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The Correspondence of Colors Second Edition By: Damon Freed



Damon Freed 1100 West 4th Street Sedalia MO, 65301, USA damonfreed@gmail.com www.damonfreed.com Editors: Damon Freed and Timothy Johnson Designers: Collaboration of Matthew Locke, Damon Freed, and Nicholas LiVolsi This book is typeset in Helvetica Neue ©2020 Lulu All works and content by Damon Freed ©2020 Damon Freed, Sedalia, MO Front cover by Matthew Locke and Damon Freed Back cover by Matthew Locke and Damon Freed Printed in the United States of America Second Edition Copyright ©2020 Damon Freed All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted without the written permission of Damon Freed.


The Correspondence of Colors Second Edition By: Damon Freed


Dedications

To my graduate professor of Color Theory at Hunter College, City University of New York, for his lasting support and education of mine while in graduate school. Thank you, Sandy. And to my family for their understanding and patience of me during this project. And to all my students who are ever strident and on top of their games in challenging ways! Also, to Nicholas LiVolsi and Matthew Locke for helping to design this book and for being understanding with me on this project, thank you my friends. Thank you!


The Primary Colors

Primary – the blue, blue, blue sky, the ocean at noon Primary – the yellow, yellow sun, a canary, a daffodil, and on some nights the moon Primary – the red poinsettia, the womanly spot, an apple, the rose with a cardinal on top; No one individual should argue this, but they likely will – The Gods delight in us and science is fulfilled! Paint it, draw it, do it – you will find the truth in all that surrounds us if you look! From within us and from without us or inside of this book. The bluest eyes, the tiniest veins – The reddest lips no man could even tame . . . The yellowest teeth and the swab caked in wax – A pillaged mouth with all wisdom teeth removed by the dentist’s axe!


Contents Introduction

1

The Major Fundamentals of Color: Hue, Value, and Temperature

3

The Intermediate of Color

4

Saturation The Minor Fundamentals of Color: Equal Value, Vanishing Boundaries, Vibrating Boundaries, Middle-Color, Transparency, Optical Mixture, Simultaneous Contrast, Bezold Effect, Film Color, After Image

5

Color Harmomies & Discords Poems & Diagrams

11

The Secondary Colors Poem & The Tertiary Colors Poem New Theories of Color

17

Correspondence of Colors Diagram 2

19

Correspondence of Colors Theory 2

20

The Behavioral Color Wheel

24

The Behavioral Color Wheel Theory

25

The Psychology of Shapes

28

The Psychology of Color Shapes

30

The Quadratic Shapes

32

The Behavioral Wheel of Colors

35

The Psychology of Color Diagram

36

The Psychology of Color Theory

37

The Psychology of Color 2 Diagram

38

The Psychology of Color 2 Theory

39

The Physiology of Color Diagram The Physiology of Color Theory

44 45

Contemporary Chromatic Neutrals Diagram

50

Contemporary Chromatic Neutrals Theory

51


Traditional Chromatic Neutrals Without White = Browns not Greys Diagram Traditional Chromatic Neutrals Diagram Traditional Chromatic Neutrals With White Added = Mostly Greys not Browns Diagram Traditional Chromatic Neutrals Theory

52 53

Traditional Chromatic Neutrals Theory

54

The Traditional Chromatic Neutral Browns, Chromatic Neutral Greys, Achromatic Neutrals, and Traditional Neutral Browns

56

Sequencing Pure Colors and Mixtures

66

Traditional Subtractive Primary, Secondary, Neutral, Complementary, and Triadic Historical and Contemporary Color Meanings Diagram

68

Traditional Subtractive Primary, Secondary, Neutral, Complementary, and Triadic Historical and Contemporary Color Meanings Theory

69

Y, R, B (Strong) Versus C, M, Y (Weak) Diagram

70

Y, R, B (Strong) Versus C, M, Y (Weak) Theory The Electromagnetic and the Visible Spectrum Space and Entity: Obstacle and Void, and Color as a Symbolic Gesture

71 77 83

Freed Color System Universe Diagram and Symbol Paintings

93

93 95 95 96 96 97 103 107 107

Creativity (Creative) Logic and Emotion (Receptive-Gentle) Moral and Immoral (Silent Stimulating) Past, Present, Future (Unfathomable-Adherent) Work and Rest (Serene) The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory ”The Scientific & Perceptual Anatomy of Light” Light & Cone Theory Combined with Particle & Wave Theories: The Scientific & Perceptual Anatomy of Light The Freed Color System Zero Game, and its Major and Minor Significances For Allowing Dreams to Come Forth

108 113 117

Projection – Reception, Reception – Projection, and so on...

121

“Earth” (Without adding the Zinc White to the colors), “Zero Game”

122

“The Spectral Wheel of Colors” Ordering System

128

Ordering System for, “The Spectral Wheel of Colors” Ordering System Continued... Freed’s Color Model VS Munsell’s Color Model Damon Freed - Bio

131 134 140 190


Introduction So, around a year ago I devised a system for the primary, secondary, and tertiary corresponding colors, shapes, and behaviors. I’m not the first to think of color in terms of emotions, but I am the first to think of color in terms of behavior patterns and I am the first to think of the shapes in the same way via color. You would think there would be a system in place for this already, right? Well, there isn’t. Over all the years of color, geometry, and psychology, no one, not one person, has thought to organize and to configure a primary, secondary, and tertiary system of colors, shapes, and behaviors! Sometimes it is the small, yet profound things, that become an oversight! In doing as much, I would like to say that some believe it trivial. That no shape or color can be made to preform its innate psychological functioning, but, I am trying to invent a system that allows for this. One that, if needed, can be expanded in years to come to more and more sensitive areas of thought and feelings. And, if accepted, we can start from my model, which, in essence, has been developed out from years and years of prior artists having investigated our previously understood models of colors, shapes, and psychologies. It is my current understanding that any known system of shapes is extremely limited and convoluted. In all my research I have not found one system, to be sure, not a system at all that goes beyond confusion of the primary shapes; the square, the equilateral triangle, and the circle, and their corresponding colors. But, now we have a model! It is not a perfect model, but it is near it. There was only a single anomaly in shape that I must mention. The equilateral triangle is a primary shape, of which it has not one, but two kindred shapes that I am, for the sake of clarity, terming each secondary. They are the isosceles triangle

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and the scalene triangles. Therefore, developed out from the square came the rectangle, out from the circle came the oval, and out from the equilateral triangle came the isosceles and scalene triangles. Furthermore, in this edition, I have aimed to perfect my diagram of Corresponding Colors and my diagram of The Psychology of Color. Each have been revised. Also, I am including my invention of Obstacle and Void space after having developed a new kind of space that surpasses any known space in painting. Lastly, I have incorporated into a single painting all the variations of the traditional neutral browns with their achromatic brothers, white, grey, and black, as well as one with the 36 basic neutrals of color. This, for fellow artists and students of painting is a discovery worth mentioning, as I am unaware of any previous artists having done so, and furthermore, no known nonobjective colorists have to my knowledge gone on in such a way as to create more than one painting influencing their color with natural browns of which I show examples of in this book. In addition to all of this, the second edition has been revised and updated with new images providing visual examples of the fundamentals. Thank you.

Paradigms An Integrated Paradigm is when not one paradigm fits your model. Myself, my dad’s, and Sandy Wurmfeld’s models have been suitable for integration. My own – associative properties of materials! My dad’s – spirituality of materials. Sandy’s – Rigorously applied materials. These are foremost applied in my books.

2


Major Fundamentals

With painting, there are three major fundamentals to consider: hue, value, and temperature. With hue, there is always the decision of which color and where. With value, there is always the decision of how light or how dark the color should be. And, with temperature, it is a matter of warmth and coolness. It should be noted that I came to this realization on my own through painting. Since then, I have discovered Johannes Itten’s book, “The Art of Color,” from 1961. “His first three ‘color contrasts’ (out of seven) were hue, light-dark, and cold-warm.” This is no doubt reassuring in our pursuit of color to know that color maintains a fundamental understanding in the realm of art and has not changed in a long time. In this way, we may continue forward.

Hue

Value

Temperature

3


The Intermediate of Color

Saturation- Saturation refers to a color’s purity, intensity, or brightness from the beginning. When working with color, it is paramount to begin with the most saturated colors you can find. This allows for the most optimal amount of change through alteration of the color. The light to dark adjustments by adding white, grey, or black to a color is a matter of changing the value of the color, not the saturation. There is a difference between lightness and brightness. Brightness is apparent through saturation and lightness is apparent through shifts of value by using white.

Saturation

4


The Minor Fundamentals of Color

Equal Value- At least two different colors of equal lightness or darkness.

Vanishing Boundaries- When at least two different colors create a softened boundary instead of a highly contrasted boundary. This occurs when the boundary is nearly indistinguishable between at least two colors; yet upon closer inspection one can see that the colors are different. 5


Vibrating Boundaries- A glow that occurs when highly contrasting colors meet. The boundary between the colors appears to vibrate and a subtle white glow is produced where the colors meet.

Middle-Color- In perception, the equal mixture of two outer colors. A middle-color is a color that is indifferent, or neutral, that lies between two outer colors.

6


Transparency- Involving at least three colors, transparency is like middle-color, except the color that appears transparent does not have to be an equal mixture to our eyes of the outer colors. The transparent color can lean to one side or the other in appearance thereby creating spatial specificity.

Optical Mixture- When colors that are separated come together and appear to blend at a distance. 7


Simultaneous Contrast- Simultaneous Contrast is the effect of color that happens when the proximity of one color influences another. For example, a primary blue on a light orange background next to the same blue on a dark blue background will change our perception of the primary blue. This is how a person achieves the effect of getting two colors to appear as the same color or one color to appear as two different colors.

Bezold Effect- The overall change in color to a composition when at least one color in an overall composition is switched. 8


Film Color- Film Color is the effect of color that happens when we perceive a different color than the actual color of the surface. The color we perceive appears as a film of color floating just above the surface and is different than the actual surface color. Josef Albers set forth good examples of this in his book, Interaction of Color, (1963) he also presented many of the ‘minor fundamentals’ which I have included, such as, “simultaneous contrast,” “after image,” “vibrating boundaries,” “vanishing boundaries,” “transparency,” “optical mixture,” and the “Bezold Effect.”

9


Look at dot for 20 seconds

Look at dot for 20 seconds

After Image- This is the effect of color in duration. When we stare at a colored image for a moment of time and then look away to a white surface, we see a near reversal of color. I say “near” reversal of color because the color appears fainter than the original color we stared at but is a complementary colored version of the original image. For example, if we stared at a blue image and looked away we would see orange, etc.

Overtone- An Overtone is a single color’s main attribute. For example, Ultramarine Blue’s overtone is blue, and its undertone is violet. Dioxazine Purple’s overtone is Violet, and its undertone is blue.

Undertone- An undertone is a color that appears secondary to the main attributes of a single color. For instance, Burnt Sienna has an overtone of brown with orange undertones. Whereas, Cobalt Blue has an overtone of the purest blue under most circumstances yet can have a green undertone to it depending on what it is located next to or on top of. 10


Color Harmonies & Discords Poems & Diagrams

The first of the harmonies are keeping together cools with cools and warms with warms. It looks like this! Monochromatic!

The second of the harmonies are... Split Complements!

The third is complements!

11


The fourth, is Analogous!

The fifth, are triadic pairs.

The sixth would be, where discord begins... A roll of the dice, a chance encounter across the pyramid, a few on this side and a couple others, weird it is! But save yourselves the chance encounters... I’ve laid out a few for you. Blue, green, orange and yellow!

12


Purple, Red, Black, and White! Halleluah, it’s fright!

Red, and green, and a Hollywood queen! Pink and yellow, say Hello!

And a few others to say I’m right, would be out of sight! Red-Orange, Green, And Blue-Violet in threes!

13


Grey and White makes a glorious sight! But what about a little blue in there with a rust colored glare!

Oh, you forgot about the neutral browns, well, turn that frown upside down here they are together. Burnt Sienna and Black, and the Umbers take a nap, but inject a little red and Yellow-Green antifreeze!

The sky is fresh at nighttime like pinks, and yellows, and purples and blues. But what if we add a number of umbers in there also.

14


The Mind’s Eye (Transparency), by Damon Freed 15


Correspondence of Colors, by Damon Freed 16


The Secondary Colors A secondary is green – the growth of grasses, the moss that passes in the summertime, the mixture of yellow and blue gone sour as the apples on the limbs The next secondary is violet – double up on the colors red and blue, the king and queen have sneezed, Achoo! The last secondary is orange – orange you powerful today, and hey, what about the way the cactus blooms such an ordinary blue that is the complementary color of ORANGE! Orange you glad you’re reading my book!

The Tertiary Colors

The tertiaries: Orange and yellow make yellow-orange and violet and blue make a wonderful color too, it’s called blue-violet. And yellow-green is there doing its thing, and red-orange with its furious saturation, it complements a cooler blue-green hue and what do you know, Red-Violet is there to save the show!

