Issuu on Google+

Choreographing Design + Designing Choreography

Danae Moore MFA Thesis, Graphic Design, 2012 California Institute of the Arts


Choreographing Design


+


Designing Choreography

Danae Moore MFA Thesis, Graphic Design, 2012 California Institute of the Arts


Choreographing Design + Designing Choreography

1

Choreographing Design

page 8

2

Designing Choreography

page 64

7


Danae Moore

A

Exploration + Discovery

page 10

B

Resources

page 74

8


Danae Moore

1

Choreographing Design

10


Choreographing Design

My thesis, Choreographing Design + Designing Choreography, explores the intersection of graphic design and dance. As a longtime dancer and choreographer, I was anxious to experiment this year with how dance can inform graphic design — and vice versa — as a way of bridging these two areas of interest. With this goal in mind, I created an analysis of dance — breaking dance down to its essential components — and then examined where and how these components can exist in graphic design. Over the next several pages, I’ll explain my analysis, how I got there, and where I led me. I started at a place where dance and graphic design naturally overlap: dance notation (also called graphic notation or dance scores).

We are all familiar with this version:

Andy Warhol, The Lindy Tuck-In Turn-Man (1962), Tango (1962)

11


Danae Moore

A

Exploration + Discovery

12


Exploration + Discovery

Week

Initial THESIS IDEAS 1. The Performance of Translation

Eric Hobsbawm, Marxist historian, has another idea worth exploring in the blurring of the methodologies of design and dance. He makes the interesting distinction between custom and “invented tradition,” claiming that not only have nation-states created fictional pasts to aid in their decreasing legitimacy but people have invented tradition — “the idea of self-conscious adherence to past ways of acting” — (as opposed to custom) to mend their feelings of distance from the past. French historian and editor Pierre Nora states that we currently spend so much time thinking about the past because we have so little of it left. We used to live based in the customs and habits of our ancestors, but we no longer see ourselves connected to their history, so we develop traditions to feel a sense of connection.

Can the practices of graphic design and dance be used in conjunction as part of a daily practice, thought of and used as methodologies rather than separate disciplines? I would like to explore the idea of using both graphic design and dance as avenues through which one can access many different areas of practice and investigation. Approaching graphic design and dance with a focus on methodology can open questions and challenge their limits as disciplines and as critical tools, hopefully resulting in a merging, overlapping, or translation between the two crafts. Walter Benjamin, in “The Task of The Translator,” and Bertolt Brecht propose theories about the demand for language and performance to be altered, deformed, or even destroyed in the translation process. These theories would be useful in attempting to create methodologies that combine design and dance in a non-literal way. Brecht describes how “poems usually get damaged most strongly through the effort of translating too much.” To counter this, perhaps the only thing that should be translated is an element of the writer’s attitude or thoughts. This would result in a new work (the “afterlife” of the original) that maintains the writer’s attitude toward language, but imitates it in a loose, unprescribed way. Brecht talks about the same result occurring in performance, saying that making gestures “quotable” means releasing them from their regular form and relying on echo and displacement to convey their meaning.

2. Memory-making Collective memory, formed in small social groups and/or across entire nations, can be defined as the active past that forms our identity. Most often consisting of publicly available commemorative symbols, rituals, and representations, it is a living knowledge and is therefore separated from (dead) history. Investigating this subject and how the past is remembered, known as mnemohistory, helps us understand history as an active process of meaning-making — and myth-making. Contemporary myths are just as much a part of our collective memory as knowledge we acquire based on historical fact. One example of contemporary myth-making is

13

1


Danae Moore

But the most popular form of notation in the dance community is Labanotation. Developed by Rudolf Laban in 1928, Labanotation was created to preserve choreography for future generations. Laban felt strongly that dance needed a way to be recorded and referenced so that it could be placed in history alongside the other arts. Here is a sample of it; it is read from bottom to top and left to right:

Rudolf Laban (1879–1958)

14


Choreographing Design

Laban chose four things to record about a piece of choreography: Body

=

The part of the body that is moving

Shape

=

What shape that limb takes

Space

=

Where it moves in space

Effort

=

The dynamics of the movement (i.e. sudden, sustained, sharp, fluid, etc.)

We can correlate these to ideas that are central to graphic design: Body

The content, text, and images

Shape

The denotative side; the formal shape something takes

Space

The space of the page, website, gallery, etc.

