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OVERWORKING THE ROOF

SECTION AA

ORGANS WITHOUT BODIES Daniel Nguyen Kris Mun Studio


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................1 REDEFINING ROOF.......................................................................................................2-20 CONNECTING TO DUCHAMP....................................................................................16-17 MATERIAL STUDIES....................................................................................................18-36 THE MACHINE..............................................................................................................37-48 FINAL INSTALLATION..................................................................................................49-53 WORKS CITED...................................................................................................................54


INTRODUCTION

DESIGN STUDIO The studio probes the issue of how architecture exists through constant negotiation of tension created out of paradoxes (Bride & Bachelors), such as, mechanical and organic, biologic and technologic, stasis and dynamics, aggregates and fluids, intensive and extensive, machines and bodies, individual and the collective, etc. Further, with the trend of ubiquitous computing rising, we seek to interrogate and invent new productive strategies of fabrication that address the many towards a ‘nomadic subjectivism’ of simultaneous differences over homogenous, “reduced” solutions. Starting with a pre-existing or newly created DIY 3D printing machines (or other CNC machines; eyes (scanner); mouth (extruder); hands (laser cutter)) we will extract out the “organs” and replace the “body” with appendages that support new behavioral competency. The students will be asked to create their understanding of an “interface” (as program and site) by establishing an ecology of ‘sensing’ machines. The scale and materiality of each work is to be determined by each student but will be guided through three areas of research: Materializing [Material aesthetics]; Interfacing [Responsive systems]; and Machining [Mobilized machines/Interactive Fabrication].

Source(s) “Syllabus.” Organs, Bodies & Architecture USC 2014. Web. 1


DIGITAL MODEL SURFACE CONDITIONS

Initially, the research began by looking into various surface conditions that the roof could potentially become. I considered it as a series of panels or cells that could be manipulated according to user input.

2


DIGITAL MODEL SURFACE CONDITIONS

This broke away from the idea of the conventional thatching on conventional rooftops, and eventually allowed the roof to become a more playful element.

3


MANIPULATING SURFACE

.0 0 10

10

.0 0

0 .0

0 .0

10

10

In addition, I considered these cells or “panels” as being manipulable, in order to give them character and variability. I considered each cell starting off with the same material, and thought of them as being manipulated by a mechanism that would allow distortion, despite their similar material composition.

10 0 .0

2 PT CONTROL “EDGE”

10

.0 0

1 PT CONTROL “POKE”

MATERIAL 10 .0 0 10

10

.0 0

0 .0

0 .0

10

10 0 .0 10

.0 0

2 PT CONTROL “POKE”

10

AREAS OF MANIPULATION

3 LINE CONTROL “CREASE”

0 .0 10

4

10

.0 0

10

.0 0

0 .0

3 AREA CONTROL “PRESS”

5 LINE CONTROL “CREASE”


EXISTING MACHINES

MATERIAL SHEETS FED IN

THE ENGLISH WHEEL In terms of machines, I looked into the old fashion English Wheel, which allowed a sheet of rigid material to be fed, and allowed a user to define the curvature and shape of the material. The design discussion led to thoughts of how a machine could take similar cells or units and manipulate their shape and form.

ADJUSTABLE Y COORDINATE

Source(s) “English Wheel Kit with Stand.” Harbor Freight Tools. Web.

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OVERWORKING THE ROOF

In referencing “Grund to Hrof: Aspects of the Old English Semantics of Building and Architecture”, an article within Lexicology, Semantics, and Lexicography, it discusses semantics of essential building components such as roof, wall and ground and the relationship between terms in Old English and Latin. While it is indiscernible where the term, roof, originated from it has a significant amount of relevant vocabulary involving the convention of a roof in Old English. Archeology would suggest that the early gabled roofs made of thatch, shingles or tiles were considered ofergeweor, ‘over-work’, the process of roofing was hrefan or oferhrefan, meaning ‘to roof’ or ‘over-roof’ while the actual roof was deemed the hrof, which is essentially any form of cover whether it be internal or external. Reinterpreting the use case of the roof as an organ, rather than static cover, can allow for mass customization as well as radical optimization for differing conditions, and the process through which the roofing is constructed will allow for variance.

