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sTÞanuRkmesdækic© Economic Lexicon PaKTI 1³ Gg;eKøs - Exµr Part One: English – Khmer

PaKTI 2³ Exµr - Gg;eKøs Part Two: Khmer – English

erobcMeday Epñke)aHBum<pSay én viTüasßanbNþúHbNþal nig RsavRCavedIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa

viTüasßanbNþúHbNþal nig RsavRCavedIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa Cambodia Development Resource Institute

PMñeBj/ tula 2006


Economic Lexicon Copyright © 2006 Cambodia Development Resource Institute All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the written permission of the Cambodia Development Resource Institute. ISBN 99950-52-00-8

Cambodia Development Resource Institute " 56 Street 315, Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh PO Box 622, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

(855-23) 881-384/881-701/881-916/883-603  (855-23) 880-734 e-mail: cdri@camnet.com.kh website: http://www.cdri.org.kh

Editing: Publishing Team Design and Layout: Em Sorany and Oum Chantha Printed and bound in Cambodia by JSRC Printing House


Foreword

I am pleased to introduce a new edition of CDRIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Economic Lexicon, an EnglishKhmer and Khmer-English guide to technical terms in economics and related fields such as accounting, banking, finance, and development. CDRI's recent experience in publishing, and contributing to a range of publications, conferences, seminars and workshops, has shown that there is a real need for such a resource to assist stakeholders in Cambodia's development to use more standard and easily understood terms in Khmer and English when writing about development issues. Our new 2006-10 Strategic Plan includes a commitment to produce research products that are more flexible and appropriate for Cambodia. This new edition of the Economic Lexicon is an expression of that commitment. We hope that it will help promote the expansion of development material originally written in Khmer, and the quality of translation from English material into Khmer. The lexicon is in two parts. Part 1: The English-Khmer Lexicon, is a revision and expansion of the last edition published in 1995. Over the past 10 years there have been many developments in technical language. This is especially true for the Khmer language, where many new words have been created and many others have changed their meaning or become more specific. Also, many more technical Khmer documents are being produced by various institutions taking different approaches to the use of language. CDRI, like many other institutions, publishes technical and policy documents on a wide range of development-related topics. Wherever possible, CDRI's editorial team makes great efforts to use words that are already in use in official documents and to refrain from creating new words. This is not always easy as official documents may use different Khmer words to express the same meaning, so choices have to be made as to what would be the most commonly understood word or term. Sometimes a new word or term needs to be used for a new concept which -i-


does not yet have a specific translation in Khmer. Wherever possible a combination of simple words is used to express any new idea or concept. Part II, The Khmer-English Lexicon, is new. It has been compiled in response to requests from many of our readers who may have some difficulty with Khmer technical terms, especially new ones. Where there is no exact equivalent, this lexicon provides the nearest translation. It does not contain a detailed explanation for each word, and the reader is advised to use the English word to further research its meaning. The reason the lexicon contains many headwords of Pali or Sanskrit origin is that their meaning is not immediately obvious to the general public. Wherever any one particular word is not very much in use, the reader is referred to another word more frequently used or more readily understandable. Extensive research and the opinions of many people have gone into the compilation of this lexicon. CDRI would like to thank everyone who has contributed to this final product. We hope this lexicon will serve as a tool to help readers to make better use of both CDRI publications and the broader development literature. We see the lexicon as a continuous ''work in progress' so would welcome any comments or suggestion from readers to help improve and expand on the current edition. Larry Strange Executive Director CDRI October 2006

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buBVkfa ´manesckþIrIkraysUmENnaMbgðajCUnnUv sTÞanuRkmecjpSayfµIeday vbsG EdlCa bNþúMBakübkERb Gg;eKøs-Exµr nig Exµr-Gg;eKøs kñúgvis½yCMnajbec©keTsCaeRcIn dUcCaxag KNenyü FnaKar hirBaØvtßú nigkarGPivDÆn_CaedIm . bTBiesaFn_naeBlfµI²rbs; vbsG kñúgkar e)aHBum<pSay nigkarcUlrYmeFVIGtßbTpSBVpSaysnñisIT sikçasala )anbgðajfa ÉksarEbbenH mantMrUvkareRcIn sMrab;CYydl;mCÄdæanGñkBak;B½n§nwgkargarGPivDÆn_RbeTskm<úCa kñúgkareRbIR)as; BaküExµr nigGg;eKøs [)anÉkPaBKña niggayyl; enAeBlsresrGtßbTBIbBaðaGPivDÆn_ . enAkñúgEpnkaryuT§saRsþ vbsG qñaM2006-10 manEcgBIkartaMgcitþksagplitplRsavRCavEdl smRsbsMrab;RbeTskm<úCa . sTÞanuRkmenH KWCalT§plmYyénkartaMgcitþenH ehIysgÇwmfa nwg GacCYyCMrujkarsresrGtßbTedIm CaPasaExµrEtmþg RBmTaMgCYybegáInKuNPaBkarbkERb ÉksarGg;eKøsCaPasaExµr . snÞanuRkmenHmanEbgEckecjCaBIrPaK . PaK1 KWCasnÞanuRkmGg;eKøs-Exµr EdlCa ÉksarBRgIkbEnßm elIsnÞanuRkme)aHBum<pSayelIkTI2 eday vbsG enAqñaM1995 . kñúgry³eBl 10qñaMknøgmk BaküeBcn_bec©keTsmankarvivtþn_Evgq¶ayNas; . edayELkenAkñúgPasaExµr man karbegáItBaküfµICaeRcIn nigmanBaküBImunCaeRcIneTotEdl)anERbRbYln½y rWk¾mann½ykan;EtCak; lak;EfmeTot . mü:ageTot sßab½nnanak¾ksag ÉksarCaPasaExµr)aneRcInNas;Edr edayman EbbbTxus²KñakñúgkareRbIR)as;BaküeBcn_ . vbsG k¾dUcsßab½nÉeTotEdr )ane)aHBum<pSayÉksarbec©keTsmYycMnYnFM EdlBak;B½n§ nwgRbFanbTCaeRcIn . RkumGñkniBn§sTÞanuRkmenH )anxwtxMkt;RtaykBaküNaEdlmaneRbIrYc ehIyenAkñúgÉksarpøÚvkarnana nigeCosvagkarbegáItBaküfµI . b:uEnþviFIenHminGacGnuvtþ)anCab; rhUteT BIeRBaHmanÉksarpøÚvkarmYycMnYn)aneRbIBaküxusKñaedIm,IbBa¢ak;BIn½yEtmYydUcKña . dUecñH ehIy k¾RtUvmankareRCIserIsykBaküNaEdleKGacyl;n½y)anCaTUeTACag . CYnkaleTot BaküfµIRtUvEtbegáIteLIgedIm,IsMKal;Gtßn½ymYyEdlminTan;manBaküExµrsMrab;ehAy:agCak;lak; . kñúgkrNIEbbenH nigtamlT§PaBGaceFVIeTA)an KWEtgGnuvtþykBaküsamBaزmkpÁMúKña edIm,IbegáIt CaBakümann½yfµImYyeTot . -iii-


PaK2³ snÞanuRkm Exµr-Gg;eKøs³ PaKenHKWCaÉksarcgRkgfµITaMgRsug edIm,IeqøIytbnwg sMNUmBrrbs;GñkGanCaeRcIn Edl)anCYbbBaðaxøH²Bak;B½n§nwgBakübec©keTsExµr CaBiess BaküfµI² . kñúgkrNIBMuGacrk)anBaküesµI snÞanuRkmenHmanpþl; BakübkERbEdlmann½yEk,rKña bMput . snÞanuRkmenHBMumanpþl;karBnül;n½ylMGitelIBakünImYy²eT b:uEnþGñkGanGaceRbIR)as; BaküGg;eKøs edIm,IeFVIkarRsavRCavn½ybEnßmeTot)an . mü:ageTot snÞanuRkmmankt;RtaBakü CaeRcInEdlmanb£sKl;ecjBI)alI rWsMRsáwt BIeRBaHmanGñkGanCaeRcInminGacyl;n½yrbs;va)an Pøam²eT . kñúgkrNIBaküNamYyminsUvmaneKeRbIR)as;snÞanuRkmmancuHBakümYyeTotEdlRkum GñkniBn§yl;famankareRbIR)as; jwkjab;Cag rWk¾Gacqab;yl;)anCag . snÞanuRkmenH)ancgRkgeLIg edaymankarRsavRCavy:agTUlMTUlay nigkarCYymtiBI GñkmancMeNHdwgCMnajCaeRcInnak; . vbsG sUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;RKb;²KñaEdl)ancUlrYmcMENk CYyeRCamERCg[smiT§iplfµIenHelcecjCarUbrageLIg . vbsG sgÇwmfa snÞanuRkmenHkøayCa ]bkrN_mYyCYydl;GñkGannanakñúgkareRbIR)as;ÉksarepSg²rbs; vbsG RBmTaMgÉksarxag GPivDÆn_epSg²eTot . vbsG cat;TukÉksarenHCa {kargarbnþeTAmuxCanic©} ehIysUmsVaKmn_ RKb;mtieyabl;BIGñkGan edIm,IeFVIkarEklMG nigBRgIksTÞanuRkm[)aneCOnelOneTAmuxeTot .

