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Exam preparation Activity 1. EDUC 119

Physical development Complete the linhs: Infancy:



1 Refine and recombine existing skills Continued increases in size, strength, fl exibility and coordination


years to adulthood

- changes in growth, motor skills, and body and brain structures. Cognitive development - thinking skills Emotional development Physical development

5-12 years

Early childhood:

2 years

Middle childhood:

Rate of physical growth slows Gross motor skills - large muscle goups. e.g. rolling. jumping. running Fine motor skills - small muscle groups, e.g. writing

2-5 vears


Between childhood and adult hood Puberty - biological changes

Cognitive Development

Fill in the missing

spaces using the words

from the word bank below:

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theorist because he believed cognitive development Piaget is defined as followed a fixed sequence. h\dividuals developed cognitive structures called their world. When individuals 5r-.lrer,\*S to represent and information or knowlddge they would use a process of to respond and therefore develop cognitively. This was accomplished which describes the process where individuals actively by eith&r '; modify or tran brm new information to make it fit with existing schemes or .."-. where individuals change the existing scheme if it does not fit the nbw experience. Individuals used both these processes ofselfregulation to reach a state to maintain organisation and stability in there environment. ,:-,,, r a iij"r.,



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Assimilation Schemes Accommodation Stage Organise Adaptation Equilibrium

Vygotsky has had a significant impact on educational theory and development of new pedagogical approaches in Centres and classrooms. 'Vygotsky recognizes that u child's development comes as a consequence of leurning through observation,listening, and interacting with the people and elements in one's immediate environment" (Wertsch & Hickmann, 1987).

Explain the following terms:

) )


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Cultural tools

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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)



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Socialo Emotional and Moral Development What is the difference between self-concept, self-esteem and self-efficacy?


Self concept Krause describes self-concept like a filing cabinet with many drawers and many folders containing all the information we have about ourselves. Draw a picture of a filing cabinet and label the drawers and folders to demonstrate what sorts of information self-concept includes.


)nr"r ul,


Self esteem: Which definition best fits - A, Bo C or D? A. a collection of information, ideas, attitudes and beliefs we have about ,,- ourselves (eJ tne level of satisfaction and pride that individuals have in the self e. an individual's sense of being able to manage a task effectively and successfully in a particular domain D. an understanding of self derived from the media

Self efficacy: Relates to individuals' beliefs about their ability to perform tasks successfully. How do you rate yourselfl




I am successful in:

Tasks I am not so confident in:

Read page 104 text book - Bandura( 1997) believes there are four main factors that shape our self-efficacy - which of these do you think are responsible for the tasks you have

listed under successful

- 1,2,3,or 4 (or maybe a combination).



"Erikson proposed that we move through a series of 8 stages of psychosocial development stages in which our selfhood, independence, identity and self worth may be developed or crushed, depending on how we resolve issues and interact with others along the waY" (Krause, et al, 2010)'

QUESTION: How is Eriksonos theory useful for teachers working with children in Centres and Classrooms?

If the self is understood in light of relationships with

society and environment

explain the difference between: C o llectivis tic cult ur es

Individualistic c ultures

True or false: Kohlberg's theory...


Primarily researched males from white middle class backgrounds froâ&#x201A;Źnt1 Has an assumption that stages are


Encourages people to break lavrs


Provided a guide for understanding how moral reasoning proy

Finish this statement: I believe friends are important because...

J Behavioural views of learning Give two examples each for: P os it iv e r einforc ement

Neg ul iv e rei nfor c ement


Match the terms with the definitions: Law of exercise

Operant conditioning

Responses that have a satisffing outcome are likely to be strengthened and repeated.

Explanations of learning concerned with the external effect of events on behaviour.

Law of effect The use of positive and negative consequences to strengthen or weaken



voluntary behaviour. The association of an automatic

Classical conditioning


with a new stimulus.

Connections between actions and new consequences are strengthened the more they are repeated.

What are the key similarities and differences between the two theories ABC and ABA?


Key principles of constructivism Leamers are

Qct,Js FrhciFanbs

in their learning

are se$ - reSrr\*\ocl is necessary for effective learning Vrt.a\ i',[,*.rn-t,r..'.. . Individuals are encouraged to rruk.r dsn6e. bt :.nto dhn:,rne{-lig1 Learners


Humanistic views of learning

Explain the link between 'motivation' and Maslow's theory of 'hierarchy of basic needst.

Identify and discuss how you personally are motivated to learn:

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Extrinsicatty: P\obi,rolerl


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Cognitive views of learning Complete...Metacognition is:

List and describe three metacognivitve approaches used to motivate students in therr learning:

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Exam Prep 119 - 2010  

Preperation for the Educational Psychology exam for 2010

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