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Design Workbook - The Guide to Becoming a Graphics Wizard -


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Design Workbook - The Guide to Becoming a Graphics Wizard -

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Getting Started ............................................................................. 7

Programs and Uses........................................................................................................................ Working On and Off Campus - Accessing MyFiles............................................................. Organizing Files.............................................................................................................................. Screen Shots and Key Commands........................................................................................... Developing a Project.................................................................................................................... Printing and Photography.......................................................................................................... Program Basics................................................................................................................................

8 8 9 9 10 11 11

Starting a New Document.......................................................................................................... Tools .............................................................................................................................................. Working with Text.......................................................................................................................... Using Photos and Shapes........................................................................................................... Packaging and Printing...............................................................................................................

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Formating ........................................................................................................................................ Working With Layers .................................................................................................................... Tools .............................................................................................................................................. Using Color and Filters................................................................................................................. Actions ..............................................................................................................................................

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Illustrator Basics............................................................................................................................. Tools .............................................................................................................................................. Custom Tools................................................................................................................................... Tips and Tricks.................................................................................................................................

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Color Type

.............................................................................................................................................. Color Systems.................................................................................................................. Color Interactions.......................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................. Type Basics....................................................................................................................... Using Text in Design..................................................................................................... Customizing Text............................................................................................................

27 27 27 28 28 28 28

Binding .............................................................................................................................................. Tools and Processes...................................................................................................... Binding.............................................................................................................................. Stitches.............................................................................................................................. Adobe Acrobat................................................................................................................................ Tools....................................................................................................................................

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Chapter 2: Working in InDesign..................................................................... 12

Chapter 3: Working in Photoshop.................................................................. 18

Chapter 4: Working in Illustrator . . .................................................................. 23

Chapter 5: Design Processes........................................................................... 26

Chapter 6: Finishing Processes....................................................................... 29

Chapter 7: Projects........................................................................................... 32

Project 1: Photo Grid..................................................................................................................... 33 Project 2: Paper Creature............................................................................................................ 35 Project 3: Eight Page Brochure.................................................................................................. 37

Glossary

............................................................................................ 40

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Chapter 1:

Getting Started

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Adobe Creative Cloud Photoshop Best for editing pictures. Also supports text, video and 3D editing. Works with layers, masks, and several different color modes.

InDesign

Best for publishing projects. Makes books, magazines, fliers, posters, etc. Also supports digital publishing styles/formats for tablets and phones.

Illustrator Makes art images. Edits Vector images and supports hand drawing to digital file.

Working On Campus Campus Labs While you work, save to the desktop for easy access. Before you leave, copy your files to MyFiles or a flash drive for access off campus or on other computers. Then delete your files from the desktop. Remember, files left on the desktop will be deleted by someone else, and you won’t get them back! There are four labs available that have Adobe CC for work on campus. For safety, save your files two or three times in different locations. Either removable, physical dives or to an online cloud like Google Drive.

Lab Hours NFAC 172 - 190 - 215 Sunday 12pm-12am Mon-Thur 7:30am-12am Friday 9am-9pm Saturday 12pm-9pm LRC 110 Sunday 12pm-12am Mon-Thur 7:30am-12am Friday 7:30-9pm Saturday 9am-9pm

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Working Off Campus MyFiles at Home Log on to the University website. -Select myPoint and log on using your student information. -Select Academic Tab Under student computing services select myfiles – network storage for students. On the right hand side, select Access myfiles off campus Follow directions based on the operating system on computer you are currently using. For a Windows Operating System: 1. Open File Explorer from the task bar, from the Start Menu, or by the key shortcut Windows Key + E. 2. Click on This PC from the left side of the window. 3. Click on the Computer button next to the File menu, and then click Map network drive. 4. Click Connect to a Web site that you can use to store your documents and pictures. 5. The wizard will open, click Next. 6. Click Choose a custom network location, then click Next. 7. Type https://myfiles.uwsp.edu/your_UWSP_username, then click Next. 8. You will be then prompted to type your UWSP username@uwsp.edu and your UWSP password and click OK. 9. Name your network place and click Next. 10. Click Finish. 11. A Network Location will show under Computer. Double Clicking on the Network Location will bring up your myfiles. 12. You are now connected to your myfiles.


File Organization File Naming Conventions To keep track of multiple projects it is important in use a file naming convention that makes sense and is consistent. For example: CoadyA_DesignWorkbook_01 It is also important to keep iterations on a regular basis for two reasons. 1. It allows you to backtrack to a different design if needed. 2. It provides an additional form of file backup – in the event that the current file is lost due to power failure, computer failure or human error.

Organizing Your Files Make a Folder (Directory) for each project you work on. All CC files, content, Word documents, images and other stuff related to the project are stored inside this main folder. Create sub-folders for the kinds of content. • Workbook Lessons • Workbook • Projects

Using the Keyboard Screen Shots (On a Mac) Sometimes it is necessary to record or document things from your screen to use as personal reference or as a record of things you are doing. To do this you can take a screen shot. On a Mac computer select the keys: Command + Shift + 4 to get a Crosshairs cursor. With this you can draw around what you want to capture. The screen shot is automatically saved to the desktop as a PNG file.

Key Commands Key commands (also known as keyboard shortcuts) is the combination of two or more keys that you can use to perform a task that would typically require the use of the mouse and or multiple keyboard steps. These make designing a simpiler and faster process. For example, to zoom out on a workspace you would use the zoom tool. When you use the mouse you have to select the tool then click each time you want to zoom in further. With key commands you simply hold command (or control) and press the + or - to the desired zoom.

Changing the Units and Increments You can change the preference for each program by clicking the software icon in the upper left hand corner. (on a Mac. On a PC it is at the bottom of the Edit tab) Stroke and Text should remain in point Select the preference tab, InDesign 1. Select Units & Increments 2. Change horizontal and vertical to inches (or other unit depending on your application) using the drop down arrow. Photoshop 1. Select Units & Rulers 2. Change ruler to inches (or other unit depending on your application) using the drop down arrow. Illustrator 1. Select Units 2. Change general to inches (or other unit depending on your application) using the drop down arrow.

Common Keyboard Shortcuts Command + Plus/Minus Zoom In/Out Command + D Deselect Command + C / Command + V Copy/Paste Command + Z Undo Command + Alt +Z Undo more than once (Photoshop Only)

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Developing a Project Research Research is important to design because without it the design has no basis, no background, no reasoning for why it is. Not only do you need to understand the organization/ people you are designing for but also understand the history of design itself to know where you come from. 1. Who? 2. Where? 3. When? 4. Why? 5. What?

Thumbnail Drawings Thumbnail drawings are an important step in creating a project because they allow for lots of exploration and ideas in a short period of time. They make it easy to see if an idea is going to work without having to do a lot of work. They are an excellent way to plan and design a piece. While you can technically never have enough, its probably time to stop when you have lots and lots of sketches and several that you like a lot. Thumbnails should be done at the beginning of a project.

Citing your Sources: MLA MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. For Example: Book: Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1942. Print. Article: Meier, Barry. “Energy Drinks Promise Edge, but Experts Say Proof Is Scant.” New York Times 1 Jan. 2013: 1. Print. Web: Cain, Kevin. “The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication.” Social Media Today RSS N.p., 29 June 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2013.

Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement Plagiarism: Is the wrongful using of or closely imitating the works of another person without authorization and then representing that person’s work as your own, and not crediting the original person for their work. Copyright Infringement: Is when you take a copyrighted work and reproduced, distributed, performed, publicly displayed, or imitate the work without the permission of the copyright owner. Getting permission is a simple process. The first step is to determine if permission is needed at all. Lots of sites offer royalty and copyright free images and text. If permission is required, the next step is to determine what kind of permission and who you need it from. This means deciding if you need commercial or private use rights and figuring out who the owner of the content is. After you know those things you should contact the owner and negotiate the rights. This may include payment for the use of their content. Finally, if the owner will give their permission, be sure to get everything in writing – including the amount of payment and the length of time you have permission.

