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New Edition

This is a grammar book you won’t forget. It is important for the entire student that want to learn the English grammar . This book can make you understand more about the grammar ways. For The English Grammar book can clearly explain for the student at pre-intermediate level and upwards.

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Contents: 1 The present simple: ……………………………………………………………………………………. Page:10 1/ Formula: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3/ Use: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….... A/Habit or repeated action: …………………………………………………………………. B/ Truth/ Fact for a long time: ……………………………………………………………… C/ General truth: cannot deny ……………………………………………………………... D/ Permanent action: ……………………………………………………………………………. E/ Scientific fact: …………………………………………………………………………………… F/ Future (time -table/ program): ………………………………………………………….. G/ Future time clause: ………………………………………………………………………….. H/ Zero conditional: ……………………………………………………………………………… I/ The first conditional: ………………………………………………………………………… J/ To describe present states (stative verbs) ………………………………………….. K/ Informal report: ………………………………………………………………………………. L/ Instruction: ……………………………………………………………………………………... 2 The present continuous: ……………………………………………………………………………… Page:14 1/Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2/ Form: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3/ Use: …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ Happening right now: ……………………………………………………………………… B/ Temporary action: ………………………………………………………………………….. C/ Happening around the present: ……………………………………………………… D/ Happening in a limited period: ……………………………………………………….

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E/ Development/ changing: ………………………………………………………………. F/ Future arrangement: …………………………………………………………………….. G/ A future appointment: ………………………………………………………………….. H/ Irritation: ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 The present perfect: ………………………………………………………………………………….Page:17 1/ Formula: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3/ Use: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… A/ Past -> Present: …………………………………………………………………………….. B/ Experience: …………………………………………………………………………………… C/ Past result action -> Present: ………………………………………………………... D/ Just happened or finished: ……………………………………………………………. E/ The final number of an action which hasn’t finished: …………………….. F/ An action without a clear past time: …………………………………………….. G/ The present perfect cannot be used with a clear past time: ………….. H/ Resent past: ………………………………………………………………………………….. I/ Used with an unfinished period of time: ………………………………………… J/ Result: …………………………………………………………………………………………… K/ We use<The present perfect> in ……………………………………………………. 4 The present perfect continuous: ……………………………………………………………….Page:21 1/ Formula: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3/ Use: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ In progress up to the present: ………………………………………………………..

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B/ Just finished: …………………………………………………………………………………. C/ Just finished in the recent past……………………………………………………… D/ A repeat action which is in progress……………………………………………... E/ Use with<all day ,…………………………………………………………………………… F/ To focus more on the activity than that result in the action: ………….. G/ To describe one action as a process going on from………………………… H/ To describe something as if it is a continuous action……………………… 5 The past simple: ………………………………………………………………………………………. Page:25 1/ Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2/ Form: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3/ Use: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ To describe an action or state which finished in the past: ……………… B/ To describe something happening or finishing in the past……………… C/Past action which happened after one another: ……………………………. D/ A short action which interrupted a longer action………………………….. E/ To express the events in a story: ………………………………………………….. F/ To narrate chronological order in events in the story: …………………… G/ In the second conditional: ……………………………………………………………. H/ To talk about habit in the past: …………………………………………………….. 6 The past continuous: ……………………………………………………………………………… Page:29 1/ Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3/ Use: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… A/ Happening a specific time in the past: ………………………………………….

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B/ To talk about two actions in progress at the…………………………………. C/ A longer action in progress and was interrupted by………………………. D/ To show a background scene in a story: ………………………………………. E/ A repeated action in progress are a temporary and limited…………… F/ To describe past arrangement ……………………………………………………… G/ To make a request……………………………………………………………………….. H/ To show later action after the past perfect: ………………………………… I/ Changing or developing in the past: …………………………………………….. J/ Comparison: ………………………………………………………………………………... 7 The past perfect: ………………………………………………………………………………….. Page:33 1/ Formula: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2/ Form: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3/ Use: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ An action or a state which happened……………………………………………. B/ Repeated action in the past: ………………………………………………………… C/ To make a sequence of clear past events : ………………………………….. D/ Used with<Just/ already>……………………………………………………………. E/ We can use the < past perfect or past simple>…………………………….. F/ With<before>the action in the past simple happened first: ………… G/ To describe an action which was prevented from happening: ……. H/ We don’t use<the past perfect>if the sequence is obvious: ……….. I/ To describe the cause of a past events: ………………………………………. J/ With < hope, expect, want, plan, think about, wish>……………………. K/ In the < The third conditional>: …………………………………………………….

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L/ We used< already, still, just>with the past perfect……………………….. 8 The past perfect continuous: ………………………………………………………………….Page:39 1/ Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3/ Use: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ Help to explain the past result: ……………………………………………………. B/ To emphasize the duration of an action in progress …………………….. C/ We use the past perfect continuous for an action……………………….. D/ To describe an action in progress going on………………………………….. 9 Future simple: ………………………………………………………………………………………. Page:43 1/ Formula: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2/ Form: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3/ Use: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. A/ Promise: ……………………………………………………………………………………. B/ Determination: …………………………………………………………………………. C/ Threat: ………………………………………………………………………………………. D/ Willingness: ……………………………………………………………………………….. E/ Offer: …………………………………………………………………………………………. F/ Request: …………………………………………………………………………………….. G/ To predict something based on what you believed……………………… H/ To predict something which we think…………………………………………. I/ To predict something based on the present ……………………………….. J/ To express refusal<won’t>: ………………………………………………………… K/ To express a future fact: …………………………………………………………….