Source(s) Coleman, Julie, and Christian Kay. Lexicology, Semantics, and Lexicography: Selected Papers from the Fourth G.L. Brook Symposium, Manchester, August 1998. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 2000. Print. 6


REFERENCES TO NATURE

ROOF THATCHING The roof referenced back to the origination of the thatched roof, the conditions it provided in terms of space, the material properties, and how an assemblage of straw could emerge as a surface roof condition. It allowed a basis for the research in terms of how a roof or surface condition could be an amalgamation of a series of parts to make a whole.

Source(s) “The Complete Thatch Guide.� Thatching Advisory Services. Web. 7


REFERENCES TO NATURE

THERMOREGULATION Considering that a key aspect of the roof is designed to shield away weather conditions as well as condition the space, the concept of how an aggregate of bees can work to assembled tightly together for warmth and separate one another to cool and condition a space was brought up. Since the design was intended to be a series of panels or scales that would open or close in order to respond to temperature, it served as a reference ot nature’s existing systems.

Source(s) “Thermoregulation in Bumblebees - Springer.” Thermoregulation in Bumblebees - Springer. , 09 May 1975. Web. 8


REFERENCES TO NATURE

BUTTERFLY / MOTH WING Butterfly and moth wings were another area of focus. The macroscopic imagery suggests ideas of overlapping and makes connections to the thatched roof, visually and pragmatically.

Source(s) Images courtesy of photographer Linden Gledhill 9


REFERENCES TO NATURE

Surfaces of skin systems were evaluated in terms of permeability and the various elements involved. In particular, the concept of shedding was mentioned in studio discussion, and the ability for scales to be removed in order to form new. This process would allow for a constantly changing surface condition.

HAIR SKIN SURFACE

SEBUM

FOLLICLE

SEBACEOUS GLAND Source(s) “Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/The Skin.” - Wikibooks, Open Books for an Open World. Web.

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FEATHER DETAIL

Several forms of cover and canopy were mentioned in early discussions. Feathers were studied in order to find a way for scales or units to interlock, this would suggest a edge conditions for the scales to follow.

FEATHER DETAIL

BARB

BARBULES

BARBS SHAFT (RACHIS)

HOOK (HAMULUS)

BARB BARBULES QUILL (CALAMUS) Source(s) “Integrative and Comparative Biology.” Functional Microanatomy of the Feather-Bearing Integument: Implications for the Evolution of Birds and Avian Flight. Web.

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FEATHER INTERLOCKING

MAGNIFICATION OF VANE

VANE SHAFT

BARB BARBULE

QUILL FOLLI-

SHAFT

BARBULE BARB

Source(s) “Integrative and Comparative Biology.” Functional Microanatomy of the Feather-Bearing Integument: Implications for the Evolution of Birds and Avian Flight. Web. 12


ANATOMY OF BIRD’S WINGS

In addition to studying bird feathers as a unit, how they came together as whole was another point of interest. It was not just integral how they worked on a microscopic level, but their properties as an aggregate were another element altogether.

MIDDLE CONVERT

DOWN FEATHERS

ALULA

MIDDLE PRIMARY COVERT

SCAPULARS

GREATER CONVERTS

TERTIARY

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

Source(s) “Integrative and Comparative Biology.” Functional Microanatomy of the Feather-Bearing Integument: Implications for the Evolution of Birds and Avian Flight. Web. 13