Developing Narrative When developing a narrative, you need to consider lots of questions. The narrative behind a creation may have a large impact on how to creature is shaped or designed. Ask your creation lots of questions, like it’s favorite color or how many siblings it has. Also consider habitat, food and any magical properties. Knowing this ahead of time means better understanding of how your creature should be shaped or how it should look. 10


Photography and Printing Photo Equipment and Photo Room The photo room is located in room , next to the dance hallway. Inside in a gray drop and older photo lights. The photo room is kept locked – you can get the key by signing up for time on the door and then getting the key from the student in charge of the photo equipment. There is also lots of equipment available for check out. Cameras, tripods, lights and backdrops are all available for two days at a time. Again, these need to be signed up for and checked out from the student in charge.

Banner Printer The banner print can print high quality color on very large paper. To use the banner printer, 1. Select the banner printer in the print menu 2. Select paper size. Must be the EXACT size of your paper. 3. Set margins to zero 4. If using your own paper - select manual feed under paper/quality. 5. Insert your media at the back of the printer. 5. Click print and then release the print through your email.

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Chapter 2:

Workingin InDesign

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Starting a New Document Create a New Doc Open InDesign - File --> New File OR -Command/Control + N

Master Pages When building a multiple page document in InDesign, it is essential that you create Master Page(s). A master page is a special page where you use guides, grids and columns to set a basic layout that can be applied to all of the other pages in your document. Master pages help you achieve consistency in your page design and save time.

Thing To Decide Number of Pages. (For booklets, choose a multiple of 4) Check the box for facing pages for booklets. Page size You can change this in the drop down menu or by typing in your own dimensions. Margins Type in your desired spacing. Most printers can’t print within 1/4 of an inch of the edge of the paper. (You can change these later) Bleeds and Slugs Drop down the options box to make adjustments. Either type in or use the arrows (Standard bleed is .125) Now you’re ready to start designing!

Page Numbering Page numbering in a document is best done on the Master Pages. This way it is applied to every page of the document and automatically changes if you were to add a new page or remove one. To set up page numbers, Type - Special Character – Page Numbers. Page numbers are represented by the letter of the master page and change to the correct number within the document.

Link Managment

Preparing a Page Layout You should draw up a page layout on paper prior to setting up the InDesign file to solve problems before you get to the computer and to save time. On the paper layout you should consider margins, columns, image vs text areas, bleeds, page numbers, etc.

Margins, Columns and Bleeds You can establish page margins and set up columns in two places. The first place to establish page margins and columns is the initial new document box, the second is the page set up tab under . When you use the new doc setup the margins and columns are applied to every page in the doc. When using the page setup tab with master pages, columns and margins can be applied to individual pages.

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Tools

Application Bar (Across the Top)

File

View

The File tab allows you to ‘open’ a new document, ‘close’ a document or ‘save as’ a document. Use save as to ensure that you save a new version (with a new iteration number) every time you are done working to prevent total loss of your work should something become corrupted or accidentally deleted. Place in also under the File tab. You use the place tab for placing images into your document. Document set-up is also in under the File tab. You can use this tab to change the way you document is set up. For example, this is where you change the page size or margins.

The View tab is another location where you can change the viewing mode and it is the same as the viewing mode tool in the left hand tool bar. Another tab located under the View Tab is the Display Performance Tab. The default is Typical Display, but it is better to change it to High Quality Display. In order to speed up their programs, Adobe runs them on Typical display wich makes all photos appear grainy - even if they aren’t. High Quality run the program a little slower, but shows the picture more accurate to their quality so you can see the ones that are really too low resolution.

Edit

Windows

Check spelling is located under the Edit Tab. The default setting is story - this can be changed with the drop down. Spelling is very important because spelling errors make your project look unpolished and seem unproffessional. They are offten very obvious and can ruin an excellent peice. Checking spelling is easy - run check spelling for the whole document. Each misspelled word will pop up and give you a choice to change or skip the word.

Under the Windows Tab is the workspace tab. This tab allows you to (describe what falls in the tab and what it does.)

Type The Type tab has two special tabs that allow you add a glyph and add additional spacing. Glyphs are a specific format of a character. For example different fonts may have several types of capital A‘s. Glyphs also include symbols, numbers and punctuation. (Define what a glyph is and how you insert it. Explain what you would use the Insert white space tabs for.) Research and show me what the ‘Show Hidden Characters’ Tab is used for and why it would be necessary to use.

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Help Offers both search options and a connection to the online help center.

InDesign CC Under the InDesign tab is the preferences tab. This is where you can change increments, display mode and more.

Showing Grids and Setting Guides Not all guides can be set using margins and columns. To add special guides both vertically and horizontally, you can turn on view grids and use the ruler. To turn on grids, -Window – Rulers. Click and drag over the ruler (top or bottom) to pull out a guide. Let go of the mouse to place the guide. With the guide selected, use the top tool bar to put in precise measurements or coordinates. You can remove a guide by selecting it and hitting delete.


Left Hand Tool Bar Direct Selection Tool

Selection Tool

Allows selection of anchor points and withing a box.

The main cursor. Allows movement, resizing and selection of images and text.

Type Tool Creates and edits text.

Shape Tool

Place Holder Box

Creates perfect shapes that can be filled with color or outlined with stroke. (Or both)

Creates a place holder for images. An invisible frame.

Eyedropper Samples color, text and images.

Zoom Tool

Fill Tool

Zoom in or out on the entire work space.

Adds color to shapes or text.

Stroke Tool Adds a border/outline to a shape or text.

Viewing Mode Allows the designer to view without grids, bleeds and guiding lines. As if it was printed.

Bottom Information Panel

The Preflight Profile

Current Page Number

Skip Arrows for navigation Indicates if you have saved

Printer Spread vs. Reader Spread Vector and Raster are two types of digital graphic files. A Raster image is an image that is made up of many tiny pixels. The more pixels in the image the more information and accuracy it has. The pixel number is important for enlarging an image. Enlarging only make the pixels bigger, it doesn’t make more pixels therefore enlarging a picture bigger than the pixels allow, will make the image more and more grainy.

The Error Reader

This is the one section to always check when opening or closing a document. Greens means there are no errors, red indicated a problem.

Working With Text Leading

Line space refers to the amount of vertical space between lines of type and is measured from baseline to baseline. The op¬ti¬mal line spac¬ing is 120% of the point size. The smaller the type, the more line space you will need to help with the readability. Another factor that can affect the line space is the x-height of the typeface. The taller the x-height the more line space you will need. The same holds true for the length of the descenders. 15


Alignment of Text

Bulleted and Numbered Lists

There are three common ways of aligning text, Align Left, Align Center, or Align right. There are also four types of justified text alignment, Left justify, center justify, right justify and full justify. Justified text is very blocked, there aren’t jagged edges on every line due to words that didn’t fit. The spacing between each word is altered so that each line will have the same margins.

Bullets and numbered lists are perfect for lists of information! These can be set up under the type tab by clicking the Bullets and Numbers and the choosing the type you want. Then, start typing. The bullets/numbers will appear automatically.

Character Styles A character style is a collection of character formatting attributes that can be applied to text in a single step. Character style is important because this creates a standard for headers, etc. Throughout your entire document so that each one is the same and to make sure you don’t have to go through each page in your document and edit them manually. If you would like to add a new style on existing text, select that text or place the cursor in it, choose New Character Style from the Character Styles panel menu. Name the new style. Select which style the current style is based on (This lets you link styles to each other so that changes in one style ripple through the styles that are based on it). By default new styles are based on None for character styles, or on the style of any currently selected text. If you want the new style to be applied to the selected text select apply style to selection. To specify the formatting attributes click a category on the left and specif the attributes you want to add to your style. When you’ve finished specifying the formatting attributes, click OK.