PñMeBj/ Extula qñaM2006 LarI e®sþn© naykRbtibtþi vbsG

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PaKTI 1 Gg;eKテクs-Exツオr Part English窶適hmer PartOne: One: English窶適hmer


Economic Lexicon Part 1

abuse of trust karrMelaPesckþITukcitþ abuse of process karbMBanelInItiviFI accelerate v. BenøÓn accelerated depreciation method

A, a a posteriori kñúgbcäakal abacus n. k,ac; ¬]bkrN_buraNsMrab;

viFIKitrMls;bgçM

Kitelx¦

accept (a bill of exchange) TTYlRBm

abandonment of a trade (occupation)

¬rUbiyaNtþi>>>¦

kare)aHbg;muxCMnYjGVImYy abatement karbnßy ¬éfø/ Bn§>>>¦ aberration karXøatBIsPaBFmµta/ kMritxusKña/ karP½nþRcLM abeyance karp¥ak/ goods in ~ TMnijKµan GñkTTYl abide v. eKarB/ eFVItam/ ~ by a promise kan;Baküsnüa abolish v. lubecal above-mentioned dUcmanEcgxagelI abrogate v. TukCanarakrN_ absolute acceptance karTTYlRBmTaMg Rsug absolute advantage ]tþmPaBdac;xat absolute majority vote sMelgPaKeRcIn dac;xat ¬CagBak;kNþaléncMnYnGñkmke)aH eqñat¦ absolute poverty PaBRkIRkCak;Esþg/ PaBRkIRkdac;xat absolute (total) loss kMhatsrubsuT§ absorption karRsUbcUl/ karbBa©ÚlCasaxa absorptive capacity smtßPaBRsUbyk abstain Gnub,vaT abstract n. & v. 1> sMrg;GtßbT 2> eFVI GrUbIykmµ

accept deposit v. TTYl R)ak;beBaØI¼R)ak;

tMkl; acceptance karTTYlRBm/ notification of ~ lixitCUndMNwgkarTTYlRBm/ present a bill for ~ bgðajrUbiyaNtþiedIm,IsMukarbBa¢ak; TTYlsÁal;/ ~ in full karTTYlRBmTaMgRsug acceptance certificate viBaØabnb½Rt

TTYlRBm access 1> lT§PaB)aneRbIR)as;

2> lT§PaB¼pøÚv eTAdl; accessible price éføEdlGacTijdUr)an accession n. 1> ])aKmn_ ¬kar)anCa kmµsiT§inUvvtßúrNb¦ 2> karcUlCasmaCik accident insurance

karFanar:ab;rgelIeRKaHfñak; acclimate v. pSa‘¿nwgGakasFatufµI accord karRBmeRBog accordance karGnuBaØateGay/ in ~ with edayGnuelameTAtam account KNnI account amended KNnI)anEksMrYl account book esovePAKNnI account currency rUbiyvtßúTUTat; account day éf¶TUTat; 1


Economic Lexicon Part 1

account holder m©as;KNnI account payable KNnIRtUvsg account payee only sMrab;EtsgcUlKNnI account receivable KNnIRtUvTar/ KNnI

accrued (interest/rent...) income

cMNUl ¬karR)ak;¦ )anKitbEnßm accrued interest karR)ak;)anKitbEnßm accumulate bgÁrTuk/ smac½y/ bUkRtYt/ accumulated depreciation rMls;bgÁrTuk accuracy PaBCak;lak;/ PaBRtwmRtUv accused n. CnCab;ecaT

GtifiCn account, sales r)aykarN_lk;TMnij account, unit of ÉktaKit account, domestic KNnIépÞkñúg account, expense KNnIcMNay account, outstanding

acknowledge receipt (of a cheque...)

TTYlsÁal;karTTYl ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt>>>¦ acknowledge v. TTYlsÁal; acknowledgment (of receipt)

KNnIenAminTan;sg accountability KNenyüPaB ¬PaBTTYl xusRtUv¦/ to demand ~ from TamTar KNenyüPaBBI accountancy KNenyü (GB)/ KNenyükic© accountant KNenyükr/ chartered ~ or public ~ (US) KNenyükrrdæTTYlsÁal; accounting KNenyü (US)/ financial ~ KNenyühirBaØvtßú/ tax ~ KNenyüBn§dar accounting analysis karviPaKKNenyü accounting cycle vdþKNenyü accounting period RKaKNenyü/ KNenyükal accounting plan bøg;KNenyü accounting price éføKNenyü

esckþIbBa¢ak;fa)anTTYl acquire v. eFVIlT§kmµ acquisition lT§kmµ/ kar)anmkCakmµsiT§i acquittance roll b½NÑsgR)ak; act of war ehtuekIteLIgedays®gÁam/ sßanPaBsßitkñúgs®gÁam acting chairman/woman RbFansþITI activate eFVIeGayskmµeT,Ig activity skmµPaB/ business ~ skmµPaB GaCIvkmµ actor tYGgÁ/ economic ~ tYGgÁesdækic© act of God RbFanskþi actual Cak;Esþg/ ~ delivery karRbKl; Cak;Esþg/ ~ order karbBa¢aTijCak;Esþg ad hoc committee KN³kmµaFikarcMeBaHkic© ad valorem duty Bn§yktaméfø ad valorem freight éfødwkCBa¢ÚnyktaméføTMnij addendum, law on c,ab;sþIBIc,ab;bEnßm additional bEnßm/ ~ insurance karFana r:ab;rgbEnßm/ ~ premium buBVlaPbEnßm

accounting statement

r)aykarN_KNenyü accounting system RbB½n§KNenyü accreditation karEtgtaMg/ karTTYlsÁal; accredited party PaKITTYlsar\NTan accrued (interest/rent...) expense

cMNay ¬karR)ak;¦ )anKitbEnßm 2


Economic Lexicon Part 1

additional profit tax (APT)

¬svnakarEdlKUkþItTl;Kña¦ adverse minl¥/ minGMeNaypl/ ~ factor/ trade balance ktþa¼CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµ minGMeNaypl advertise v. pSayBaNiC¢kmµ

Bn§elIR)ak;cMeNjbEnßm addressee GñkTTYl ¬lixit¦/ GñkEdlRtUvTTYl adequate smlµm adjourn v. elIkvarkal/ p¥ak adjudicate CMrHkþI

advertisement, advertising

adjusting entries (accounting)

karpSayBaNiC¢kmµ

elxnaEktMrUv

advertising campaign yuT§nakarpSay

adjustment kMENtMrUv/ ~ account KNnI EktMrUv/ ~ factor (AF) ktþaEktMrUv/ ~ value tMélEktMrUv administrative expenses cMNayrdæ)al

BaNiC¢kmµ advice note lixitCUnB½t’man/ lixitCUneyabl; advice, collection lixitCUndMNwgkar

administrative-economic entity

advice, debit/credit Rbkas \NBn§¼

GgÁPaBesdækic©rdæ)al

\NTan

admissible evidence PsþútagRbevsnI/ PsþútagTTYlyk)an adult eBjv½y/ ~ citizen RbCaBlrdæeBjv½y advance buerRbTan ¬R)ak;ebIk[mun¦/ ~ deposit R)ak;kk;mun advance money R)ak;buerRbTan/ R)ak; pþl;eGaymun advance notice karpþl;dMNwgCamun advance on documents buerRbTan sMGagelIÉksar advance on securities buerRbTaneday manvtßúFana advance payment karTUTat;Camun advancement kareCOnelOneTAmux/ karrIkcMerIn advantage ]tþmPaB adversary proceeding svnakarRbtibkS

advice, dispatch/shipment /forwarding lixitCUndMNwgbBa¢ÚnTMnij adviser (advisor) TIRbwkSa/ financial ~

RbmUlR)ak;

TIRbwkSahirBaØvtßú advising bank FnaKarCUndMNwg advisory function muxgarpþl;eyabl; advocacy karts‘Umti affidavit lixitEføgsc©a ¬GHGagsc©PaB

cMeBaHmuxc,ab;¦ affiliated company (or associated company) Rkumh‘unbuRtsm<½n§/ Rkumh‘un

Bak;B½n§ ¬Rkumh‘unemkþab;PaKh‘unticCag 50°¦ affiliation, political ninñakarneya)ay affinity n. Bn§úPaB/ ¬PaBdUcKña rW manTMnak;

TMngCamYyKña¦ AFTA-ASEAN Free Trade Area

tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrIGas‘an 3


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ coordination mechanism ynþkar sMrbsMrYlCMnYy/ ~ programme kmµviFICMnYy air bill of lading b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakas air cargo/freightTMnijbBa¢ÚntamynþehaH air-consignment note b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakas airport tax Bn§RBlanynþehaH airway bill b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakas alien CnbreTs alien act c,ab;sþIBICnbreTs alienation karepÞrkmµsiT§i alienator n samIbrivtþ/ Gñklk; rW epÞrsiT§i[eK alimony R)ak;]btßmÖ ¬BIbþIeTARbBn§ rWBIRbBn§

after-tax income cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§ aftercost cMNaybEnßm age group RkumGayu agency TIPñak;gar/ employment ~ kariyal½y rkkargareGayeFIV/ pre-investment ~ TIPñak;gar

Binti ülT§PaB muneBlvinei yaK agenda rebobvar³/ kargarEdlRtUveFVI agent Pñak;gar/ sole ~ tMNagpþac;mux agglomerate pþMúcUlKña aggregate GgÁpSM/ tYelxRbmUlpþúM/ ~ demand/ supply tMrUvkar¼karpÁt;pÁg; srub aggregate, monetary xn§b,maNrUbiyvtßú/ rUbiyvtßúTaMgGs; aggregation karpþúM/ xn§b,aT/ karpÁúMGgÁpSM aggrieved person Gñkminsuxcitþ agrarian éndIFøI/ ~ reform kMENTMrg;dIFøI agrarian society sgÁmksikmµ agreed (price) ¬éfø¦ RBmeRBog agreement kic©RBmeRBog/ verbal ~ kic© ®BmeRBogpÞal;mat;/ ~ on the exchange of goods kic©RBmeRBogsþIBIkarpøas;bþÚrTMnij/ ~ in principle kic©RBmeRBogCaeKalkarN_ agribusiness ksi-BaNiC¢kmµ agricultural product ksipl agriculture ksikmµ/ Ministry of

eTAbþI/ eRkayeBlElgKña¦ allegation karecaTRbkan;edaymin)an bgðajPsþútag allegiance (politics) karesµaHsµ½RK allegiance, oath of sc©aRbNiFan alliance sm<½n§PaB all-in price éføsBVRKb; ¬TMnij/ Fanar:ab;rg/ dwkCBa¢Ún>>>¦ allocate v. (fund) élEck/ eFVIviPaCn_/ allocated resources FnFanEdl)anélEck allocation 1> karélEck/ karviPaCn_/ proportional ~ karélEcksmamaRt 2> R)ak;viPaCn_ allotment of shares karEbgEckPaKh‘un allowance R)ak;]btßmÖ/ TayC¢Tan/ depreciation ~ TayC¢Tan[dl;rMls;/ family ~ R)ak;]btßmÖRKÜsar/ make an ~ eFVIkarbBa©úHéføkñúgkarlk;eGayGñkTij all-risks insurance/policy kar¼b½NÑ Fanara:b;rghaniP½yRKb;RbePT

Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries

RksYgksikmµ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT agro-industry ksi-]sSahkmµ agronomist ekSRtviTU agronomy ekSRtsaRsþ/ ekSRtviTüa aid CMnYy/ economic ~ CMnYyEpñkesdækic©/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBogpþl;CMnYy/ 4


Economic Lexicon Part 1

life ~ CIvFnlaP annulment emaXkmµ/ karcat;TukCaGasasUnü antedate v. cuHbuerkalbriecäT/ cuHkalbriecäT

alteration karEk ¬Bakü¼elx¼bBa¢I KNenyü>>> edayekaslub¼sresrRtYt>>>¦ alternative CMerIs¼meFüa)ayepSgeTot/ ~ technology bec©kviTüaEbbepSg ¬Gac eRbICMnYs)an¦ amalgamation karbBa©Úl ¬Kña¦ ambition karR)afñad¾elIslub/ mhicäta amelioration n. kareFIVeGayRbesIreT,Ig/ suvuDÆikmµ amendment 1> viesaFnkmµ ¬c,ab;>>>¦/ ~ of a contract viesaFnkmµkic©snüa/ ~ advice lixitCUndMNwgsþIBIkarEksMrYl viesaFnkmµ 2> c,ab; b¤ maRtaénc,ab;Edl RtUv)anEkERbehIy amicable settlement dMeNaHRsay RbkbedaykareyaKyl; ¬min)ac;eTAtulakar¦ amnesty karelIkElgeTas amortisation of a debt ¬kar¦rMls;bMNul amount TwkR)ak;/ gross ~ TwkR)ak;dul/ ~ of invoice TwkR)ak;énvikáybRt amount past due TwkR)ak;hYskalkMNt;sg analysis karviPaK/ cost ~ karviPaKBIéføedIm/ ~ of job requirements karviPaKtMrUvkarkargar

GtItkal anthropology mnusSsaRsþ/ nrviTüa anti- RbqaMg/ anti-personnel mine

mInRbqaMgmnusS anticipated profit R)ak;cMeNjeRBogTuk anti-dumping karRbqaMgnwgkarlk;bgçÚc éfø/ ~ duty Bn§RbqaMgnwgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø anti-inflation measure/programme

viFankar¼kmµviFI Tb;Tl;GtiprNa anti-trust law c,ab;RbqaMgnwgRtwsþ apellate court sala]T§rN_ apparatus briFan/ bznP½NÐ appeal 1> bNþwgtv:a/ ]T§rN_ 2> karGMBavnav appliance eRKOgeRbIR)as; applicant Gñkdak;BaküsMu applicant for a letter of credit

Gñkdak;BaküsMu¼GñkesñIsMu ebIksar\NTan applied economics viTüasaRsþesdækic© apply v. ¬dak;¦ Gnuvtþ/ applied research karRsavRCavsMrab;Gnuvtþ appointed days, on naéf¶)ankMNt; appointment karEtgtaMg/ permanent ~

analysis, discounted cash flow (DCF)

karviPaKcracrsac;R)ak; analytical thinking KMnitviPaK ancestor buBVCn ancillary services esvakmµbnÞab;bnSM

to the rank of administrative agent

kartaMgs‘ubkñúgzannþrskþiPñak;garrdæ)al apportion v. EbgEck apportionment bMENgEck appraisal karvaytémø

annual RbcaMqñaM/ ~ budget KMeragfvikaRbcaMqñaM annualised adj. KitelImUldæanRbcaMqñaM annuity FnlaP/ R)ak;sMNgRbcaMqñaM/ 5


Economic Lexicon Part 1

appreciation 1> kareLIg éfø¼tMél 2> mUlvicar ¬karvaytMél¦ 3> karTTYlsÁal;KuNPaB 4>GMNrKuN approach viFIsaRsþ appropriate adj. smRsb/ ~ size TMhM smRsb/ ~ technology bec©kviTüasmRsb appropriation (financial) ¬R)ak;¦ viPaCn_ ¬R)ak;élTukenAmçagsMrab;eKaledAedayELk¦ appropriation accounts KNnIcMNUlcMNay approval karyl;RBm/ on ~ etagman karyl;RBm approximately RbEhl/ RbmaN aquaculture, aquatic culture varIvb,kmµ aquatic product Clpl aquatic resources FnFanClpl arable land dIGacdaMduH arbiter mCÄtþkr ¬GñkmanGMNac¼\T§iBl edIm,IeFVIkarkat;kþI³ ]> kñúgkic©karrdæ¦ arbitrage 1> mCÄtþkmµ 2> karepÞrTunBIpSar mYyeTApSarmYyedIm,IeqøótrkkMér arbitrageur GñkepÞrTunBIpSarmYyeTApSar mYyedIm,IeqøótrkkMér arbitrary tamEtGMeBIcitþ arbitration mCÄtþPaB/ mCÄtþvinicä½y/ karkat;kþIedayGaCJakNþal/ ~ committee KN³kmµkarmCÄtþkmµ arbitrator mCÄtþkr ¬xagBaNiC¢kmµ¦ architectural company Rkumh‘unsikSa KMeragbøg; architecture sßabtükmµ/ nimµabnkmµ area unit ÉktatMbn;

area, free trade tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrI area-based frame eRKagelImUldæantMbn; arid area tMbn;s¶ÜtEhg arithmetic nBVnþ/ ~ mean mFümnBVnþ arm’s length sale karlk;KµankareyaK

yl;Biess arrears bMNulyWty:avminTan;sg/ to be in ~ yWty:avkñúgkarsgbMNul art work sñaédsil,³ article of copartnership

kic©snüacUlh‘un/ maRtashPaKkmµ articles of association (GB) or bylaws (US) lkçnþik³ articles of incorporation (US) or memorandum of association (GB)

GnusSarN³begIátRkumh‘un articulate v. bBa¢ak;CaBaküeBCn_ as provided, as stated, set forth

dUcmanEcg ¬kñúgc,ab;¦ Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)

tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrIGas‘an assembly line ExSplitkmµ ¬tMelIgeRKOgcRk¦ assessed taxes Bn§)ankMNt; assessment karvaytMél assessor of taxes GñkkMNt;Bn§¼vayBn§ asset RTBüskmµ/ RTBüsm,tiþ/ current ~ RTBüskmµcrnþ/ foreign ~ RTBüskmµCa rUbiyb½NÑ ¬FnaKar¦/ RTBüenAbreTs, fixed (capital) ~ RTBüskmµCab;lab; ¬ÉksarxøH ehAfa GclnRTBü EdlRtUvnwgBakü immovable property), tangible ~ RTBürUbI/ frozen ~ RTBüp¥ib/ intangible ~ 6


Economic Lexicon Part 1

RTBüGrUbI/ financial ~ RTBühirBaØvtßú assign (property) epÞrsiT§ieRbIR)as;Gclnvtßú assignable credit sar\NTanGacepÞr)an assignee 1> Gnub,Tanik ¬GñkTTYlsiT§i¼ RTBüsm,tþi¼karEtgtaMg ¦ 2> GñkTTYlsiT§iRbTan/ GaNtþiKahk assignee in bankruptcy GñkRtUv)an cat;taMg[RKb;RKgRTBüsm,tþiGñkkS½yFn assignor 1> Gnub,TayI ¬GñkepÞrRTBüsm,tþi/ GñkeFVIkarcat;taMg¦ 2> GñkRbKl;siT§i/ GaNtþiTayk assimilation smankmµ ¬kareFVI[RCYtRCab¦ assistance kar]btßmÖ/ CMnYy/ CMnYy]btßmÖ assistant CMnYykar/ brivcäkarI/ ]bkarI assistant accountant KNenyükrCMnYykar assistant manager Gñkcat;karrg

attorney 1> GaNtþiKahk ¬GñkTTYlGaNtþi¦ 2> tMNagkarBarkþI 3> emFavI attractive adj. Tak;Taj/ ~ prices éføTak;TajGtifiCn auction karedjéfø auction sale karlk;edjéfø audit n. & v. 1> svnkmµ/ external ~ svnkmµBIxageRkA/ internal ~ svnkmµépÞkñúg 2> eFVIsvnkmµ ¬Binitü¼Eqk bBa¢IKNenyü¦ auditing svnkmµ/ National Auditing Authority GaCJaFrsvnkmµCati/ ~ procedures nItiviFIsvnkmµ auditor svnkr ¬GñkRtYtBinitübBa¢I/ sñgkar KNenyü¦/ independent/external ~ svnkrÉkraCü auspices kar]btßmÖ/ under the ~ enAeRkam »vaT ¬sßab½n¦ austerity PaBt,itet,ót/ PaBtwgrwg/ tbkmµ autarchy GMNac¼RbeTskan;rbb pþac;kar autarky sV½yaFibetyü/ esdækic©m©as;kar xøÜnÉgpÞal;/ ¬minBwgEp¥kelI karnaMecj-naMcUl rW CMnYyesdækic©¦ authentic deed/act lixityfaPUt authenticate eFVInItüanukUlkmµ ¬bBa¢ak;faBit¦ authenticity yfaPaB authorised bank FnaKarmankarGnuBaØat/ FnaKarRbtiRsuti authorised capital edImTuncuHbBa¢I authoritarianism GMNacniym authority siT§iGMNac/ GaCJaFr/ rdæGMNac authorisation 1> esckþIGnuBaØat

associated company (see affiliated company) Rkumh‘unBak;B½n§ association smaKm/ bar ~ KN³emFavI assurance 1> karFanar:ab;rg