MOVEMENT OF BIRD FEATHERS

A

RESULTANT FORCE OF MM. ERECTORES

SUBCUTANEOUS MUSCLE

B

DERMIS

ELASTIC MEMBRANE

FASCIA SUPERFICIALS

C

EPIDERMIS

RESULTANT FORCE OF MM. DEPRESSORES

Source(s) “Integrative and Comparative Biology.” Functional Microanatomy of the Feather-Bearing Integument: Implications for the Evolution of Birds and Avian Flight. Web. 14


VARYING DEGREES OF POROSITY

Units studied at varying scales allowed for different sizes and material properties when aggregated. The adjacent images were organized in a manner of decreasing permeability from top to bottom. Ideally, the surface condition would be designed to allow the openness of the leaves that form as cover, while being able to close as pores in skin or scales on a reptile.

Source(s) “Vager’s Feather Detail (Bald Eagle) by 0Iluvater0 on DeviantART.” Vager’s Feather Detail (Bald Eagle) by 0Iluvater0 on DeviantART. 15


REFERENCING DUCHAMP

MACHINE PAINTINGS Several of Duchamp’s ideas and illustrations refer to the concept of process and movement and are capable of demonstrating a series of processes through a single static image. Examining his two in December 1911 paintings, “Sad Young Man on a Train” as well as the “Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 1”, several repetitive strokes convey the perception of movement through space as the “Sad Young Man” is moving through a hall and the train is moving on its own separate pathway. Additionally, the “Nude Descending the Staircase, No. 1” showcases the bodily mechanism of movement descending. Lastly, Duchamp’s “Coffee Mill” serves as a diagram to represent movement and manner in which the machine behaves. I found all of these works to be of inspiration for my work, not only through their ability to break the convention of the conventional art piece, but how to showcase movement through a static image.

Source(s) “Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp.” Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp. Web. “Marcel Duchamp Coffee Mill 1911.” ‘Coffee Mill’, Marcel Duchamp. Web.

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REFERENCING DUCHAMP

3 STANDARD STOPPAGES Duchamp’s “3 Standard Stoppages, 1913-14, with the three templates” also discuss a mechanical process of dropping the same string onto 3 templates allowing for inherent variance and randomization. Therefore, the result of the experimentation and understanding of the arm’s movement will be similar to Marcel Duchamp’s studies with graphic representation and physical studies. I imagined the movement of my arm of my machine to be an act of choreography through its prescrbied, specific movements. I also considered the units or scales similar to the 3 standard stoppages in that they would all be similar, but each obtain a degree of originality due to the manner in which they were crafted.

Source(s) “Marcel Duchamp3 Stoppages étalon (3 Standard Stoppages) 1913-14, Replica 1964.” ‘3 Stoppages étalon (3 Standard Stoppages)’, Marcel Duchamp. Web.

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PRECEDENT: UK PAVILION - SHANGHAI EXPO 2010

Installations like the Heatherwick Studio designed UK Pavilion were examined as a preexisting object that utilized a series of discrete elements in order to produce a comprehensive whole. When installed on the site, the object no longer read as a series of parts or components, but a constructed, intelligent assemblage. Source(s) “UK Pavilion Shanghai Expo 2010.� Heatherwick Studio UK Pavilion Comments. Web. 18


PRECEDENT: METABOLIST ARCHITECTURE

Additionally, I also examined the works of the metabolist architectures, works that interrogated the use of similar units in order to assemble as an aggregate whole.

Source(s) “Architecture in Japan: The Metabolist Movement.� Outsider Japan /. Web. 19


TRANSFORMATIVE ROOF / CEILING

Through sketches, ideas began to materialize about how this surface, or series of scales and units built up as a surface roof condition could function as a roof, or meet the needs that a roof provides for. In these drawings, the project was detailed as a series of self aware units, scales that functioned as operable modules, that would move corresponding to user input.

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TRANSFORMATIVE ROOF / CEILING

ABOVE This early model illustrates how the scales could work as an adaptable surface, not strictly as a roofing condition. One unit, would move, and that would orchestrate the movement of the corresponding scales or units, which would appear as a moving ceiling.