Paragraph Styles A paragraph style includes both character and paragraph formatting attributes, and can be applied to a paragraph or range of paragraphs. Paragraph styles are important because they make formatting the bulk of your text in a document very simple and prevent mismatching formatting. Finding the tab at setting up a paragraph style are essentially the same as a Character Style.

Tabs You can create custom tabs within a text box by using the Tab window. This allows you to change the amount of space the tab button will push your text to the right. This is set by choosing a point of the ruler or typing a specific location. To set tabs in an already filled text box, highlight the text and open the tab window. Adjust as before.

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Filler text InDesign offers a feature in which you are able to fill a text box with fake copy. Create a new text box with the text tool – the size you want and adjust the text settings for font, size, letting, etc. Drop down the type menu from top ->Fill with placeholder text In the Graphic Design industry this fake text is commonly called Lorem Ipsum. Lorem Ipsum is gibberish text that allows the designer to see the full layout of their design with text, even if the text hasn’t been written yet. For example: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Loading the Cursor To load the cursor, create a text box, fill with text, make the text box too small. A red box with a plus sign will appear. Click the red box to load the cursor. This is an easy way to fix overflowing text boxes because text will automatically flow from one box to the next. It also saves all the text so you don’t lose any. To unload the cursor, click anywhere on the page (or approximately where you want the new text). Move your new text box to where you want it and adjust size/shape as needed.


Text Wrap Text Wrap is a feature that allows you to wrap text around an image or graphic. Text wrap is available in the Text Wrap panel, which can be opened by clicking Window > Text Wrap. To wrap text around an image select an imported image and in the Text Wrap panel, click wrap object around shape. Specify the offset values and select which sides you would like the text to wrap to. There are 5 different types of text wrap. No Text Wrap, Wrap Around Bounding Box, Wrap Around Object Shape, Jump Object, Jump to next column. Wrap around bounding box creates a rectangular wrap determined by the bounding box of the selected object. Wrap around object shape (also known as contour wrapping) creates a text wrap boundary that is the same shape as the frame you’ve selected. Jump object keeps text from appearing in any available space to the right or left of the frame. Jump to next column forces the surrounding paragraph to the top of the next column or frame. Adding padding around an image is important so that it does not touch the boundaries of the image/collide with any borders and become difficult to read. You can do this by clicking on the up or down arrows in the Text Wrap window and deciding what boundaries you prefer.

Using Photos and Shapes Fill and Stroke There are two different places you can select color to use as a fill or for a stroke. On the left hand tool bar there are two larger boxes. One is Fill and the other, Stroke. Simply double click to open a color selection box. OR The top tool bar has two small boxes. The top is fill; the bottom is stroke. Double click to open a color selection panel or click the arrow to open a list of commonly used/ generic swatches. To quickly switch the fill and stroke colors, look on the left tool bar in the top right corner of the fill/stroke boxes. By clicking the bent arrow the colors immediacy switch places.

Object Effects You are able to add an effect to a text box, object, image or photograph by using object effects. Effects can be found in the Object>Effects tab at the top of the screen. Effects include transparency, shadows, glow, beveling, embossing, feathering and light. When an effect is applied to an object with a clipping path, the effect follows the clipping path. Meaning your drop shadow will be the same shape as the fish you clipped.

Object Align When you have multiple boxes on a page that you want to line up perfectly you can use Object Align to do this. The object align window is available under the Window > Object & Layout > Align. To align objects select the objects you want to align or distribute. From the menu at the bottom of the panel, select align or distribute objects based on the margins, page, or spread. To align objects click the button for the type of alignment you want.

Photo Captions Photo caption is a few lines of text that explains the photograph (i.e. title of the photo). It may include the name of the artist, date and photographer. For example: John Smith, A Daisy in Summer, June 2012. OR Pointers cheer on their team. Jane Jones, November 2016

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Packaging and Printing Packaging Your File To save yourself a lot of headache and time it is best to Package your InDesign files on a regular basis throughout the project and at the end of the project. To do this you: Step 1: Open your file and resolve any errors that might be there. Also, make sure to save your file as a native InDesign file just in case. Step 2: Open File - Package Step 3: Click Package at the bottom of the pop up window. Step 4: Click through the side tabs and make sure you like the settings. Make sure your fonts and images are properly linked and embedded. Step 5: Click package! Make sure you are saving to the right place. All Done! Open the folder to make sure everything got packaged. Bonus: if you need to email or need a smaller file compress the packaged folder to shrink it. Remember that when you package a document it also takes your fonts with it – this means other people who open the file can download and install the fonts. As long as it is used for personal use, you are good. But use of a paid font that they did not pay for, for commercial use, is illegal.

Printing Margins, Grids and Guides Margins, grids and guides do not print in your document by default. You are able to print them when needed by checking the printers marks box and the

Preparing Files for Print

Printing Booklet

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Chapter 3:

Workingin Photoshop

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Formatting Raster vs. Vector Images

Image Size

Vector and Raster are two types of digital graphic files. A Raster image is an image that is made up of many tiny pixels. The more pixels in the image the more information and accuracy it has. The pixel number is important for enlarging an image. Enlarging only make the pixels bigger, it doesn’t make more pixels therefore enlarging a picture bigger than the pixels allow, will make the image more and more grainy.

Images brought into or opened with photoshop have a set size and resolution. This is changable by opening, Image - Image Size From here you can change the size and resolution. Just remember that you cannot increase the resolution without making the picture grainy.

A Vector image is based on mathematical calculations from one point to another to form lines and shapes to create an image or illustration. Vector images are better because you can scale them up or down in size without losing any information. Raster images are best for Photoshop, while vector images work better in Illustrator. InDesign can handle either.

Photoshop’s preset for all images when opened is RGB. RGB stands for Red, Green, Blue. This is best used for digital images that will be displayed on a screen. For print publications, you should convert your image to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) is best used for printing because they are the color of ink in the printer. This is changable by choosing, Image - Mode - CMYK

File Extensions

Large Document Format

JPG (JPEG): Joint Photographic Expert Group. JPG and JPEG are interchangeable and is a lossy graphic file. (Tell me what the problem is with jpg and what it is best used for.)

There are times when the image you are working with will be too large to place on the desktop, or on other devices. For this issue, Photoshop has created a work-around called PSB (.psb). The largest image size supported by a PSD (.psd) file is 30,000 by 30,000 pixels, whereas PSB files can be saved at an image size up to 300,000 by 300,000 pixels. PSB files can be exported as TIFF for compatibility with other software.

TIF: Tagged Image File Format. TIFF is the computer format for storing raster images because (Tell me why.) PSD: Photoshop Document. PSD is Photoshop’s native file format and is used when working with layers that contain other images. (Tell me why PSD is important and when you would use it.) PDF: Portable Document Format. PDF was created by Adobe as a format that can be used independent of application software, hardware or operating systems. (Tell me why PDF is important and when you would use it.) PNG: Portable Network Graphic. PNG is a raster graphics file format that is best used for internet because it is a lossless data compression file (Tell me why it is best used on the internet compared to what) GIF: Graphics Interchange Format. Invented by Steve Wilhite, it is similar to PNG in its use on the internet as a lossless compression file. (Pronounced Jif )

Image Mode

Embedded vs. Linked Images When you bring in an image into an already created Photoshop Document, you have the option of placing it either as Embedded or Linked. When you embed the image, it is a pasted or dragged in image, that is now a part of the file you have added it to. This means any changes you want to make to the image must be made in the file you added it to. When you link the image, the image is placed as a smart object which means that the image is still connected to the original image file. This means any changes made to the image file are automatically updated in the file that you placed the image in. This also means that you can’t lose the original image file or there will be an error in your new file.