2> PaBR)akdkñúgcitþ ¬KµankarsgS½y¦ at call, money kMcIEdlm©as;bMNulGacTar ykvij)anPøam at par, share PaKh‘unEdlmantMélenA pSarh‘unesµIKñanwgtMélcuHelIsnøwkb½NÑPaKh‘un at sight draft rUbiyaNtþiRtUvsgR)ak;enA eBlbgðaj at sight, to pay sgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksar ATM (automatic teller machine)

m:asuInebIkR)ak;s½VyRbvtiþ attitude \riyabf 7


Economic Lexicon Part 1

2> lixitGnuBaØat authorised representative tMNagman back out v. dkxøÜnecj/ ~ from a contract dkxøÜnecjBIkic©snüa back to back xñgTl;xñg/ ~ credit

siTRi§ bTan/ GaCJanukarI ¬tMNagmankarGnuBaØat¦ automatic teller machine (see ATM)

m:asuInebIkR)ak;s½VyRbvtiþ

\NTanxñgTl;xñg back up v. KaMRT/ bBa¢ak;KaMRT/ ~ a claim bBa¢ak;KaMRTkarGHGag backbone infrastructure ehdæarcna sm<½n§q¥wgxñg ¬ehdæarcnasm<½n§eKal¦ backdate v. cuHbuerkalbriecäT/ cuHkalbriecäTGtItkal backer GñkbeBa©jedImTun/ GñkKaMRT background 1> Rbvtþi/ savta 2> épÞxageRkay backing, financial karKaMRTxaghirBaØvtßú backlog kargarenAKrminTan;eFVI backup eRtombMrug backwardness PaBGn;fy bad debt \NeTyüTarmin)an ¬xUc¦/ \NeTyüBi)akTar ¬Cab;sgS½y¦ bad faith GsT§a/ KMnitevocevr bad title b½NÐkmµsiT§iykCakarmin)an bad workmanship TwkédGn;/ kareFVImin )anl¥ ¬plitpl¦ bail R)ak;Fana ¬]> R)ak;bg;[tulakaredIm,I[ CnCab;ecaT)anenAeRkAXMu¦/ ~ bond b½NÑFana bail out v. 1> se®gÁaHRkumh‘unCYbkarlM)ak xaghirBaØvtßú 2> bg;R)ak;FanaxøÜn bailiff n. GaCJasala bail cover R)ak;Fana

automatic drawing right

siT§idkR)ak;sV½yRbvtþi autonomous economic entity

GgÁPaBesdækic©sVy½t autonomous enterprise shRKassVy½t autonomy sV½yPaB/ sVy½tPaB/ economic ~ sV½yPi)alesdækic© average mFüm/ ~ annual growth rate GRtakMeNInmFümRbcaMqñaM/ ~ cost tMél¼

éføedIm mFüm average collection period (ACP)

ry³eBlRbmUlbMNulCamFüm avoidance, tax karecosvagBn§ award n. & v. 1> esckIþsMercrbs;GaCJa kNþal 2> rgVan; 3> pþl;rgVan;[/ ~ a contract RbKl;kic©snüa[ awareness kardwgsÁal;/ raise public ~ bMpuskaryl;dwgdl;saFarNCn B, b baccalaureate (degree)

¬sBaØab½Rt¦mFümsikSaTutiyPUmi bachelor’s degree fñak;briBaØab½Rt back eRkay/ xageRkay/ ~ interest karR)ak; minTan;sg/ ~ a bill cuHhtßelxaFanaelI 8


Economic Lexicon Part 1

eTotsgR)ak;eTAbuKÁlNamñak;¦ bank financing hirBaØb,TanFnaKar bank note RkdasR)ak; bank of deposit FnaKarTTYlR)ak;beBaØI bank reconciliation karepÞógpÞat;FnaKar ¬GgÁPaBsamIepÞógbBa¢Irbs;xøÜneTAnwgRbkas \NBn§¼\NTan rbs;FnaKar/ kargarenHEtg eFVIenAcugEx¦ bank reference TIsMGagbBa¢ak;BIxagFnaKar bank statement r)aykarN_¼Rbkas FnaKar/ sMrg;KNnIBIFnaKar bank transfer karepÞrR)ak;enAFnaKar bank v. dak;R)ak;enAFnaKar

bailment karepJITuk ¬dak;TMnij[GñkepSg kan;kab; b:uEnþGñkenaHBMuEmnCam©as;kmµsiT§ieT¦ bait n. nuy/ use money as ~ eRbIluyCanuy balance n. 1> tulüPaB 2> smtulü/ credit/ debit ~ smtulü \NTayI¼ \Nayik/ closing ~ smtulücugRKa/ pay the ~ sgR)ak;CMBak;/ positive ~ smtulü viC¢man/ ~ on goods and services smtulüTMnijnigesva balance of payments CBa¢IgTUTat;/ ~ deficit/surplus »nPaB¼Gtierk CBa¢IgTUTat; balance of trade CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµ balance sheet taragtulükar/ off- ~ items xÞg;eRkAtaragtulükar/ ~ date éf¶ eFVItaragtulükar balance v. eFVIeGaymantulüPaB balance v. an account bUksrubKNnI balance v. the budget eFVItulükarfvika bale KIb/ eb ¬vtßúGVImYymancMnYneRcIndUcCa RkNat; Rkdas esµA>>> EdlcgCa dMu¼kNþab;¦ bank FnaKar/ central ~ FnaKarkNþal/ deposit money bank FnaKarTTYl R)ak;beBaØI/ national ~ FnaKarCati bank acceptance b½NÑTTYlRBmedayFnaKar bank account KNnIFnaKar bank book esovePAFnaKar/ esovePAepJI R)ak;enAFnaKar bank charge esah‘uyFnaKar bank clearing karTUTat;tamFnaKar bank deposit R)ak;beBaØIenAFnaKar bank draft rUbiyaNtþiFnaKar rW b½NÑFnaKar ¬lixitecjedayFnaKarbBa¢aeGayFnaKarmYy

bank-credit guarantee scheme

kmµviFIFana\NTanrbs;FnaKar banker FnaKarik banker’s draft (see bank draft) banking muxCMnYjFnaKar/ muxviC¢aFnaKar bankrupt kS½yFn/ FnkS½y/ niT§½n bankruptcy PaBkS½yFn/ niT§nPaB/ discharge in ~ karrYcputBIkarkS½yFn bar association KN³emFavI barefoot doctor RKUeBTüCnbT bargain and sale kic©snüaTij-lk; bargain v. téfø/ (free) collective bargaining karcrcaBIkartMelIgR)ak;QñÚl

rvagnieyaCit nignieyaCk barrier r)aMg/ ]bsKÁ/ customs/tariff ~ r)aMgBn§Ky/ lift trade ~ dkr)aMgBaNiC¢kmµ/ non-tariff ~s ( NTBs) r)aMgminEmnBn§Ky barrister emFavI ¬Gg;eKøs¦ 9


Economic Lexicon Part 1

KµaneQµaH ¬elImUlb,Tanb½RtKµancuHeQµaH GñkRtUvebIkR)ak;eT KWfaGñkkan;mUlb,Tanb½Rt GacebIkR)ak;)an¦ bearer instrument/paper lixitUbkrN_ sMrab;Kahk beginning inventory sareBIP½NÐedIm qñaM¼RKa behave v. kan;criya behaviour Gakb,kiriya below cost TabCagéføedIm benchmark kMriteKal/ ~ survey GegáteKal benefactor ]bkarI ¬GñkTMnukbMrg u / Gñkp©gú epþmI ¦ beneficiary GñkTTYlpl/ GtßKahk benefit GtßRbeyaCn_/ R)ak;]btßmÖ/ medical ~ R)ak;]btßmÖéføBüa)al

barter karedaHdUrTMnijnigTMnij

¬karpøas;bþÚrTMnijedaymineRbIluy¦ base mUldæan/ exOn/ ~ level of consumption kMritmUldæanénkareRbIR)as; base rate GRtaeKal/ GRtamUldæan base year qñaMeKal baseline survey GegátCamUldæan basic CamUldæan/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBog CamUldæan/ ~ price éføeKal/ ~ research karRsavRCavCamUldæan basic commodities plitplksikmµ CamUldæan ¬ksiplFmµtaEdlpliteRcIn² dUcCaRsUv/ eBat>>>¦ basic discount GbhareKal ¬Gbhar FmµtaedayKµanbEnßmPaKryGVIeTot¦ basic human needs (BHN) tMrUvkarCa mUldæanrbs;mnusS basic salary/wage ebovtSr_eKal ¬ebovtSr_FmµtaedayKµanbUkR)ak;bEnßm¦ basin (Mekong River) Gag ¬TenøemKgÁ¦ basket n. k®nþk/ consumer ~ or consumption ~ k®nþkTMnijeRbIR)as; batch LÚt_ ¬GIv:an;EdlplitenAeBlEtmYy¦/ ~ number elxLÚt_

benefit-cost ratio

smaPaKplcMeNjeFobcMNay bequeath v. eFVIGc©½yTanCaclnvtßú bequest n. Gc©½yTanCaclnvtßú/ GMeNay tamry³mrtksasn_ best interest ]tþmRbeyaCn_ best-seller esovePAlk;dac;bMput biannual BIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM/ ~ monitoring karXøaMemIlBIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM bias lMeGog bid v. & n. 1> edjéfø 2> karedjéfø bilateral eTVPaKI/ ~ aid/assistance CMnYyeTVPaKI bill 1> vikáybRt 2> rUbiyaNtþi bill at sight vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi RtUvsg enAeBlbgðaj bill in transit vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi kMBugbBa¢Ún

BCC (business cooperation contract)

kic©snüashRbtibtþikarBaNiC¢kmµ bear Gñklk;snøwkh‘un¼TMnij¼rUbiyvtßú Edl eCOfaGIv:an;eKnwgcuHéfø/ ~ market TIpSarEdl eKeCOfaGWv:an;nwgcuHéfø bear v. interest pþl;nUvkarR)ak; bearer Gñkkan;/ ~ cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt 10


Economic Lexicon Part 1

bill of entry RbtievTn_Ky ¬lixitRbkas

board of directors RkumRbwkSaPi)al

bg;Bn§Ky¦

board of inquiry KN³kmµkaresuIbGegát board of investment (BOI)

bill of lading (B/L) GBaØtb½NÑ rW

GBaØtb½Rt/ lixitpÞúkTMnijnava/ b½NÑdwkCBa¢Ún TMnij/ direct ~ GBaØtb½NÑedaypÞal; bill payable vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi RtUvsg