Effort

The connotative side; how something is executed to create meaning

The limitation of this analysis is that it is strictly the formal, visual half of dance and design. It leaves out the other, more meaningful half — the experiential side.

15


Danae Moore

1

2

the Principality of Sealand, which was continually surrounded by suggestive and unclear information about its history. The micronation was founded by Paddy Roy Bates, who named himself Prince Roy and invented a constitution, currency, national anthem, and flag for the 550 square meter island. These ideas of collective memory and contemporary mythologies can act as a bridge between the disciplines of graphic design and dance, both being active in storytelling and myth-making. What roles do graphic design and dance have in contributing to the collective memory? How is identity formed or influenced through these two disciplines? What role does myth-making have in design and does it differ from dance? What is the editorial role of the designer versus that of the choreographer?

Week

INITIAL THOUGHTS ABOUT hybridizing DANCE + DESIGN

16


Exploration + Discovery

2

Diagrams describing initial ideas of methodologies for combining graphic design with dance in a specific project or in a larger studio practice. LEFT — Using The Lucky Dragons approach as a model; defining a set of materials or modes of working that can be used or combined in any way depending on the project. ABOVE — Defining a subject matter, approaching it through a certain lens or role (working with design and dance independently), then discovering ways to translate between dance and design using literary, cultural, and musical translation approaches as guides or models.

17


Danae Moore

Here is a quote by John Cage in which he refers to the choreographers, musicians, and artists of the Judson Dance Theater of the early 1960s: “We are not, in these dances, saying anything. We are simpleminded enough to think that if we were saying something we would use words.”

This quote puts priority on the physical and experiential side of dance, admitting that there is more that draws us to dance and choreography than simply conveying meaning. With this impulse in mind, I read Body – Shape – Space – Effort in a slightly different way and created a new analysis that extends Laban’s breakdown to incorporate the missing, experiential half of dance:

Body

Language

Shape

Physicality

Space

Interaction

Effort

Performance

18


Choreographing Design

You can imagine how different it would be to record and read a dance in these terms. There would be no way to know what the formal movements were but the mood, the message, the way the audience is engaged, and the overall experience could be recreated. This is the side of dance that I want to explore and merge with graphic design. These are, of course, terms that already exist in the language of graphic design, but they can be seen and used in a new light if we define and apply them as we would in dance. Dance is the most physical and experiential of the arts and as designers we can borrow its understanding of these ideas (language, physicality, interaction, and performance) to enrich our own approach to graphic design and engaging an audience. To explore these topics, I created four “posters” (pieces that communicate information to a large audience in a transient space) for four dance performances of different companies:

1

Physicality — Lalala Human Steps

2

Language — Giordano Jazz Dance Chicago

3

Performance — Batsheva Dance Company

4

Interaction — Trisha Brown Dance Company

19


Danae Moore

3

Week

clarifying and experimenting

20


Exploration + Discovery

3

21


Danae Moore

Physicality

1

In graphic design, physicality is seen in the material aspects of design pieces and in the physical acts of the designer — for example, doing collage or illustration.

These are clearly limited compared to the physicality in dance, which is the use of the whole human body in both process and execution.

Lalala Human Steps

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater

Dance relies heavily on the senses of the choreographer, performer, and audience member, and the fact that our bodies carry knowledge and intuition waiting to be called on. How can I, as a dancer and designer, tap into my body’s knowledge and intuition?

22


Choreographing Design

I created this 120-foot-long poster installation for a ballet company called Lalala Human Steps in which I stepped in charcoal and danced across a roll of butcher paper. It stretched the entire length of the Tatum courtyard and I printed about 150 postcards that I scattered on top of it. 23


Danae Moore

3

This diagram maps a potential set of projects that explore different roles of the designer and different materials or modes of working, all with the subject matter of “gesture.�

24


Exploration + Discovery

3

An experiment in mapping choreography to the page.

25


Danae Moore

My goal was to set up a system that would require me to use my whole body in the process. I choreographed part of the movement sequence and improved the rest so that I could rely on my knowledge of movement and ballet, my intuition, and what felt right in my body at the time.

26


Choreographing Design

I decided that the piece should also call upon viewers to interact with it physically — having to walk alongside the footprints, or to jump over it as I saw many people do, and also having to bend down to pick up the postcards that they could then take with them.

