives. “Keeping up with my health is a primary thing, the smartwatch helps me to do that. I know how many footsteps I take a day and can check my bpm whener I need to. It also can record distances for walking or running.” says Hale. With smartwatches, you have essentially have a personal assistant on your wrist. Although owning a smartwatch can be very useful there are other negative options an individual must consider. The first disadvantage of smartwatches is what every individual is complaining about: the very limited battery life. Smartwatches ordinarily can be utilized for up to 1-2 days after a full charge. The other problem is that the smartwatches have a very small screen and can be difficult to operate. As Individuals get a great deal of notices ordinarily, they may feel that everything is jumbled on a small screen.

Tsepho Ndlovu a 4th year pharmacy student says that the screen limitations are making it harder to browse the internet in a regular manner. One of the disadvantages is also the storage. The storage doesn’t make a good impression due to individuals trying to store pictures and music as the fitness apps keeps developing and consuming more storage. “I have experienced my watch constantly falling out of sync, disconnecting, periodically not registering alerts, and a lack of storage space limits what I can use on it” said Ndlovu. With the innovation of smartwatches many companies who manufacture timepieces will lose consumers to the new technology. Smartwatches are taking over the wrist industry and people love them. Smart-watches are simply an evolution of normal wrist-watches, and the clear direction of the industry. The general consensus from consumers is positive for smart-watches.


Apple Watch Series 1 38mm Space Grey Aluminium Case, With Black Sport Band. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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Technology the dangerous master “In technology whatever can be done will be done” By: Noxolo Manyati

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echnology can be both useful and dangerous, it is a tool that makes life easier. It takes discipline not to let social media steal your time. The negative effects of technology begin when one has something else to do but instead they go through the internet. Technology can affect the physical and mental health of human beings if it is being overused. The negative effects that it has, were mentioned in the RooGirl online article. They are as follows: depression, poor sleep habits, lack of privacy and many more. Those effects include loss of security, the more advanced technology is the more the negative effects also increase. Before technology it was rare for children to be exposed to explicit material. These days they can get them fast and easily, they are all over social networks. Technology can also be addictive when oversued. Technology has many negative effects in our lives that are not very easy to notice. Firstly, the lack of social skills, people prefer chatting over the phone rather than meeting face to face and through that they lose the skill of reading body language. Secondly, poor sleeping habits, sometimes people tend to go through the internet until its early hours of the morning making it hard for the brain to rest. The first negative effect as mentioned above is the lack of social skills, Siphosethu Matiwane, a BA student at Rhodes, mentioned that when conducting academic interviews she prefers doing them over the phone. As the interviews are meant to be done face-face, she does not because she lacks communication skills. “Over the phone I get the courage to ask everything I prepared but in face to face interaction there are things that I usually leave out,” she said. That is when people get to lose communication skills, as they get used into communicating through technology. At Rhodes University most students use their phones when they are studying, and also listen to music while studying. From the observation

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that occured in a period of a week at Rhodes library and the Journalism Department, most students listen to music while they are doing their work. Khanyisa Ngquleka, a Rhodes second year Journalism student agrees that sometimes she watches videos on YouTube until 2 am. Stu-

“A danger forseen can be half avoided.”

dents gain bad sleeping habits because during the day they attend lectures, and have lots of schoolwork to cover during the day. Even if they get busy during the day tbey make time to involve themselves in their social lives in their cellphones even at midnight. This leads to starting a day very tired and sometimes not attending lectures. Lastly, the lack of privacy, people may get hold of others information and hack their accounts. That is because people expose themselves publicly, for example them checking in their locations minimises privacy and makes them susceptible to human trafficking, for instance. These days while chatting to one person on social media one’s chats can be hacked and made available to everyone. That happens because people screenshot conversations and share them without one’s permission. As sometimes people can create accounts they identify and make their suitable identities. Before technology people had no choice of making their identities, but now controlling what you want people to define you like is easier. That is also where people gain the power to humilate others as they can hide who they really are. The students that were interviewed about these dangers all agree that without technology their lives would be doomed as they feel like everything that they do becomes interesting

when they use cellphones. “I would not be surprised if someone could tell me I am addicted to technology,” said Nkani. She believes that technology makes life easier and can be addictive. Nkani is a student at Rhodes University, she said that she uses technology everyday. Technology is two edged as it can be helpful and very dangerous when over used. If one finds themselves addicted to technological devices they can go for counselling or rehabilitation.