17


Summer Flowers, by Damon Freed

18


Correspondence of Colors Diagram 2

LIGHT

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

PSYCHOLOGICAL COLOR

DARK

LIGHT

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

DARK

WARM

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

COOL

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL COLOR

WARM

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

PHYSIOLOGICAL COLOR

COOL

19

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL


Correspondence of Colors Theory 2 In perceiving color, there are two corresponding modes: psychological and physiological. They both are mental and physical in nature but I find distinguishing them is necessary for understanding. Psychological color has to do with our perception of light. Physiological color has to do with our perception of warmth. It can be said that our response to light is visual and mental, whereas our response to warmth is tactile and physical. I have diagrammed both perceptions to the best of my knowledge. The horizontal arrows in the diagram signify how light and warmth travel. Light and warmth being aggressive, signified by the solid arrows, and dark and cool being passive, signified by the dotted arrows. The left and right arrows, the vertical arrows, signify the correspondence and compatibility between psychological color and physiological color. I want you to understand that natural lightness and darkness correspond directly with warmth and coolness. Think of a low-lit room and a high-lit room. The warmer of the two is understood to be the high-lit room. Sunlight provides warmth, and darkness is a lack of sunlight and warmth. Therefore, it is plain to see that light, dark, warmth, and coolness are linked both in terms of the additive light color theory (projected light) and the subtractive color theory (reflected light). Whether dealing with a direct source of light (projected) or an indirect source (reflected) the theory stands the same. After realizing the bi-polar direction of my previous Correspondence of Colors Diagram, I felt it necessary to add a third component to the diagram to illustrate the more natural effects of light and temperature that occur in daily life. Always, we see them together and the experience of light and temperature (Psychological and Physiological color) is synonymous in our daily life. Therefore, Psychophysiological Color was added to combine the polarities of light and temperature into one succinct title. This is how I work with color, combining the two. I don’t believe it can be done in another way, actually. Also, it is necessary that I mention Johanne Wolfgang von Goethe’s work on color. He was the first to describe colors in physiological terms. Therefore, I have attempted to incorporate both understandings here, both the psychological and physiological conditions of color into a unified heading. He understood as well as I do, the psychological implication of colors as well as the physiological. This is to say, their functioning of the mind as well as of the senses, together. Through sight and by associations arising from perception and thinking.

20


In the history of color theory, the term chromatic neutral has been applied to a middle-color directly between a complementary pair. To my knowledge, it has never been applied to a middle-color between a monochromatically colored pair. For example, the middle-color directly between a dark blue and a light blue can also be understood as a chromatic neutral according to my diagram. Chromatic neutrals are commonly understood to be grey in appearance through the combining of, for example, a blue and an orange, a red and a green, or a violet and a yellow. My diagram attempts to extend this understanding to middle-colors between tints, tones, and shades of all hues.

21


Correspondence of Colors Diagram 3

LIGHT

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

PSYCHOLOGICAL COLOR

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

DARK

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL COLOR

WARM

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

PHYSIOLOGICAL COLOR

CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

COOL

22


Correspondence of Colors Theory 3 For the “Correspondence of Colors 3� diagram it felt suitable to add the middle-colors where they were missing! Making for a more robust and integrated feel to the diagram. Also, I was upset by the solid versus dotted arrows I used on the second diagram, opting for a unified reading of color. I as well used yellow for light and red for warmth on this diagram giving it a more traditional symbolic read of coloration and associations.

23


The Behavioral Color Wheel

qu ilit y

Ecstas

y

ess Crazin

assion Comp Interest a Admiratind/or on

d ye

no An

Love

Tra n l Pe ac efu ity

at

s ssnes Hopele r and/o l a Suicid

Infatua tion and/or Obsess ion

Ag it

Cautio

n

Em o an tion Co d/o al nfu r sin g

e

Fatigu

Fear

Ps yc h Th and/ otic rea or ten ing

ion ss pre De

t

Regre

Ag gr a Co an vat m d/o ed pu r lsi ve

y Humilit

s es dn Sa

ed

An

Shame

d ere

ss ne ive ns Pe

i Irr

Safety A d/ nn or oy Di ing str es sin g

an

ed tat

g

ed ss r e r St nd/o ed a rag En

hy

Empat

ge

Pride

w

llo

Me

Coura

Me lm

ren

d

tion

us

e

tiv

a dit

Ca

Se

ble xio

Convic

Joy

u Tro

ty An

ance Arrog

Mania

d

ne

gs

ry

Happin

de

ad

M

Manic

ss An

Brave

ess

ne

ad

M Fru s a trat St nd/o ed res r se d

The area surrounding the Behavioral Color Wheel is a medium blend of all the colors, thus giving life to harmony. At moments, we feel this, a perfect balance in life, internal and external are at one. At moments when your compassion and empathy are at its height, when your courage and safety are tall, and all your mental, sensory, and emotional experiences and understandings of yourself as a part of Nature are in balance with the behavioral wheel of colors we feel it! And we are better for it. 24


The Behavioral Color Wheel Theory

The inside circle on the wheel is where you want to be. The more intense outer circle is dangerous to be in emotionally and the middle ring is where most people are naturally. I go between behaviors most often to do my work, it’s subtler this way. You need to understand your mind to function well as an individual within society and as a sometimes-lonesome artist. Otherwise it is not you, your decisions, your ethics, your way of doing things and it might get dangerous if you stop trying or don’t do. Society is built on it. On the worth of the individual, on you and others. The influence of others on your emotional states and behaviors is very important so I say surround yourself with others whose behavior is acceptable to your own and yours to theirs. It’s part of being a healthy individual and member of society. Starting with the center most ring on the wheel and with the lightest and most mild behaviors and colors the colors move outward gaining intensity from mild behaviors to normal behaviors to intense behaviors and colors. Also, from a color standpoint, each primary, secondary, and tertiary color has been influenced by one to four of the basic behavioral colors of Burnt Sienna, Raw Umber, Raw Sienna, and Burnt Umber with consideration to their behavioral underpinnings. Burnt Sienna being Courage, Conviction, and Bravery and Raw Sienna representing Compassion, Pride, and Arrogance. Burnt Umber being Empathy, Humility, and Fatigue and Raw Umber representing Safety, Caution, and Fear. For example, Love (medium violet) is the only secondary behavior wherein all four basic behavioral colors were incorporated and for the primary behavior of Joy (light yellow) I incorporated both Burnt Sienna and Raw Sienna to the colors, creating a synthesis symbolic of Joy that is rooted in Courage and Compassion. Alas, it is understood both psychologically and artistically our capabilities of exhibiting multiple behaviors at once. It was on a drive to Sedalia after my exhibit “The Correspondence of Color” at the Bruno David Gallery, to my hometown, from Saint Louis when the primary behaviors of Anger, Sadness, and Happiness came to myself. It wasn’t until later, once I got to my studio that the tertiary and secondary behaviors came in. Because I was driving, I needed to wait to finish my thinking on the subject until I could better articulate my thoughts and focus within a peaceful place. The mild and intense behaviors were later expressed in writing while sitting. The basic behavioral patterns of Burnt Sienna, Raw Sienna, Burnt Umber and Raw Umber were not understood until much later. I knew that Fear was an important behavior having read Robert Plutchik’s “Wheel of Emotions,” but, I also knew that Courage and Bravery were meaningful and important behaviors, of which Plutchik did not include in his “Wheel of Emotions;” I imagine for the sake of safeness, but, I imagine also out of fearfulness is why he did not include them or it simply did not occur to him. Also, my wheel moves from mild behaviors in the center of the wheel, to normal behaviors in the middle of the wheel, then to intense behaviors within the outer ring of the wheel. This is parallel to my thinking with the way I perceive the world. You might notice with Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions that his intensity is in the center, whereas mine is on the outside, a different concept. 25


Nature is in us and all around us, therefore my understanding of color shows through as linked to the basic emotions of Bravery and Fear and their influence of lightness and darkness upon us. The first two basic behaviors came to me while sitting outside one morning around four in the morning in the dark. The epiphany of incorporating Burnt Sienna to the lighter more positive behaviors and Raw Umber to the darker more negative behaviors happened and occurred outside. It is worth it to note that Burnt Sienna and Raw Sienna for man, and Raw Umber and Burnt Umber for woman, are earth colors that act to incorporate Nature together with the more systematic tradition of color theory and its process. Later, after having studied the Geneva Emotion Wheels (2005, 2012), which differ from Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions (1980), the polarities of Pride and Humility came to me in my thinking as well as the positive behaviors of Compassion and Empathy. Therefore, at that time I added the colors of Raw Sienna and Burnt Umber creating a more robust wheel of behavioral patterning. In conclusion, the first four fundamental behaviors that came to myself in my model are the four basic behaviors of Fear (Raw Umber), Bravery (Burnt Sienna), Pride (Raw Sienna), and Humility (Burnt Umber). This gave the wheel a very direct starting point. Once the four basic behaviors and colors were recognized, I used them in different ratios mixing them into the more nuanced primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries providing them with rooted values. I must mention that in nine times out of ten the colors came before the behaviors did. I kept mostly to my way of working with color, responding to it first. Therefore, perceptive thoughts and feelings are what I used over research of the emotions in this matter, in most cases. The sensory, how color makes one feel on the inside is how I perceived the colors to remain true to the concept. I did my best to synchronize my color thinking to my understanding of emotions and behaviors. It helped to have prior models of emotions as connected to color, but, I only used them if the colors and emotions rang true and were succinct to myself. I went with my gut and mind in all instances. My entire artistic career has been made of working with color in one way or another and four years of my production was devoted entirely to black, white, and grey in charcoal studying value, the effects of light on subject matter. So, in regarding the behaviors we must not only look at color, but to lightness and darkness as well as to warmth and coolness. In late 2007 I was hospitalized for a potential mental illness and in early 2008 I was diagnosed with BiPolar Disorder. My symptoms have been treated since this time. Over the years I have been to three mental hospitals. First, to begin diagnosis and treatment, secondly, for suicidal thinking, and thirdly, for threatening behavior. Therefore, I have been up and down and at both ends of the psychological spectrum if one considers thoughts of hurting oneself and others the two poles of symptoms related to a psychological illness. Also, in being sure I want to say that color, though understood scientifically to a 26


great degree, remains subjective and objective to the viewer. Surely, when one sees pure blue-green it does not necessarily make them want to threaten other persons and nor when looking at pure blue-violet should it make one want to hurt themselves, yet, in staying true to my understandings I used them as two of multiple place holders for the behaviors. My greatest discovery of all, the one I am most happy about, came during the creation of my painting for the diagram, and that, was the harmonious warm brown surrounding all the colors of the wheel itself, of which, is a blend of them all. My father and I stood side by side looking at the wheel of colors and he asked me what color I was to paint the surrounding area of the color wheel, at that time, together in discussion the decision was made by me, of which he agreed. Therefore, being symbolic of harmony in every sense, both internally and externally, may we all experience this harmony many times throughout our lives as I remain most optimistic about this part of The Behavioral Color Wheel, not simply because it sets mine apart from others, but because I find honest truth in it, and in the wheel, and how they work in unison together, the foreground and background.

27


The Psychology of Shapes The Primary Shapes

Circle

Square

Equilateral Triangle

The Secondary Shapes

Rectangle

Oval

Scalene Triangle

Isosceles Triangle

28


The Tertiary Shapes

Square-Oval

Rectangle-Circle

29

Oval-Equilateral Triangle

Square-Scalene Triangle

Rectangle-Equilateral Triangle

Circle-Isosceles Triangle


The Psychology of Color Shapes The Primary Shapes

Joy

Pensiveness

Irritated

The Secondary Shapes

Troubled

Interest and/or Admiration

Mellow

Mellow

30


The Tertiary Shapes

Shame

31

Annoying and/or Distressing

Mania

Anxious

Annoyed

Serenity


The Quadratic Shapes Primary Combinations Square-Circle

Pensiveness-Joy (Serene)

Circle-Equilateral Triangle

Joy-Irritated (Pissed Off)

Secondary Combinations Rectangle-Oval

Troubled-Interest and/or Admiration (Indecision) Scalene Triangle-Isosceles Triangle

Mellow-Mellow (Calm) 32


Rectangle-Scalene Triangle

Troubled-Mellow (Self-Conscious)

Scalene Triangle-Oval

Interest and/or Admiration-Mellow (Styling)

Rectangle-Isosceles Triangle

Isosceles Triangle-Oval

Troubled-Mellow (Self-Aware)

Mellow-Interest and/or Admiration (Down)

33


Primary and Secondary Combinations

Equilateral Triangle-Scalene Triangle

Irritated-Mellow (Peeved)

Square-Isosceles Triangle

Pensiveness-Mellow (Calm, Easy-going)

Equilateral Triangle-Isosceles Triangle

Irritated-Mellow (Anxious)

Circle-Oval (Eggshaped)

Joy-Interest and/or Admiration (Modesty)

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The Behavioral Wheel of Colors

Joy Ecstacy Happiness Excited Energize Prepa d ring Overjoye Sin d M c o t e i v r ating Fu M e Ch n Lo ania Enac Hon ting est ar ving m Ma in g nic Tru So stin g c ial So ot C hi raz ng y Ca rin g W ar m in g

Clear Decisive hed us Accomplis Envio ed nish us Jealo Asto nity e re ul zed Se ativ Hatef g Ama y Ne litar ful d ace So lexe ble Pe Perp ea gre ty sa ed uili Di lat nq e Iso Tra tiv nta me gu d Ar ne nfi Co

Na tu ra l

Me dit ati ve Wis e Old

Uptig ht

Bravery Psychotic and/ or Threatening

W or dl y Ca lm

Int Cu elli ge lt M n Mid t ell ured dleSm ow Age d Y art Soph ou isticat ed A thful nalytic Conviction al Courage

Emotional and/ or Confusing

y nn Fu

Annoying and/or Distressing

ion Compass l u f t Forge Arrogance l d u l f t ing o c C Go ess Negle y s Ea siven ted e ant Abusiv c n Dist Pe nne ed x a l d Co Re che ss Deta e l dn sa Sa e r v i e t si iv Po n Un o i s res p l De ica n e um c E