RkumRbwkSavinieyaK

bill sent for collection

skmµPaBClyan body xøÜn ¬mnusS>>>¦/ tY ¬rfynþ>>>¦/ ~ of rules and regulations GgÁc,ab; ¬nigbTb,BaØtþi¦ bona fide esµaHRtg;/ ~ purchaser GñkTijesµaHRtg; bond sBaØab½NÑ/ government/treasury ~ b½NÑrtnaKar/ bearer ~ sBaØab½NÑKµaneQµaH/ goods (held) in ~ TMnijrkSaTukenAXøaMgKy ¬rg;caMkarbg;Bn§¦/ mortgage ~ b½NÑniekçb ¬b½NbÑ N M lu manvtßbú Ba©a¦M / take goods out of ~ bg;Bn§elITMnijedIm,IGacykvaecjBIXøaMgKy/ ~ yield TinñplsBaØab½NÑ ¬cMNUl)anBIsBaØab½NÑ KitCaPaKryénéføTijsBaØab½NѦ bonded warehouse XøaMgsþúkTMnijRKb; RKgedayPñak;garKy bonus R)ak;bEnßm/ buBVlaP ¬]> R)ak;rgVan;¦/ cost of living ~ R)ak;bEnßmsMrab;RTRTg; CIvPaB/ incentive ~ R)ak;elIkTwkcitþ/ productivity ~ rgVan;plitkmµ book of investment esovePAbnÞúkén karvinieyaK book value (accounting) tMélkñúgbBa¢I/ tMélKNenyü bookkeeper Gñkkan;bBa¢I/ KNenyükr

board of management RkumRbwkSaRKb;RKg boat TUk/ Clyan/ ~ log book esovePA

b½NÑepJI[RbmUlR)ak; bill/letter of exchange rUbiyaNtþi/ lixitpøas;bþÚr billion Ban;lan bin tag pøakFug bind v. cg/ mantMélGnuvtþ/ P¢ab;katBVkic© biodiversity CIv³cMruH biogas CIv]sµ½n biomass CIvm:as biosphere reserve, Tonle Sap

zbnIyCIvmNÐlbwgTenøsab birth certificate sMbuRtkMeNIt birth rate GRtakMeNIt/ GRtaRbsUtikmµ birth spacing karBnüakMeNIt black market pSarggwt/ ~ price éføpSarggwt blacklist bBa¢IexµA blank enAs¥at/ minTan;sresr/ ~ cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtcMh ¬cuHhtßelxaehIy EtKµan cuHTwkR)ak; rW eQµaHGñkTTYl¦ blank endorsement carxñgcMh block bøúk block fund mUlniFipþúM blocked account KNnI bBaÄb;¼p¥ib ¬min[dkR)ak;ecj¦ blue-collar union shCIBhtßkr 11


Economic Lexicon Part 1

bookkeeping karcuHbBa¢IKNenyü/ single entry ~ karcuHbBa¢IÉkPaK/ double entry ~

brainstorming karBiPakSabMpusKMnit branch (of a company) saxa ¬Rkumh‘un¦ brand sBaØa/ sBaØasMKal;/ rUb/ m:ak ¬TMnij¦ brand name eQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ/ yIeha breach of contract karelµIskic©snüa breach of discipline karelµIsvin½y breakages GIv:an;)ak;Ebk ¬minrab;CaRTBü

karcuHbBa¢IeTVPaK books of accounts bBa¢IKNenyü boom v. rIkduHdaly:agrh½s/ ~ industry

]sSahkmµEdlrIkduHdalya:grh½s/ booming sector vis½ykMBugrIkduHdal boost v. CMruj/ rujeLIg booty C½yP½NÐ ¬rbs;EdldeNþImrWbøn;BIeK¦/ GcäinRTBü border price éføenARBMEdn borrow v. x©I¼sMux©I/ borrowed reserves R)ak;bMrug)anx©I ¬EdlFnaKarnana)anx©IBI FnaKarkNþal¦ borrower Gñkx©I/ \Nvnþ borrowings karx©Ibul boss n. bri)al/ ecAhVay/ GñkRtYtRta/ bossy EdlcUlcitþRtYtRtaeK BOT (build, operate, transfer) sagsg;GaCIvkmµ-epÞr botany n. PUtKamsaRsþ ¬karsikSaBIrukçCati¦ bottleneck PaBraMgsÞH/ PaBkkkuj bottom out v. cuHTabbMput ¬RbEhlminGacFøak;cuHeToteT¦ bottom-up BIeRkameLIgelI/ ~ development karGPivDÆn_BIeRkameLIgelI bourgeois KhbtI

skmµeTenAeBleFVIsareBIP½NЦ break-even point cMNucrYcedIm breakthrough karTMlayPaBTal;Rck bribe v. & n. 1> sUk 2> sMNUk/ take a ~ sIusMNUk bridging loan kMcIry³eBlxøI ¬sMrab;Tij pÞHfµI enAeBllk;pÞHcas;minTan;dac;¦ broadcast v. pSBVpSay ¬tamviTüú/ TUrTsSn_>>>¦ brochure n. esovePAesþIg/ kUnesovePA pSBVpSay broker eCIgsarCMnYj/ KYkeC brokerage 1> kMéreCIgsar 2> kargareCIgsar brought forward (accounting) eyagmk bring in (assets as investment)

eFVI]bharit/ ykcUl budget fvika/ ~ control karRtYtBinitü fvika/ ~ credit \NTanfvika/ ~ fund mUlniFifvika/ ~ prices éføTab² buffer RTnab;/ ~ zone tMbn;RTnab; buffer stock sþúksMrab;Tb;karERbRbYl ¬éfø/ karpÁt;pÁg;>>¦/ ~ facility (BSF) ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;Tb;snñiFi built-in stabilisers ktþaeFVIeGayman sßirPaBCasV½yRbvtþi bulk buying karTijduM

bourgeoisie or middle class

vNѳKhbtI b¤ vNѳkNþal boycott Bhikar ¬karRbqaMgedayminRBmTij minRBmcUlrYm>>>¦ brain drain kar)at;bg;GñkmanCMnaj 12


Economic Lexicon Part 1

bulk order bBa¢aTijdMu bull Gñklk;snøwkh‘un¼TMnij>>>EdleCOfa

by-product plitplbnÞab;bnSM/ nisSnÞvtßú

muxGIv:an;eKnwgeLIgéfø bull market TIpSarEdleKeCOfaGIv:an;nwgeLIgéfø bulletin 1> RBwtþib½Rt/ 2> esckþIRbkasCapøÚvkar ¬BIerOgsMxan;GVImYy¦ burden bnÞúk/ ~ of proof bnÞúkPsþútag/ tax ~ bnÞúkBn§ bureau kariyal½y/ employment ~ kariyal½ykargar bureaucracy kariyaFibetyü bureaucrat kariyaelxanukar/ GñkeFVIkar kariyal½y business Furkic©/ GaCIvkmµ/ kic©karCMnYj/ karrksuI/ ~ card namb½NÑ

C, c cabinet xuTÞkal½y/ political ~ KN³rdæm®nþI cable transfer karepÞrR)ak;edayTUrKmn_ cadastre surieyadI cadre Rkbx½NÐ/ public ~ Rkbx½NÐ m®nþIraCkar/ ~ of administrative agent

Rkbx½NÐPñak;garrdæ)al calculus KNnaGtüaNU calendar RbtiTin/ ~ year qñaMRbtiTin call deposit R)ak;beBaØIcrnþ call loan/money \NTanKµankalkMNt; ¬RtUvsgvijenAeBleKTar¦ called-up capital mUlFn)anehA ¬)anbg;cUlRkumh‘unehIy¦ campaign yuT§nakar/ sales ~ yuT§nakarlk;drU cancel v. lubecal/ ~ an entry bdiesF elxna ¬KNenyü¦/ ~ an order lubecal karbBa¢aTij cancellation karlubecal canvass 1> sÞabsÞg; ¬mti¦ 2> eXasnaTak;TajkarKaMRT capability smtßPaB ¬eFVIGVImYy¦ capacity 1> smtßPaB/ earning ~ smtßPaBrkR)ak;/ in a legal ~ kñúgsmtßPaB tampøÚvc,ab;/ load-carrying ~ smtßPaBpÞúk ¬GIv:an;¦/ production ~ smtßPaBplit 2> cMNuH

business cooperation contract (BCC) kic©snüashRbtibtþikarBaNiC¢kmµ business format franchising

karpþl;siT§ieGayrksIupþac;muxtamEbbbTeK business licence tax ¬Bn§¦ )a:tg; business name namkrN_GaCIvkmµ business undertaking kareFVIkic©karCMnYj businessman/woman GaCIvkr/ FurCn buy v. Tij/ ~ back Tijykvij/ ~ time BnüaeGay)anyUr buyer’s price éføGnueRKaHdl;GñkTij buying order karbBa¢aTij buying power GMNacTij by-election kare)aHeqñateLIgvij bylaws (see also articles of association)

c,ab;bEnßm ¬RbcaMtMbn;¦/ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg 13