27


Danae Moore

3

“Designer as Archivist� (Part 1/2) — A short dance film where I took on the role of designer as archivist and used a series of gestures as material.

28


Exploration + Discovery

3

“Designer as Archivist” (Part 2/2) — A small booklet documenting and expanding upon the related dance film.

29


Danae Moore

Language

2

Graphic design and dance share an approach to language — they both engage in the translation and interpretation of language. But while they view and use language similarly, they have very different means and techniques of translating and interpreting it because of the materials, or languages, they are working with. Graphic design’s language is type and image,

Handbuilt Antoine et Manuel

Harmen Liemburg + collaborators

while dance uses the language of the human body. Each discipline is limited in what they can say or create by these vocabularies.

Trisha Brown Dance Company

Batsheva Dance Company

30


Choreographing Design

In this moving poster for Giordano Jazz Dance Chicago, I worked to merge the vocabularies of graphic design and dance, specifically jazz dance. I wanted to combine these two semiotic registers such that they could overlap and blend together in a fresh and idiosyncratic way. For this one-minute-long motion piece, I took a rather straight forward approach — creating an alphabet out of jazz dance choreography.

31


Danae Moore

4

Week

More Experiments

Clarifying what I mean when I say “design” and “dance.”

32


Exploration + Discovery

4

“Pointer Pointing Pointee” — A short dance film expanding on the gesture of pointing.

33


Danae Moore

34


Choreographing Design

35


Danae Moore

4

“Gesture Collage 1” — An animated gif based on a collage made by mapping a piece of choreography.

36


Exploration + Discovery

4

“Gesture Collage 2” — An animated gif based on a collage made by mapping a piece of choreography.

37


Danae Moore

38


Choreographing Design

39


Danae Moore

4

“Gesture Collage 2” continued — An animated gif based on a collage made by mapping a piece of choreography.

“Restaurant Codes” — An animated gif of gestures used by hosts and waiters in restaurants.

40


Exploration + Discovery

4

“The Cost of Living” excerpt — A section of a book I’m designing about the physicality of fear. The content of this section is from a dance film by DV8 called The Cost of Living. This gave me the opportunity to experiment with how to communicate a dance film in a book.

41


Danae Moore

42


Choreographing Design

43


Danae Moore

5

Week

Narrowing My Vision

Charting the language of dance

44


Exploration + Discovery

Week

Thesis Proposal Presentation (Nov. 7, 2011)

45

9


Danae Moore

Performance

3

Performance can mean many things, so before I could address how

the idea could be translated from dance to graphic design, I had to define the word for myslef. I define a performance as: something that is live (which means that aspects of it are open to change every time it is performed) and/or with elements that come together at a specific time, place, or under specific conditions. The most distinctly performative works of graphic design are those that use technologies that allow the processing of live data in the environment and projection mapping.

(I hope I don’t need to explain how dance is performative.)

46


Choreographing Design

This projected poster is for Batsheva, an Israeli dance company. I made a motion piece that I projected on top of a printed poster in the hallway. I liked the juxtaposition of movement against stillness and where the shapes blended together and where they separated. 47


Danae Moore

9

48


Exploration + Discovery

9

49


Danae Moore

50


Choreographing Design

If I had more time to spend on this piece, I would have written a program that could perform for the people walking through the hall. It would have been set up such that I could control the projection based on the actions I observed in the hallway. I would be able to choose who to respond to at any given moment, when to freeze the frame, zoom in or out, or change the tempo. Unfortunately, I lacked the time to collaborate with a programmer, so I made this dumbed down version, which was a looping thirty-second motion piece.

51


Danae Moore

9

Presentation feedback shared language? You’ve taken something and simplified it one or two steps too far.

Ed Fella These attributes exist in typography and dance, it’s a matter of how you describe them… So are there attributes where you don’t get those correlations between design and dance? Just using dance language to help describe what happens in graphic design? Where does the new/different/transcendent come about?

DM Collaborative language because this has given me a way to speak with dancers about design, gives them an entry point.

LW You show samples of work that expand

writing? Dealing metaphorically in the writing, then designing to your metaphor?

into the public sphere. Driven by an interpretation. Long history of this (futurists’ staging plans, movement). So interpretive symbolizing a visual syntax, but collaboration is a different thing. In a way you’re collaborating with yourself.

