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Lesson Three Adobe Illustrator CS5 For Fashion Design

David Morrish

Contents •

Basic T- Shirt Exercise

• •

Table of Understanding For Next Session

Basic T-Shirt Exercise We will now put everything you have learnt so far into practice, by creating a basic T-Shirt technical flat. Through this exercise you will develop a greater understanding of the Illustrator tools and applications. Your aim is to produce the following technical flat by the end of the taught session.

Tips: • Always keep your anchor point count to as low as possible, if you have too many segments, paths can become uneven, curves bumpy and shapes hard to modify. • Anchor points are located at key points in the drawing i.e construction lines, waistline, chest, hips, etc. • A shape can be mirror instantly so you only need to draw half the garment. (Unless asymmetrical). • Garment sketches have a minimum of two layers: A shape layer, containing your garment outline and a detail layer containing seams, top stitching, notions etc. (You may want a third layer for colour and graphics or even a fourth layer for notions).

Template: If you choose to, you may want to download the technical flat from blackboard and use it as a template, buy reducing the transparency and locking the layer. Open a new layer above it and follow the rest of the tutorial, using the download as a guide and reference on where to place anchor points.

Setting Up Open a new print document. Name the document “first technical flat” and select PORTRAIT orientation.

Ensure the RULERS are visible. VIEW >RULERS>SHOW RULERS

CLICK and HOLD down the mouse button on the left hand side ruler - drag to the centre on the page - a vertical blue guide should appear. This is your CENTRE FRONT line.

Centre Front Line

Remember: As in InDesign, guides do not print.

Click Save to save your work - choose a suitable location.

Now we are ready to create the outline of the T-Shirt - It is important to understand that this does not have to be perfect and 100% accurate straight away, as we can use the Pen Tool and Direct Selection tool to manipulate anchor points later on. Open the layers window and DOUBLE CLICK on Layer 1 - Rename SHAPE

SHAPE layer. Using the PEN TOOL click to create the left hand side of the T-Shirt, as shown below. NOTE: Single click at the anchor points to create angular anchor points. We can change these to curves later if necessary.

2 4




Centre Front Guide




C/B Neck




Neck Line




Outer Sleeve Hem

6 -

Inner Sleeve Hem


Under Arm


Waist Line




10 - C/F Hem 9


Select the CONVERT ANCHOR POINT TOOL and change anchor point 8 (Waist line) to a curve. (Click and drag on anchor point).

This creates greater aesthetic visual appeal at the waist.

Use the DIRECT SELECTION tool to move and modify any anchors that are incorrect. Once you are happy - select the whole shape with the SELECTION tool.

Double Click on the Reflect Tool

Select Vertical and Click on Preview.

Click on COPY and NOT OK

The object will be reflected and copied. It may appear on top of the original object, as seen below. Do not worry, this is normal.

With the new object still selected, click on the black selection arrow and drag the new object into place. Use the keyboard arrows to nudge it, for greater accuracy and control.

Note: These are still two separate objects at this point.

Hide the centre front guide: VIEW > GUIDES>HIDE GUIDES

With the DIRECT SELECTION TOOL, select BOTH the centre-back neck anchor points. TIP: You may find it easier to click and drag the marquee over the two anchor points to select. It is important to start to click and drag from the outside of the objects.

From the menu select OBJECT>PATH>AVERAGE. Select BOTH from the pop up box. This aligns anchor points that are slightly apart to prepare them for joining.



in pw



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From the menu select OBJECT>PATH>JOIN. The two anchor points have become one and the top section of the paths are joined. Repeat the same for the centre front hem.

To test they are joined, select the black selection arrow and select the object, it should now be one complete shape. Add a fill to double check

Use the CONVERT ANCHOR POINT tool on the centre back neck line to create a smooth curve.

Here I have used the direct selection tool to move the C/B anchor point higher up. Use the DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to move the anchor point if necessary. Repeat on the C/F hem to create a smooth curve.

Your technical drawing should look something like the above. Notice the smooth curve of the C/B neckline and the C/F hem. Good Practice - Duplicates At this point you may decide to duplicate the shape in order to preserve it for additional T-Shirt designs, this saves starting again each time. We are going to create a new artboard within the file and copy the shape layer to the new artboard, allowing us later on to create a new independent design.

Click on Artboard Tool Your screen will change to a darker appearance.

Click on New Artboard icon. Move the cursor over the existing artboard to see a draft of the new artboard. At this stage you can alter the orientation and size before clicking on the location you desire. (You can also change the default artboard by selecting it and altering the options in the menu bar).