Economic Lexicon Part 1

capital mUlFn/ Tun/ authorised ~mUlFn Edl)anGnuBaØat/ paid in ~ mUlFnEdl )anbg;/ ~ accumulation smac½yTun capital account KNnI mUlFn¼Tun capital adequacy ratio smaPaKsm lµménmUlFn capital amortisation rMls;mUlFn capital asset RTBümUlFn/ RTBüskmµCab;lab; capital assistance kar]btßmÖTun capital contributor GñkcUlh‘un/ PaKTunik³ capital endowment edImTunEdlRtUvbg;

mUlFnRbkbkar capitalism mUlFnniym capitalist mUlFnik/ nayTun capitalisation mUlFnPavUnIykmµ capitalise v. eqøótykcMeNj/ qk;»kas/ mUlFnkmµ captive market TIpSarpþac;mux card b½NÐ/ sMbuRt/ business ~ namb½NÑ ¬GaCIvkmµ¦/ cash ~ b½NÑsac;R)ak;/ cheque ~ mUlb,Tanb½NÑ/ credit ~ b½NÑ\NTan/ identity ~ GtþsBaØaNb½NÑ career GaCIB caretaker (of a motor vehicle) Gñkkan; kab;EfTaM ¬]> yanynþ¦/ ~ government rdæaPi)alsMrab;RKb;RKgbeNþaHGasnñ cargo navaPNÐ/ TMnijdwktamnava/ nava ¬dwkTMnij¦/ ~ documents ÉksarsMrab; kardwkCBa¢ÚnTMnij cargo list bBa¢ITMnijdwkCBa¢Ún cargo outturn report r)aykarN_erITMnij carriage forward éfødwkCBa¢Únbg;eday GñkTTYl carriage paid éfødwkCBa¢Únbg;edayGñkepJI carried forward (accounting) eyageTA ¬]> eyageTATMB½rmYyeTotnUvtYelxbUksrubcug snøwkbBa¢IKNenyü¦

capital expenditure/investment/ outlay cMNayelIRTBümUlFn/ vinieyaK capital expense cMNayCamUlFn capital gains (accounting) tMélelIs capital goods TMnij mUlFn¼CaTun

¬TMnijsMrab;plitTMnijepSg²eTot¦ capital intensive RbBlvb,kmµedImTun ¬EdleRbITun¼m:asIuneRcIn¦ capital levy Bn§elIRTBübuKÁl capital loss (accounting) tMélxVH capital market pSarTun capital movement clnaTun/ karepÞrTun capital productivity plitPaBénTun capital reserves TunbMrug capital revenue cMNUlCamUlFn capital, authorised TunGtibrimaEdlRtUv )anGnuBaØat[manenAkñúgRkumh‘un/ TuncuHbBa¢I capital, frozen mUlFnpw¥b

carrying value (accounting)

tMélkñúgbBa¢I/ tMélKNenyü cartel n. karEtl/ shRkumh‘un case study karsikSakrNI ¬rW krNIsikSa¦ cash 1> ebLa ¬RkdasR)ak; + R)ak;kak;¦ 2> sac;R)ak; ¬ebLa + FnaKar¦/ ~ substitute

capital, risk (venture capital)

TunvinieyaKpSgeRKaHfñak; capital, working TunbgVil/ 14


Economic Lexicon Part 1

CMnYssac;R)ak; 3> rtnvtßú ¬KNenyü¦ cash account 1>KNnIebLa 2>KNnIrtnvtßú cash advance R)ak;buerRbTan ¬R)ak;ebIkmun¦

cash reserves sac;R)ak;bMrug cash voucher b½NÑcMNayebLa cash with order (CWO) bg;R)ak;eBl

cash against document (CAD)

bBa¢aTij

RbKl;R)ak;eBl)anTTYlÉksar cash book (CB) n. bBa¢IR)ak;ecjcUl cash budget EpnkarcMNUlcMNaysac;R)ak; cash credit \NTansac;R)ak; cash crop dMNaMlk;ykR)ak; cash discount karlk;cuHéføtamkarbg;Ca sac;R)ak; cash down sale karlk;ykR)ak;Pøam ¬Casac;R)ak; rW mUlb,Tanb½Rt b:uEnþminyk b½NÑ\NTaneT¦ cash economy esdækic©eRbIR)ak;kas cash flow lMhUrsac;R)ak;/ ~ analysis karviPaKlMhUrsac;R)ak;/ ~ statement r)aykarN_lMhUrsac;R)ak; cash in on eqøótykcMeNjBIelI

cash-disbursement book esovePA

cMNayR)ak; cashier ebLakr/ ebLaFikar cash-receipt book esovePAcMNUlR)ak; casting vote sMelg]tþmanuPaB

¬e)aHeqñat¦ casual labourer BlkrGENþt

¬ry³eBlxøI¦ casualty at sea mhnþrayenAsmuRT cataclysm n. mhavinas catalogue kataLúk ¬esovePAbgðaj rUb¼vtßú

epSg²¦ catalyst katalIkr/ ~ role tYnaTICakatalIkr

¬bnSúI/ CMruj¦ catchment area EdnrgTwkePøóg catalyse v. bnSúI ¬Kña¦/ BenøÓn categorisation of goods karkMNt;

cash in hand (GB), cash on hand (US) sac;R)ak;kñúg ebLa¼éd/ ebLa cash in/with bank sac;R)ak;enAFnaKar cash on delivery (COD) RbKl;TMnij

RbePTTMnij category RbePT/ BYk/ Epñk causal sehtu ¬EdlR)ab;BIkarTak;Tgehtu

RbKl;R)ak;/ bg;R)ak;eBlTTYlTMnij cash over and short R)ak;elIsxVH ¬bnþicbnþÜckñúgebLa¦ cash paid book esovePAsgR)ak; cash price éfølk; ¬efak¦ Kittamkarbg; Casac;R)ak; cash rebate cMnYncuHéføeGaytamkarbg;Ca

nigpl¦ CD-ROM suIDIr:m ceiling price éføGtibrma/ éføx<s;bMput celebrity n. Gñkl,IeQµaH census 1> karCMerOn ¬RbCaCn¦/ ~ sample KMrUtagCMerOn/

15


Economic Lexicon Part 1

2> r)ab; ¬karrab;¦

chairman RbFan/ ~ of the meeting

census-enumeration area tMbn;rab;

RbFanGgÁRbCMu/ GFibtI challenge bBaðaRbQm

bBa©ÚlCMerOn central kNþal/ mCÄwm/ ~ administration rdæ)al mCÄwm¼kNþal central bank FnaKarkNþal centralisation mCÄkar centralised eFVImCÄkar/ ~ economy esdækic©mCÄkar/ ~ record kMNt;RtamCÄkar/ ~ system RbB½n§mCÄkar centrally planned economy esdækic© EpnkarRbmUlpþúM ceramics kulalPaCn_/ ceramic product plitplkulalPaCn_ certificate viBaØabnb½Rt/ ~ of approval lixitGnuBaØat/ ~ of processing viBaØabnb½Rt bBa¢ak;plitkmµ/ ~ of deposit viBaØabnb½Rt beBaØI¼ epJIR)ak;/ ~ of origin viBaØabnb½Rt RbPBedImTMnij/ ~ of quality viBaØabnb½Rt bBa¢ak;KuNPaB/ ~ of quarantine viBaØabnb½Rt BinitüeraKqøg/ ~ of registration viBaØabnb½Rt Gnusidæ/ ~ of weight viBaØabnb½RtTMgn; certified cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rtr:ab;rg edayFnaKar rWmUlb,TanbR½tFanacMNay

chamber of commerce sPaBaNiC¢kmµ chance of selection P½BVénCMerIs change 1> bMErbMrYl/ karpøas;bþÚr/ sm,rivtþn_/ 2> R)ak;Gab;/ ~ fund R)ak;Gab; channel Rck chaos PaBRcbUkRcbl; chapter CMBUk character crit charge bnÞúk/ bnÞúkcMNay/ éfø ¬RtUvbg;¦ charge v. a commission ykkMéreCIgsar charge/credit account KNnIeCO

¬GtifiCnGacykrbs;EdlxøÜnTij edaybg; R)ak;TUTat;smtulüKNnIenAéf¶eRkay¦ charges, overhead bnÞúkcMNayTUeTA charity sb,úrsFm’/ kuslkic© chart tarag/ KMnUssißti/ EpnTI/ BinÞúerxIy/ bøg;/ organisation ~ GgÁkarelx/ sale ~ KMnUs taglk;/ ~ of accounts taragKNnI/ ~ of general accounting bøg;KNenyüTUeTA charter 1> FmµnuBaØ 2> lkçnþik³ (US) charter plane ynþehaHCYldwkBiess ¬eCIgehaHehIrmineTogTat;¦ chattel mortgage (US) karbBa©aMRTBü sm,tþipÞal;xøÜn check karRtYtemIl/ karEqkeqr/ ]bsKÁ/ karbg¥g;/ put a ~ on imports bg¥g;karnaMcUl check v. the accounts BinitüKNnI checkoff RbB½n§kat;R)ak;dak;shCIBeday nieyaCk

certified public accountant (US)

KNenyükrrdæTTYlsÁal; cessation karQb;/ ~ of business karbBaÄb;GaCIvkmµ cession n. Gnub,Tan/ karRbKl;eGay ¬]> kat;eGayeTAm©as;bMNul¦ ceteris paribus (other things being equal) GVIepSgeTotenAdEdl 16


Economic Lexicon Part 1

circulation cracr/ ~ of capital cracr¼ karbgVil Tun/ ~ of goods cracrTMnij citizen Blrdæ civics viC¢anaTIBlrdæ/ elaknIti civil suIvil/ ~ disobedience karbdiesF c,ab;rdæ/ ~ law c,ab;rdæb,evNI/ ~ liberty esrIPaBénBlrdæ/ ~ servant m®nþIraCkarsuIvil ¬tamFmµtaminrab;bBa©ÚlTahaneT¦/ ~ society sgÁmsuIvil civil status GRtanukUldæan/ ~ book esovePAGRtanukUldæan/ certificate of ~ sMbuRtGRtanukUldæan civilian n. & adj. 1> CnsuIvil 2>énCnsuIvil claim 1> \NeTyü ¬R)ak;eKCMBak;¦/ ~ on the government \NeTyüelIrdæaPi)al 2> kar tv:a¼TamTar 3> karGHGag claim v. compensation TamTarsMNg karxUcxat¼R)ak;b:Hb:Uv claimant GñkTamTar/ edImecaT clarify v. bMPøW class 1> fñak;/ vNѳ/ social ~ vNѳsgÁm/ economy/business/first ~ fñak;eGkUnUmI¼ CMnYj¼elxmYy ¬fñak;ekAGIynþehaHdwk GñkdMeNIr¦ classical Ebbkøasuik/ ~ view TsSn³Ebb køasuik/ ~ economics viTüasaRsþesdækic©køasIuk classification cMNat;fñak;/ system of ~ RbB½n§eFVIcMNat;fñak; classify v. cat;fñak;/ eFVIcMNat;fñak; clause 1> lkçxNÐ/ ~ of a contract