Paige Cox at Rhodes University listening to music instead of doing her assignment. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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South African Schools Go Digital “Technology in the field of education can be a powertful too” By Yandiswa Calane

A student at Rhodes University using a computer. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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he South African education system has been in crisis for a while and after 24 years of apartheid, the government is still trying to cover the inequality gap between the privileged and unprivileged schools. The underprivileged schools always underperform when it comes to mathematics, science, and accounting while the privileged school’s students always make the grade. What causes this rift is the lack of amenities such as computers, textbooks, and the study guides to improve student performance in underprivileged schools such as e-learning. There are technology innovations for primary schools such as Slimkop, a high-quality application for Afrikaans children. the apps engage the children in their mother tongue. It also includes the letters and numbers. A number of South African universities are investing in digital learning centers due to the fact they want students who are fully equipped and able to use computers in their institutions. The Finance 24 conducted a research in 2016. the results stated that 18 schools recorded zero percent matric pass rate and in 2017 nine schools had a zero percent matric pass rate. The schools in question are the poorest schools that don’t pay fees. Secondary schools are not the only ones facing this matter but the

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primary schools as well as the Early Childhood Development programmes. As a result, underprivileged pupils find it hard to enroll into universities due to low APS scores. The data from the National Education Evaluation and Development Unit in 2013 that 13% of grade 5 learners were illiterate, despite the billions of rands spent by the government towards education. Ntokozo Gumbi, a former Academic Computer Literacy student, shares his story of how the course helped students who had no computer skills in his class. “This course is taken by students who have low APS points for the main course and the most lucky of the students are from the low quantiles schools.” In the ACL class, some of the students were struggling with Microsoft Word. This was a major problem because at Rhodes University all the assignments should be typed and printed out. Sinothando Sukula, a Peddie resident, attended the rural schools in the area. Sukula did not have an easy access to the computers her whole life, and in order for her to simply use a computer, she has to go to the internet cafe in town”. Tinashe Jani, a lecturer at Rhodes, at the beginning of the year gave his students an assignment that allowed them to reflect on their computer

usage. The point of this assignment was to help Jani to understand the various struggles his students face regarding computer literacy. The findings of the assignment were that some students last used computers in primary school, meaning that they had a little knowledge. Others came from schools with no computers. some students had personal computers and they knew how to use them. This is a good programme in universities because it is designed to build confidence and familiarity to students with computers. Students who take this course are prepared to face some of the computer literacy challenges faced by students entering tertiary education with or without computer skills..


Rhodes University student using ruconnected.

A keyboard used by students at Rhodes University. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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Technology inspires a poet “Technology is a huge step to a poets dream, it is where big things begin” By: Noxolo Manyati

Siphelo Dyongman in his tutorial for isiXhosa at Rhodes University. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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iphelo Mazotshwandile Dyongman was born and raised in the dusty streets of Vukani Location, Grahamstown. He attended school at Fikizolo Primary and went to Nathaniel Nyaluza. Through the difficulties he faced, this young lion made it to Walter Sisulu University. He studied Journalism and Media studies at WSU, but a degree is not the only thing he obtained. This was his first chance to use computer, talk on radio stations or consume interational cyber-media. Through writing academic stories he also attained computer and presenting skills. “Technology offers opportunities to be more actively involved in the learning experience,” said Dyongman. Through technology he got the chance to be more involved in learning new things Dyongman has a passion of writing poems in isiXhosa. He see this as a gift from his ancestors which he honours. To be creative, technology helps him as he gains fans through the use of technology. He does so by making his poems and posting them on YouTube. It also helps him reach different people around the world. The more people listen to his music the more his career and love for making poems grows.