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L/ Instruction: ………………………………………………………………………………. M/ To describe present habit or typical behavior: …………………………. N/ To show a future result in the< First conditional>: …………………… O/ We cannot use <will> in the future time clause: ……………………… P/ Certainty or Confidence: …………………………………………………………. Q/ Order: ……………………………………………………………………………………. R/ Obligation: ……………………………………………………………………………… S/ Future plan with a clear date: …………………………………………………. 10 The future continuous: ......................................................................Page:50 1/ Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………….. 2/ Form: ………………………………………………………………………………………. 3/ Use: …………………………………………………………………………………………. A/ To talk about an action in progress………………………………………… B/ To talk about future event……………………………………………………… C/ To say an event is inevitable………………………………………………….. D/ As a way of asking or talking ………………………………………………… E/ To be a tactful way of asking about……………………………………….. F/ To talk about future events we see as certain ……………………….. 11 The future perfect: ………………………………………………………………………Page:54 1/ Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: …………………………………………………………………………………….. 3/ Use: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ To talk about an action which will be……………………………………. B/ To predict the present…………………………………………………………..

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C/ To talk about an action which is still…………………………………….. 12 The future perfect continuous: ………………………………………………….Page:57 1/ Formula: ………………………………………………………………………………… 2/ Form: ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3/ Use: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. A/ To talk about an action which is still……………………………………..

GOOD LUCK!!!

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1/ Formula: Subject + v1(present) + C/M 2/ Form: Positive I, You, We, They } eat rice.

Negative I, You, We, They

}

Question don’t eat rice.

Do { I, you, we, they

} eat rice?

rice? He, She, It

}

eats rice.

He, She, It

}

doesn’t eat rice.

Does

{

he, she,it

}

eat rice?

3/ Use: A/ habits/ repeated actions:

ទំលាប់

(Adverb of frequency)

Often, usually, sometime, always, rarely, seldom, never, generally………………….

Ex: I always drink water before bed. B/ Truths/ Facts: for a long time

ពិតយូរអង្វែវ

Ex: I work as a teacher. Ex: I live in Veal Renh. C/ General Truths: cannot be denied Ex: The sun rises in the east. Ex: The world is round. D/ Permanent actions: អចិន្រ្នៃយ៍ Ex: I work in Veal Renh.

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ពិតទូទៅមិនអាចប្បង្ែែបាន


Ex: I live with my family. E/ Scientific facts: វ ិទាសាស្រ្ៃពិត Ex: 2 plus 2 is 4. Ex: Yellow and blue become green. F/ Future (time-table or program):

អនាគតកាលង្បបកាលវ ិភាគ

Ex: We have an exam tomorrow. Ex: My TV channel screens Mermaid film at 7:00pm tonight. G/ Future time clause: (When, as soon as, after, before……) ទពលទវលាអនាគត Ex: I will call you as soon as I arrive home tonight. H/ Zero conditional:

/

លែខខណ្ឌទី ០(

)

If + Subject + v1 (present) +c, Subject + v1 (present) +c Ex: If you mix yellow and blue, it becomes green. I/ The First conditionals:

លែខខណ្ឌទី ១

If + Subject + v1(present) +c, Subject + will/can/might +v1(present) +c *សំរាប់លក្ខខណ្ឌររឿងដដលអាចនឹងរក្ើតរឡើងរៅក្នងរពលបចច បបនន និង អនាគត ុ ុ

Ex: If you are hungry now, I will cook for you. Ex: If it rains tomorrow, I mightn’t go to school. Ex: If it snows tomorrow, I can make a snowman. J/ To describe present states ( stative verbs): រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នា )

ររឿងដដលមិនអាចបរចចញកាយវ ិការ(

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Ex: I love you, I miss you, I need you. K/ Informal report: L/ Instructions:

សំដីរាយការណ្៍មិនផលូវការ /

ការដណ្នាំ/

Ex: You go straight ahead and turn right on the corner. Ex: You go this way and turn left then cross the road.

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1/Formula:

Subject + am/ is/ are +v1(ing) + C/M 2/Form: Positive

Negative

I } am

I } am not

You, We, They } are

eating rice.

You, We, They

He, She, It } is

He, She, It

}

} are not

eating rice.

is not

Question Am

}

I

Are

}

you, we, they

Is

}

he, she, it

eating rice?

3/ Use: A/ Happening right now :

ទែើតទ

ើវទពលឥ

ូវ

Ex: We are studying English now. B/ Temporary actions:

្ែមមភាពបទ្ ៃ ោះអា្នន

Ex: My car is broken. I am catching a bus to work these days. C/ Happening around the present: (not necessarily happening at the time of speaking) ក្ំ ពុងរក្ើតរឡើងជុំ វ ិញរពលបចចុបបនន

+Unfinished actions:

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Ex: I am reading a good novel at the moment. D/ Happening in a limited period: ក្ំពុងរក្ើតរឡើងរៅក្នុងរពលរវលាក្ំ ណ្ត់ មួយ

Ex: This month This year This season

I am studying 5 subjects this year.

This semester This term ការអភិវឌ្ឍ ឬ ការផ្លលស់បូរត

E/ Development/ Change: Ex: I am growing older. Ex: The water is getting hotter. Ex: My son is growing up. F/ A future arrangement:

ការររៀបចំគំររាងរពលអនាគត

Ex: I am visiting my brother in Vietnam next week. G/ A future appointment:

ការណាត់ជួបនារពលអនាគត

Ex: I am seeing my doctor this evening. H/ Irritation:

(always)

ខឹងសំបារ

រអូរ

Ex: You are always coming late. Ex: You are always working me.