Infatuation and/ or Obsessive

Shy

Dish ones ty

pat het ic

an d/o lessn e rS uic ss ida l A

Di cta to ria Do l mi na tin Ho g pe

35

g llin pe m Co g n i ng / te ha nd a C na ed ive io vat s gra mpul ss Ag pa ed Co or m nc e Co Influ nd g ed Fou in itat ar ed Ag Sh spir king usted In ed See Exha noy ing An h c r Busy e Seat Work Disquietod A Laziness Boredom

Do gm Co ati mp c eti tiv Re e Ph gre i t As loso s Los Sh ured phic t a al Rese Los me ntme i ng nt Indign atio Bashful Embaras n sment Interest and/or Love Admiration

Pride

ss ne d Ma s c u o isti n e er d m He ed Hu den al ad ded tistic n i o M g g E in wM us ble rro a t n m A Trou ized N fide stic Con Rituali al i c e us Sp Willful Religio l a Fatigue Spiritu Humility y th pa Em Frustrated and/ Anxious Angsty or Stressed Safety Caution Pond er Fear Sy Nurt ing Dwe mp ured l l i ng Irri athet Rom Broo tat ic a ding Int ed ntic Ap uit po ive M lge yste An tic riou ge s red Sm F o oo rgi vin th St g res se En d a rag nd/ ed or

De vio us


The Psychology of Color Diagram WARMER POSITIVITY

COOLER NEGATIVITY

EXCITEMENT

JOY

DEPRESSION

MELANCHOLY

SADNESS

HAPPINESS

BIRTH - LIFE - DEATH

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The Psychology of Color Theory

The psychology of color pertains to our perception of a color’s innate lightness or darkness. This diagram shows how we can perceive color (light) in varying intervals corresponding to either positive or negative emotional states of being. The history of painting tells us some truths about these categorical divisions of color that express specific emotions . . . For example, Henri Matisse, a painter who investigated the positive sides of color through varying degrees of excitement, joy and happiness, had this to say about painting: “What I dream of is an art of balance, of purity and serenity devoid of troubling or depressing subject matter - a soothing, calming influence on the mind, rather like a good armchair which provides relaxation from physical fatigue.” And when viewing his paintings, it is plain to see a decisive lighter palette lending itself to an uplifting spirit and attitude about color. On the other side, there are artists such as Mark Rothko who have investigated the darker, sadder, more melancholiac, and depressive states of color and emotion. Rothko is quoted as having said, “I’m interested only in expressing basic human emotions: tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.” And in his repertoire of painting there are both examples of positive and negative, light and dark. The ecstasy and tragedy, as he stated, were expressed clearly in his paintings through brighter and darker color palettes. And this brings me to the third aspect of my Psychology of Color Theory and Diagram. This aspect is found in the diagram’s vertical divisions of white, grey, and black. White representing birth (light and innocence), black representing death (dark and tragedy), and grey representing life (ambiguity); the combination of birth and death – light and dark – innocence and tragedy. It could be said that these symbolic characteristics manifest themselves best through drawing with charcoal or through painting with a strictly black, white, and grey palette.

*I would like to note my awareness of Robert Plutchik’s, “Wheel of Emotions,” from 1980. My awareness of his color wheel, of sorts, came long after my having completed The Psychology of Color diagram. What I would like to say is that I am an artist first, not a psychologist. In my own defense, my emotional states of being that you see in the diagram were prompted by color first, not the other way around. This is to say, I did not develop a color model to suit my awareness of emotional states of being. The color came first, my emotional responses second.

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The Psychology of Color 2 Diagram

DEPRESSION

MELONCHOLY

LOW, MEDIUM, & HIGH STATES OF NEGATIVITY

SADNESS

BOREDOM

NEUTRALITY

HIGH, MEDIUM, & LOW STATES OF NEUTRALITY

CURIOSITY

EXCITEMENT

JOY

HAPPINESS

HIGH, MEDIUM, & LOW STATES OF POSITIVITY

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The Psychology of Color 2 Theory

In the first diagram for The Psychology of Color, I attempted to demonstrate the positive effects of light and color on our psyche. In this new diagram, The Psychology of Color 2, I have expanded the field into new areas of color and light by contributing the grey area. Within this grey area are the high, medium, and low states of neutrality which are neutrality itself, the center colors that are the most pleasant places to be on the diagram, and the high states of neutrality which I am calling curiosity, and the low states which are boredom. In my thinking on the subject and in response to a student who wondered why the first diagram was divided in half I devised a system to account for a smoother transitioning from positivity to and from negativity.

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Excitement—Happiness

In Bloom, by Damon Freed 40


Boredom—Neutrality

Untitled 17, by Damon Freed 41


Joy—Happiness

Untitled 19, by Damon Freed 42


Neutrality—Excitement

Untitled 28, by Damon Freed 43


The Physiology of Color Diagram

Y

V

YO

BV

O

B

RO

BG

R

G

RV

YG

WARMS

COOLS

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The Physiology of Color Theory

Sir Isaac Newton’s color wheel in 1704, from “Opticks,” shows that color has been more or less organized between warms and cools until later in 1961, when Johannes Itten pointed even more articulately to the division between warms and cools in his book, The Art of Color. The division is not a new one, but my nomenclature, “The Physiology of Color,” is. My reasoning for dividing the warm and cool traditional primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries in the manner I have is to further your understanding of their binary powers. Their physiological implication is set forth in my diagram by a split division down the center between the warms on the left and the cools on the right. This is the most direct (and dramatic) way I could think of to demonstrate warms and cools without showing the effects of other colors on them. It is important to note that there are varying degrees of warmth and coolness. For example, as Itten indicated in, The Art of Color, a cool color placed next to an even cooler color may make the cool color appear warm given its context next to the cooler color. Nevertheless, there remains a fundamental division between warms and cools when contextualizing all of the traditional primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries alone together as seen in my diagram. It is also believed that warm colors advance into our vision and cool colors recede away from our vision. This is true most of the time. But, it needs to be stated that cools, given their context, can be made to advance. For example, a blue-green surrounded by a red-orange appears to advance in an isolated context. Hans Hoffman was a brilliant colorist and his idea of push and pull is a good example of this when color is used well to emphasize spatial ambiguity.

Warms – Yellow = Lightest Red-Violet = Darkest Yellow = Warmest warm Red-Violet = Coolest warm

Cools – Yellow-Green = Lightest Blue-Violet = Darkest Yellow-Green = Warmest cool Blue-Violet = Coolest cool

Intermediate Warms – Red-Violet = Most ambiguous warm in terms of warmth and coolness

Intermediate Cools – Yellow-Green = Most ambiguous cool in terms of warmth and coolness

*These results are based on Golden Heavy Body Acrylics. To my eyes, these colors are the truest to begin with. I find them to be the most saturated and balanced. The colors I began with are as follows: Primaries – Cadmium Red Light, Cadmium Yellow Light, Cobalt Blue Secondaries – Permanent Green Light, Cadmium Orange, Medium Violet

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Balanced palette of warms and cools

Untitled 21, by Damon Freed 46


Predominantly cool palette

Untitled 11, by Damon Freed 47


Predominantly warm palette

Untitled 4, by Damon Freed 48


Balanced palette of warms and cools

Beauty, by Damon Freed 49


Contemporary Chromatic Neutrals Diagram TINTS

TONES

SHADES

CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

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Contemporary Chromatic Neutrals Theory

Chromatic – of or relating to color or color phenomena or sensations (Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, 2017) Neutral – not decided or pronounced as to characteristics: indifferent (Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, 2017) By reading the definitions for chromatic and neutral above, we can logically surmise that chromatic neutral simply means color indifference. For example, if I were to situate three different colors side by side and the middle, or neutral, color was an even mixture of the outer two it could be said that it bears the quality of indifference toward the outer colors as it would not take sides. This is what I am describing in my diagram. It is my wish to extend the meaning of chromatic neutral to all chromatic neutrals of all varieties; be it a tint, tone, shade, or, a physical mixture of red-yellow-blue, or to a physical mixture of any complementary pair. In the diagram to the left you will find my example of contemporary chromatic neutrals. Mixtures of tints, tones, and shades of the traditional primaries and secondaries created by incorporating white, grey, or black to the pure colors or pure color combinations.

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Traditional Chromatic Neutrals Without White = Browns not Greys Diagram WARM CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

GREEN + ORANGE + VIOLET = BROWN CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

COOL CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

BROWN CHROMATIC NEUTRAL = YELLOW + BLUE + RED

RED + BLUE +YELLOW = BROWN CHROMATIC NEUTRAL + VIOLET+ ORANGE + GREEN

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Traditional Chromatic Neutrals With White Added = Mostly Greys not Browns Diagram WARM CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

GREEN + ORANGE + VIOLET = GREY CHROMATIC NEUTRAL

CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

COOL CHROMATIC NEUTRALS

BROWN CHROMATIC NEUTRAL = YELLOW + BLUE + RED

RED + BLUE +YELLOW = GREY CHROMATIC NEUTRAL + VIOLET+ ORANGE + GREEN

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Traditional Chromatic Neutrals Theory

Having established a broader definition of chromatic neutral, we now understand a chromatic neutral to be situated precisely between any two outer colors, otherwise referred to as a middle-color. Traditionally, it refers to the physical mixture of red-yellow-blue plus white added, which creates what is said to be a chromatic grey, or, it is considered the physical mixture of any complementary pair which is said to create chromatic greys. But, as you can see from the diagram on pg. 52, this is untrue. I selected the purest colors I have found in acrylic and combined them to see the results. This means I worked with the purest blue I could find, the purest green, the purest red, etc. You will find that history is misleading, given my diagram. The physical mixtures of complements that I found was mostly a variety of beautiful browns, not greys. What history has left out when working with paint, is that you must add white to the mixture of any complementary pair to come close to grey as you can find on pg. 53. History has deceived us to a degree. A traditional chromatic grey, it can now be fairly stated, is a grey that is derived from mixing either violet, orange, and green plus white added, or by mixing any complementary pair with the addition of white, or by mixing red-yellow-blue-green-orange-violet together with white added. In so many textbooks and color theories, they forgot to tell us that you must add white to your mixtures. In the diagram on pg. 52, you will find the traditional chromatic neutrals created by combining the traditional complements of red-green, blue-orange, yellow-violet, and the tertiary complements. The diagram includes variations of these as well going both to the warm side and to the cool side. And for the sake of clarity on this matter, I have included the mixture of red-yellow-blue, the mixture of green-orangeviolet, and the mixture of red-yellow-blue-green-orange-violet together. All was done in an honest attempt to find a chromatic neutral grey, the greys that history acknowledges to be true. I did not find a single one. The closest I came to a true chromatic neutral grey was a mixture of the secondaries together, the mixture of greenorange-violet. It yielded a cool brown one or two steps away from becoming a grey. So, for the record, remember to add white to your mixtures (pg. 53) if you are looking for true traditional chromatic greys.

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Chromatic Neutrals, by Damon Freed 55


The Traditional Chromatic Neutral Browns, Chromatic Neutral Greys, Achromatic Neutrals, and Traditional Neutral Browns The 9 traditional chromatic neutral browns are as follows:

The 4 traditional neutral browns are as follows:

1. Yellow-Violet 2. Yellow-Orange-Blue-Violet 3. Orange-Blue 4. Red-Orange-Blue-Green 5. Red-Green 6. Red-Violet-Yellow-Green 7. Green-Orange-Violet 8. Yellow-Blue-Red 9. Green-Orange-Violet-Yellow-Blue-Red

22. Burnt Sienna 23. Burnt Umber 24. Raw Sienna 25. Raw Umber

The 8 chromatic neutral browns with white added to create greys are as follows: 10. Yellow-Violet-White 11. Yellow-Orange-Blue-Violet-White 12. Orange-Blue-White 13. Red-Orange-Blue-Green-White 14. Red-Green-White 15. Red-Violet-Yellow-Green-White 16. Green-Orange-Violet-White 17. Green-Orange-Violet-Yellow-BlueRed-White The 1 chromatic neutral brown that remains brown with white added is as follows:

The 6 half and half mixtures of the traditional neutral browns are as follows: 26. Burnt Sienna-Raw Sienna 27. Burnt Umber-Raw Umber 28. Burnt Sienna-Burnt Umber 29. Burnt Sienna-Raw Umber 30. Burnt Umber-Raw Sienna 31. Raw Sienna-Raw Umber The 4 one third one third one third mixtures of the traditional neutral browns are as follows: 32. Burnt Sienna-Burnt Umber-Raw Sienna 33. Raw Umber-Raw Sienna-Burnt Umber 34. Burnt Sienna-Raw Sienna-Raw Umber 35. Raw Umber-Burnt Umber-Burnt Sienna The 1 complete mixture of the traditional neutral browns is as follows: 36. Burnt Sienna-Burnt Umber-Raw Sienna-Raw Umber

18. Yellow-Blue-Red-White The 3 traditional achromatic neutrals are as follows: 19. White 20. Grey 21. Black

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

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Neutral Browns with White, Grey, and Black #1, by Damon Freed 58


Neutral Browns with White, Grey, and Black #2, by Damon Freed 59


Study of Neutral Browns with White, Grey, Black, and Yellow, by Damon Freed 60


An Autumn Scene, by Damon Freed 61


A. Achromatic Neutrals with Pure Colors Next to Each Other, by Damon Freed 62


B. Traditional Neutral Browns with Pure Colors Next to Each Other, by Damon Freed 63


C. Achromatic Mixtures with Pure Colors Together, by Damon Freed 64


D. Traditional Neutral Brown Mixtures with Pure Colors Together, by Damon Freed 65


Sequencing Pure Colors and Mixtures A. Achromatic Neutrals with Pure Colors Next to Each Other – When placing the primaries and secondaries next to the Achromatic Neutrals the color purity of the primaries and secondaries appeared less saturated than when placed in between the Traditional Neutral Browns. Grey – 1. Grey is perhaps the most transformative of the Achromatic Neutrals, for when placed within a field of color it can take on that field of color’s complementary color which is not actually present, thereby creating the effect of a color that has not physically been applied to the surface. This creates simultaneous contrast. 2. When placing the Primaries and Secondaries between the same grey in linear sequences the pure colors held onto their individual characteristics greater than when placed between Black, White, Burnt Sienna, Raw Sienna, Burnt Umber, and Raw Umber in linear sequences. In other words, the colors maintained their integrity as pure colors. B. Traditional Neutral Browns with Pure Colors Next to Each Other – When placing the primaries and secondaries next to the Traditional Neutral Browns they were the brightest and most saturated. And when next to Raw Sienna they appeared especially bright and saturated!