Louise Sandhaus What are the exportable

DM I’ve been seeing this project as a testing

principles? What does it add up to? How is it a new methodology? That’s exportable beyond the personal?

ground for ways of working with different clients/material…

Lorraine Wild Interpretation happens in

LS I don’t mind it as a testing ground, but then you need to construct a phase that addresses that. Maybe two separate projects.

Danae Moore It’s a model for how anyone could do this with another discipline.

LS But does that add up to self-expression? What is the meaning of that for communication of some other value or function or idea? Very excited about tackling other media… Meaningful ways of expressing beyond print. Print is very developed, we have those traditions. Don’t have a developed language that works beyond the print medium and could help extend the print medium. You have come up with terminology that comes from the rich language of dance that you can use to experiment with to develop new ways of correlating relationships within text and meaning that have to do in something other than the print media. You’ve moved away from this rich area back into print and self-expression.

Michael Worthington Your writing is standing in for what a client’s material would be, so that’s what’s derailing us. Taking the emphasis off your ideas. So maybe it’s about rethinking what that content is. LS Your interest is in dance or collaboration or language? Confusing.

DM Dance, but as a way to talk about bridging disciplines.

LS But that’s huge, if you want to do this, you’d need to come up with a crossover vocabulary and do a proof of concept with three different disciplines and show how to combine disciplines with design. So if you’re not really interested in showing a methodology for combining disciplines, and you’re interested in dance, then you need to partition that off. You could come up with three different kinds of collaborations with three different kinds of projects, design + choreography, design + set design, design + publicity,

LW You’ve created a writing project. That skews into the limitations that Louise just described. Idea of collaboration and speaking across disciplines: you’re doing a deep dive into something that is expanding your language and methodology, but how do those things come back in? The idea of creating a 52


Exploration + Discovery

LS But the experiments for typography to

OR you go to this language thing and how those represent expression, beyond personal expression that is exportable.

date have been mostly in print. We’re seeing a conventionalization that’s already happening in new mediums, how texts take place, what reading means, all comes from traditions in print typography. There is an opportunity for a new language here when you combine dance physics, movement, timing. But requires incredible set of experiments. You have huge potential here to bring your dance background into graphic design.

EF Is it even possible? If you reduce them both down, can they mix? Oil + water? They both have form, space, motion, but they can’t mix together. Sound rhetorically possible, but are they logically possible?

MW I think they are logically possible, but your problem is that when you were trying to do this, you took the words and did not think about them in a dance context. You used them in a general way. The only way this can function, you have to contextualize it more specifically and then it can inform the work in a different way. But as soon as you get sucked back into the general definition or the graphic design definition, you end up with predictable form.

Ben Woodlock What dance practice is part of the methodology? DM I don’t know if any. It felt forced. It felt a lot more disconnected.

Scott Massey Talking about a motion piece, maybe you should open that up again.

EF Problem with that, is that you get into an EF But what does gravity mean in graphic

old realm of dance being filmed.

design. We know what it means in dance. How can you then reduce these together? Without just showing.

LS Again there is a potential for language. Not just what the content is, but how the diajesus takes place.

MW But say perspective, you know what that is in graphic design, but say it means something different in dance. Then there is a way to rethink the relationship in graphic design.

EF Well that’s what I wonder about, if that

EF Well that’s what I wonder. Is it actually

LW You’re not actually getting a no, but

possible? Do they become something so different that they are just oil and water and can never mix?

you’re getting a highly-qualified nod.

potential hasn’t already been realized in other media. Or played out in other media.

LS Hopefully there is something that you see as a thread through what we’re saying and what you’ve already done that you can pull out and move forward with.

MW But you still get a cool lava lamp. EF I’m not denying you, but I’m posing

LW What I hear us saying is… Ed keeps

you the question. Where can you find the connection between things that are already so reduced? Where’s the part where you can find something that’s more than just another way of describing that. His poster that can be described typographically, and it can be a metaphor for dance.

throwing out the challenge of if it’s believable, but I’ll give you the benefit of the doubt. We’re asking you to actually use dance more. To not turn it into a metaphor, that you then turn into personal poetics, and then stick it in a book. It’s too small of an idea. It’s taking 53

9


Danae Moore

Interaction

4

Many designers believe that a piece of design is only complete when an audience engages with it, but this kind of engagement is primarily of an intellectual nature — asking an audience to process and interpret complex ideas or form. Any physical interaction is usually limited to turning the pages of a book or clicking through an interactive website.