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1/ Formula:

Subject + have/ has + v3 +C/M 2/ Form: Positive I, You, We, They

}

He, She, It

}

Negative

have eaten rice.

has eaten rice.

I, You, We, They He, She, It

}

}

have not eaten rice.

has not eaten rice.

Question Have

{

Has

{

I, you, we, they

}

he, she, it

}

eaten rice? eaten rice?

3/ Use: A/ Past

Present:

(For, since, so far)

ពីអតីតកាលរហូតមក្ដល់បចចុបបននកាល

Ex: I have studied English for 10 years. Ex: I have used cell-phone since 2009. B/ Experience: (Never, Ever, Before) Ex: I have never loved anyone. C/ Past result action present:

បទពិរោធន៍

លទធផលសក្មមភាពអតីតកាលរហូតមក្ដល់បចចុបបននកាល

The Past Threw

The present The window has been broken.

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D/ Just happened or finished: (Just) រទើបដតបានរក្ើតរឡើង ឬ បានបចចប់ Ex: The teacher has just arrived. E/ The final number of an action which hasn’t finished: ចំនួនរលខចុងក្ររយបចចប់ននសក្មមភាពដដ

មិនទាន់បានបចចប់

Ex: I have read 20 pages of this novel. F/ An action without a clear past-time: សក្មមភាពដដលមិនដឹងពីរពលរវលាអតី តកាល

Ex: I have shared the room with her. G/ The present perfect cannot be used with a clear past-time: Present perfectមិនអាចររបើរបាស់ជាមួយរពលរវលាអតីតកាលចាស់លាស់បានរទ

Ex: I have met her yesterday.

(X)

Ex: I met her yesterday. H/ Recent past: អតីតកាលថ្មីៗ recently, currently, lately ….. ថ្មីៗរនេះ Ex: He has been busy recently. Ex: He has received a scholarship to study abroad currently. I/ Used with an unfinished period of time: <<this morning or today>>ររបើជាមួយរពលរវលាដដលមិនទាន់ចប់

Ex: I have eaten fried rice this morning. Ex: They haven’t done their home work today. J/ result: already រួចរហើយ

រហើយរហើយឬ? Yet រៅរឡើយ … រហើយរៅ?

Ex: I have already eaten rice. រួចរហើយ Ex: Have you already eaten rice? រហើយរហើយឬ? 18


Ex: I haven’t eaten rice yet. រៅរឡើយ Ex: Have you eaten rice yet? រហើយរៅ? K/ We used < the present perfect> in < the future time clause> to emphasize the action in the future time clause will happen first, and the action in the main clause will happen later. រយើងររបើរបាស់<The present perfect>រៅក្នុង<The future time clause>រដើមបី បញ្ជ ជ ក្់ពីសក្មមភាពក្នុងរពលអនាគតកាលមួយដដលនឹងរក្ើតរឡើងមុន សក្មមភាពរៅក្នុង main clause រក្ើតរឡើងរៅរពលបនាាប់។

Ex: I will read book after I have eaten rice this evening. Formula: Subject + will/shall + v1+ C/M + when/as soon as/ after/until+ subject + have/ has + v3+ C/M

Ex: I will go to study in Korea in 2014 when I have passed my exam.

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4 The present perfect continuous 1/ formula:

Subject + have /has + been +V1(ing) + C/M 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I, You, We, They } have been eating rice.

I, You, We, They

He, She, It } has been eating rice.

He, She, It

} haven’t been eating rice.

} hasn’t been eating rice.

Question Have Has

{ I, you, we, they } been eating rice?

{ he, she, it }

been eating rice?

3/ Use: A/ In progress up to the present (action verb): រៅក្នុងសភាពរក្ើនរៅដល់បចចុបបនន (ររបើបានដតverb ណាដដលមានសក្មមភាព)។ eat , miss ,kiss……………

Ex: I have been studying English for 5 years since 2007. Ex: He has been watching TV for an hour. - Think of/ about គិត (មានអំរពើ) - Think that យល់រឃើញថា (គ្មមនអំរពើ) B/ Just finished:

រទើបដតបានបចចប់។

Ex: A: Where have you been?

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B: I have been visiting Thailand. Ex: A: Has he been eating lunch? B: yes, he has been eating lunch. C/ Just finished in the recent past and has left a result or evidence in the present: រទើបដតបានបចចប់រៅក្នុងអតីតកាលថ្មីៗនឹង បានទុក្នូវលទធផលឬភសតុតាងរៅក្នុងរពលបចចុបបនន។ 10:00am (Kom Port)

10:00am (Veal Renh)

11:15am (Veal Renh)

Rain

Ex: It has been raining in Veal Renh. D/ A repeat action which is in progress in a period of time up to the present: សក្មមភាពោររឡើងវ ិញដដលរធវើរឡើងរៅក្នុងរពលរវលាមួ យរហូតដល់បចចុបបនន។

Ex: I have been revising lessons for my exam next week. E/ Used with<all day; all night; all morning; all week; all specially>when it has left the result of the action in the present: ររបើរបាស់ជាមួយ<all day; all night; all morning; all week>រៅរពលដដលវាទុក្លទធផលននសក្មមភាពក្នុងរពលបចចុបបនន។

Ex: I have been working all day. Now, I’m very exhausted. Ex: I haven’t been sleeping all night. Now, I feel very sleepy. F/ To focus more on the activity than that result of the action: រផ្លតតអារមមណ្៍រៅរលើសក្មមភាពជាងលទធផល។

Ex: He has been cleaning the car. (Unfinished action)

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Ex: He has cleaned the car. (Result) G/ To describe one action as a process going on from earlier up to the present: រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាពីសក្មមភាពមួយ

ការដំរណ្ើរការពីដំបូងរឡើយរហូតមក្ដល់បចចុបបនន

Ex: We have been making children soup. That’s why the kitchen is hot and steamy. (A process) (Result)

We have made chicken soup that we are eating now.