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C. Achromatic Mixtures with Pure Colors Together – The Primaries and Secondaries became deeper, bolder, and more saturated when mixed together with the Traditional Neutral Browns as compared to mixtures together with White, Grey, and Black. The Achromatic mixtures appeared somewhat duller. Black – When pure colors were mixed with Black they became the deepest and most mysterious in appearance to myself.

D. Traditional Neutral Brown Mixtures with Pure Colors Together – Pure colors become richer, bolder, and more saturated when mixed with Raw Sienna than with any other earth tone or when mixed together with White and Grey and Black.

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Traditional Subtractive Primary, Secondary, Neutral, Complementary, and Triadic Historical and Contemporary Color Meanings Diagram

Happy (Danger, Light, Day, Summer)

Love (Royalty)

Power (Angst, Nobility)

Wisdom (Melancholy, Water, Loyalty)

Passion (Angry, Confidence, Danger)

Growth (Calm, Spring, Money)

Boyish innocence (Sky)

Girlish innocence

Modesty (Autumn)

Death (Knowledge, Truth, Birth (Innocence, Light) Negation of Light, Night)

Life (Ambiguity, Winter)

Discord

Powerful Harmony

Logic and Rationale

Primary Triad (Strong)

Subtle Harmony

Secondary Triad (Weak) 68


Traditional Subtractive Primary, Secondary, Neutral, Complementary, and Triadic Historical and Contemporary Color Meanings Theory The meanings closest to their color names are most personal to me. The descriptions and meanings in parenthesis are less personal but remain somewhat relevant personally, and highly relevant socially. This list has been developed through personal research and use. No in class testing has taken place. All the colors and their specific meanings have developed over time, intuitively, toward clarity of perception as a professional artist (painter) and Color and Design (Color Theory) instructor.

*These meanings are mostly based on responses to paint and to painted surfaces—a subtractive (reflected light) mode of perceiving by dealing with oils, acrylics, and ink. It should be noted that when using paint, oil, acrylic, and ink, that the traditional primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries are under scrutiny. Rather, there are many pigments that cannot be divided, pigments that cannot yet be mixed for, making them primaries. Among them are examples such as Manganese Blue, Quinacridone Red Light, and fluorescents such as, Chartreuse and Magenta.

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Y, R, B (Strong) Versus C, M, Y (Weak) Diagram

STRONG

WEAK

CADMIUM CADMIUM COBALT PRIMARY PRIMARY PRIMARY BLUE RED CYAN MAGENTA YELLOW YELLOW LIGHT LIGHT

Mixture Similar to Cadmium Red Light = PY+ PM

CRL+CB = Mixture Similar to Primary Magenta

CB + CYL = Mixture Similar to Primary Cyan

Mixture Similar to Cobalt Blue = PM + PC

SIMILAR

SIMILAR

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Y, R, B (Strong) Versus C, M, Y (Weak) Theory As I sat down to finish this manuscript on color, I realized that something was amiss. I had not completed my research on the matter. I googled the Yale School of Art and discovered that the director of graduate studies in painting/printmaking was considering the primaries of cyan, magenta, and yellow to be the universal primaries of color. What I had assumed, I must admit, is that the historic primaries of yellow, red, and blue were correct. Therefore, I set out in acrylic to find the truth. I painted the afore painting to be made into a diagram (pg. 70) to disprove that the colors of cyan, magenta, and yellow were indeed not the true primaries. It worked. What I have found is that, in acrylic one cannot achieve the same results with cyan, magenta, and yellow that you can with yellow, red, and blue. Also, I googled, “What are the primary colors?” I was shocked not only to find out about views, but also, seemingly, the world’s views on this matter. Upon browsing the related images, I found that red, yellow, and blue were being taken over by images of the primaries cyan, magenta, and yellow. What I can say is this. The yellow, red, and blue colors are stronger in retinal appearance than cyan, magenta, and yellow. Thereby, in this book, making them dominant over cyan, magenta, and yellow. The colors I used to create my diagram are as follows: Cadmium Yellow Light Golden Brand Heavy Body Acrylic Cadmium Red Light Golden Brand Heavy Body Acrylic Cobalt Blue Golden Brand Heavy Body Acrylic VERSUS Primary Cyan Golden Brand Heavy Body Acrylic Primary Magenta Golden Brand Heavy Body Acrylic Primary Yellow Golden Brand Heavy Body Acrylic The mixtures in the diagram are advantageous in that they do not match up with each other across primaries. They are similar in comparison both ways. I could not mix to match either set of primaries using the other set.

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Winter Bird, by Damon Freed 72


Tertiary Spectrum #1, Raw Sienna, by Damon Freed 73


Tertiary Spectrum #2, Black, by Damon Freed 74


Tertiary Spectrum #3, Grey, by Damon Freed 75


Tertiary Spectrum #4, White, by Damon Freed 76


The Electromagnetic and the Visible Spectrum It began with Diarylide Yellow. Then it started. I was beginning to see things. Precious things. And thus, it was a union between my siblings and myself. My sister most of all. The wheel began one night listening to music while sitting down to write. I remember. I looked at a diagram from Nasa about the electromagnetic spectrum. It depicts the Electromagnetic Spectrum with a small portion coming off it which formed a circle, The Visible Spectrum. That’s when it began. I thought about how to make it, linearly, I thought, wow, well, I can make that thing! I remember first trying to imagine the parts we cannot see, that in theory it will be connected. Medium Violet is what I recall, a stand in for Ultra-Violet waves. Also, Magenta waves were on my mind, as well as Cyan. So, I wanted to depict for myself the entire Visible Spectrum plus some. I thought to myself, how could I make it visible? So, I made a drawing after having imagined a rainbow as having a circumference. I thought to myself, a Color Wheel is simply a cross-section of a Rainbow. Therefore, I had the form. From there it’s history. The seven colors we often depict the rainbow in today are rotating back and forth between Indigo or not, between including the primaries of Magenta and Cyan or not. Between including all nine colors or not with Green, Yellow, Indigo, Blue, Cyan, Red, Orange, Magenta, and Violet. Well, in my painting of the spectrum I have included all nine of these, plus some. So that makes eighty-two visible colors in my painting of the spectrum, for now. Which is a humble system of colors considering what we can mix for and our eyes can perceive. And it is impossible to prove this, but I have seen other colors. Externally and upon my inner eyes. In thinking about the Visible Spectrum, it helped. Indeed, they have come forth to a degree; colors that are invisible to untrained eyes. Even still, some have not. The colors I am referring to are mostly of an ethereal kind, and of light colors – meaning – they are intangible except to the eyes. And since I don’t work with the additive spectrum of colors, they would be difficult to ascertain in physical formations. I can only hope to create facsimiles of this family of colors through paint techniques. Their elusive and translucent natures are exotic. More like mere sensations of color, yet, they have enormous presence to myself in my life. In mixing colors together, such as Manganese Blue Hue and Quinacridone Magenta, I can come close to one of them, where the borders meet, at the edges. This is where I am hoping to encounter some of them, through the simultaneous contrast of colors. The only subtractive means we have to get at them is through the phenomenon of simultaneous contrast, film color, and after-image.

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Transparency #2, by Damon Freed 78


Transparency #7, by Damon Freed 79


Transparency #12, by Damon Freed 80


Transparency #20, by Damon Freed 81


Transparency #23, by Damon Freed 82


Space and Entity: Obstacle and Void, and Color as a Symbolic Gesture Space as an entity is what I am most interested in within my recent nonobjective works. Essentially, in Obstacle and Void space. For when one places planes side by side as the Egyptians would depict figures, there are spaces between the planes that do create space, no matter how flat the spaces and figures might appear to be. Space as an entity is to say space as a totality. Composition is foremost significant to creating the space I am after. Composition, shape, and color. To achieve void space in a painting one must at least place a full field of painted color or one of neutral or achromatic color against a wall. The Color Field artists achieved pure void space without interruptions to the space. Hans Hofmann, on the other hand, is known for his push and pull space which predates color field space. Push and pull space is when at least two planes or the plane and the void interchange, when one element comes forward the other recedes and vice versa. And I would say Malevich accomplished it long before Hofmann did. In 1913 with his black and white Suprematist drawings on paper, and more specifically and deliberately with his drawing entitled, “Movement of the Suprematist Square, producing a new bi-planar suprematist element.” But how does one create a space where the planes are static, and the void is not, this is to say, how does one create a new space that is not the space already achieved by the Color Field artists or by the Action Painters of the 40’s and 50’s, or by Malevich in 1913. By now, it seems to me that it has already been surpassed by Robert Ryman whom moved beyond their space with a rougher planar surface that keeps you interested and attentive to the surface itself without the illusion of moving into void space. So, moving beyond Ryman as well, I propose that I have accomplished what I am calling Obstacle and Void space for the first time when I was 18 years old by accident. I had no conception of it at the time verbally, I wasn’t able to articulate it, but I can now. I created a painting that at this moment hangs in a Catholic School Library in Kansas City, Bishop Miege. There, in this painting, you can see a textured rectangle of color that is an elevated surface in three dimensions, a relief component in and on the painting, not totally unlike Ryman’s use of texture except that I exaggerated the elevation of the surface rectangle to a degree beyond what he tended to do in his paintings. The space behind the rectangular relief creates the illusion of void space. But, I have in my pursuit, created a cleaner example of this kind of space. I finally have reduced the space I am describing to its essence. On the following pages are my examples of Obstacle and Void and it now may function wherein the Obstacle and Void are each flat within the painting existing on the same two-dimensional plane. No interchange occurs between the two spatially, this is to say the red “Obstacle” is fixed and appears floating just above the turquoise “Void” that you can illusionistically move into. So, to the evolution of foreground and background, figure and field, passage, bi-planar, push and pull, there is now Obstacle and Void space. 83


Like a boulder in front of you on a path the red “Obstacle” stands smack in front of the turquoise “Void” which is akin to the area, sea, or sky behind the boulder. It doesn’t look like much because it is such a natural phenomenon in the world, but in artwork it is very rare to see a plane (the red and white column) that does not interchange or flip flop spatially with its background (the turquoise). There are many naturalistic landscape paintings where it closely occurs, but, through nonobjective means it has taken me since 2006 when I coined the terminology to better articulate this kind of space, to reduce it to its most direct means in painting and linguistically. You would be surprised how difficult it was to do. I saw hints here and there until now, but they were not what I wanted. It is very difficult, nonobjectively, to get beyond push and pull or surface space like Ryman’s use of space without using representation or cheap tricks like drop shadows in nonobjective paintings. It’s taken me hundreds of paintings and works on paper to achieve it, yet finally, here it is in one small 24 x 24 inch painting, alive and doing well! Another good example for the sake of clarity and reference comes in the movie “Aviator” with Leonardo DiCaprio. If you’ve seen the movie you will likely recall the cloud scene. They are filming a movie within the film and DiCaprio’s character discovers that when filming the planes flying without clouds in the sky, the picture appears to have no movement or depth. He discovers that without the counterforce of the clouds everything gets flattened out and appears unnatural, not like in real life. Well, Obstacle and Void space works similarly. It helps to have an active field of marks (clouds) behind the Obstacle to demonstrate movement and depth. It also helps to have color resonance between the two, the Obstacle and the Void, wherein the two elements appear united but separate. Now, as for a more prescient historical grounding of space I would like to mention the intellectuality of Barnett Newman’s zips with their hard edges that spanned his canvases from edge to edge, top to bottom, and acted to divide the paintings into planes of space that go back and come forward; and I would also like to mention Mark Rothko’s more atmospheric void spaces. The “zips” in Newman’s paintings hold you out as well as in. The push and pull as it was, interchanges spatially. And in this way, they never really got beyond Malevich’s idea of biplanar suprematist elements or Hofmann’s same idea of push and pull. Nor do the works of Blinky Palermo who never, from what I’ve seen and can tell, used atmosphere to his advantage. In a different way, Rothko’s voids let you in, they are complete spatial infinity and atmosphere.