Dance performances actually require a similarly passive audience engagement, where the audience sits and responds mentally and emotionally to what they are seeing and hearing. At one of the most memorable dance performances I’ve been to, however, the audience was scattered across the stage, forcing us to look in many directions or even turn all the way around in our seats during the performance. This was the choreographer’s way of engaging the audience physically; enabling us to actively participate in the movements of the dancers.

LEVY Dance Company

54


Choreographing Design

For this poster I thought: what about expanding this attitude toward space and audience interaction to a piece of graphic design? I made this spacial poster for the Trisha Brown Dance Company, working to shape the space to encourage — or potentially force — the audience to change the way they walk through the hall.

55


Danae Moore

9

your idea and boiling it down into something that will be less that the sum of its parts. What we want you to do is take that interesting set of ideas and open it back out. You can scale the book down into phase one and then think about a more expansive project to run along side of it that doesn’t sit in the convention of the metaphor.

EF Thinking of Jackson Pollack doing action painting. So what if you expressed through the body, through dance, and created a record. Action paintings were considered just a record of the actions. Can use that metaphor. What about dance design? The use of the body creating the piece is something you could explore and think about.

12

Week

Language Development Movement

Instrumentation

• Wiggle • Crawl • Stare • Freeze • Breath • Facial expressions • Internal • Tactile • Muscularity

• Isolation of body parts • Unison / isolation • Choreographic technique / tool • Gestures ( Social use, social references, isolation of body parts)

Phenomenal / Tactile • Phenomenal / knowledge through the senses or body • Breath • External and internal • Relationship to ground and others • Whole body experience

Technique • Style / vocabulary (Jazz / Ballet / Modern) • Conventional, formal movement rules • Anatomy / alignment rules • Strength • Training body as instrument

56


Exploration + Discovery

12

Dynamics

Performance

• Changes in speed • Changes in quality • Relational • How to attack movement (attack, graceful, hit, spaghetti) • Give the movement a tone / the voice you use to speak • How to engage an audience: • Aesthetic / used to keep it interesting, surprising • Conceptual / used to make it dull, make things stand out

• Personality • Facial expressions • Engagement with audience • Design (lights, set, costumes) • Final piece (vs. the choreography) • Temporary / ephemeral • Documentation / photos, videos

Motif • Theme (movement, conceptual) • Repetitive movements • Tactics / i.e. choreographing from photos • Movement language, vocabulary

57


Danae Moore

It reads “Trisha Brown” in the air and “Dance Company” on the floor.

58


Choreographing Design

It is basically an open-ended maze. It doesn’t prescribe a specific path, but my goal was to affect viewers’ travels through the hall and make them conscious of their body in the space in relation to the hanging letters. I also wanted to make them conscious of the space itself — to give it a new life that would cause people to hesitate for a moment — which I think the slow, spinning movement of the letters does.

59


Danae Moore

13

Week

Make, Make, Make!

Poster exploring physicality and body intuition.

60


Exploration + Discovery

13

Poster exploring movement and human anatomy.

61


Danae Moore

In conclusion, incorporating the experiential, physical, and intuitive side of dance and choreography — its approach to language, performance, physicality, and interaction — can enrich the design process and give life to design outcomes.

Physicality

1

Language

2

62


Choreographing Design

3

Performance

4

Interaction

63


Danae Moore

15

Week

Development of Batsheva (“Performance”)

Images for projection.

64


Exploration + Discovery

15

65

Extended motion piece with camera panning through the word “Batsheva.”

65


Danae Moore

Designing Choreography

2

66


Designing Choreography

Part two of my thesis (Designing Choreography) is a performance entitled Hero / Freak that I collaborated on with CalArts BFA dance student Daron Pons. He choreographed the piece and performed in it while I directed it (including lighting, costume, and music selections) and created projections to complement his movement. The subject of Hero / Freak is genetic mutation. It addresses questions such as: What does it mean to be “superhuman”? How do we reconcile the fantasy of superheroes portrayed in pop culture with the reality of the medical and social problems that those with extraordinary bodies or abilities face? This was an extremely interesting and fruitful process for me. I have made several short dance films over the past few years, taking on the roles of choreographer, performer, director, and editor, but in creating these projections, I was able take a different approach entirely. Whereas in the past I have created movement from the perspective of strictly dancer/choreographer, in this collaboration I was able to focus on what it might mean to design choreography. I thought about what graphic movement is — deciding that an interpretation I’d like to work with is that of graphic movement being about creating patterns and shapes out of the human body and relying on structure and repetition to create meaning. This was a completely new approach to dance and the body for me and it allowed me to tap into both the “dancer” and “designer” parts of my brain simultaneously, something I’ve been aiming for but never quite achieving. I’d like to explore other interpretations of graphic movement and designing choreography in the future. Credits