H/ To describe something as if it is a continuous action up to the present: រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាពីអីម វ ួយហាក្់បីដូចជាវាគឺ ជាសក្មមភាពបនតរហូតមក្ដល់បចចុបបនន។

Ex: It has been raining recently. Ex: She has been calling you, but you were not here.

The End

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1/ Formula:

Subject + v2 +C/M 2/Form: Positive I, You, We, They He, She, It

}

}

Negative I, You, We, They } didn’t eat rice.

ate rice.

ate rice.

He, She, It

}

didn’t eat rice.

Question Did { I, you, We, They, He, She, It

} eat rice?

3/ Use: A/ To describe an action or a state which finished in the past: រដើមបីពណ្៌នាពីសភាពមួយរ ឺភាពមួយដដលបានបចចប់ ក្ុងអតី ន តកាល

Ex: I was born in 1994. Ex: He worked for a company on Korea. B/ To describe something happening and finishing in the past, which we think it will happen again: រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាអវីមួយ

រក្ើតរឡើងនឹងបចចប់ រៅក្នុងអតី តកាលដដលរយើងគិ តថាវាអាចនឹ

ងរក្ើតរឡើងមតងរទៀត

Ex: He has worked for AMK. Now, he is jobless because he stole money from the bank. C/Past action which happened after one another: សក្មមភាពដដលបានរក្ើតរឡើងបនាាប់ពី សក្មមភាពមួយរទៀត(

)

Ex: When her husband arrived home, she made a cup of coffee for him. V2

V2 25


Ex: When the rain stopped, people continued their trips. Ex: When I went to Singapore, I met him at the sea. D/ A short action which interrupted a longer action which was in progress in the past: សក្មមភាពខលីមួយដដលបានកាត់សក្មមភាពដវងមួយដដលបានក្ំពុងរក្ើតរឡើងរៅរពលអនាគត កាល

Ex: When/while Jessica was singing, she farted. She was singing when she farted. E/ To express the events in a story: រដើមបីបង្ហាញពីរពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍ក្នុងររឿង The past continuous

The past simple

S+ was/were+ V1 (ing) + C

S

+ V2 + C

+រផតើមររឿង(Background

scenes)

+រពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍ក្នុងររឿង(Event)

The wind was blowing strongly. The trees

suddenly a lightning struck a

were dancing to the strength of the wind.

man near me to death.

The rain was falling down.

F/ To narrate chronological order of events in a story: រដើ មបីនិទានរពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍តាមលំដាប់ លំរដាយរៅក្នុងោច់ ររឿង

G/ In the second conditionals: • លក្ខខណ្ឌដដលមិនអាចរក្ើតរឡើង • លក្ខខណ្ឌដដលរបដហលជាមិនអាចរៅរួច • លក្ខខណ្ឌមិនពិត

26

ក្នុងរពលបចចុបបននឬរៅអនាគត


If + S + V2 + C/M, S + would/could/might + V1 +C/M Ex: If I were you, I wouldn’t do like that. Ex: If I became the president of the USA, I would eliminate all wars. H/ To talk about habits in the past: (used to / would) រដើ មបីនិយាយអំពីទំលាប់ក្ុងអតី ន តកាល

-Used to: ធ្លលប់(action/ state) -would: ធ្លលប់(action) Ex: I used to feel very streasful when I had a difficult problem.

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1/ Formula:

Subject + was/were + v1(ing) + C/M 2/ Form: Positive I, He, She, It

}

You, We, They

Negative }

was eating rice.

I, He, She, It

}

You, We, They

were eating rice.

was not eating rice.

}

were not eating rice.

Question Was Were

{

I, he, she, it

} eating rice?

{ you, we, they } eating rice?

3/ Use: A/ Happening a specific time in the past. ក្ំពុងរក្ើតរឡើងរៅរពលរវលាជាក្់ លាក្់ មួយក្នុងអតី តកាល (ចំនុចរពល)។

Ex: This time yesterday we were studying English. EX: I was watching kpop at 8:00pm last night. B/ To talk about two actions in progress at the same time in the past.រដើមបីនិយាយអំពីសក្មមភាពពីររៅរពលដំណាលគ្មនក្នុងអតីតកាល។ Ex: I was dancing while/when Justin was singing. Ex: She was speaking while she was laughing at me.

29


C/ A longer action in progress and was interrupted by a short action in the past. ក្ំពុងរក្ើតរឡើងរហើយរតូវបានកាត់រដាយសក្មមភាពខលីរៅក្នុងអតីតកាល។ Ex: While I was driving along, a boy ran across the road. D/ To show a background scene in a story.