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

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TRANSFORMATIVE ROOF / CEILING

BELOW

PHASE 1

This illustration simulates how the ceiling or roof installation would be experienced from below. In this state, it would serve more as an indicator of weather or temperature levels, the grid pattern does not allow for the cells or units to rotate or move enough to expose the sky above.

PHASE 2

22


PRECEDENTS / MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

A At this stage of development, the works done by ETH and EMPA provided a material precedent that could serve as an adaptable set of units if conducted properly. Despite the tutorials provided on their website, the experimentation requried to produce similar results executed at their labs proved to be a complicated, month long process. The machines they were able to produce after developing the technologies demonstrate the capability of this material. Examples of Work:

B

A Phototropia by ETH B Shapeshift by ETH C Robotic Blimp by EMPA

Source(s) http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/ empa/*/72289/---/l=1N.p., n.d. Web. “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.� Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. N.p., n.d. Web.

C

23


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

EAPs (Electroactive Polymers) Electroactive Polymers are essentially polymers that exhibit a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field. The most common applications of this type of material are in actuators and sensors. A typical characteristic property of an EAP is that they will undergo a large amount of deformation while sustaining large forces. The basic unit of dielectric elastomer actuators consists of a dielectric elastomer film (e.g. silicone or acrylic elastomer) sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. In this arrangement, the polymer acts as a dielectric in a compliant capacitor. Diagram details the chemical process that takes place as EAP is stimulated by electrical field.

Source(s) Bar-Cohen, Yoseph “Artificial Muscles using Electroactive Polymers (EAP): Capabilities, Challenges and Potential”. “Empa - A117-2-eap.” Empa - A117-2-eap. N.p., n.d. Web. “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. N.p., n.d. Web.

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MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

PROCESS Referencing the tutorials provided by ETH, I was able to begin conducting a similar experiment that would allow me to utilize a material with a surface property that was equally variable and rigid, depnding on whether charge was supplied to the EAP. The following pages document the step by step process of developing my own EAPs.

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.� Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web.

25


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

THE FRAME 1 Set metal scissor frame to size of initial wooden frame

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 26


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

APPLYING MEMBRANE 2 Apply 3M VHB tape to the size of the frame and ensure that edges are sticking and will not come off during the expansion process

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 27


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

STRETCHING 3M FILM 3 Stretch 3M VHB tape to 300% its original size.

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 28


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

SECURING FILM TO FRAME 4 Apply duct tape to edge of wooden frame in order for the 3M VHB membrane to be securely fastened to the larger wooden frame.

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 29


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

APPLY LASERCUT FRAMES 5 Place lasercut PETG panels onto stretched VHB tape

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 30


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

APPLY POWDER 6 Apply graphite carbon powder to 3M VHB tape, leaving a 2mm barrier separating the powder from the placed PETG frame to allow best conductivity.

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 31


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

FLIP + REPEAT 7 Duplicate process on reverse side.

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 32


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

REMOVE EAP PANELS 8 Press PETG frames to make sure it is extracted as one piece and does not tear, then remove EAP panels with OLFA blade or similar tool

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web. 33


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

ATTACH COPPER TAPE 9 Attach conductive copper tape to opposite sides of panels for best actuation / movement

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web.

34


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

RUN VOLTAGE THROUGH COPPER TAPE CONNECTIONS 10 Hook up either one of the two to your EAP material: A) High voltage power supply directly to copper tape connections B) Lower voltage power supply with a converter

HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY (UP TO 5K-7K V)

+

COPPER TAPE CONNECTIONS

-

Source(s) “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. Web.

35


MATERIAL STUDIES: EAPs

FAILURES Several sheets of PETG were lasercut in order to provide frames of various shapes and sizes. Unfortunatley, very little movement was produced when these materials were connected to the power supply. Voltages of up to 4kv were sent through the material and it underwent little to no deformation through the process. The material did however react to heat being applied, as it was heated the material expanded and as it cooled back to room temperature it contracted back to its original form. It began the thought process of heating and cooling these units, or the heating or cooling process to influence the movement of these cells.