Default artboard New artboard (prior to clicking in location)

Move new artboard to the side of the default artboard and click to position in place.

Press Esc to return to normal mode. You should now see 2 artboards in the lower left hand side of the window. Use the arrows to navigate between the two artboards.

Using the Selection Tool, click and drag a marquee over the original shape to select it all. Click and drag the shape to the new artboard while holding down the ALT key on the keyboard. (This will duplicate it. This technique will also work on all paths, objects and shapes, a great time saver). You should now have two identical shapes, on separate artboards. Select artboard 1 to continue on your technical flat. Construction Lines (seam lines) Using the pen tool draw in all construction seams. You may want to draw one side and use reflect for precise accuracy, or you may want to this all by eye.

Open a new layer and rename Details This will be used for the top stitching and ribbing details.

Ensure the Details layer is highlighted and the Layer 1 is locked.

Sleeve top stitching There are several ways to achieve this effect. Single Row of Stitching: You could simply: • Using the pen tool draw the path(s) where the stitching is no be placed, no fill, black stroke, • Apply the dashed line effect. • Recommend 0.5pt stroke> dashed line>1pt dash and gap>round cap and join. Double Row of Stitching: • Select the path you wish to duplicate using the Selection Tool. • Click and drag, while holding the ALT key to duplicate. or • EDIT COPY>PASTE IN FRONT

Alternatively • Using the Pen Tool • Draw the path in the location you desire. • Apply a stroke of 2pt.

• With the path selected • Go to MENU>OBJECT>PATH>OUTLINE STROKE

Give the segment: • No Fill • Black Stoke

• • • • •

0.5pt - stroke weight Dashed Line 1pt dash and gap Round cap Round join

You should have two rows of parallel top stitching.

Select the stitching and use REFLECT to copy the paths. Drag to the opposite sleeve. Hem: We could use either of the techniques so far, to generate the top stitching for the hem. However, we are going to use this opportunity to introduce you to another technique which you may want to master. Zoom in so you can clearly see the hem of the T-Shirt

Unlock Layer 1 and ensure it is selected

With the DIRECT SELECTION TOOL (white arrow) Select the C/F hem anchor point only.

EDIT>COPY Lock Layer 1 and select DETAILS layer.


Using the Selection Tool, click and drag into place Apply the stroke settings above to create a top stitching effect. Click and drag, while holding down ALT to duplicate

Notice how the stitching protrudes form either end. You can either: • Use the Direct Selection Tool and move the anchor point inwards, to correct. or • Use the scissors to split the path at the intersection>Use the Direct Selection Tool to select the bit you wish to remove>Delete (Backspace). Try both and notice the difference

! T I RY


See lesson one handout on the use of the Scissor Tool if you need a refresher.

Neck Rib We are going to use the stroke palette in a slightly different way, in order to create the rib. During lesson one you were introdued to the dash feature and should have noticed how altering the settings can create very different effects. This exercise builds on this feature. VIEW>GUIDES>SHOW GUIDES ZOOM IN on neck area

Using the PEN TOOL click the first anchor point mid way on the left hand side of the collar. (Between A and B) repeat on the opposite side, BUT this time click and drag to create a curve, shape to ensure the curve is smooth and symetrical. A B

Assign a stroke width which fills the width between the side neck and the side neckline (A and B) . Here I have applied a stroke of 14pts, but yours maybe different. A B

With the path selected EDIT>COPY and EDIT>PASTE

I could have pasted the object in front and not just paste, but for the purpose of this exercise it is easier to do it this way

Apply an outline stroke to the new path MENU>OBJECT>PATH>OUTLINE STROKE

Notice the path now appears around the edge of the shape and no longer a single path running through the middle.

Apply a fill of white and a black stroke of 1pt. Send it to the back

Select the original path and apply the dashed line effect. Keep the weight the same setting as before, but assign a dash and gap of 1pt, 1pt. (You may wish to experiment with these settings) Ensure the butt cap is selected and NOT the rounded cap.

Move the duplicate object underneath to complete the rib effect.

The same technique can be applied to the back of the neck piece to create the appearance of the ribbing being continuous around the neck. But just for now we will only do the front. Applying a Simple Pattern Turn the Details Layer invisible and LOCK. Select Layer 1 Select the RECTANGLE SHAPE TOOL and single click on the art board. Enter 50mm width and 10mm height. Fill with a colour of your choice and NO STROKE.