រដើមបីបង្ហាញពី

រៅក្នុងររឿងអវីមួយ។

Ex: The wind was blowing strongly. The trees were dancing to the strength of the wind. The rain was falling down. E/ A repeated action in progress for a temporary and limited period of finished time. សក្មមភាពរចំដដលៗមួយដដលក្ំពុងរក្ើតរឡើងអស់រយៈរពល បរណា ត េះអាសនននឹងក្ំណ្ត់រពលរវលាអតីតកាលចំបាច់មួយ។

Ex: He was working in New York Just three month. F/ To describe a past arrangement; The arrangement may/ may not have happened. រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាគំររាង (ការររៀបចំទុក្) អតីតកាល។ គំររាងរបដហលជានិងបាន ឬ មិនបានរក្ើតរឡើង។

Ex: They were planning to marry each other. Ex: sin was seeing his doctor yesterday evening. G/ To make requests; suggestions; and questions more tentative and polite. <Think; wonder; hope…..> រដើមបីរធវើការរសនើរសុំការផតល់រយាបល់រហើយនឹង សំណ្ួរកាន់ដតោាក្់រសាើរ (ដរក្ងចិតតរគ) នឹងរអាយកាន់ដតគួរសម។ (គិត ឆងល់ សងឃឹម) ។

Ex: I was wondering if you would like to join my birthday. Ex: We were hoping you might have a free moment. H/ To show later actions after the past perfect. រដើមបីបង្ហាញពីសក្មមភាពររកាយបនាាប់ពី Past perfect។

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Ex: After we had packed the bag, we were leaving home. S + had + v3 (past perfect) S + was/were + v1(ing) (past continuous) I/ changing or developing in the past. ការផ្លលស់បូរត ឬ ការរ ីក្ចំររ ើនរៅក្នុងអតីតកាល។

Ex: Development in Cambodia was rising up a few years ago. J/ Comparison: ការររបៀបរធៀប - The past continuous + The past simple:

In the middle of the action.

In the rain.

In the house.

Ex: He was walking in the rain when she saw him. រយើងររបើPast continuous + Past simple មាន ន័យថានាងបានរឃើញគ្មត់ក្ំពុងដតរដើរកាត់រភលៀង។ - The past perfect +The past simple: An action finished just before the event which interrupted it.

សក្មមភាពមួយបានចប់មុនរពលរពឹតិតការណ្៍ដដលរតូវបានកាត់វា។

Ex: He had been walking in the rain when she saw him. Rain រយើងររបើ The Past perfect + The Past Simple មានន័យថានាងមិនបានរឃើញគ្មត់ក្ំពុងរដើរកាត់រភលៀងរទ។ បុដនតរៅរពលនាងរបើក្ទាវរនាងរឃើញគ្មត់រសើមរជាក្រហើយរភលៀងក្ំពុងដតធ្លលក្់រៅខាងររៅ។

The End 31


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1/ Formula:

S + had + V3 + C/M 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I

I

You

You

We

We

They

had eaten rice.

They

He

He

She

She

It

It

had not eaten rice.

Question I you we Had

they

eaten rice?

he she it

3/ Use: A/ An action or a state which happened and finished before a time or an action happening later in the past. សកម្មភាពម្ួយ ឬ សភាពដែលបា នក្កត ើ ក្

ង ើ ក្

យ នក្ពលក្វកាលាឬសក្មមភាព ិ ើ បញ្ច ប់ក្ៅវកាញម្ុ

ររកាយមក្រទៀត។

33

ដដលបានរក្ើតរឡើងរៅរពល


Wait

Leave

Arrive

Ex: when he arrived. She had left. (Past simple) V2 (Past perfect) V3 សក្មមភាពរចំដដលៗរៅក្នុងអតី តកាល។

B/ Repeated action in the past:

Ex: The police found that he had stolen several times. (The Past simple)

V2

(The past perfect) V3

C/ To make a sequence of past events clear: រដើមបីរអាយលំដាប់រពឹតិកា ត រណ្៏អតីតកាលចាស់លាស់។

Ex: when teacher arrived (2), John had left (1). (The past simple)

(The past perfect)

D/ Used with <Just/ already> to show that the earlier action was recent or earlier than expected: ក្របរើ បាស់ជាម្ួយ Just/already បង្ហាញថាសក្មមភាពរក្ើតរឡើង មុន ឬ ក្៏រលឿនជាងការរ ំពឹងទុក្។

Ex: Jenny had already left when Joe arrived. Had + already + V3 S + V2 Past perfect (1)

Past simple (2)

34


Ex: Marry had already eaten lunch when Kevin came. E/ We can use<the past perfect or the past simple>with time conjunctions: (after; before; as soon as; then) រយើងអាចររបើ< the past perfect ឬthe past simple>ជាមួយពាក្យរណ្បរបាប់ពីរពលរវលាដូចជាពាក្យ(after; before; as soon as; then)

Ex: Heng called me as soon as I finished my work. Ex: Heng called me as soon as I had finished my work. F/ With<before>the action in the past simple happened first: ជាមួយ<before> សក្មមភាពរៅក្នុង past simple បានរក្ើតរឡើងមុន។

Ex: When he arrived (2), she had left (1). V2

had + V3

Ex: He arrived (1) before she had left (2). V2

had + V3

G/ before + the past perfect to describe an action which was prevented from happening: before ររបើជាមួយthe past perfect រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាពីសក្មមភាពមួយដដលរតូវបានរារាំមិនរអាយរក្ើតរឡើង។