36


THE MACHINE

MOVEMENT DEFINED BY GEOMETRY Considering that the EAPs functioned best when in the shape of a diamond, I considered a series of similar shaped and sized diamonds that would expand and contract depending on temperature. It created a variable roof condition that could adapt depending on the temperature and location of installation.

37


THE MACHINE

GEOMETRIES CREATING 2D SURFACE + 3D SPACE A series of these geometries could allow for a flexible surface condition that would adapt according to a variable. The schematic design process then led to user adaptable spaces, that would be defined by the movement of the ceiling/roof surface condition.

38


THE MACHINE

This proposal for a spatial condition that the flexible geometries could facillitate various spaces that would be determined by the specific user.

39


THE MACHINE

TRACKING MOVEMENT Monitored foot traffic triggers movement of ceiling panels above that pulls and releases wiring connection between grid of uppermost panels and intermediate larger cells below that interrupt and expose view.

40


THE MACHINE

GEOMETRY / SCALE STUDIES Various geometries were cut out of rigid polycarbonate in order to understand the material properties, and how it would react to stress through either pushing or pulling. I started out with a square that would undergo a series of incisions to allow for greater movement. Although the movement was limited due to the frame surronding each study, it allowed me to understand how they could operate at a larger scale.

41


THE MACHINE

Due to time constraints of the studio, it became hard to get a grasp on Max MSP well enough to determine how the code functioned within the application. The movement of my servos and the code that allowed them to move would not have been possible without the help from Myles Sciotto.

CODE WITHIN MAX Window that allows the servos to be initiated, connection between computer and Arduino board to be tested with the Text Flash function, run a test that checks to see if the servos are active, as well as assign different functions to the pins like assigning it as a servo or analog/digital sensor.

SHT-15 (TEMPERATURE + HUMIDITY SENSOR) CODE

CODE IN MAX ALLOWING FOR SERVO ARM OSCILLATION

42


THE MACHINE

After looking into various surface patterns, I was able to extrapolate a method or framework in which to house the flexible cells or membranes.

43


THE MACHINE

LEVELS OF MAGNIFICATION At varying scales, it is evident that a voronoi diagram exists in many leaf surface patterns. I considered the idea of layers as densely packed units, but more as a way to provide a hierachy for cells and the spine or framework that subdivides those cells.

44


THE MACHINE

IMPLEMENTING DIAGRAM FOUND IN NATURE The diagram below denotes how the frame was laid out, and provided an order for the units to follow. The frame would provide a housing for the flexible membranes to be mounted in. After the frame was designed, it became a matter of understanding how these frames could move, open and close and function as a solid surface while still being able to move and open, acorrding to directions the units would receive.

45


THE MACHINE

The frame was then milled out of a sheet of 3/4” x 4’ x 8’ plywood. The diagram provided cut lines for the drill bit to follow and would allow for two suspended frames at 4’ x 4’, one to hold the motors and one to house the flexible membranes. 46


THE MACHINE

Once the frame was removed from the CNC bed, it was then sanded and prepared to be painted black. The rationality for painting it was to visually separate the two frames, the soft and hard. The soft would be the flexible openings that could be manipulated and provided a soft, white, diffused light when closed, so the rigid frame would appear as its own layer.

47


THE MACHINE

2 2 2

UPPER FRAME

2

2 1

1 Arduino Mega

1

2 2

10 Servos

2

The top frame is where the Arduino Mega and servos are mounted with zip ties in order to provide movement to the polycarbonate membranes below. Once installed, most of the wiring, servos and components are concealed from view.