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In essence, what I have done is to isolate Newman’s “zips” in such ways as to not divide my canvases, cutting the zips loose on both ends, having floated them over Rothko’s voids in standalone pieces. But, it’s not that simple. I am not quoting art history directly or parodying its styles. The pieces have a feel unique to themselves, unique to me, sincere, and come about naturally, spontaneously, and slowly. I’m bringing in color theory as well. Wherein I am indebted to Itten and Albers to a degree, as well as to my dad for his thorough understanding of naturalistic color. The Obstacles and Voids are working together in beautiful and surprisingly sensual ways. Their qualities feel different but together. This, thankfully, softens the intellectual nature of the works. There is an emotive quality to them so far, and this emotive quality seems to be stemming from the centering and placement of the Obstacles atop the Void spaces. A very wholesome feeling is achieved by them, yet, of course, there is a mystery about them as well. There is a union at work among them, a satisfying one. I imagine, was I less versed in color the Obstacles and the Voids would be less connected to each other and more anonymous or arbitrary in feeling. I will say, one thing that I have found out about making the paintings is that by buffering the pure color of the voids with a little earth tone has helped. It knocks the edges off the purity of the manufactured colors straight from their jars and subdues the acidity of pure colors helping to create a deeper space. Also, I am layering them. Their surfaces are built up in three to four coats of acrylic paint by using transparent layers and interference colors. The interference color is suspended between a surface coat and an outer coating of paint. This helps to calm the artificiality of the interference layer yet creates depth and reflectivity beneath the outer layer. Also, the sides and edges are left raw on the pieces, the paint pools on the edges of which I mostly leave to be.

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Obstacle and Void: Red with Turquoise, by Damon Freed 86


Obstacle and Void: Green with Naphthamide Maroon, by Damon Freed 87


Obstacle and Void (Cross): Yellow with Violet, by Damon Freed 88


Obstacle and Void (X): Primary Triad Including Orange and White, by Damon Freed 89


Obstacle and Void: 9-11, by Damon Freed 90


Obstacle and Void: Intuitive Cognitive Frequency Including Atmospheric Sound Waves (Songs #1 and #2 from cd played through stereo from American Utopia), by Damon Freed 91


Obstacle and Void: Airplane, by Damon Freed 92


Freed Color System

The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory, 2019, Graphite, Colored Pencil, and Acrylic on Fabriano Artistico Extra White Paper, 30 x 87 1/2 inches

Universe Diagram and Symbol Paintings I would like to first point out that the Symbol Paintings came about free from any diagrammatic ideas or conscious use of the mandala form. This is important as far as the paintings are not illustrations of the diagram but vise versa. The paintings were made in my usual instinctual fashion at the time. Had they not been made this way it is my feeling that the freedom and joy to simply paint would have been surpassed and perhaps even stifled by the conscious planned idea. Therefore, the artistic act, as it often does, preceded the rationalized form. Secondly, I feel it is necessary to state that the form of the paintings was brought about free from any specific research and the only real connection to traditional mandala forms is its composition. Since creating the diagram and paintings I have conducted some research on the circle and mandala. To quote the renowned psychologist Carl Jung, from the section, The Symbol of the Circle, written in his final book, “Man and His Symbols,” he expressed, “Whether the symbol of the circle appears in primitive sun worship or modern religion, in myths or dreams, in the mandalas drawn by Tibetan monks, in the ground plans for cities, or in the spherical concepts of early astronomers, it always points to the single most vital aspect of life—its ultimate wholeness.” 93


This brings me to my third point pertaining to the Universe Diagram and Symbol Paintings. I would like the pairing of the Universe Diagram with the paintings to be regarded as a personal ritualistic exercise and philosophy of secular “wholeness.” The entire activity was one of centering myself. From painting the paintings to designing the diagram, my understanding of myself and of the world deepened. As far as the diagram is concerned, it is to be considered an act of perfection toward a better self. With the central and most significant point on the diagram being creativity, it is my belief that through every day creative acts, be it the layman or the artist, the mother or the father, a deeper understanding of the sixteen points, or union of poles, is satisfied. This, of course, puts the artist and parent in very good esteem considering their everyday activity of studio work and the rearing of a child. Both activities merit direct tangible results that can be reflected upon. It is through this process of creation, I believe, that awareness, or as the monks might say, enlightenment, is best achieved. And to quote Carl Jung once more, he expressed, “Every building, sacred or secular, that has a mandala ground plan is the projection of an archetypal image from within the human unconscious onto the outer world. The city, the fortress, and the temple become symbols of psychic wholeness, and in this way, exercise a specific influence on the human being who enters or lives in the place.” And while I am not an architect, it is certainly my hope as a painter that each work, having been painted in my way, has this effect of “psychic wholeness” on the viewer.

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Creativity (Creative)

Where all life begins. I nearly named this point on my diagram, “Creation,” but alas, it had a religious connotation I didn’t want. Think of the yin and yang, here. The center most point of the spiral of life. One cannot deny its positive and negative forces, male and female, coming together. Also, it came to me much later, after I had devised my own system of colors, but, the diagram of the I-Ching lined up with it. Therefore, in parenthesis I have added the corresponding words derived from its message. The only point on the innermost part of my diagramming that did not have an afore corresponding word, was “Work.” Was I to label it with a corresponding terminology from the I-Ching, I would have to consider steadiness, or balance, as its term for it. The Chinese had a numbering system, as well, which I have attached to my diagram for the sake of coherence. As well as the colors where I deemed they fit best. Having stemmed from the Hindu system of colors for the Chakras (the oldest known system of colors) which includes red, yellow, blue, indigo, green, violet, and orange, I imagine the Chinese were one of the first civilizations to maintain a working order for their colors. Which includes red, yellow, blue, green, violet, and orange, both the primary and secondary sets of colors.

Logic and Emotion (Receptive-Gentle)

In my work, logic and emotion are expressed in different ways: logic through measure and composition; emotion through color and mark making. Cold hard logic is represented using a straight line without deviation, sometimes aided using tape and a ruler, or by a compass; and casual logic is created using a free or unsteady hand. Emotion may also be attributed to the touch of the hand through organic or imperfect mark making. Also, I invest emotion into a piece by way of color choices, impulsive and inspired, depending on how I’m feeling at the time of creation, and, by the choice of size and scale; through quirky shapes and conventional ones.

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Moral and Immoral (Silent-Stimulating)

“Refusal to acknowledge the boundaries set by convention is the source of frequent denunciations of objects of art as immoral. But one of the functions of art is precisely to sap the moralistic timidity that causes the mind to shy away from some materials and refuse to admit them into the clear and purifying light of perceptive consciousness.” John Dewey, from Art as Experience, 1934 Every artist faces morality before his work. His honesty and ethical integrity is called upon each time he creates. He asks himself, “Am I just repeating myself or forging ahead into unknown territory? Am I free? Does the work reflect qualities of personal and universal liberty? Is the work enslaved by the past, by tradition? Am I pushing the boundaries of contemporary thought and virtue? Does it challenge the status quo? Does it sidestep habitual behavior?” The artist has a duty to himself and to others, as should every mental worker and individual within society. I think we have a real responsibility. I mean, like Brice Marden says, I don’t think you can find art in the street. Maybe you discover beauty there, but not art. People make art. And people are interested in other people; therefore, we have a real duty to others.

Past, Present, Future (Unfathomable-Adherent)

“What the live creature retains from the past and what it expects from the future operate as directions in the present.” John Dewey, from Art as Experience, 1934 Inside of the creative act are different states of mind with consideration of time: one of them being the past, another being the present, and yet another being the future. If one fails in maintaining a present state of mind while working they are rarely satisfied. You must keep a present mind to feel your emotions and to utilize clean logic while reacting to the painting in its unfinished state. 96


Prior the physical act of making your personal past is of much significance because the goal is so often a quest for new discoveries. An awareness and memory of your past inventions will help you to yield unique results. The future can be worrisome, or hopeful, if one thinks of it during the act of making. You cannot dwell on posterity and how the painting will be received by future generations or anything like that. There are also past, present, and future conditions about how evident tradition, current trends, and inventions are within the work. One shoots for inventiveness to be most prevalent.

Work and Rest (Serene)

A balance between work and rest is a good one to ignite the creative fire. Work, for social interaction and to refine communication skills. Rest, to stimulate the unconscious mind with dreams and inspirations, and to energize the body and spirit. Creativity falls between these two.

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Symbol #4, 2014, Acrylic on Canvas, 21 x 21 inches 98


Symbol #5, 2014, Acrylic on Canvas, 21 x 21 inches 99


Symbol #11, 2014, Acrylic on Canvas, 21 x 21 inches 100


Universe Painting: Past Protector and Future Projector, 2014-20, Acrylic on Canvas, 72 x 72 inches 101


Universe Diagram (Panel #0) 2019 102


The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory They say there are no straight lines in nature, I beg you to ask of yourselves, the last time you saw light waves? You see, electricity moves in waves, light moves in Rays! Therefore, I began my odyssey quite literally from the help of a map of the trade winds officially, putting the colors where I needed them to go in a sequence, and now I have a solid theory of light and color entitled, “The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory.” From the map of the trade winds that nautical sailors would have used to a seashell shaped theory of light! The spiral has become the central form that proceeded from my painting entitled, “Alignment, for Uncle Hal.” As such, my theory of light proceeded likewise, with a few curves in the road. But I am positive I have landed on something of importance to light theory and to color theory. I present to you my diagramming of my theoretical forms... Unless interrupted, the cones of light should travel straight. While doing so they are cyclical in nature spiraling in on themselves in a nonstop motion inward, each cone of light. Upon studying light and lighting in the daytimes past and through studying my paintings in the daytimes and night times light has become clearer to me in its structure. The eye-brain system seems to register light emanating from streetlights at nighttime with circular bulbs as it moves outward in coning straight lines like a starburst so to speak, while simultaneously moving circularly outward towards us, as does sunlight, moonlight, starlight, and lights of a coning nature. I have depicted the movement of light in each instance within my diagramming. While the white light is the center most force of light moving through to yellow and through to the other colors of my spectrum in the case of sunlight and moonlight, it would seem, my example illustrates in my diagram, in watching the effect of a metal-halide bulb in a streetlamp with my eyes, the light first registering in white light, then to rich greens, then to the other colors of my depicted spectrum, of which I have labeled for you in my diagramming, as well. The funnest time I had of all during my picturing of light and colors was my contribution to the Earth colors and natural effects of lightning within its region. This section of my diagram is mostly based on pigments and where they come from. I imagine this field of Earth colors to be the most richly unexplored region of coloration when it comes to modern nonrepresentational painting.

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The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory (Panel #1) 2019 104


The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory (Panel #2) 2019 105


The Mechanics of Light and Color: Light and Cone Theory (Panel #3) 2019 106


“The Scientific & Perceptual Anatomy of Light� Scientific

Perceptual

Particle

Wave

Cone

Micro

Micro

Macro

Particle & Wave (Yin & Yang)

Spiral

Macro

A Ray of Light!

Cone & Spiral (Light & Cone Theory)

Light and Cone Theory Combined with Particle and Wave Theories: The Scientific and Perceptual Anatomy of Light In this diagram I have depicted for you, light in its atomic form (scientific) and light in its everyday reality (perceptual) form. The particle dimension of light as well as its wave configurations are the scientific forms. The particle and wave being a micro version of its form and the cone and spiral being the macro versions of its form. The cone represents the spiral as it recedes into space.

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The Freed Color System The cone shaped system suited my system in the beginning and was first developed somewhat by Munsell. Ostwald around the same time was developing his system. Later, in 1940 the Deutsche Institut fur Normung (German Standards Institute), abbreviated to DIN, needed a more practical delivery than that of the Ostwald system, which had been used since the First World War. They focused on delivering a system that understood best the variables of hue, saturation and brightness and as perceptively equidistant as possible. Experiments were made resulting in a circle of 24 color hues and a color scale based on saturation. The introduction of a darkness scale took place to measure the relative brightness of non-self-illuminating (subtractive) color. Therefore, along the way, I was inspired to create my own color system from three others. Robert Grosseteste’s system of color, Michel Eugene Chevreul’s system of color, and the DIN system of colors helped me to create my own system of colors. In my system, I have introduced at least 24 more colors than that of the DIN system, resulting in a color wheel of 52 specific hues. (24 single pigment hues were used.) The complexity of a system as mine has introduced more colors based on my innate understanding of color decision making – hue choices, value adjustments, temperature selections, and saturation and brightness. A difference in my color solid is the practical need to reveal the entire solid in the round for the sake of understanding fully how the wheel, or (ever-expanding rings of color, outwardly) works and functions in the round. Another component I have offered is an understanding of value as moving through white, to grey, to black. As the cones reduce in size their shapes gather colors in size. Therefore, each color becomes closer together creating the illusion of a black, “Earth Black,” the mixture of all the colors of the visual spectrum coming together. The further toward the outside of the cones the light becomes refracted differently giving life to different hues in understanding what is next to them. Thereby, moving toward white light closer to the surface of the cones (surface of the Earth). I began my system originally with 6 colors. I needed a brand of paint that was most vivid, saturated, bright, and rich. I decided upon Golden Heavy Body Acrylics. Their acrylic paint suited my needs best. I fought some time over the green, which to use, as I was very partial to a Lascaux brand green and to a very matte black by Lefranc & Bourgeois, called Flashe. But, through realizing I needed an even distribution of finishes across my palette, I decided upon a more structured system and was able to find a good green and a good black in Golden acrylics which aided an even satin appeal across the colors. Therefore, each color was visually and intuitively calibrated based upon my selection process from one color to the next. These colors are, Medium Violet, Bone Black, Carbon Black, Cobalt Blue, Cadmium Red Light, Cadmium Yellow Light, Cadmium Orange, Permanent Green Light, Titanium White and Zinc White interchangeably. This is what I came to. I settled on the Medium Violet for its, well, medium potential as a violet. It was equal in saturation to my Cobalt Blue, and Dioxazine Purple was too dark as a violet. Also, my Permanent Green Light was equal in saturation to my Cobalt Blue. Therefore, I went with two colors, the Medium Violet and my Permanent Green Light that are mixtures manufactured by 108