Direction & Projections / Danae Moore Choreography & Performance / Daron Pons Performance / Cherise Richards Music / Louis Lopez

67


Danae Moore

2

Semester

Development of Hero / Freak

Daron’s first draft of choreography. Very “superhero.”

Color, make up, and content inspiration. 68


Exploration + Discovery

2

DANCERS NEEDED FOR A FILM SHOOT Looking for ALL different types of movers, especially SUPERHUMAN types — super flexible, super strength, super jointed, super jumps... what else ya got? To be used as projection material in a dance performance One day commitment only: THIS WEDS, MARCH 21, 1-3 pm

Location TBA (if you can’t come then, let’s talk about THURS or FRI instead)

FF OW O E SH OUR ERS! Y POW R E P SU

COM

Contact — Daron Pons — daronpons(at)alum.calarts.edu — Danae Moore — danaemoore(at)alum.calarts.edu

Call for dancers to film.

First film shoot. I ended up liking the direction of Cherise’s film shoot better and scrapped this more fantastical, playful footage.

69


Danae Moore

70


Designing Choreography

71


Danae Moore

2

Many, many, many projection tests with Daron. His choreography changed in response to my film shoot with Cherise and it became more about the ideas of mutation and convention.

72


Exploration + Discovery

2

Tech/dress rehearsal and all the technical problems that come along with it.

ak e r F / o Her 12 l 19, 20 ay, Apri Thursd 8:00 pm eater ouse Th Coffeeh

Pons / Daron mance & Perfor oore hy M ap ae gr an Choreo tion / D & Direc jections ro P ez p lm Fi Louis Lo Music / ds e Richar / Cheris ce an Perform

Poster and program for the show.

73


Danae Moore

74


Designing Choreography

75


Danae Moore

B

Resources

76


Exploration Resources + Discovery

“It is the Outsidedness Flavor of it,” Stuart Bailey. http://www.servinglibrary.org/

“The Systematic Translation of Musical Compositions into Paintings,” Jack Ox and Peter Frank. Leonardo Music Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3.

“Translation, Typography, and the AvantGarde’s Impossible Text,” Sarah Bay-Cheng. Theatre Journal, Vol. 59, No. 3.

“The Performance of Translation: Benjamin and Brecht on the Loss of Small Details,” Patrick Primavesi. The Drama Review, Vol. 43, No. 4.

“Diagrammatic Writing and the Poetics of Relations,” Johanna Drucker. “Performance as Translation: Uday Shankar in the West,” Joan L. Erdman. The Drama Review, Vol. 31, No. 1.

Dance Ink Photographs, edited by J. Abbott Miller and Patsy Tarr. Chronicle Books. “Dance Theory, Sociology, and Aesthetics,” Burt Ramsay. Dance Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1.

“‘The Task of the Translator’: Walter Benjamin’s Essay in English, a Forschungsbericht” Susan Ingram. TTR: Traduction, Terminologie, Rédaction, Vol. 10, No. 2.

“Everything is in Everything,” David Reinfurt. http://www.servinglibrary.org/

Dance with Camera, Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

“Sonic and Visual Structures: Theory and Experiment,” Nicolas Schöffer. Leonardo Music Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2.

“Fearful Asymmetries: A Manifesto of Cultural Translation,” Tomislav Z. Longinovic. The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, Vol. 35, No. 2.

“Composition Strategy as Translation,” Sandra Schor. College English, Vol. 48, No. 2. “Philippe Apeloig for +81 Magazine/Japon,” Tomoaki Shimizu. http://apeloig.com/

“Collective Memory,” Jeffrey K. Olick. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd Edition.

“Interview with J. Abbott Miller,” John L. Walters. http://www.eyemagazine.com/

“Creating a Visual Translation of Kurt Schwitters’s ‘Ursonate’,” Jack Ox. Leonardo Music Journal, Vol. 3.

“Making is Thinking.” Witte de With, http://www.wdw.nl/

77



Choreographing Design + Designing Choreography