Smart Objects Smart Objects preserve an image’s source content with all its original characteristics, enabling you to perform nondestructive editing to the layer. 21


Working With Layers Layer Mask

Background layer

Use a layer mask as an alternative to the eraser tool to erase to the transparency layer without losing the integrity of the image and keep the original pixels, it is much better to use a layer mask. A layer mask allows us to go to transparency without changing any aspects of the image. The mask is a black and white image in which the black area blocks the image revealing the transparent background and the white image lets the original image show through the mask. To make a layer mask, select the add layer mask icon (show icon)

When an image is opened in Photoshop it automatically becomes a locked background layer. The best option is to immedialty duplicate the layer and make all changes to the new layer in order to preserve the original file.

and click once. You will see a white box next to your image, revealing the whole image. You need to apply the black to the mask layer image to block the part of the image we want to remove. You can do this by using the paintbrush tool in the left hand tool bar. Making sure that your color palette window is black in the left hand tool bar. With the mask layer selected in the layers panel, begin painting the areas that you would like to reveal to transparent. Select the brush type, size and opacity that works best around your image and begin painting away the area you want to remove. Watch your layer mask, you will see the black begin to appear on it as you paint. You can easily change back areas by switching the brush to white and painting over them again. To erase areas that are in straight lines, you can click at the beginning and hold down your shift key and click at the end of the line, and the area will automatically fill in between the two points. Varying the size of your brush as you work out from the edge will make removing large areas go much more quickly. You can also use a the [ or ] (bracket) keys to change the size of the brush.

Layer Mask Properties Once you have created a layer mask to reveal the transparent layer you are able to adjust the properties. Double click on the layer mask in the layers panel and the properties panel will open. In this window you can change to opacity and density of the mask to allow some of original image show through like a watermark while still keeping the (white) original area intact. You are also able to shift the edges and adjust the contrast on the layer mask for the black part of the mask.

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Rearranging and Grouping Layers (Tell me where and how you can rearrange layers and how you can group them into a folder in the layers panel.) To rearrange the order of layers, simply click and drag to desired position. To group in a folder, make a new folder with the folder icon, name as desired, the click and drag layers on top of the folder layer.

Merge Layers Merge Layers combines the layers you have selected by clicking to select one then holding shift while clicking to select the rest and merges them together into one singular layer. The layer name will change to the name of the top layer of all the selected layers. 1. Select the layers to be merged 2. Right click - choose merge layers (or shapes)


Actions Locking an Image

Working With Grids

To lock the placement of the photo on the layer, select the photo (it’s selected when there is a dotted line surrounding the image with squares in each corner) (how can you tell it is selected), then click on the Lock Layers tab in the menu and select Image, or click the layer with the image you want to lock in line with the lock on the top bar. A little lock will appear. Bonus! Lock multiple layers by click and drag down the line. Other locking options include lock transparent pixels, lock image pixels or lock position.

To set up a grid, view - grids. To change the size, preferences - grids and guides - choose your desired settings.

Merge Visible Merge Visible will merge all visible layers into one singular layer. Merge Visible will ignore any layer that has its visibility toggled (the eye) turned off. Like merging layers, multiple layers can be merged. Unlike merging layers, layers do not need to be selected. 1. Turn off the eye next to any layer you don’t want to merge 2. Right click on a layer - Choose merge visable

Flatten Image Flatten Image will combine all of the layers into one “flattened” image or layer. You will be prompted to choose whether or not to discard hidden layers before doing so. If you choose “OK” to discard hidden layers, Photoshop will ignore any layer with its visibility toggled (the eye) turned off. If you choose “Cancel”, Photoshop will cancel the flattening process. If you want the hidden layers included in the flattened image, you will have to toggle it’s visibility to “On”. If you flatten an image, make sure you save a copy BEFORE you flatten. Once you’ve flattened, you can’t reopen the file and unflatten. Also remember that ALL visible layers will be flattened. 1. Turn off the eye on any layers you don’t want to flatten. 2.Image - Flatten image 3. Click OK to discard hidden layers

Invert Image You can invert the image from a positive to a negative image by selecting the Layers tab, new adjustment layer, invert. (What else is in the new adjustment layer tab).

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Tools Left Hand Tool Bar:

Crop Tool

Used to change the size or framing of an image. You can either free-form or enter exact measurements. Click the drop down and select ratio thenyour enter your must size in the boxes to the right. n Photoshop, image Click and hold to see ied the filter, you can switch it the perspective crop tool, the slice tool and the slice selection tool.

Clone Stamp Fixes an image by painting over the area with pixels from another part of the image. Click and hold to choose the pattern stamp tool.

Marquee Tool You can delete custom shaped areas using the marquee tool in the left hand tool bar. Working on the unlocked nonbackground image, draw a shape using the marquee tool. If you hit the delete key, the interior area will be gone. To mask off all of the image except a specific area, use the marquee tool to draw your shape, then in the Layers panel, add a layer mask to your current layer. This will “erase� everything not inside the marquee. You can return thing outside the marquee by painting with white anywhere you want the image back. With the marquee tool selected, look at the top tool bar, and you will see that the (first) single icon is selected. You can customize your marquee selections by using one of the options in the top tool bar. If you select the next icon, and draw a shape that overlaps the first one, Photoshop will automatically join the two at the points where they meet. The third icon is used to remove a custom area from the original marquee shape. Select the icon and draw two overlapping marquee shapes. The second shape drawn will cut out part of the first shape to create a custom shape. The last icon will create a custom shape based on the area where the two individual marquee shapes overlap to create the custom shape. To quickly deselect an area Command/ Control + D.

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Marquee Tool Makes selections of rectangles, circles, 1-row pixels and columns. Click and hold to change to the other tools.

Eraser Tool Removes pixels by replacing them with the background color or transparent pixels. Click and hold to see the background eraser and the magic eraser.


Batching Actions When you want to make the same changes to a group of images, you can record your actions on a single image and then apply them to a folder of all your images. To do this: 1.Open Actions Palette (window tab, action) 2. Select folder icon at bottom of panel 3. Name folder 4. Select new action icon at bottom of panel 5. Name it (description) Watch the red light come on at the bottom. You are now recording. 6. Do the editing that you want to apply to all the images. For example: crop, balance colors, place border, etc. 7.Save your edits (File, save) 8.Stop recording by clicking the red button. You can see a record of all the actions you did to your image within the folder you just created. Close your image. To apply the batch action to your folder of images: 1.In Photoshop go to File, Automate, Batch. 2.In The dialog box that pops up do the following: -At the top, select the name of the action you just created (Set –action) -Source: Folder -Choose: (Your folder of images – NOTE on a Mac it will select the folder you are already in as the folder choice, and will gray out your choice.) -Suppress File open options dialogs -Suppress color profile warnings -Set destinations to None (to put it back in the same folder) -OK Then sit back and watch as Photoshop does all the work for you. When it finishes, check to make sure all the right files were edited.