Golden. I didn’t want to go this way, originally. It was my hope to stick to single pigment acrylics, yet, of all the single pigment and multi pigment combinations, I wanted visual consistency across my primaries and secondaries, so I went with the best-looking colors to my eyes regardless of their chemical makeups. My aim in creating a sufficient 6-color system was balance. Some mix for their secondaries by using their primaries, but I do not. My system emphasizes clarity and high chroma (saturation) above all else as a factor visually incorporating the colors from one to the other. Each color needs to stand on its own in terms of hue, and together through value, temperature, and saturation. Warms with warms and cools with cools should remain close in value as well as in saturation. When using primaries to mix for secondaries that’s one step of saturation/brightness loss right there, as each mixture depreciates in saturation and brightness as you move forward progressively, so, I wanted to begin with at least the 6-color system as my starting point. Now, I have used the ethics of this 6-color system to create an 82-color system. I use 34 manufactured colors to create my 82-color system of which 27 are single pigment hues. My basis of considerations remains in terms of hue-value-temperature-saturation. The system began like this:

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Ring #3, 2018, Acrylic on Canvas, 24 x 24 inches 110


Earth, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 27 x 27 inches 111


Zero Game, after Kazimir Malevich’s Statement, “It is from zero, in zero, that the new movement of being begins.” 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 27 x 27 inches 112


Zero Game, and its Major and Minor Significances Think of color this way, linearly. If you were to use a pure blue mixed with a pure white you could extend that blue in steps until it became pure white on the end. Then think, for some time we’ve been able to do that with 12 different colors, the 3 primaries, the 3 secondaries, and the six tertiaries. That’s twelve colors right there. But now, we may utilize my wheel of colors to extend, like the pure blue and white mixtures, 36 more times. So, instead of saying, well, all there really is are the tertiaries, you can say, shoot ladies and gents, now there are 36 more colors to work with, to extend as far as possible! This is the major significance of “Zero Game.” The minor significance is that it is a “system” of color. This helps to keep the colors organized. I can’t even begin to imagine the mixtures that will occur from mixing out of order. It truly is an infinite world and wheel of colors! In the world of manufactured acrylic paints, Golden Heavy Body Acrylics are the most diversified and intense in saturation. Meaning, they hold the most pigment possible among brands. The downfall, they are expensive comparably. They are what I use the most and “Zero Game” was designed originally using them. I was able to find the most single pigmented colors using this brand of acrylics. This means they are the most valuable to a painter for their tint out strength. Now, I decided on colors that would not overlap, that was a rule of the wheel, no duplicates. So, given my wheel of colors that excludes the earth tones and pure black, white, and grey, I have created a good system to use in the future. I will be adding colors to it as I go along!

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Alignment, for Uncle Hal Daum, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 72 x 72 inches 114


Atlas, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 60 x 60 inches 115


For Allowing Dreams to Come Forth, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 46 x 46 inches 116


For Allowing Dreams to Come Forth In perception, “For Allowing Dreams to Come Forth,” I have discovered a new color phenomenon. When studying the painting’s center dot in duration the entire circumference of its circular pattern becomes neutralized. The colored spectrum, through keen awareness and optical mixing (when two or more separated colors become blended at a greater distance from the paintings) the painting’s center remains fixed and destabilized simultaneously. Also, its colors are extinguished by the eyes. Which is a new form of simultaneous contrast I’m coining radial extinguishing colors!

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Rainbow, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 24 x 24 inches 118


He Said, She Said, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 46 x 46 inches 119


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Eyes

Ray of Vision

Spiraling Ray of Light

Perceived Colors

Entanglement of Seeing

Ray of Vision

Sunlight

Sunlight

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Projection – Reception, Reception – Projection, and so on... In Plato’s, Timaeus, he claims the eyes both give light, and receive light. One of the earliest known texts on the subject of vision and light. With this, we must understand that light works both ways. But most current scientists I have found, think differently. The investigation of light is now overly burdened by our receptive capacities which we know to be true. We should look at this thing differently for the time being. Plato again states, in Theaetetus, that the looking and the seeing, rather the projection of our vision onto an object and the motion (light rays) coming from the object, when the two meet, in that zone, color exists and is perceived subjectively from one individual to the next. He states, “Let us carry the principle which has just been affirmed, that nothing is self-existent, and then we shall see that white, black, and every other colour, arises out of the eye meeting the appropriate motion, and that what we call a colour is in each case neither the active nor the passive element, (but something which passes between them), and is peculiar to each percipient…” And that about says a lot! I will go on. The Yin and Yang is a symbol of a spiral. It is what a spiral looks like if you zoom in on it. It is no coincidence that my “Universe Diagram” with its origins in Chinese thinking, and my theory of light and color are the same. (Its beginning and its endings.) And this is where I am in my understandings. If we took this line of logic further, the beginning and the endings, are similar. Micro and Macro. Micro being the projection of light from the eyes and Macro being the reception of light into our eyes. So, perhaps, after all, we do project a source of light through our vision. (Read Plato’s Timaeus and Theaetetus, page. 15 from classics.mit.edu/Plato/timaeus.html., and page 12 from classics.mit.edu/theatu.html) Yet, it goes unknown, by some. And the projected light unknown. I mean, I have experienced the projection of vision into another’s eyes, have you? And, not only the projection, but the sensory confirmation of it being projected and received. I mean, colors seem to have been well understood by the Hindus, first. Then by the Chinese. And later, realized by Plato, and more and more, until now. So, where we are at is this. A spiraling coning effect of light, at least I am there. I understand the quantum mechanics as explained by current scientists. I do. But there is more to it than they can prove thus far, and they certainly admit to this. We are on the edge of it. I can perceive not by my discretion or by my willing, inner colors to my mind. And an electric blue, which I have written about before, that was externalized from my mind. Perhaps, we are the ones whom emit a wave like light force. If we are indeed capable of emitting currents of electrical-like, waves. Chakras, Auras, and the like. Do we give off these? Is it not possible, or even plausible to take them into guidance of ourselves? We need to look at these. To experience them more fully. Thought, it rises! Vision, it projects and is received. We need more time. We should balance the study of our physical bodies and what they can do with the study of external light sources and how they are received, and perceived. 121


“Earth” (Without adding the Zinc White to the colors) and “Zero Game” 3 Primaries1. Yellow (Cadmium Yellow Light) {Yellow Light Rays} 2. Red (Quinacridone Red) {Red Light Rays and Infrared Radiation} 3:1 Zinc White Matte 3. Blue (Cobalt Blue) {Blue Light Rays} 2:1 Zinc White Matte 3 Secondaries4. Violet (Medium Violet) {Violet Light Rays and Ultra-Violet Radiation} 1:2 Zinc White Matte 5. Green (Phthalo Green Blue Shade) {Green Light Rays} 1:3 Zinc White Matte 6. Orange (Vat Orange) {Orange Light Rays} 3:1 Zinc White Matte 6 Tertiaries7. Yellow-Green (Phthalo Green Yellow Shade) 1:2 Zinc White Matte 8. Yellow-Orange (Diarylide Yellow/Cadmium Orange 4:1) 9. Blue-Violet (Anthraquinone Blue1:3 Zinc White Matte + Smalt Hue 4:1 Zinc White Matte) {Indigo Light Rays} (On “Zero Game,” I used Cobalt Blue mixed with Medium Violet for this one to avoid a green bias to the colors.) 10. Red-Violet (Quinacridone Violet) 1:2 Zinc White Matte 11. Blue-Green (Phthalo Blue Green Shade) 1:4 Zinc White Matte 12. Red-Orange (Cadmium Red Light) 1:1 Zinc White Matte 12 Quads13. Permanent Green Light 1:2 Zinc White Matte 14. Cadmium Yellow Dark 15. Dioxazine Purple 1:5 Zinc White Matte 16. Permanent Violet Dark 1:2 Zinc White Matte 17. Viridian Green Hue 1:1 ½ Zinc White Matte 18. Cadmium Orange 19. Ultramarine Blue 1:1 Zinc White Matte 20. Quinacridone Magenta {Magenta Light Rays} 2:1 Zinc White Matte 21. Turquoise Phthalo 1:4 Zinc White Matte 22. Cadmium Red Light 1:1 Zinc White Matte 23. (Alizarin Crimson Hue, for “Earth”) Cadmium Red Dark 1:1 Zinc White Matte 24. Cadmium Yellow Medium 122


12 Quintas25. Cadmium Yellow Light-Permanent Green Light 1:2 Zinc White Matte 26. Medium Violet 1:2 Zinc White Matte-Dioxazine Purple 1:5 Zinc White Matte 27. Permanent Violet Dark 1:2 Zinc White Matte-Medium Violet 1:2 Zinc White Matte 28. Permanent Green Light 1:2 Zinc White Matte-Phthalo Green Yellow Shade 1:2 Zinc White Matte 29. Cadmium Yellow Dark-Diarylide Yellow 30. Dioxazine Purple 1:5 Zinc White Matte-Anthraquinone Blue Indigo 1:3 Zinc White Matte + Smalt Hue 4:1 Zinc White Matte (I used Cobalt Blue and Medium Violet on “Zero Game” to avoid a green bias in the colors.) 31. Quinacridone Violet 1:2 Zinc White Matte-Permanent Violet Dark 1:2 Zinc White Matte 32. Phthalo Green Yellow Shade 1:2 Zinc White Matte-Viridian Green Hue 1:1 ½ Zinc White Matte 33. Diarylide Yellow-Cadmium Orange 34. Anthraquinone Blue Indigo 1:3 Zinc White Matte + Smalt Hue 4:1 Zinc White MatteUltramarine Blue 1:1 Zinc White Matte 35. Quinacridone Magenta 2:1 Zinc White Matte-Quinacridone Violet 1:2 Zinc White Matte 36. Viridian Green Hue 1:1 ½ Zinc White Matte- Phthalo Green Blue Shade 1:3 Zinc White Matte 12 Sextas 37. Cadmium Orange-Vat Orange 3:1 Zinc White Matte 38. Ultramarine Blue 1:1 Zinc White Matte-Cobalt Blue 2:1 Zinc White Matte 39. Quinacridone Red 3:1 Zinc White Matte-Quinacridone Magenta 2:1 Zinc White Matte 40. Phthalo Green Blue Shade 1:3 Zinc White Matte-Turquoise Phthalo 1:4 Zinc White Matte 41. Vat Orange 3:1 Zinc White Matte-Cadmium Red Light 1:1 Zinc White Matte 42. Cobalt Blue 2:1 Zinc White Matte-Phthalo Blue Green Shade 1:4 Zinc White Matte 43. Cadmium Red Dark 1:1 Zinc White Matte-Quinacridone Red 3:1 Zinc White Matte 44. Turquoise Phthalo 1:4 Zinc White Matte-Manganese Blue Hue 2:1 Zinc White Matte 45. Cadmium Red Medium 1:1 Zinc White Matte-Cadmium Red Dark 1:1 Zinc White Matte 46. Manganese Blue Hue 2:1 {Cyan Light Rays} 47. Manganese Blue Hue 2:1 Zinc White Matte-Phthalo Blue Green Shade 1:4 Zinc White Matte 48. Cadmium Red Light 1:1 Zinc White Matte-Cadmium Red Medium 1:1 Zinc White Matte 123


***Earth Black – A greyish brownish black that is produced by mixing, in equal distribution, numbers 1-24 without the addition of the Zinc White Matte. ***Earth Black – yields a fully chromatic middle grey, even in temperature, when mixed one part to eight parts Zinc White Matte.

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Left – Earth Black, my fully chromatic black derived from 1-24 without adding the Zinc White Matte. Right – Bone Black, an achromatic black. 125


Earth Grey on the left is my chromatic grey derived from colors 1-24 with 1:8 parts Zinc White Matte. (Richer/Deeper) Bone Grey on the right is an achromatic grey derived from Golden Heavy Body Bone Black mixed with Zinc White 1:8 parts. (Lighter/Warmer)

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The Spectrum, 2019, Acrylic on Canvas, 27 x 27 inches 127


“The Spectral Wheel of Colors” Ordering System 1. Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phosphorescent Green 2. Fluorescent Chartreuse/Titanate Yellow/Phosphorescent Green 3. Titanate Yellow 4. Primrose Yellow 5. Cadmium Yellow Light 6. Cadmium Yellow Medium 7. Cadmium Yellow Medium/Cadmium Yellow Dark 8. Cadmium Yellow Dark 9. Cadmium Yellow Dark/Diarylide Yellow 10. Diarylide Yellow/Fluorescent Chartreuse-Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 11. Fluorescent Chartreuse-Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 12. Fluorescent Chartreuse-Fluorescent Orange/Cadmium Orange/Phosphorescent Green 13. Cadmium Orange 14. Cadmium Orange/Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 15. Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 16. Fluorescent Orange/Vat Orange/Phosphorescent Green 17. Vat Orange 3:1 Zinc White Matte 18. Vat Orange/Cadmium Red Light 19. Cadmium Red Light 1:1 Zinc White Matte 20. Cadmium Red Light/Fluorescent Orange-Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 21. Fluorescent Orange-Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 22. Fluorescent Orange-Fluorescent Red/Cadmium Red Medium/Phosphorescent Green 23. Cadmium Red Medium 1:1 Zinc White Matte 24. Cadmium Red Medium/Cadmium Red Dark 25. Cadmium Red Dark 1:1 Zinc White Matte 26. Cadmium Red Dark/Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 27. Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 28. Fluorescent Red/Quinacridone Red/Phosphorescent Green 29. Quinacridone Red 3:1 Zinc White Matte 30. Quinacridone Red/Quinacridone Magenta 3:1 31. Quinacridone Red/Quinacridone Magenta 2:1 32. Quinacridone Red/Quinacridone Magenta 1:1 33. Quinacridone Magenta 2:1 Zinc White Matte 34. Quinacridone Magenta/Fluorescent Red-Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 35. Fluorescent Red-Fluorescent Violet 36. Fluorescent Red-Fluorescent Violet/Quinacridone Violet/Phosphorescent Green 37. Quinacridone Violet 1:2 Zinc White Matte