LOWER FRAME The bottom frame is where the polycarbonate layers are housed. This frame is the layer of interaction and provides a visual illustration of various weather data as well as local room temperature and humidity readings. 48

2


THE MACHINE

The ceiling mechanistic construction allows for variable lighting, heating and cooling conditions, that are not only seen visually but felt by users within the space. Depending on weather conditions the ceiling will react to provide optimal living conditions for the user, and it allows for a unique interaction that can either be a passive or interactive experience. At various intervals, the installed ceiling construction would visualize relative weather data instead of imminent changes in the temperature and humidity changes within the building.

SKYLIGHT

The ceiling mechanistic construction allows for variable lighting, heating and cooling conditions, that are not only seen visually but felt by users within the space. Depending on weather conditions the ceiling will react to provide optimal living conditions for the user, and it allows for a unique interaction that can either be a passive or interactive experience. At various intervals, the installed ceiling construction would visualize relative weather data instead of imminent changes in the temperature and humidity changes within the building.

FRAMING LIGHT

SHT-15 TEMPERATURE SENSOR UTILIZED FOR EXPERIMENT

49

OSCILLATING MOVEMENT


INSTALLING THE MACHINE

The frames were interconnected with black chain to match the structural frame and hung from the ceiling hooks via carabiners. Once the installation was hung and properly secured, it was connected to a computer and code was sent to the Arduino MEGA on the upper frame. While it was sucessful in running basic commands, it became hard to discern what the weather sensor (SHT15) was telling the surface condition to do. While movement was subtle, the installation at this point served more as a visual effect, rather than an illustration of room humidity and temperature levels.

50


FINAL MODEL PHOTOS

PERSPECTIVE OF INSTALLATION Final Installation hung in exhibition space

51


FINAL MODEL PHOTOS

VIEW FROM BELOW Photo taken directly below installation gives an idea how the installation could be experienced as a hung ceiling.

52


FINAL MODEL PHOTOS

CLOSE UP OF MEMBRANES Flexible polycarbonate membranes serve as a visual feature that could convey relevant weather data depending on their behavior

53


WORKS CITED “English Wheel Kit with Stand.” Harbor Freight Tools. Web. Coleman, Julie, and Christian Kay. Lexicology, Semantics, and Lexicography: Selected Papers from the Fourth G.L. Brook Symposium, Manchester, August 1998. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 2000. Print. “The Complete Thatch Guide.” Thatching Advisory Services. Web. “Thermoregulation in Bumblebees - Springer.” Thermoregulation in Bumblebees - Springer. , 09 May 1975. Web. “Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/The Skin.” - Wikibooks, Open Books for an Open World. Web. “Integrative and Comparative Biology.” Functional Microanatomy of the Feather-Bearing Integument: Implications for the Evolution of Birds and Avian Flight. Web. “Vager’s Feather Detail (Bald Eagle) by 0Iluvater0 on DeviantART.” Vager’s Feather Detail (Bald Eagle) by 0Iluvater0 on DeviantART. “Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp.” Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp. Web. “Marcel Duchamp Coffee Mill 1911.” ‘Coffee Mill’, Marcel Duchamp. Web. “Marcel Duchamp3 Stoppages étalon (3 Standard Stoppages) 1913-14, Replica 1964.” ‘3 Stoppages étalon (3 Standard Stoppages)’, Marcel Duchamp. Web. “UK Pavilion Shanghai Expo 2010.” Heatherwick Studio UK Pavilion Comments. Web. “Architecture in Japan: The Metabolist Movement.” Outsider Japan /. Web. http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/72289/---/l=1N.p., n.d. Web. “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. Bar-Cohen, Yoseph “Artificial Muscles using Electroactive Polymers (EAP): Capabilities, Challenges and Potential”. “Empa - A117-2-eap.” Empa - A117-2-eap. N.p., n.d. Web. “Electroactive Polymer Fabrication.” Materiability Research Network Electroactive Polymer Fabrication Comments. N.p., n.d. Web.

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A502a_Spring 2014 Portfolio  

Fifth Year Thesis Portfolio

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