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Clipping Paths To create a clipping path follow these steps: 1.Use the Pen tool to create a path around the image area by clicking the pen tool tight against the edge of the image that will become the silhouette. Do not use too many points, as this will make the curves choppy. You can always add a point if needed. 2.Using the point ^ in the Pen toolbox, click on each point to draw out the handlebars. Select one side (point on end of handlebar) of the handlebar at a time to adjust the curve. 3.To move point, switch to the arrow tool (two down from the pen tool), right button click (or double click) to change from path selection tool to direct selection tool. This will allow you to move a specific point to the right place. 4.In the Paths panel, choose Save Path from the panel menu (click the triangle in the upper-right corner of the panel), and then name the path. 5.From the same panel menu, choose Clipping Path. 6.In the Clipping Path dialog box, select your path from the drop-down list (it will appear as a picture), if it’s not already selected; click OK. Leave the Flatness Device Pixels text field blank. The flatness value determines how many device pixels are used to create your silhouette. The higher the amount, the fewer points are created, thereby allowing for faster processing time. This speed comes at a cost, though: If you set the flatness value too high, you may see (if you look close) straight edges instead of curved edges. 7.Choose File - Save As and, from the Format drop-down list, select Photoshop EPS or leave in PSD; accept the defaults and click OK. Note: When you go to grab the image to place it in another application you will see the background, but it will not appear once it is placed.

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Chapter 4:

Workingin Illustrator

27


Illustrator Basics Artboards Artboards act as your workspace (like a page). Any graphics you place on the artboard will appear, print, export or save as a PDF in the final design. If you have items place off the side of the artboard, they will not print, but will remain in your file until you delete them. You can have 1 to 100 artboards per document depending on size. You can specify the number of artboards for a document when you first create it, and you can add and remove artboards at any time while working in a document. You can create artboards in different sizes, resize them by using the Artboard tool, and position them anywhere on the screen—even overlapping one another. You can also specify custom names for an artboard and set reference points for artboards.

Printing and Saving All artboards in a document share the same media type format, such as Print. You can print each artboard individually, tiled, or combined into one page. You can preview artboards from the print dialog box before printing them. The print settings you choose are applied to all of the artboards you selected to print. By default all artwork is cropped to an artboard and all artboards print as individual pages. Use the Range option in the Print dialog box to print specific pages.

Tools

Left Hand Tool Bar:

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Importing Illustrator Documents into InDesign There are two common ways to import your Illustrator file into InDesign: 1. Place the original IA file by using File - Place and choosing your file. The file comes over as an image – part of whatever layer you are currently working on. The drawback is the fact that your image in now linked, not embedded, meaning it could be lost if you didn’t package the file when saving. 2. Copy and paste from IA to InDesign. The best way to do this is to select all the layer and then Command +C or File - copy, to then paste into InDesign. The file is also placed into InDesign as an image, but it is embedded, which means it can’t be lost from your project. You can quickly make changes to the IA file by right button clicking on the illustrator file in InDesign and a pop up window will appear. In this window select Edit With>Illustrator. It will take you to the original file so that you can adjust or fix issues. Once you save it (without change the name or file type), it will automatically update it in InDesign. (This also works with a photograph and Photoshop.)


Custom Tools

Tips and Tricks

Create Your Own Paintbrush

Converting Text to Image You can convert text to an image by selecting the text layer, right clicking and choosing Rasterize Type. (Take me through the steps) Make sure to check the spelling before you convert your text into an image. Once it is an image you are able to resize, stretch and distort the text, but unable to change the words themselves. This also means that your font will stay even if the file is open on a computer that doesn’t have that font. (Tell me a few thing you are able to do.)

Make Triangles (and More!)

Create Your Own Fill Pattern

Layering Lines

Create a Texture

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Chapter 5:

Design Processes

30


Color

“Designing with color begins with the recognition that the colors of your environment appear as a reaction to light.” (Gonella, 2014) Designers need to know a lot about color. From color theory, the psychology, cultural and mythic meanings of colors, to the technical aspects of how to handle color digitally, to knowing the systems of used in specifying color, the knowledge base you need to acquire is expansive.

Color Interaction

Color Systems

Swatch Colors

Humans see color because our eyes are equipped with specialized receptors called rods and cones that detect and translate different wavelengths of light. We perceive color differently depending on whether we are seeing light directly versus seeing light reflected off of a surface. These two different systems are called Additive and Subtractive.

Additive When looking at a screen on any device, a film, projection or slide show you are looking at light illuminating the screen from behind. The colors we see are a result of light wavelengths being added together to produce the whole spectrum of other colors. All of the colors we see are made up of pixels with varying amounts of Red, Green, and Blue (RGB).

Subtractive When we look at color that is applied using paint, dye, ink or other forms of pigments (any medium or substance that adds color) mixed with a variety of elements applied to a surface such as canvas, fabric or paper we are seeing light bouncing off the surface. Variations in the quality of the pigments or the type of surface it is applied to will determine the richness of the color produced.

Optical Perception

Color is never seen in isolation, colors interact with those adjacent to them. When paired with another color, the original color can look lighter or darker than by itself. Josef Albers was the foremost expert on the interactions of color. He explored this by creating a book that put colors together to emphasize the differences between pairings.

Spot Colors A Spot color is a color in addition to CMYK (Process Colors) and can be printed as a solid color instead of CMYK. Pantone Matching System is a standardized color matching system that allows for the creation of a spot color to consistent match the Pantone color. You would use a spot color when it is important to get an exact shade or tint that will be the same every print. This would be important for team colors or a brand’s logo color.

Process Colors Process colors are made up of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). This is in reference to the printing process where full color images are separated out into their component CMYK colors as dots. This is done in order to print the colors one on top of another and produce a visual recreation of all of the colors present in the image.

Metamerism The light source we view the color in will affect our color perception. Depending on the light (natural vs. manufactured) the color could change slightly or drastically. For example the color white will feel and look bluish (cool) under fluorescent light, but may appear a faint yellow (warm) under sunlight.

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Moiré A moiré pattern is an artifact that occurs in the print reproduction process when any two, or more, repeating patterns overlap each other. Moiré can also be introduced when a halftone printed image is scanned. A set of standard screen angles with the first and least visible color, yellow, is placed at the most visible angle 0° (90°). Then the most visible color, black, is placed at 45°. The cyan and magenta are then placed between these two. Cyan at 15° (105°) and magenta at 75°. These angles represent a best all- around compromise for most pictures.

Pantone Color System The Pantone Color System is the most used color matching system in the design industry. Other systems include, DIC, ANPA, and HKS. Pantone colors allow designers to select specific colors that printers will be able to reproduce exactly. Pantone colors are mixed from 18 basic colors using a unique formula. The Pantone system is a giant library full of every color imaginable. It can be pulled up in a window in Adobe applications and used for fill or stroke colors. Because there are many different kinds of papers, coatings and kinds of options for printed design work, there are numerous Pantone swatch books to represent the various kinds of printing and papers. The most basic distinction between these swatch books is Pantone Coated vs. Pantone Uncoated. These simulated what the color will look like on coated and uncoated paper stock. There are also swatch books that show how a specific color can be recreated using CMYK. Spot colors can be found (Explain to me where to find spot colors and how to add it to your swatch palette.)

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Type Font vs. Typeface Font

Typeface

Type Classification

Font File Formats

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Anatomy of Type

34


Using Text in Design Ligature

Hierarchy

The combination of two glyphs or letters.

“Typography exists to honor content.” - Robert Bringhurst: The Elements of Typographic Style Hierarchy is the way in which you present the type on the page in order of importance. It gives a map to the reader, indicating the most important items and the less important items.

Glyphs Glyphs are a specific format of a character. For example different fonts may have several types of capital A‘s. Glyphs also include symbols, numbers and punctuation. They can be found in the Type tub under Glyphs.

Hierarchy Levels Primary Level: (define) Secondary Level: (define) Tertiary Level: (define) Other Levels: (give me some examples)

Customizing Text

Customizing Type

Line Spacing (Leading)

Baseline Shift

Line space refers to the amount of vertical space between lines of type and is measured from baseline to baseline.

Shifts where the bottom of the letters fall, separate from spacing of lines.