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38. Quinacridone Violet/Permanent Violet Dark 3:1 39. Quinacridone Violet/Permanent Violet Dark 2:1 40. Quinacridone Violet/Permanent Violet Dark 1:1 41. Permanent Violet Dark 1:2 Zinc White Matte 42. Permanent Violet Dark/Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 43. Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 44. Fluorescent Violet/Medium Violet/Phosphorescent Green 45. Medium Violet 1:2 Zinc White Matte 46. Medium Violet/Dioxazine Purple 47. Dioxazine Purple 1:5 Zinc White Matte 48. Dioxazine Purple/Fluorescent Violet-Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 49. Fluorescent Violet-Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 50. Fluorescent Violet-Fluorescent Blue/Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Phosphorescent Green 51. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue 1:3-4:1 Zinc White Matte 52. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Ultramarine Blue 3:1 53. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Ultramarine Blue 2:1 54. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Ultramarine Blue 1:1 55. Ultramarine Blue 1:1 Zinc White Matte 56. Ultramarine Blue/Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 57. Fluorescent Blue /Phosphorescent Green 58. Fluorescent Blue/Cobalt Blue/Phosphorescent Green 59. Cobalt Blue 2:1 Zinc White Matte 60. Cobalt Blue/Phthalo Blue Green Shade 61. Phthalo Blue Green Shade 1:4 Zinc White Matte 62. Phthalo Blue Green Shade/Fluorescent Blue-Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 63. Fluorescent Blue-Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 64. Fluorescent Blue-Fluorescent Green/Manganese Blue Hue/Phosphorescent Green 65. Manganese Blue Hue 2:1 Zinc White Matte 66. Manganese Blue Hue/Turquoise Phthalo 67. Turquoise Phthalo 1:4 Zinc White Matte 68. Turquoise Phthalo/Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 69. Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 70. Fluorescent Green/Phthalo Green Blue Shade/Phosphorescent Green 71. Phthalo Green Blue Shade 1:3 Zinc White Matte 72. Phthalo Green Blue Shade/Viridian Green Hue 73. Viridian Green Hue 1:1 ½ Zinc White Matte 129


74. Viridian Green Hue/Fluorescent Green-Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phosphorescent Green 75. Fluorescent Green-Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phosphorescent Green 76. Fluorescent Green-Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phthalo Green Yellow Shade/Phosphorescent Green 77. Phthalo Green Yellow Shade 1:2 Zinc White Matte 78. Phthalo Green Yellow Shade/Permanent Green Light 79. Permanent Green Light 1:2 Zinc White Matte 80. Permanent Green Light/Fluorescent Chartreuse 1:1/Phosphorescent Green 81. Permanent Green Light/Fluorescent Chartreuse 1:2/Phosphorescent Green 82. Permanent Green Light/Fluorescent Chartreuse 1:3/Phosphorescent Green 83. Phosphorescent Green

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Ordering System for, “The Spectral Wheel of Colors” 1. Septa #1 2. Septa #4 3. Septa #6 4. Primary #1 5. Quinta #12 6. Quinta #10 7. Quinta #8 8. Quinta #6 9. Quinta #4 10. Quinta #2 11. Doug #1 12. Doug #3 13. Tertiary #1 14. Quad #1 15. Octave #3 16. Quad #2 17. Secondary #3 18. Damon #1 19. Tertiary #3 20. Quad #3 21. Damon #2 22. Quad #4 23. Octave #4 24. Octave #6 25. Octave #8 26. Damon #3 27. Septa #2 28. Damon #4 29. Primary #2 30. Nina #1 31. Nina #3 32. Nina #5 33. Tertiary #5 34. Quad #5 35. Quad #6 36. Sexta #1 37. Sexta #3 131


38. Sexta #5 39. Sexta #7 40. Sexta #9 41. Damon #5 42. Damon #6 43. Octave #1 44. Septa #5 45. Septa #7 46. Secondary #1 47. Quinta #11 48. Quinta #9 49. Quinta #7 50. Quinta #5 51. Quinta #3 52. Quinta #1 53. Quad #12 54. Quad #11 55. Tertiary #2 56. Damon #11 57. Septa #3 58. Quad #10 59. Primary #3 60. Quad #9 61. Tertiary #4 62. Nina #6 63. Nina #4 64. Nina #2 65. Octave #5 66. Octave #7 67. Damon #10 68. Damon #9 69. Secondary #2 70. Damon #8 71. Secondary #2 72. Quad #8 73. Damon #7 74. Quad #7 132


75. Tertiary #6 76. Doug #4 77. Doug #2 78. Sexta #2 79. Sexta #4 80. Sexta #6 81. Sexta #8 82. Sexta #10 83. Damon #12

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Ordering System Continued… 3 Primaries 1. Primrose Yellow 2. Quinacridone Red 3. Cobalt Blue 3 Secondaries 1. Medium Violet 2. Phthalo Green Blue Shade 3. Vat Orange 6 Tertiaries 1. Cadmium Orange 2. Ultramarine Blue 3. Cadmium Red Light 4. Phthalo Blue Green Shade 5. Quinacridone Magenta 6. Fluorescent Green/Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phosphorescent Green 12 Quads 1. Cadmium Orange/Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 2. Fluorescent Orange/Vat Orange/Phosphorescent Green 3. Cadmium Red Light/Fluorescent Orange-Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 4. Fluorescent Orange-Fluorescent Red/Cadmium Red Medium/Phosphorescent Green 5. Quinacridone Magenta/Fluorescent Red-Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 6. Fluorescent Red-Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 7. Viridian Green Hue/Fluorescent Green-Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phosphorescent Green 8. Phthalo Green Blue Shade/Viridian Green Hue 9. Cobalt Blue/Phthalo Blue Green Shade 10. Fluorescent Blue/Cobalt Blue/Phosphorescent Green 11. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Ultramarine Blue 1:1 12. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Ultramarine Blue 2:1

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12 Quintas 1. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Ultramarine Blue 3:1 2. Diarylide Yellow/Fluorescent Chartreuse-Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 3. Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue 4. Cadmium Yellow Dark/Diarylide Yellow 5. Fluorescent Violet-Fluorescent Blue/Anthraquinone Blue-Smalt Blue Hue/Phosphorescent Green 6. Cadmium Yellow Dark 7. Fluorescent Violet-Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 8. Cadmium Yellow Medium/Cadmium Yellow Dark 9. Dioxazine Purple/Fluorescent Violet-Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 10. Cadmium Yellow Medium 11. Dioxazine Purple 12. Cadmium Yellow Light 10 Sextas 1. Fluorescent Red-Fluorescent Violet/Quinacridone Violet/Phosphorescent Green 2. Phthalo Green Yellow Shade/Permanent Green Light 3. Quinacridone Violet 4. Permanent Green Light 5. Quinacridone Violet/Permanent Violet Dark 3:1 6. Permanent Green Light/Fluorescent Chartreuse 1:1/Phosphorescent Green 7. Quinacridone Violet/Permanent Violet Dark 2:1 8. Permanent Green Light/Fluorescent Chartreuse 1:2/Phosphorescent Green 9. Quinacridone Violet/Permanent Violet Dark 1:1 10. Permanent Green Light/Fluorescent Chartreuse 1:3/Phosphorescent Green

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7 Septas 1. Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phosphorescent Green 2. Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 3. Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 4. Fluorescent Chartreuse/Titanate Yellow/Phosphorescent Green 5. Fluorescent Violet/Medium Violet/Phosphorescent Green 6. Titanate Yellow 7. Medium Violet 8 Octaves 1. Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 2. Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 3. Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 4. Cadmium Red Medium 5. Manganese Blue Hue 6. Cadmium Red Medium/Cadmium Red Dark 7. Manganese Blue Hue/Turquoise Phthalo 8. Cadmium Red Dark 6 Ninas 1. Quinacridone Red/Quinacridone Magenta 3:1 2. Fluorescent Blue-Fluorescent Green/Manganese Blue Hue/Phosphorescent Green 3. Quinacridone Red/Quinacridone Magenta 2:1 4. Fluorescent Blue-Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 5. Quinacridone Red/Quinacridone Magenta 1:1 6. Phthalo Blue Green Shade/Fluorescent Blue-Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 4 Dougs 1. Fluorescent Chartreuse-Fluorescent Orange/Phosphorescent Green 2. Phthalo Green Yellow Shade 3. Fluorescent Chartreuse-Fluorescent Orange/Cadmium Orange/Phosphorescent Green 4. Fluorescent Green-Fluorescent Chartreuse/Phthalo Green Yellow Shade/Phosphorescent Green 136


12 Damons 1. Vat Orange/Cadmium Red Light 2. Fluorescent Orange-Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 3. Cadmium Red Dark/Fluorescent Red/Phosphorescent Green 4. Fluorescent Red/Quinacridone Red/Phosphorescent Green 5. Permanent Violet Dark 6. Permanent Violet Dark/Fluorescent Violet/Phosphorescent Green 7. Viridian Green Hue 8. Fluorescent Green/Phthalo Green Blue Shade 9. Turquoise Phthalo/Fluorescent Green/Phosphorescent Green 10. Turquoise Phthalo 11. Ultramarine Blue/Fluorescent Blue/Phosphorescent Green 12. Phosphorescent Green

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The Spectral Wheel of Colors-Moon/Daytime, 2020, Acrylic on Canvas, 72 x 72 inches 138


The Spectral Wheel of Colors-Moon/Nighttime-Glowing, 2020, Acrylic on Canvas, 72 x 72 inches 139

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Freed’s Color Model VS Munsell’s Color Model Munsell’s model is a very practical model in its ability to exhibit the values from lights to darks, and through chroma, otherwise known as saturation. But it demonstrates a narrow understanding of the way light effects color on the surface of our Earth through temperature fluctuations and excludes altogether when compliments are mixed across the wheel to create Chromatic Neutrals. In my model, I am showing how light effects our perception of colors at its surface through Hue, Temperature, Value, and Saturation! As well, as at its core through Hue, Temperature, Value, and Saturation. Munsell’s model uses only three attributes of color excluding Temperature. The four main differences from my model to his are: My model’s ordering system and sequence of coloration on the surface is different than at its core. Secondly, its surface shows the effects of Temperature from sunlight (pure colors, tints, tones, and shades). Thirdly, at its core there lies the Traditional Earth Tones (yellow ochre, raw sienna, burnt sienna, raw umber, and burnt umber), and The Chromatic Neutral Browns wherein complements are mixed across a wheel of color. And four, I have changed the names of my colors to suit the spectrum of known light. Perhaps this is the most profound difference of coloration between our two models. The strong primaries are included as well as the weak set of primaries. Red, Yellow, and Blue as well as the weaker set of cyan, magenta, and dark yellow. The full spectrum of 12 is yellow, dark yellow, orange, red-orange, red, magenta, violet, indigo, blue, cyan, green, and yellow-green. Of course, the spectrum is much larger than this, but these are the two basic primary systems in one and it is a good place to start over. Now, you can say I have not done my work on this, thinking the past has gotten better, but at times we need a new model of color! And this is it. Here, by using my model, you not only gain a new understanding of sequences of color through hue, value, and temperature, but also through saturation. Additionally, you are getting a thorough understanding of the use of browns, otherwise known as Traditional Earth Tones and The Chromatic Neutral Browns. For now, my model is circular, as it should remain. Munsell’s model is an odd shape, which is understandable through saturation fluctuations around his wheel. Yet, I would like my wheel to be understood as a comparison to The Earth Model, as opposed to an outdated paint model. So, when teaching my model, I plan to emphasize this fact of its composition. Students at which time are welcome to work out the variations of saturation therein. And for this fact, I am leaving this part of my model open to them. Alas, my work has been done, for now.