Ex: He killed her (1) before she had had a chance to tell the police about his crime (2). H/ We don’t use<the past perfect>if the sequence is obvious. រយើងមិន ររបើរបាស់the Past Perfect របសិនរបើលំដាប់រពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍ចាស់លាស់។

Ex: I opened the door and let him in. V2

V2

35


Ex: I had opened the door and let him in. (X) (incorrect) had + V3

V2

* មិនអាចររបើរបាស់past perfect រទក្នុងលំដាប់រពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍ចាស់លាស់រពលនាងរបើក្ទាវររអាយគ្មត់ចូល។

Ex: He opened the book and read. V2

V2

*សក្មមភាពបនតបនាាប់គ្មនររបើpast simple នឹង past simple។សក្មមភាពមានគមាលតគ្មនឆ្ងងយ ឬ លំដាប់ រពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍មិនចាស់ររបើpast perfect នឹង past simple។

I/ to describe the cause of a past event: រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាបុពវរហតុននរពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍អតីតកាល។

Ex: I missed the contest because I had been sick. V2 (result)

had + V3 (cause)

J/ with <hope; expect; want; plan; think about; wish> to describe past intentions which were unfulfilled: ជាមួយនឹង<hope; expect; want; plan; think about; wish>រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នារគ្មលបំណ្ងអតីតកាលដដលមិនបានសំររច។

Ex: We had planned to marry. Unfortunately, my girlfriend died in a car accident.

K/In the <third conditional>: រដើមបីនិយាយអំពីលក្ខណ្ឌអតីតកាលដដលមិនបាន រក្ើតរឡើង។

If + Subject + had + V3 +C/M, Subject + would; could; might +have + V3 +C/M Ex: If I had studied hard, I would not have failed.

36


Ex: If I hadn’t studied hard, I would have failed. L/ We used< already; still; just> with the past perfect, not the past simple: រយើងររបើរបាស់< already; still; just>ជាមួយនឹងpast perfectមិនដមន past simple។

Ex: He had still eaten rice when she arrived at his home. Ex: He still ate rice when she arrived at his home. (X) (Not use)

The End

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38


1/ Formula: Subject + had + been + v1(ing) + C 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I

I

You

You

We

We

They

had been eating rice.

They

He

He

She

She

It

It

had not been eating rice.

Question I you we Had

they

been eating rice?

he she it

3/ Use: 39


A/ Help to explain the past result:ជួយពនយល់លទធផលអតីតកាល Ex: She was fat because she has been eating a lot. V2 (result)

helps to explain the past result

Ex: Bora was punished because he had been playing truant. (Result) Past simple passive

cause

B/ To emphasize the duration of an action in progress up to a time or an action in the past: រដើមបីបញ្ជចក្់អំពីរយេះរពលននសក្មមភាពមួយដដលបាន ឬ សក្មមភាពរៅក្នុងរពលអតី តកាល។

Ex: We had been studying at the University for 3 years when he got married in 2009. The past perfect continuous

S + V2 (The Past Simple)

Ex: Kelly had been watching TV for hours when the electricity cut off. The past perfect continuous

V2

Ex: I had been talking with John for 10 minutes when you called me . The past perfect continuous

V2

C/ We use the past perfect continuous for an action in progress before another action in the past: រយើងររបើpast perfect continuous សំរាប់សក្មមភាពដដលក្ំពុងបនតមុនរពលសក្មមភាពមួយរទៀតរៅក្នុងអតី តកាល។

Ex: I had been thinking about that before you mentioned it. The past perfect continuous

V2 (past simple)

40


D/ To describe an action as process going on before a past event: រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាពីសក្មមភាពមួ យជាដំរណ្ើរការដដលក្ំពុងបនតមុនរពលរពឹតិតការណ្៍អតីតកាល មួយរទៀតបានរក្ើតរឡើង។

Ex: We had been making soup, so it was hot when you came in. The past perfect continuous

V2

The End

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1/ Formula: Subject+ will/ shall + V1 + C 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I

I

We

will/shall

We

You

You

They He

won’t/ shan’t

eat rice.

They

will

He

She

She

It

It Question Will/ shall

I, we you they

Will

eat rice?

he she it

3/ Use: A/ Promise: ការសនា

43

eat rice. won’t


Ex: I won’t do it again. Ex: I will study hard from now on. B/ Determination: ការតាំងចិត(ត determination with yourself, say in silence) Ex: I will not play truant again. Ex: I will not fall in love with you again. C/ Threat: ការគំរាមគំដហង Ex: Stop bothering me, or I’ll scream. D/ willingness: ការសម័រគចិតត(a decision made at the moment of speaking)ការសររមចចិតតភាលមៗរៅខណ្ៈ រពលក្ំពុងនិយាយដតមតង។

Ex: C: There isn't any chocolate left. K: Oh, really? I’ll go and buy. (Not: I will go…..) E/ offer: ការផតល់រអាយ (ឬផតល់ជំនួយរពលក្ំពុងនិយាយ) Ex: C: This case is too heavy for me to carry. M: I’ll carry it for you. Ex: C: I’m broke. R: I’ll lend you some. *Note:រពលសម័រគចិតភា ត ល មៗរយើងមិនររបើទំរង់រពញរទ។ Ex: I’ll go now. (Not: I will go now) F/ Request: រសនើរសុំ Ex: Will you give me a beer? អនក្អាចរអាយរបៀរមក្ខ្ំុមួយដក្វបានរទ?