X-Height

Vertical Scale

X-Height is the height of a lower case x in a given typeface. The taller the x-height the more line space you will need. The same holds true for the length of the descenders. For example:

Changes how tall a letter appears. As a percent, it stays the same relationship even if the point size changes.

x X

Both are in 24pt

Optimal Line Length For normal body text, 50-70 characters per line, including spaces in the best. Too short and you break the reader’s rhythm, too long, and the reader will lose their place when they travel to the next line. (Again the x-height, weight and typeface will help determine the best number of characters per line.)

Tracking Changes the spacing between letters in the word as a whole, equally.

Kerning Changes the distance between individual letters

Horizontal Scaling Changes the width of a letter. As a percent, it stays the same relationship even if the point size changes.

Skew Creates a faux italic look at your desired angle.

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Chapter 6:

Finishing Processes

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Binding Tools and Processes

Stitches

Exporting Files

Saddle Stitch Stapled down the center spread

Bone Folder

Pamphlet Stitch Pages are bound together in 3 hole punched signatures – hand stitched.

Adobe Acrobat Post Press Processes Commercial printers can print additional colors and can perform a number of post press processes. Post press processes include die cutting, embossing, spot varnish and foil stamping.

Tools Create and Edit

Creep The shifting position of the page in a saddle-stitched binding. Moves the inside pages away from the spine. Caused by having too many or too think pages all bound in a single place instead of in signatures. This should be considered because the trimming to correct this could cut off part of your project.

Review and Approve

Binding Perfect Bound Pages are glued to the cover and other pages – Appears seamless.

Wire/Spiral Bound All pages are secured with a wire or plastic spiral wrapped through holes punched in each sheet

Protect and Standardize

Japanese Stab Binding Pages are bound with thread – stitches appear outside the cover – hand stitched

Screw Post Binding Pages are bound together with a post through one or more holes – allows for 360-degree rotation around the post.

Coptic Bound Signatures are bound together with thread – hand stitched. 37


Chapter 7:

Projects 1&2&3

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Project 1:

Photo Grid

Document and write about project one for your workbook. Make sure to include how you set the project up, how you designed it and include the final project image. Also include in progress shots and commentary.

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Project 2:

Paper Creature

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O

A

L

c

B

E

M

N

G

H

I

INSTRUCTIONS to BUILD:

F

K

HEAD

1. Cut out large single head piece. 2. Use an exacto knife to cut the dotted line under mouth. 3. Crease on all the horizontal fold lines. 4. Fold on all the vertical fold lines. 5. Apply glue to tabs C and D - Stick to the back of the nearest edge. (Your’re making a square!) 6. Apply glue to tabs F and K and glue to the back of the nearest edge. (Remeber the square?) 7. Apply glue to tabs E, B and J - Glue to continue the square. 8. Apply glue to tabs G, H and I - Complete the sqaure! 9. NEXT STEP!

Cut out large single body piece Fold on all fold lines. Glue tab O to the nearest edge. (It’s another square!) Aplly glue to tab N and glue to nearest edge. (It’s still a square.) Apply glue to tabs L and M - Complete the square! NEXT STEP!

BODY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CONNECTING AND DETAILS

ALL DONE!!

1. Glue the head to the body as desired. 2. Cut out wings, tail and toys. 3. Glue two of the wings back to back for color on both sides. 4. Crease on fold line and glue wings to the body where desired. 5. Fold tail on inner fold lines. Then fold the opposite direction on the outer fold lines. (Makes a flat square) 6. Glue the folds down and the tail together. 7. Glue to body where desired. 8. Crease tab on toys - slid your favorite toy’s tab into the cat’s mouth.

9.

Aditi

i

Adit

Purrragon

felinious dragonious

is a Purragon born in the foggy mountains of New Zealand. A fire breathing, fish-loving kitten; she loves flying over mountian tops, playing with her flutter mouse friend, Pim and (occasionally) destroying villages. One day, she and Pim went on an extravegent adventure and found themselves in Wausau, WI of all places. She is known to be living in someone’s home - having taken over their sock drawer. She is apparently enjoying watching the Hobbit, napping a lot, and consistantly ruining craft projects that are due tommorow.

D J


Project 3:

8 Page Brochure

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45


Glossary

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A Acrobat A product developed by Adobe systems to create PDF (Portable Document Format) files. Acrobat is an independent means of creating, viewing, and printing documents. Airbrush A tool using compressed air that to spray a liquid, such as paint, and ink. Often used in used in illustration and photo retouching. Alignment The adjustment of arrangement or position in lines of a text or an image —left, right, centered, etc. Alpha Channel The process of incorporating an image with a background to create the appearance of partial transparency. Alpha channels are used to create masks that allow you to confine or protect parts of an image you want to apply color, opacity, or make other changes. Analog Proof (Prepress Proof ) A proof that uses ink jet, toner, dyes, overlays, photographic, film, or other methods to give a an idea of what the finished product should look like. Anchor Point Anchor points allow the user to manipulate a path’s shape or direction by clicking the point and moving it in a direction. They appear along the beginning of a path, at every curve, and at the end of a path. You can add or subtract anchor points on a path. Animated GIF A small animation based on continuous GIF images, giving the impression of movement or action. Animation Generating movement through a series of images/ frames. Art Director The individual responsible for the selection, execution, production of graphic art. Ascenders The part of a letter, which extends above the mid line, such as ‘b’ or ‘d’. Asymmetrical This is when graphics and/or text are not identical on both sides of a central line. B Bad Break Refers to widows or orphans in text copy; any break that causes awkward reading. Bar The horizontal or vertical line drawn through a grapheme (unit of writing, such as a letter). Sometimes added to distinguish one grapheme from another. Baseline An imaginary line upon which letters sit and descenders extend below the baseline. Bevel A tool in design software for drawing angles or modifying the surface of your work to a certain inclination. Bezier Curve A parametric curve that represents a vector path in computer graphics. They are frequently drawn using a pen tool and by placing anchor points, which can be controlled to form curved shapes. Bitmap A series of bits that forms a structure representing a graphic image. The color of each pixel is individually defined.

Bleed When a graphic object extends through another in an unwanted manner. It is then trimmed so there is no chance for a white line on the edges. Body Type The typeface used in the main text of a printed matter. Border The decorative design or edge of a surface, line, or area that forms it’s outer boundary. Branding The process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product in the consumers‘ mind, mainly through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. C Canvas Size Allows you to change the complete size of the document without adjusting the contents of the document Clipping Path A tool or shape that’s used to cut out an image. Cloning Pixels A function that allows you to replicate pixels from one place to another. CMYK Stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black; this color model (also called process color, four color) is a subtractive color model used in color printing. Color Palette A set of colors that make up the total range of colors used in graphic computers. Comp (Comprehensive) Comps are made to see what the initial design project will look like before it’s printed, showing the layout of the text and illustrations. Complementary Colors The colors that are opposite of each other when viewed on the color wheel. Contrast The difference between the light and dark parts of an image. Copy This term refers to text supplied for incorporation into a design. Crop A tool that removes portions of an image. It is usually used in digital photography. D Descender The part of a lowercase letter that stretches below the baseline and body of the letter. Die Cut A die that cut shapes or holes in different materials to make the design stand out. Dingbat An ornament used in typesetting to add space around an image or a symbol. Dodge This is when you lighten or reduce part of an image by shading. Dot Gain As ink hits the paper, it is absorbed and spreads out. Double Page Spread A double page spread is a layout that extends across two pages. DPI (Dots Per Inch) A term referring the number of dots of ink used to describe the details of an image. Drop Shadow Is a visual effect added to an image to give the impression the image is raised above the background by 47