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Freed Color Model, Pure Color Variations, Pure, Tint, Tones, & Shades, 2020 141


Freed Color Model, Pure Color Variations, Yellow Ochre, Raw Sienna, Yellow:Violet, Red-Orange: Cyan, Orange:Blue, Magenta:Yellow-Green, Burnt Sienna, Dark Yellow:Indigo, Red:Green, Burnt Umber, Raw Umber, 2020 142


A New Beginning- 12 Part Color Wheel, 2020, Acrylic on Canvas 143


A New Beginning- 24 Part Color Wheel, 2020, Acrylic on Canvas 144


Obstacle & Void #1, by Damon Freed 145


Obstacle & Void #2, by Damon Freed 146


Obstacle & Void #3, by Damon Freed 147


Obstacle & Void #4, by Damon Freed 148


Obstacle & Void #5, by Damon Freed 149


Obstacle & Void #6, by Damon Freed 150


Obstacle & Void #7, by Damon Freed 151


Obstacle & Void #8, by Damon Freed 152


Obstacle & Void #9, by Damon Freed 153


Obstacle & Void #10, by Damon Freed 154


Obstacle & Void #11, by Damon Freed 155


Obstacle & Void #12, by Damon Freed 156


Obstacle & Void #13, by Damon Freed 157


Obstacle & Void- Irritated, by Damon Freed 158


Obstacle & Void- Joy, by Damon Freed 159


Obstacle & Void- Pensive, by Damon Freed 160


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Angst, by Damon Freed

Aptitude, by Damon Freed

Bear Claw, by Damon Freed

Blood on the Horizon, by Damon Freed


Brick, by Damon Freed

Fear Rules the Day, by Damon Freed

Genious, by Damon Freed

Grace, by Damon Freed 162


Her!, by Damon Freed

Information, by Damon Freed 163

Humility, by Damon Freed

Literary, by Damon Freed


Logic, by Damon Freed

Love, by Damon Freed

Need, by Damon Freed

Sun & Sea, by Damon Freed 164


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Taoism, by Damon Freed

The Apple that got Shot, by Damon Freed

The Fire of Love, by Damon Freed

Timothy, by Damon Freed


Wisdom, by Damon Freed 166


Untitled #24, by Damon Freed 167


Self-Portrait #1, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #2, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #3, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #4, by Damon Freed 168


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Self-Portrait #5, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #6 (Easter Sunday), by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #7, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #8, by Damon Freed


Self-Portrait #9, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #10, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #11-Nobody’s Cryin’, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait #12, by Damon Freed 170


Self-Portrait #13, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait as a Young Man, by Damon Freed

Self-Portrait with Broken Nose, by Damon Freed

Solid Gold, by Damon Freed

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Color Theory Notations Newton placed yellow across from blue on his color wheel. Likely to exhibit the coldest and the warmest. Goethe placed green across from red, blue across from orange, and yellow across from violet. To harmonize the colors. He also believed orange represented reason and nobility. Goethe was likely the first to think of pure color in this way. What I refer to as, to think of it psychologically and associatively, using rationale. The men in power were wearing orange at the time, well, the upper classes were, as far as I know from reading about them, therefore systematically, and structurally, they were likely more advanced‌ hence, a symbol of power by way of reason. Hilma af Klint believed yellow for man and blue for woman. She was possibly influenced by Isaac Newton. In her pure abstractions it would certainly appear that she was. They have a diagrammatic quality in common. Maybe she was also influenced by Goethe, her diagrammatic appearing work, at times, holds a very close resemblance. She was interesting in this way, sophisticated and seemingly situated amongst many influences!

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Pain

Prideful

Interes ted

Love

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Anger

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Infatua tion

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led ub Tro

Di so rie nte d

y er v a Br

Irritated

ed Stress

Lo st

Cra zy

Hope

Compassionate

Su ici da l

Lau gh ter

Joy

d ge a r ou c En e Saf

Anx ious

ess ven i s Pen s d s ne ye o Sad n n An sio s e pr ed De at v a gr g A e siv l pu m Co

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Ma nic

M el lo w

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Ang sty

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Happy

ly Leisur

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Hu m ilit y

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Enraged

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Ma nic

Excited Joy

Ma nia

M el lo w

Anx ious

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Anger

Pas sion ate

Fa tig ue

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d age Eng

Enraged

Rom anti c

Hu m ilit y

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Love

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Sh am e

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Irritated

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e ag r u Co

Hope

Compassion

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Cra zin ess

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Happin ess

Fear

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Collage #1, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 176


Collage #2, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 177


Collage #3, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 178


Collage #4, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 179


Collage #5, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 180


Collage #6, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 181


Collage #7, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 182


Collage #8, Color- Aid Paper on Paper, 2020 183


Damon Freed in his Studio. Course Outline This course is the study of color through nonobjective means. Meaning, colors will perform their innate functions by using geometric forms. We will not be replicating nature in this class literally, but metaphorically at best and loosely. The intent of this class is to study color and its effects on us through the relationships of colors when painted next to or apart from each other. This is not a Painting I class where you will be classically trained in observation! We will observe our surroundings, yes, but only as it serves the uses of colors. And, only insofar as it might serve some of you as a good jumping off point for color. A reference might be utilized from the classroom setting, from outdoors, or from cultural memories of life. Such as clothing worn, memories of tone, or multiple tones of a setting that has passed, or one that might come to be, a projection of colors so to speak. This class is the study of color by way of the pace of modern living introduced through patterning, tempo of forms, execution of still, pulsating, thriving compositions by way of rigid, organic, free flowing, and forgiving geometry. 184


The idea is to remain focused energetically for the timing of the class periods! Once the class is finished the idea is to bring what you have gleaned from our times together into your own choosing of how to work with it, the colors. So be at peace and come ready to work! Hour one the fundamentals of color, you will be taught, and hour two is the execution of the fundamentals through projects! Thank you!

An Intensive Color Workshop, by Damon Freed Meeting two times per week, 2 hours per class, or, 2 times per week 1 hour per class. One-month class, eight meeting times, in total. Or, two-month class, 16 meeting times, in total. $400 a student, breaks down to approximately $25 per 1-hour of in class time. Students buy their own materials for the class.

Acrylic Paints – One tube each of the following, titanium white, ivory or mars black, cobalt or ultramarine blue, cadmium yellow light, cadmium red light (Liquitex Basics, $5 per 4 oz. tube) Paper – Canson 140lb Cold Press Watercolor Paper Pad 11” x 15”, 30 sheets ($10 per pad) Brushes – One small brush 1⁄2 inch round, one medium brush 1 inch flat, one large brush 1 1⁄2 inch round ($10 per brush) Pencils – Standard HB ($2.50) Container for water – should hold at least 12 oz of water Palette for paints – coated paper or plastic palette ($10) Palette Knives ($5) Paper Towels ($2) Approximately $80 for supplies. I get paid 75% of the cost of the classes. For example, if 15 students sign up and pay, that means we gain $6,000 for the class, minus their cost of supplies. In turn, I get paid 75% of the earnings ($4,500). I cannot afford to go broke, at this point.

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Education 2006 M.F.A. Hunter College, City University of New York 2003 B.F.A. School of Visual Arts, New York (Honors) 2000 State Fair Community College, Sedalia, Missouri Solo Exhibitions 2020 Damon Freed: Structure and Void—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essay) 2019 Damon Freed: Paper Landscapes—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2019 Damon Freed: Piss & Vinegar—Hayden Liberty Center Association for the Arts, Sedalia (catalogue with essays by Dennis Helsel and Mathew Clouse, and a poem by Damon Freed) 2018 Damon Freed: The Correspondence of Color—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essays) 2017 Damon Freed: Landscapes—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essay by Dennis Helsel) 2015 Damon Freed: Obstacle and Void—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essay by Tanya Hartman) 2014 Damon Freed: Four Point Perspective—Daum Museum of Contemporary Art, Sedalia 2012 Damon Freed: En Plein Air—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essay by Kara Gordon and poems by Damon Freed) 2012 Damon Freed: Grid Games—Three Rivers Community College, Poplar Bluff 2012 Damon Freed: Cadence—Sherry Leedy Contemporary Art, Kansas City 2011 Damon Freed: Life Saver—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essay by Kara Gordon and poems by Damon Freed) 2009 Damon Freed: Calm, Cool, Coherent—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis (catalogue with essay by Nancy Weant and studio notes by Damon Freed) Group Exhibitions 2019 Pairings—Works from the Permanent Collection—Daum Museum of Contemporary Art, Sedalia, Missouri 2018 Overview_2018—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2017 Summer Invitational—Sherry Leedy Contemporary Art, Kansas City 2016 From All The Borders of Itself—Park University, Kansas City 2016 Late Summer Exhibit—Sager Braudis Gallery, Columbia 2016 Summer Invitational—Sherry Leedy Contemporary Art, Kansas City 2016 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2015 In Good Company—Sherry Leedy Contemporary Art, Kansas City 2015 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2014 Paperworks—Liberty Center Loft Gallery, Sedalia

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2014 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2013 Summer Invitational—Sherry Leedy Contemporary Art, Kansas City 2013 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2012 Blue, White, and Red—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2012 December Group Show—Liberty Center Loft Gallery, Sedalia 2012 October Group Show—Liberty Center Loft Gallery, Sedalia 2012 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2011 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2010 Project Room Overview—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2010 UCM Faculty Exhibition—Gallery of Art and Design, Warrensburg 2009 OVER_VIEW 09—Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2009 Gallery Selections: Small Scale Works—Tobey Fine Arts, New York 2006 Correspondence to a Single Point: A Survey of Geometric Abstraction—Tobey Fine Arts, New York 2006 Hum—curated by Shinsuke Aso—Tobey Fine Arts, New York 2003 The Wild Bunch—curated by Tim Rollins—White Box Gallery, New York Grants/Awards 2003 Honors—School of Visual Arts, New York 2002 Juan Gonzales Award—School of Visual Arts, New York 2001 Fine Arts Departmental Grant—School of Visual Arts, New York 2000 Silas H. Rhodes Merit Scholarship—School of Visual Arts, New York Bibliography Lyons, Andy—“Sedalia Painter Damon Freed releases new book: Twonism,” Central MO News (centralmonews.net), December 23, 2017 Lyons, Andy—“Sedalia Painter Opening Exhibition in Saint Louis Next Week”, Central MO News (centralmonews.net), January 6, 2017 Michael Schwartz—“It’s All Relative”, Missouri Life Magazine, December 2016 Tanya Hartman—“Damon Freed: Obstacle and Void”, Essay, Bruno David Gallery Publications, Exhibition Catalogue, 2015 Bemiss, Faith—“SFCC art instructors show variety of work at Daum”, Sedalia Democrat, October 3rd, 2014 Bemiss, Faith—“How Paperworks”, Sedalia Democrat, July 19-20, 2014 Kara Gordan—“Damon Freed: En Plein Air”, Essay, Bruno David Gallery Publications, Exhibition Catalogue, 2012 Baran, Jessica—“Life Saver at Bruno David Gallery”, Riverfront Times, December 15, 2011 Cooper, Ivy—“Winter Wondering at Bruno David Gallery”, St. Louis Beacon, December 5, 2011 Kara Gordan—“Damon Freed: Life Saver”, Essay, Bruno David Gallery Publications, Exhibition Catalogue, 187


2011 Gordon, Kara—“Calibration”, Essay, Bruno David Gallery Publications, Exhibition catalogue, 2011 Siegel, Kyle—“SNJ Community Profile”, Sedalia News Journal, September 6, 2011 Cooper, Ivy—“Damon Freed” St. Louis Beacon, March 19, 2009 Baran, Jessica—“Damon Freed: Calm, Cool, Coherent”, Riverfront Times, March 25, 2009 Weant, Nancy—“Damon Freed: Calm, Cool, Coherent”, Essay, Bruno David Gallery Publications, Exhibition catalogue, 2009 Nail, Sarah—“Easy on the Eyes”, Sedalia Democrat, September 18, 2008 Professional Activities 2019-2020 Periodic Reader of Poetry at Backwoods Guitar, Sedalia, Missouri 2017-2020 Reader of Poetry, Artist’s Gatherings, Sedalia, Missouri 2018 Poetry Reading, Daum Museum, Sedalia, Missouri 2017 Gallery Talk, Bruno David Gallery, Damon Freed: Landscapes 2015 Poetry Reading, Café Black Adder, Warrensburg, Missouri 2015 Gallery Talk, Bruno David Gallery, Damon Freed: Obstacle and Void 2014 Lecture, Daum Museum of Contemporary Art, Damon Freed: Four Point Perspective 2012 Gallery Talk, Bruno David Gallery, Damon Freed: En Plein Air 2012 Lecture, Three Rivers Community College, Damon Freed: Grid Games 2011 Gallery Talk, Bruno David Gallery, Damon Freed: Life Saver 2009-2011 University of Central Missouri representative for national portfolio day in Saint Louis and Kansas City Curatorial and Judging • Curated and judged the Columbia Art League’s “Edible” exhibition 2013. • Judged the Longview Art and Music Festival’s visual art exhibition 2012. Publications • Twonism II (Thoughts, Essays, and Poems on Life and Art), book of artist writings, 2020 • The Correspondence of Color Second Edition Book, book on color, 2020 • Catastrophe Poems with An Addition Of Songs & Essays, book of poems and essays, 2020 • The Gallivants, book of poetry, 2019 • The New Yorker, book of poetry, 2019 • The Artist’s Life: Inside and Outside of the Studio, book of poetry, 2019 • For Leigha with Love and Care, book of poetry, 2019 • When the Church Bell Chimes, book of poetry, 2019 • Twonism (Thoughts, Essays, and Poems on Life and Art), book of artist writings, 2017

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• Correspondence of Colors, book of color theories, 2017 • Catalogue essay for Kelley Johnson’s “New Paintings” exhibition at the Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2013. • Conducted interview with Douglass Freed for Douglass Freed’s “Reflective Landscapes” exhibition at the Bruno David Gallery, Saint Louis 2013. Artist Residencies • Missouri State Fair Visiting Artist, August 13-17th, 2014 *Studio Visits are available at the beginning and ends of the sessions.

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Damon Freed - Bio I am an artist who cherishes balance, reason, and ambiguity; and I express it through a variety of working methods, from abstracted realities to nonobjective paintings of grids, I believe reality exists on the edge of perception. And while my Dad has been my best and greatest influence Agnes Martin and Brice Marden’s work are among them. Mr. Freed received his B.F.A. from the School of Visual Arts in New York City where he graduated with honors. His M.F.A. is from Hunter College, City University of New York. Freed has studied with such luminaries as Jack Whitten, Marilyn Minter, David Chow, Juan Sanchez, Sanford Wurmfeld, Tobi Kahn, Lucio Pozzi, Tim Rollins, Mary Heilman, Susan Crile, Anton van Dalen, Suzanne Anker, Donald Kuspit, and Katy Siegel among others. He has been exhibited in galleries in New York City, Saint Louis, Kansas City and Columbia, Missouri. In writing, his influences are his mom and dad, sister and brothers, and friends, mostly. My inspirations are my family and dearest friends, and the people I meet in every direction! Freed was not formally trained in poetry but is an avid writer of works and spoken word.

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