44


Ex: Will you close the window when you leave? សូមអនក្បិទបងអួចបានរទរពលអនក្ចក្រចញ?

G/ To predict something based on what you believe, guesswork, analysis or judgment: រដើមបីទសសទាយអំពីអីម វ ួយដដលពឹងដផអក្រៅរលើអីវដដលអនក្រជឿ, ការទាយ, ការវ ិភាគ, ការវ ិនិ ច័យ ឆ ។

Ex: It will rain in 2 hours. Ex: Liverpool will win Arsenal. H/ To predict something which we think will happen because similar things have happened in the past:រដើមបីទសសទាយអវីមួយដដលរយើងគិតថាវា និងរក្ើតរឡើងពីររពាេះមានររឿងស្សរដៀងគ្មនដដលធ្លលប់រក្ើតរឡើងរៅរពលអតីតកាល។

Ex: The laptop battery will give you about 2 hours continuous use. (ររបើអត់ឈប់ដល់អស់ថ្ម)

(ពឹងដផអក្រលើបទពិរោធន៍ពីមុន)

I/ To predict something based on the present evidence but we must used <adverbs of probability> with it: រដើ មបីទសសទាយពីអីម វ ួយរដាយពឹងដផអក្រៅរលើភសតុតាងនារពលបចចុបបនន បុដនតពួក្រយើងរតូវររបើ<adverbs of probability>ជាមួយវា។

Ex: Look at those black clouds! It will probably rain. J/ To express refusal<won’t>: រដើមបីបង្ហាញពីការបដិរសធន៍។ Ex: My car won’t start in the morning.

45


Ex: L-Joe won’t open her heart for me. K/ To express a future fact: រដើមបីបង្ហាញពីអនាគតកាលពិតមួយ។ Ex: I will be 20 next year. Ex: Tomorrow it will be Thursday. Ex: People will die. L/ Instruction: ការបង្ហាប់ Ex: Will you click on the start menu button? Ex: Will you draw a picture for her? M/ To describe present habit or (typical behavior or characteristic):រដើមបីពិពណ្៌នាពីទំលាប់បចចុបបនន ឬ ចរ ិតជាតួយាង។ Ex: He will sit watching TV for hours. Ex: Her children will break everything when they touch. Ex: The teacher will blame someone who comes late. N/ To show a future result in< the first conditional>: រដើ មបីបង្ហាញពីលទធផលអនាគតកាលមួ យរៅក្នុង<first conditional>។

If + Subject + V1(present) + C, Subject + will + V1 + C លក្ខណ្ឌទី ១ររបើរដើមបីដាក្់លក្ខណ្ឌររឿងអវីមួយដដលរបដហលជាអាចរក្ើតរឡើង ក្នុងរពលបចចុបបនន ឬ អនាគត។

Ex: If you are hungry now, I will go out to buy some food for you. Ex: If you try to study from now on, you will pass your exam. O/ We cannot use<will>in the future time clause: *(when/as soon as/ after/ before/ by the time/ until) + Subject + V1(present) + C **(while) + Subject +am/ is/ are + V1(ing) + C

46


Ex: I will tell her (2) the news as soon as I meet her (1). Ex: As soon as I will meet him. (Not use) P/ Certainty or Confidence:ភាពរបក្ដរបជា នឹង ទំនុក្ចិតត។ Ex: I'm sure you will understand when you read my recommended book. Ex: There is someone at the door. It will be Lee. Q/ Order: បញ្ជជ Ex: Will you be quiet! Ex: Will you wait in the queue! R/ Obligation:កាតពវក្ិច<ច shall> used with all the third person(He, She, It) *In contracts and other legal documents<shall>is used with the third person subjects to refer to obligation and duties. រៅក្នុង ក្ិចចសនារហើយនិងឯក្ោរចាប់រផសងៗ<Shall>រតូវបានររបើជាមួយរបធ្លនបុរសទី ៣ ដដលសំរៅរៅដល់កាតពវក្ិចច នឹង ក្រណ្ីក្ិចច។

Ex: The hirer shall be responsible for the maintenance of the vehicle.

The use of shall 1- Prediction

ការទសសទាយ

2- Condition

លក្ខណ្ឌ

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3- Determination

ការតាំងចិតត

4- Ask for suggestion រសនើរសុំរអាយផតល់រយាបល់ 5- Make offer

រធវើការផតល់រអាយ

6- Suggestion ការរអាយរយាបល់ 7- Ask about decision រសនើរសុំការសំររចចិតត S/ Future plans with a clear date: គំររាងអនាគតដដលមានរពលរវលាចាស់លាស់។

Ex: I will launch a new clothes shop on May 9th, 2012. Ex: I will open a new restaurant on July 10th, 2013.