duplicating the shadow. Dummy A prototype or mock-up of a book, page, or any project designed to resemble and serve as a substitute for the real thing. Duotone A method of printing an image using two colors, usually black and a spot color. E Ear The rounded part of the lowercase letters such as ‘g’ and ‘q’. Element Any distinct part of a layout such as the logo, headline, images, or borders. Embedding Process of transferring all the data of a font or image into a file. Emboss To give a three-dimensional effect to a text or an image by using highlights and shadows on the sides of the illustration. Engraving To print designs by cutting the surface of a metal plate. EPS Stands for Encapsulated Post Script. This is a graphics file format used to transfer PostScript documents that contain an image, within another PostScript document. Etch To imprint a design onto the surface of a plate by using a chemical such as acid. Export To save a file in a format supported by other programs. E-Zine Stands for electronic magazine. Refers to the name of a website that is represented by a print magazine; an webbased magazine that you can subscribe to. F Feathering A tool used in graphic design software that makes the edges of an image appear softer. Fill A tool used to fill selected parts of an image with a selected color. Filter A filter is a pre-created effect that can be applied to images to acquire a certain look. Flexography A printing technique where printing plates are made of rubber or soft plastic material and then stretched around a drum on the press that rotates. Flyer A single sheet of paper handed out or posted on a wall to advertise or announce something. Focal Point In graphic design terms, the focal point is where you want to draw the reader’s or viewer’s eye. Font A complete combination of characters created in a specific type, style, and size. The set of characters in a font entails the letter set, the number set, and all of the special characters and marks you get when pressing the shift key or other command keys on your keyboard. 4-Color Process A printing technique that creates colors by combining, cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (cmyk). Frames Referring to animation, a frame is a single image in a series of graphic images. The speed of an animation is 48

determined by the number of frames displayed per second or fps. G Gang To combine multiple jobs on one print plate in order to reduce costs and setup charges. Gamut The range of colors available to a particular output device or a given color space, such as a laser printer or an image setter. If the color range is too wide for that specific device, it is indicated as ‘out of gamut’. Gatefold A type of fold in which the paper is folded inward to form four or more panels. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) GIF images display up to 256 colors. It supports animation and allows an individual palette of 256 color for each frame. The color limitation makes the GIF format inappropriate for reproducing color photographs and other images with consistent color. GIF images are compressed using the LZW lossless data compression method to decrease the size of the file without corrupting the visual quality. Gradient A function in graphic software that permits the user to fill an object or image with a smooth transition of colors. Graphic Design Visual communication using text or images to represent an idea or concept. It is also a term used for all activities relating to visual design, including web design, logo design, etc. Graphics Visual presentations that feature printed messages that are clear and appealing. Grayscale Grayscale images consist of black, white, no color, and up to 256 shades of gray. Grid Is a two-dimensional format made up of a set of horizontal and vertical axes used to structure content. Gutter In book production, the white space formed by the inner margins of a spread near the books spine. Halftone (1) A photograph or scan of a consistent tone image to alter the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and that is displayed on film, paper, printing plate, or the final printed product. H Halo Effect A vague shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is called a fringe. Hard Copy The permanent reproduction of the output of a computer or printer. For example: teleprinter pages, continuous printed tapes, computer printouts, etc. Header The text which appears at the top of a printed page Headline A large text illustrating the opening statement used in a layout. Highlights Lightest part of a photograph or halftone, as opposed to mid-tones and shadows. High-Resolution Image An image with an extreme level of


sharpness/clarity. HLS A color space that stands for hue, lightness, and saturation. HSB A color space stands for hue, saturation, and brightness. Hue One of the three primary attributes of color. A hue is a variety of color such as red, blue, green, or yellow. I I-beam The form the pointer assumes when the text tool is chosen. Ideograph (also ideogram) A character or symbol representing an idea without expressing the punctuation of a specific word or words for it. Image Map An image map is an HTML document containing multiple clickable hyperlinks. Imagesetter Laser output device for producing professionalquality text with extremely high resolution. Imposition A layout of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper order after press sheets are folded and bound. Indents A set in or back from the margin. Initial Cap Big, capital letters which are found at the beginning of paragraphs or chapters. Inkjet Printer A printer that electrostatically sprays tiny ink droplets onto paper. Invert Inversion of the tonal values or colors of an image. On an inverted image, black becomes white, blue becomes orange, etc. Italic The style of letters that usually slope to the right. Used for emphasis within text. J Jog To arrange sheets of paper into a neat, compact pile. JPEG (Joint Photographic Electronic Group) A common process for compressing digital images. (Also expressed as .jpg) Justify This refers to making a block of type a certain length by adding space to the words and letters in each line. K Kerning Modifying the horizontal space between letters. Keyframe Any frame in which a specific aspect of an item (its size, location, color, etc.) is specifically defined. Keyline A keyline is another name for a rule, line, or even a frame border. Keyline options can be set through design software applications to adjust the width, to be solid or dotted, or to show different patterns. L Layers A tool within graphic software that permits the user to gather, organize, and re-edit their artwork. Leading Refers to the amount of added vertical spacing between lines of text. Leaf One piece of paper in a publication.

Legend A table inside a project that lists vital illustrations or instructions; footnote that helps users better understand information. Letterpress A technique of printing where movable type is inked and then pressed against paper to create an impression. Also called block printing. Lossless Refers to a form of data compression where the detail is maintained and no data is lost after file downsizing. The lossless compression method is often used in TIFF and GIF formats. Lossy A form of data compression where detail is deleted as the file size is decreased. JPEG is an example of a lossy compression method. Lower Case The smaller form of letter used in type. Low-Resolution Image A low-quality scan made from a photograph or the like. Luminosity The brightness of an area arranged by the amount of light it reflects or diffuses. M Magic Wand Tool A tool in graphic software that permits the user to select fractions of an image such as areas with the same color. Margins Guidelines in a page layout software that shows a user the body copy areas. It also allows the user to indicate the dimensions. Margins are not supposed to be printed. Mask See clipping path. Master Page A property found in a page layout software that allows the user to create a constant page layout. Repeating elements—like page numbers—are created once on a master. This permits the user to stay clear of adding the numbers for each page manually. Matte Finish Non-glossy finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper. Mean Line Also called x-height. The imaginary point of all lowercase characters without ascenders. Midtones In a photograph or illustration, tones composed by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as opposed to highlights and shadows. Mock Up A recreation of the original printed material; could possibly contain instructions or directions. Modern An altered version of Old Style. these highcontrast letters have heavy, untapered stems and light serifs. Originally established by Firmin Didot and Giambattista Bodoni during the late 18th to early 19th centuries. Multimedia Offering the use of various communications such as text, sound, and still or moving images. N Negative Space Also known as white space. The area of a page that doesn’t contain images or words. Neon Glow A type of glow on a graphic image that gives the appearance of neon lighting. 49


News Print Paper used in printing newspapers; not considered a high-quality paper. Noise Noise is a term used to describe the development of pixels that contain random colors. O Oblique A Roman typeface which slants to the right. Often confused with italics. Offset Printing A printing method that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper as opposed to directly inking from plate to paper. Old Style A style of type characterized by slight contrast between light and heavy strokes and slanting serif. Opacity The degree of a color or tonal value. The opacity of an image or object that can range from transparent (0% opacity) to opaque (100% opacity). The ability to edit the opacity of specific objects allows the designer to create images that seem to flow into and through one another. OpenType A font format created by Adobe and Microsoft. Open Type font can include a set of glyphs defined as True Type or Type 1 curves. Orphan Line The first line of a paragraph appearing on its own at the bottom on a page with the remaining part of the paragraph appearing on the next page. Outline This can refer to the outside edge of a font or the outer edge of a vector graphic image drawn in a package such as Illustrator or Freehand. Overlay Layer of material taped to a mechanical photo or proof. Acetate overlays are used to divide colors by having some type or art on them instead of on the mounting board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions about the underlying copy and to protect the base art. Overprint To print additional material or another color over a previously printed image. Over Run Additional printed material beyond order. Over run policy differs in the printing industry, usually within 10% of the original quantity run. P Page Layout Deals with the setup and style of content on a page. An example of a page layout is the pages in magazines or brochures. Page Size A setting that allows the user to define the size of the page they are creating their artwork on. Pantone Matching System The Pantone matching system is used for defining and blending match colors. It accommodates designers with swatches of over 700 colors and gives printers the formulas for making those colors. PDF Stands for Portable Document Format. Developed by Adobe Systems in its software program, Adobe Acrobat, to serve as a universal browser. Files can be downloaded over the web and viewed page by page, provided the user’s computer has installed the application. 50