checks and balances karRtYtemIl nig føwgGMNac cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt/ bouncing/dud/ rubber ~ mUlb,Tanb½RtKµanR)ak; ¬RKb;RKan; kñúgKNnI¦/ blank ~ mUlb,Tanb½RtcMh/ cash a ~ ebIkR)ak;elImUlb,Tanb½Rt/ crossed ~ mUlb,TanbR½tqUt ¬eRbIsMrab;EtbBa©ÚlR)ak;kñúg KNnI¦/ dishonoured ~ mUlb,TanbR½tKµan R)ak;kñúgKNnI/ traveller’s ~ mUlb,Tanb½Rt eTscrN_¼eFVIdMeNIr/ open/ uncrossed ~ mUlb,TanbR½t\tmanqUt ¬bBa©ÚlR)ak;kñúgKNnI k¾)an ebIkR)ak;k¾)an¦/ ~ book esovePA mUlb,TanbR½t/ ~ to bearer mUlb,Tanb½Rt KµaneQµaH/ ~ crossed specially mUlb,TanbR½t qUtBiess ¬Ca mUlb,Tanb½RtEdlbBa¢ak;lGM ti bEnßmnUvlkçxNÐ epSg²dUcCa eQµaHFnaKarrbs; GñkTTYlCaedIm¦/ ~ stubs Kl;mUlb,TanbR½t/ ~ voucher b½NÑcMNaymUlb,Tanb½Rt chronic ruaMér:/ ~ unemployment PaBGt; kargareFVIraMuér: chronological order tamlMdab;éf¶Ex/ lMdab;erogtamkal CIF (cost, insurance, freight)

éføTMnijbUkéføFanar:ab;rgbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún circular saracr circular adj. EdlepJIeTAbuKÁlCaeRcIn/ ~ letter of credit b½NÐ\NTanepJIeTARKb;saxa ¬énFnaKarEdlecjva¦ circular systematic sampling

karykKMrUtagCaRbB½n§vil circulating capital TunbgVil 17


Economic Lexicon Part 1

lkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ 2> x ¬]> xTI1/ xTI2>>>¦/ special ~ xviessénc,ab;/ terminate ~ x bBa©b;kic©snüa claw back v. R)ak;dkykmkvij clean adj. s¥at/ ~ development mechanism ynþkarGPivDÆn_s¥ats¥M clean bill of health viBaØabnb½RtbBa¢ak; suxPaBl¥ clean bill of lading b½NÑpÞúkTMnij RtwmRtUv ¬KµankMNt;RtaBITMnijxus¼xUceT¦ clean collection EbbEpnTUTat;BaNiC¢kmµ KµanP¢ab;Éksar ¬KWeyagelIlixitCMBak;R)ak; b¤mUlb,TanbR½tEdleFVItamry³FnaKar¦ clear v. a cheque dak;mUlb,Tanb½Rt eGayRbB½n§FnaKarcat;karepÞrR)ak;

close v. an account biTKNnI ¬eFVI[KNnImansmtulüsUnü¦ close company Rkumh‘unbiTCit ¬Gñkkan;kab;PaKh‘unmanticnak;Nas;¦ closed economy esdækic©biTCit ¬rdæRtYtRtatwgruwgelIBaNiC¢kmµ nighirBaØvtßú¦ closing entries elxnabiTbBa¢I closing price éføTMnijeBlehobbiThag closing rate GRtabiT ¬GRtabþÚrR)ak;eBlbiTRbtibtþikarRbcaMéf¶¦ closing the books karbiTbBa¢I club køib/ regional industry ~ køib ]sSahkmµtMbn; cluster kBa©úM clustering of elements smasFaturYmCakBa©úM coaching karbgVwk/ karbgðat; co-chair shRbFan co-creditor n. sh\NTayk code Rkm/ commercial ~ RkmBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ of conduct/ethics RkmsIlFm’ code kUd/ elxkUd co-defendant shcugecaT coding kardak;elxkUd coefficient of variation emKuNbMErbMrYl cognitive level kMrityl;dwg coherence PaBrlUn/ PaBsuIKña cohesion karrYmsM)ac;/ karrYbrYmKña/ siniT§Bl ¬kMlaMgpSarP¢ab;Kña¦ coin n. & v. 1>R)ak;kas 2>e)aHR)ak;kas coincidence n. karKab;CYn/ Ékb,harPaB collaboration kic©shkar collate v. 1> RbmUlB½t’manmkBinitü

clear v. goods through customs

bMeBjEbbbTKy ¬edIm,InaMcUl b¤naMecjTMnij¦ clear profit R)ak;cMeNjsuT§ clearance certificate

b½NÑRtYtBinitürbs;Ky clearance inwards TMnijEdlKyXat;Tuk clearance outwards TMnijEdlputBIKyBinitü clearance sale karlk;LayLúgbegðIysþúk clearing account KNnIpat;Tat; clearing bank FnaKarTUTat; clearing house (banking) sPapat;Tat; clearing the arrears eFVIkarTUTat;R)ak;

EdlBMuTan;)ansg clerk esµón/ bank ~ buKÁlikFnaKar clientele n. Gtifita ¬GtifiCnTaMgGs; rbs;hagNamYy¦ clinic KøInik 18


Economic Lexicon Part 1

commercial BaNiC¢/ énBaNiC¢kmµ/ non ~ bank FnaKarGBaNiC¢/ ~ aircraft ynþehaH CMnYj ¬dwkGñkdMeNIr rWTMnij¦/ ~ attaché GnuB½n§BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ bank FnaKarBaNiC¢/ ~ bill rUbiyaNtþi/ ~ court tulakarBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ credit \NTanBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ dealing esdæBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ enterprise shRKas BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ impracticability GRbtibtiþPaB BaNiC©kmµ/ ~ invoice vikáybRtBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ paper RkdassñamBaNiC¢kmµ/ lixitTTYl CMBak;/ ~ port kMBg;EpBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ register bBa¢IBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ traveller tMNagBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ usage TMenomTMlab;BaNiC¢kmµ commercialisation BaNiC¢PavUbnIykmµ commercialise v. eFVIBaNiC¢PavUbnIykmµ commission 1> kMéreCIgsar/ ~ agent Pñak;garTTYlkMéreCIgsar/ ~ buyer/seller Pñak;gartMNag Tij¼lk;/ ~ sale karlk;yk

eRbobeFob 2> erobcMtamlMdab; ¬Éksar¦ collateral loan kMcImanrbs; bBa©aM¼dak;Fana collateral vtßú bBa©aM¼dak;Fana/ sc©karP½NÐ colleague shesvik collect v. payment Tar ¬RbmUlR)ak;¦ collecting agent/bank Pñak;gar¼FnaKar RbmUlR)ak; collecting charges esah‘uyCYyRbmUlR)ak; collection smuc©½y/ karRbmUl/ karTar/ debt ~ agency TIPñak;garTarbMNul/ ~ of stamps karsnSMTukEtm/ debit ~ karRbmUlbMNul collective CasmUhPaB/ rYm/ ~ bargaining karcrcarCa rYm¼smUhPaB/ ~ farm ksidæanrYm/ shkrN_ksikr/ ~ ownership kmµsiT§irYm/ ~ work sñaédCasmUhPaB collectivity smUhPaB collectivisation smUhPavUbnIykmµ collector n. GñkRbmUl/ farm produce ~ GñkRbmUlTijplitplksikmµ/ money ~ GñkRbmUlR)ak; column xÞg;/ xÞg;bBaÄr ¬tarag¦ combine KYbpSM/ lay/ ~ business and pleasure KYbpSMCamYyKñanUvBaNiC¢kmµ nigkarkMsanþ combustion n. cMehH ¬kareqH¦ come v. into effect/force cUlCaFrman come v. into line RBmeRBogCamYyKña come v. to an agreement QaneTAdl; kic©RBmeRBog comfort pasukPaB/ letter of ~ lixitKaMRT RKwHsßansaxa ¬kñúgkarrkx©IR)ak;¦ commerce BaNiC¢kmµ

kMéreCIgsar 2> KN³kmµkar commitment karebþCJa ¬karsnüadac;Nat;¦ committed credit (state budget)

\NTanP¢ab;snüa ¬fvikardæ¦ committee KN³kmµaFikar/ standing ~ KN³kmµaFikarGcié®nþy_/ ~ of inspection KN³kmµaFikarRtYtBinitü/ steering ~ KN³kmµaFikar dwknaMkargar¼nayk commodity plitpl ¬EdleKlk;¼Tij eRcIn²CaBiess vtßúFatuedIm niges,óg¦/ ~ accounts KNnIplitpl Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) taragGnueRKaHBn§Kyman

19


Economic Lexicon Part 1

smtßkic©/ ~ party PaKImansmtßkic© competing lines muxTMnijRbkYtRbECg competition karRbkYtRbECg/ sarmÖ/ free ~ karRbkYtRbECgesrI competitive EdlRbECg/ ~ advantage ]tþmPaBRbECg/ ~ examination karRblgRbECg/ ~ market pSarRbkYtRbECg/ ~ price éføRbkYtRbECg competitiveness PaBRbkYtRbECg/ PaBedjeCIgKña competitor GñkRbECg ¬éfø/ TIpSar>>¦ compile v. cgRkg complain v. t¥ÚjEt¥r/ tv:a complainant Gñkbþwgtv:a complaint bNþwg/ BakübNþwg complementary EdlbMeBj[KñaeTAmk completion karbBa©b;/ karbegðIy/ ~ of a contract karbBa©b;kic©snüa complex adj. misSPaK ¬sµúKsµaj¦ superiority ~ esyümanH/ inferiority ~ hInmanH/ complexity misSPaB complex business plan bøg;GaCIvkmµ sµúKsµaj complex multi-stage design bøg;eRcIn dMNak;minsamBaØ complexity PaBsµúKsµaj/ PaBsaMjúaM compliance with, in RsbCamYy complicate v. eFVIeGaysµúKsµaj complicity karcUléd complimentary 1> EdlsesIr 2> EdleGayTeT ¬\tKitéfø¦ comply Rbtibtþitam/ eFVItam