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In 2010 at WSU he learnt how to use computers and immediately used his skill to his advantage. He started uploading his videos on YouTube, Facebook etc. On YouTube many people got interested in seeing poems that are in isiXhosa. Today he has more than a thousand subscribers on YouTube.

“Technology is best when it brings people together.” The fact that he uses isiXhosa for his poems, attracted most of the Eastern Cape Radio Stations, such as Radio Grahamstown and Fort Hare FM. He was called for interviews and he would do his poems on radio. In one of his poems he featured Simbone (who is a well-known Xhosa poet), and Berita (South African Afro-pop singer). From there his motivational and meaningful poets were played regularly on the radio. On the 24th of January 2016 he was on Kulcha Kwest (SABC 1 programme), this also helped him in his career as there were more people that became interested in his music. This motivated him to release his first album, known

as KULE which was mostly about motivating young people. The message of the album was to make them believe that anything is possible when you work hard. His only wish is to make isiXhosa speaking people understand the importance of their language, as much as they appreciate others. “In my Facebook account I make sure I remind African people the importance of their culture” said Dyongman. He is now planning to write books in isiXhosa and publish them. Technology to him is one of the important steps he had to go through in order to reach his dreams. Through the use of technology he can share his work to people that are even on the other side of the world. Technology opened doors for Dyongman but not only for him. Technology also opened doors for the other young people that have been inspired by him. He guarantees that the next generations will also get the chance to read isiXhosa stories that are written by him. His dream is to have digital books written in isiXhosa available for everyone.


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Nqontsonqa in his traditional attire. Photo: Noxolo Manyati


The Net and Bullying By Hlombe Gwaxula

A victim of Cyber-Bullying. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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n Philip Wheelwrights, Heraclitus, Philip admits that the only constant in life is change and truly over the past couple of years the world has seen great changes occur. Germany introduced the first programmable electronic computer between the years 1937 and 1953, America saw its first black president January 2009 and South Africa witnessed its first VAT increase this year. These changes have all affected the ways in which people live and go about their daily lives. The invention of the first programmable computer has had a huge contribution on the ongoing problem of bullying. This contribution has been a negative one however. Technology has increased bullying tremendously. This is due to a number of reasons, the first being the fact that technology offers various platforms for bullying to occur such as WhatsApp, Twitter and Instagram to name a few, technology also offers one option of presenting a fake identity to other users thus hiding ones’ true identity. Cyber-bullying is a coined term that refers to the tormenting of people on the internet by other people or organisations. Tshiamo Lesejane a second

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year journalism student and avid Twitter user explains that on Twitter one can find multiple threads that are dedicated to crushing someone because of their political/religious views.

“Literally people you don’t even know will tag you in hurtful tweets, trying to crush your self-esteem, it’s truly terrible.” Lelethu Ngozwana a student from Rhodes University explains that all social media platforms are no different from Twitter. An academic article written by Jing Wang found that depression associated with cyber-bullying was much higher than it was in other traditional forms of bullying such as physical, verbal and relational. Yemurai Punungwe explains that she believes that fact that one is able to hide his/her true identity on the internet has given bullying a new found confidence.

“The internet has made bullying easier because now bullies are able to hide behind computer.” According to an article written by Raychelle Cassada Lohmann, about 25%-30% of young people admitted experiencing or taking part in cyberbullying, but only 12% said the same about traditional bullying. Showing the strength technology has given bullies.


A victim of Cyber-Bullying. Photo: Daniel Goldberg

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“I’m interested in things that change the world or that affect the future and wondrous, new technology where you see it, and you’re like, ‘Wow, how did that even happen? How is that possible?” - Elon Musk

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Innovative Technology  

Seeing the world through a different lens. This is a magazine that deals around the interconnections of technology and society.

Innovative Technology  

Seeing the world through a different lens. This is a magazine that deals around the interconnections of technology and society.

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