With the selection tool, click and drag downwards while holding the ALT key to duplicate. Apply a different colour. Ensure no gap is visible between the two colours.

Use the selection tool to select both colours. Drag to the swatches palette.

Select the shape and click on the new swatch

Make the details layer visible Notice the banding on the ribbing has remained white. You will need to change the colour of the background object in the details layer if you want it to match.

With the object selected - double click on the rotate tool icon. Enter a rotation amount and click pattern only. Ensure preview is selected to see effect.

Notice how the pattern effects all the t-shirt. What if we wanted the sleeves to be at a different angle to the main body?

To change the scale: Ensure object is selected. MENU>OBJECT>TRANSFORM>SCALE Here I reduced the pattern only by 50%

Separating the Individual Garment Panels. Remove the pattern from the garment by selecting colour fill - none. Ensure Details layer is locked and invisible. Use the selection tool to select all of the objects Select the Shape Builder Tool Hover over the object and notice what happens.

Paths which insect each other, can now be turned into individual shapes. Single click to confirm existing shape. Or click and drag to combine shapes. Refer to handout lesson two for further information on the shape builder tool If you are having problems, check the gap detection option is ticked (double click on the shape builder icon to bring up options). Ensure the gap size is set appropriately. Single click on each section to turn into an individual shape. Click on the selection tool and select a shape to apply a fill.

Turn the details layer visible to see effects.

Applying a Graphical Image Open a NEW layer and rename GRAPHICS. MOVE to the bottom of the stacking order. Ensure the details layer is locked and invisible.

Select the right hand sleeve using the selection tool. (Layer 1) EDIT>COPY LOCK layer 1 and select the graphics layer. EDIT>PASTE

This duplicated object will be used as the path in order to create the clipping path. Refer to handout session two - clipping paths. I could have used the pen tool to create the same shape as the sleeve. DOWNLOAD the file “Butterfly.JPEG� from blackboard and PLACE into the art board. FILE>PLACE Send the image to the BACK and move underneath the duplicate sleeve object.

Note: The graphics image is still a raster image at this stage.

Using the selection tool select both the graphics and the sleeve path MENU>OBJECT>CLIPPING MASK>MAKE

Move the sleeve back into place within the technical flat. It should fit perfectly.

Note: You may need to unlock layer 1 and change the fill of the sleeve to NO FILL, in order to see the new graphics.

You can still manipulate the clipping path at this stage to create effects. Use the selection tool to select the clipping path and notice the options available in the application menu.

Edit clipping path

Edit contents

Transparency options

Select the Edit Contents option

Notice the live trace options are available to turn the raster graphics into a vector image. Also the bounding box around the full graphics appears, allowing you to rotate ,re-scale and reposition

Here I have reduced the graphic image in size, repositioned it and rotated it. In the TRACING OPTIONS I have ticked - ignored white and clicked TRACE. Using the selection tool, click on the art board to deselect and click back onto the clipping path. Click the EDIT CLIPPING PATH icon in the menu bar and note the options available.

Alter the fill colour.

The fill colour of the path has changed, altering the effect of the graphical image.

Altering the effects of the graphical image with out changing it to a vector image. You may decide you do not want to change the graphics to a vector image, but still want a similar effect to the above. This is possible, but has to done a slightly different way. Repeat the clipping path steps above but do not live trace the graphical image.

Still a raster image

Select the clipping path using the selection tool. Click on the EDIT CLIPPING PATH OPTION and change the fill colour to purple. You may not notice any difference to the image.

Click on the EDIT CONTENTS option and with the selection tool move the graphics to reveal the purple. You may want to think of this like the layers in Photoshop.

In the TRANSPARENCY palette change the layer mode to multiply. Move and rescale the image to suit.

As in Photoshop - Filter effects are still available to further alter your image.

If the graphics you want to apply is simply a logo and does not have to fit over joins etc you can simply FILE>PLACE and move into place.

You may notice here I had to open a top layer “logo� in order for the image to become visible. Turn on the details layer to see results.

Table of Understanding

Activity or Tool

Tick to confirm understanding

Further Support

Basic principles of creating a technical flat Applying a graphical image to a technical flat Better understanding of illustrator tools and application For Next Week: • Keep practicing with the tools and features introduced in the session • Watch relevant screen casts and make notes • Write down any questions you may have • Add to your hardcopy folder - Interesting Illustrator artwork and Technical garment Flats.

• Attempt your own T-Shirt using the duplicate shape created during this exercise, you will present this next week during the session.

Adobe Illustrator lesson three