The End

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49


1/ Formula: Subject + will/ shall + be + V1(ing) +C/M 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I We

I will/ shall

We

You

You

They He

won’t/ shan’t

be eating rice. will

They He

She

She

It

It

be eating rice. won’t

Question Will/Shall

I, we

you they Will

be eating rice?

he she it

3/ Use: 50


A/ To talk about an action in progress at a specific time in the future: រដើមបីនិយាយពីសក្មមភាពដដលក្ំពុងរក្ើតរឡើងរៅរពលរវលាជាក្់ លាក្់មួយរៅក្នុងអ កាល។

Ex: I will be travelling to Tokyo at 9:00am tomorrow morning. Ex: I will be studying at university in Phnom Penh this time next year. Ex: I will be watching TV at 8:00pm tonight. B/ To talk about future events that are results of or part of an arrangement made in the past:រដើមបីនិយាយពីរពឹតិតការណ្៍ ឬ ររឿងរាវអនាគតកាលដដលជាលទធផលនន ឬ ជាដផនក្ននគំររាង ររៀបចំទុក្ដដលរធវើរឡើងកាលពីអតីតកាលមក្រមលេះ។

Ex: C: can you come to my wedding next Monday? T: I’m sorry. I can’t. I will be flying to USA on Monday. (និងជិេះយនតរហាេះរៅសហរដឋអារមរ ិក្រៅនថ្ងច័នគ ា ឺជាលទធផលននការគិត ឬ គំររាងទុក្

កាលពីអតីតកាល)

C/ To say an event is inevitable to happen in the future: រដើមបីនិយាយថាររឿងរាវមួយគឺវារចៀសមិនរួចដដលរតូវ រក្ើតរឡើងក្នុងអនាគតកាល។

Ex: He will be going to court tomorrow. Ex: My mother will be making soup on my birthday. D/ As a way of asking or talking about future plans or intentions: ជាវ ិធីមួយននការសួរ ឬក្៏និយាយអំពីគំររាង ឬ រគ្មលបំណ្ងនារពលអនាគត។

Ex: How long will you be staying in Cambodia? Ex: I will be calling you tonight.

51


E/ To be a tactful way of asking about someone’s plans or refusing an invitation: ជាវ ិធីោស្រសតមួយដ៏មានជំនាញរដើមបីសួរអំពីគំររាងរបស់នរណាមានក្់ ឬ បដិរសធរចលនូវការអរចជើញ។

Ex: How long will you be staying in New Zealand? Ex: Sorry, I cannot come to your birthday party because I will be working in England on that day. F/ To talk about future events we see as certain because they are part of a routine, especially when the events continuous for a period of time, (festival or a meeting): រដើមបីនិយាយអំពីរពឹតិកា ត រណ្៍រផសងៗដដលរយើងរមើលរឃើញថា វាពិតជារក្ើតរឡើង ពីររពាេះវាជាដផនក្មួ យននទំលាប់របចំ ជាពិរសសរៅរពលដដលរពឹតិកា ត រណ្៏បនតមួយរយៈរពល( បុណ្យ ឬ អងារបជុំ)។

Ex: Bun Heng will be watching TV when you call him at 7:30pm tomorrow night.

The End

52


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53


1/ Formula:

Subject + will/ shall + have + V3 + C/M 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I We

I will/ shall

We will/shall

You

You

They He

have eaten rice.

They

will

He

She

She

It

It

not have eaten rice. will

Question Will/ Shall

I, we you they

Will

have eaten rice?

he she it

54


3/ Use: A/ To talk about an action which will be completed by a specific time in the future: រដើមបីនិយាយអំពីសក្មមភាពមួយដដលនិងរតូវបានបចចប់រៅមុនរពលរវលាជាក្់លាក្់មួយរៅ ក្នុងអនាគតកាល។

Ex: Chan Thy will have finished her cloth washing at 7:00pm by the time she sits watching TV at 8:00pm this evening. Ex: I will have finished my homework before I go to bed at 10:00pm tonight. B/ To predict the present (to say what we think or guess has probably happened):រដើមបីទសសទាយពីបចចុបបនន(រដើមបីនិយាយអវីដដលរយើងគិត ឬ ក្៏ទាយថាអាចនិងរក្ើតរឡើងរហើយ)។

Ex: It’s no use to go to his house. He will have left by now. (គ្មត់របដហលជាចក្រចញរហើយរថ្មើរនិង)

C/ To talk about an action which is still ongoing at a point of time in the future, to focus on the duration of the action: *ការររបើរនេះអនុវតតបានដតជាមួយក្ិរ ិយាស័ពដ ា ូចជា<Live, work and stay> រដើមបីនិយាយអំពីសក្មមភាពមួយដដលនូវដតក្ំពុងបនតរៅចំ នុចរពលរវលាមួយរៅក្នុងអនាគត កាលជាពិរសសរដើមបីរផ្លតតអារមមណ្៍រៅរលើរយៈរពលសក្មមភាពរនេះ។

Ex: We will have lived in this house for 20 years in December.

55


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56


1/ Formula: Subject + will/ shall + have + been + V1(ing) + C/M 2/ Form: Positive

Negative

I We

I will/ shall

we

You

You

They He

will/shall

have been eating rice. will

They He

She

She

It

It

not have been will

eating rice.

Question Will/Shall

I, we you they

Will

have been eating rice?

he she it

3/ Use:

57


A/ To talk about an action which is still ongoing at a point of time in the future to focus on the duration of the action: រដើមបីនិយាយអំពីសក្មមភាពមួយដដលរៅដតបនតនូវចំ នុចននរពលរវលារៅក្នុងអនាគតកាលរដើ មបីរផ្លតតអារមមណ្៍រលើរយៈរពលននសក្មមភាព។

Ex: We will have been living in this house for 20 years in December. Ex: Keom Chanthy will have been feeding this fish for 2 months in March.

The End

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• Practical English Usage (Michael Swan) • Advanced Grammar In Use

(Martin Hewings)

• Longman Advanced Learners’ Grammar (Make Foley and Dianc Hall)

• English Practice Grammar (Michael Macfar Lane) • Advanced Oxford Practice Grammar (George Yule)

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61


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