Pica A unit of measurement for type. Commonly used for typewriters. Pixel The smallest picture content that can be individually assigned a color. Plate A piece of paper, metal, plastic, or rubber carrying an image to be duplicated using a printing press. PNG Portable Network Graphics format. PNG (usually pronounced “ping”), is used for lossless compression. The PNG format displays images without jagged edges while keeping file sizes rather small, making them popular on the web. PNG files are generally larger than GIF files. PPI Pixels Per Inch. A measurement of the resolution of a computer display. Primary Colors The primary colors are put together to produce the full range of other colors (non-primary colors), within a color model. The primary colors for the additive color model is red, green, and blue. The primary colors for the subtractive color model is cyan, magenta, and yellow. Q Quick Mask A filter in Photoshop in which a translucent colored mask covers selective areas of an image. Quick Time QuickTime was developed by Apple Computer. It’s built into the Macintosh operating system computers and is used for displaying and editing animation. R Ragged The imbalanced alignment of text lines. Ragged is the opposite of flush. A text block may be formatted to be evenly flush (align) right and unevenly aligned (ragged) on the left. Rasterize An image is said to be rasterized when transformed from vector image to a bitmapped image. When opening a vector image in a bitmap-based editing program, you are generally presented with a dialog box of options for rasterizing the image. Resample A function accessible in image editing that permits the user to change the resolution of the image while keeping its pixel count intact. Resolution The resolution of an image is an important factor in deciding the attainable output quality. The higher the resolution of an image, the less pixelated it will be and the curves of the image will appear smoother. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) RGB is the color model used to project color on a computer monitor. By combining these three colors, a large percentage of the visible color spectrum can be represented. Rich Media Rich media are banner ads that use technology more developed than standard GIF animation. For example: Flash, Shockwave, streaming video, etc. Right Justified Type aligned with its right margin. Also known as “flush right.” RIP (Raster Image Processor) Transfers fonts and graphics into


raster images, which are used by the printer to draw onto the page. Rivers A river is a typographic term for the ugly white gaps that can appear in justified columns of type when there is too much space between words on concurrent lines of text. Rivers are particularly common in narrow columns of text, where the type size is relatively large. Royalty-Free Photos Intellectual property like photos and graphic images that are sold for a single standard fee. These can be used repeatedly by the purchaser only, but the company that sold the images usually still owns all the rights to it. S Sans Serif A style of typeface that means “without feet.” Usual sans serif typefaces include Arial, Helvetica, AvantGarde, and Verdana. Saturation The intensity of hue. The quality of difference from a gray of the same lightness or brightness. Scale A design or program is said to scale if it is relevantly efficient and reasonable when applied to larger situations. Screen Printing Technique of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil. Selection Selection refers to an area of an image that is isolated so it can be edited while the rest of the image is protected. Shadow Detail Shadow detail refers to the amount of detail held in the dark areas of an image. If the shadow is lightened too much in an attempt to expose more detail, you run the risk of reducing the overall contrast of the image. Sharpen To reduce in color strength, as when halftone dots become smaller; opposite of “thicken” or “dot spread.” Small Caps Capital letters that are about the same height as the tvpeface’s x-height. Some software programs automatically create their own small caps, but true small caps are often only found in expert typefaces. Spread (1) Two pages that face each other and are created as one visual or production unit. (2) Method of slightly enlarging the size of an image to make a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty. Subtractive Color A term defining the three subtractive primary colors: cyan, magenta, and yellow. As opposed to the three additive colors: red, blue, and green. T Template Refers to a printing project’s basic details with regard to its dimensions. A general layout. Text Wrap A term used in page layout software, specifically to the way text can be shaped around the edges of images. Thumbnail A thumbnail is a reduced-size version of the original image. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) A graphic file format used for storing images . TIFF is a commonly used file format for

high color depth images. Tint A color is made lighter by adding white, this is called a tint. Tolerance Tolerance is the range of pixels a tool in graphic software functions in. Or the range of shade or color pixels a Magic Wand selects, etc. Tonal Distribution Tones can be redistributed during the scanning or image editing process. To lighten dark images or to darken light images. Trim Size The size of the printed material in its finished stage. True Color System A true color system is a 24-plane graphics sub-system which composes the entire range of 16.7 million colors. Typeface A typeface consists of a series of fonts and a full range of characters such as, numbers, letters, marks, and punctuation. Typography The art of arranging type—which includes letters, numbers, and symbols—so that it is pleasing to the eye. This includes not only the font that is used but how it is arranged on the page: letter by letter, size, line spacing, etc. U Uncoated Paper This is paper that doesn’t have a coating applied to it for smoothness. Unsharp Mask A method used to heighten the sharpness or focus of images by selecting and increasing the contrast of pixels alongside the edges of images. Uppercase Also known as capital letters, they are the larger characters in a typeface. UV Coating A glossy coating applied to the paper surface and dried using ultraviolet light. It is glossy and adds a certain level of protection to the printed material. V Value This refers to the degree of lightness or darkness of a color. Varnish This is a liquid coating applied to a surface for protection and for a glossy effect. Vector Graphic Vector graphics allow the designer to expand or reduce the vector graphic in size without any loss in quality using curves, points, lines, and polygons. Verso The left-hand page of a book or a manuscript. W Watermark Translucent design impressed on paper created during manufacture, it is visible when held to light. Web-Safe Colors A color table containing only 216 out of a possible 256 colors, used to accurately match the colors of graphics and pictures in cross-platform web browsers. Weight The range of a stroke’s width. Also knows as semibold, light, and bold. Some typeface families have many weights like ultra-bold and extra-light. Associated to the heaviness of the stroke for a specific font, such as Light, 51


Regular, Book, Demi, Heavy, Black, and Extra Bold. White Point One of a handful of reference illuminants used to define the color “white�. Based on the application, different definitions of white are needed to give sufficient results. White Point Adjustment A white point adjustment establishes the amount of highlighted detail in an image. Widow Line A single line of a paragraph at the bottom of a page or column. Width Refers to whether the basic typeface has been lengthened or compressed horizontally. The typical variations are Condensed, Normal, or Extended. Word Processing Program A software application package that assists in creating, editing, and printing Work and Turn This is when you print on one side of a sheet of paper, then you turn the sheet over from left to right and print the other side. The same gripper and plate are used for this process. WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get. This is an approximate screen representation of what the final printed image will look like. X X-Height This is the height of the lowercase letters that do not have ascenders or decenders, such as a, c, e and mm Y Yellow One of the subtractive primary colors of CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) that is used in four-color process inks. Z Zip Stands for Zone Information Protocol: This is a way of compressing files into a smaller size, so they can be transferred with more ease over the Internet or any other means. Zoom Most design software lets you zoom in or out on an image to get a closer or farther away look. Zooming in is especially useful when photo retouching or working on tiny details.

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Works Cited

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Alison Coady Art 211 Section 1 Julie Sittler, Instructor Fall 2016

UW-Stevens Point Art 211 Section 1  

InDesign, Graphic Design, In Progress

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