RbsiT§iPaBrYm common property resources (CPR)

FnFanRTBürYm common sense suPnicä½y common stock PaKh‘unsamBaØ commonwealth shFn ¬RkumrdæFøab; enAkñúgcRkPBGg;eKøs¦/ ~ of independent states shFnrdæÉkraCü communication karR)aRs½yTak;Tg/ ~ of information KmnaKmn_B½t’man communist adj. kumµúynisþ community property RTBürYmsM)ac;

bþIRbBn§ ¬Cam©as;rYmKña¦ company Rkumh‘un/ affiliated (or associated) ~ Rkumh‘unbuRtsm<½næ/ joint stock ~ Rkumh‘unGanamik/ limited liability ~ Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvmanx½NÐsIma/ ~ union shPaBRkumh‘un/ subsidiary ~ Rkumh‘unsaxa/ unlimited ~ Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvKµankMNt;/ ~ promoter sßabnikRkumh‘un/ trading ~ Rkumh‘unBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ies act c,ab;Rkumh‘un comparative advantage ]tþmPaB eRbobeFob compatibility smitPaB ¬PaBcUlKñacuH¦ compatriot CnrYmCati compensating errors el¥ógb:Hb:UvKña compensation karb:Hb:Uv/ sMNg compensatory financing facility (CFF)

]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;b:Hb:UvxaghirBaØvtßú compete v. RbkYtRbECg competent adj. mansmtßkic©/ mansmtßPaB/ ~ authority GaCJaFrman 20


Economic Lexicon Part 1

component smasPaK/ FatupSM composition smasPaB compound entry elxnapÁúM

¬edIm,IsMerceKaledAGVImYy¦ concerted economic action skmµPaB

esdækic©manvKÁmanesñI concession sm,Tan/ forest ~ sm,Tan éRBeQI/ ~ holder sm,Tanik/ social land ~ sm,TandIsgÁmkic©/ price ~ sm,Tanéfø concessionaire sm,Tanik/ forest ~ éRBsm,Tanik concessional, concessionary Edl pþl;sm,Tan¼GnueRKaH/ ~ loan kMcIpþl; sm,Tan/ ~ terms lkçxNÐsm,Tan conciliate v. pSHpSa conclusion n. snñidæan/ Gvsankfa ¬PaKbBa©b;énr)aykarN_¦ concrete measure viFankarCak;Esþg concurrence 1> karyl;RBm/ karÉkPaB 2>karekItdMNalKña ¬RBwtþikarN_¦ condition lkçxNÐ/ working ~ lkçxNÐ eFVIkargar/ ~ precedent lkçxNÐbegáIt katBVkic©/ ~ subsequent lkçxNÐbBa©b; katBVkic© conditional edaymanlkçxNÐ/ ~ acceptance karTTYlRBmedaymanlkçxNÐ conditionality PaBmanlkçxNÐ conducive to GMeNaypldl; conduct kiriyamayaT/ karRbRBwtþi¬xøÜn¦ conduct v. & n. 1> dwknaM/ eFVI/ dMeNIrkar 2> ~ of business kic©dMeNIrkareFVIGaCIvkmµ conference snñisIT confession n. karsarPaB/ sc©avIkrN_ confidential sMgat;

¬elxnamaneRbIcab;BIbIKNnIeLIgeTA¦ compound growth vDÆnPaBsmas compound interest karR)ak;smas comprehensive adj. RKb;RCugeRCay/ TUlMTUlay/ ~ analysis karviPaKRKb;RCugeRCay compromise karRsuHRsYl comptroller GñkRtYtBinitüxaghirBaØvtßú compulsory CakatBVkic©/ Edlxanmin)an/ ~ inspection GFikarkic©CakatBVkic© computable EdlGacKNna)an computer virus vIrus¼visaNU kMuBüÚT½r comrade n. smmitþ/ shCIvin/ BYkm:ak conceal v. lak;elom concealment karlak;elom concentration karRbmUlpþúM/ land ~ karRbmUlpþúMdIFøI/ ~ level of a substance kMritkMhab;énsarFatu concept eKalKMnit/ TsSnaTan conception TsSnaTan conceptual error el¥ógEpñkTsSnaTan conceptualise v. KitKUrbegáItfµI concern kgVl;/ RBYy)armÖ/ business ~ RKwHsßan ¬CMnYj¦/ his business is a going ~ muxCMnYjrbs;Kat;kMBugdMeNIrkareTAmux ¬nigmancMeNj¦ concerned EdlBak;B½n§/ ~ ministry RksYgBak;B½n§ concert, act in v. eFVIskmµPaBrYmKña 21


Economic Lexicon Part 1

confirmation karbBa¢ak;/ ~ of order karbBa¢ak;nUvkarbBa¢aTij/ ~ of price karbBa¢ak;éfø confirmed letter of credit

consistency 1> sgÁtPaB/ PaBsuIKña 2> PaBminpøas;bþÚr consolidated (information) ¬B½t’man¦ Rc)ac;bBa©ÚlKña consolidated balance sheet tarag tulükarsrub¬bUkcUlEfmnUvbuRtsm<½n§>>>¦

sar\NTanGnusiT§i confirming bank FnaKarbBa¢ak; confiscate rwbGUs ¬ykRTBü¦/ dkhUt conflict TMnas;/ ~ of interest TMnas;pl

consolidation of balance sheets

RbeyaCn_

karRc)ac;bBa©ÚlKñanUvtaragtulükar consortium kugs½rsüÚm/ smaKm conspiracy n. karKitk,t;/ shk,d ¬karrYmKMnitk,t;¦ constant efr/ ~ price éføefr constituency mCÄdæanGñkKaMRT/ mNÐle)aHeqñat constitution rdæFmµnuBaØ Constitutional Council RkumRbwkSaFmµnuBaØ constitutionality FmµnuBaØPaB constraint kMhit ¬]bsKÁ¦ constructive CalkçN³ksag/ ~ criticism karTietonCalkçN³ksag consultancy karpþl;eyabl;ÉkeTs consultant GñkBieRKaHeyabl; consultation karBieRKaHeyabl;

confrontation n. karRbTl;muxKña/ smµúxIkmµ/ ~ meeting karRbCMuTl;muxKña confusing RcLMbl;/ gayP½nþRcLM confusion karP½nþRcLM/ karRcLMbl;/ karRcbUkRcbl; conglomerate Rkumh‘unBhuplitpl conscience mnsikar conscientious Edlmanmnsikar/ Edlyk citþTukdak; consensus karmUlmti/ kugsg;s‘us consent v. & n. 1> RBm 2> karyl;RBm consequential EdlCavi)ak conservation GPirkS/karrkSa/ ~ of nature GPirkSFmµCati/ soil ~ GPirkSdI conservative adj. GPirkS consideration karBicarNa/ under ~ kMBug BinitüBicarNa consignee GñkTTYlTMnij

Consultative Group (CG)

RkumBieRKaHeyabl; consumables vtßúFatueRbIR)as; consume v. eRbIR)as; ¬es,ógGahar/ \n§n³>>>¦ consumer GñkeRbIR)as;/ ~ basket k®nþk TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ credit \NTansMrab;Tij TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ goods TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ price éføTMnijeRbIR)as; ¬éfølk;ray¦/ ~ price index (CPI) snÞsSn_éføTMnijeRbI R)as;/ ~ surplus plcMeNjénGñkeRbIR)as;

consignee’s account, all charges to

ral;esah‘uycMNayCabnÞúkrbs;GñkTTYlTMnij consignment n. 1> karbBa¢ÚnTMnij/ ~ note lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij 2> GIv:an;mYyRkum ¬]>mYykugtWn½r¦EdlbBa¢ÚneTA consignor GñkbBa¢ÚnTMnij 22


Economic Lexicon Part 1

consumption kareRbIR)as;/ ~ expenditures cMNayeRbIR)as;/ home (domestic) ~ kareRbI R)as;kñúgRsuk/ ~ curve ExSekageRbIR)as; contact karCYbTak;Tg/ ~ person mnusS

contract v. out of an agreement dk b¤ lubkic©snüa ¬edaymankaryl;RBmCa laylkçN_GkSrBIPaKImçageTot¦ contract v. 1> cuHkic©snüa 2> rYmcuH ¬esdækci ©¦ contract, under Cab;kic©snüa/ eRkamkic©snüa contracting party PaKIcuHkic©snüa contractor GñkcuHkic©snüa/ Gñkem:Akar/ sub-contractor Gñkem:Akarbnþ contractual business GaCIvkmµQrelI kic©snüa contradiction bdivaTkmµ/ PaBpÞúyKña contradictory EdlpÞúyKña contrast n. PaBpÞúyKña/ Bütierk contra-transfer cuHbRBa©as/ eFVIRbtiRkanþ elxna contravene v. elµIs/ bMBan contribute v. rYmviPaKTan/ rYmcMENk contribution viPaKTan/ karrYmcMENk/ ~ in kind viPaKTanCasMPar³ control v. RtYtBinitü/ RtYtRta controllable expenses cMNayRKb;RKg)an controlled selection CMerIsmankarRtYtBinitü controller GñkRtYtBinitü

sMrab;CYbTak;Tg container kugtWn½r ¬pÞúkTMnij¦ contemporary shkal/ shsm½y contempt karemIlgay/ ~ of court karRbmaftulakar content 1> xøwmsar 2> matika contest n. karRbECg/ karRbkYt/ ~ a decision CMTas;tva:nwgesckþIsMerc context bribT/ brikarN_ contingency yfaPaB/ kar\tRBagTuk/ ~ beneficiary GtßKahkCayfaehtu/ ~ plan EpnkarTukGnuvtþCayfaehtu contingent adj. GaRs½yelI ¬RBwtþikarN_GVI mYyEdlGacekIteLIg rWminekIteLIg¦/ Gnimitþ continuity nirnþrPaB continuous adj. bnþrhUt/ bnþCab; contra account KNnIbdiPaK contra entry elxnabRBa©as ¬edIm,IlubecalnUvelxnamun¦ contraband TMnijrt;Bn§ contraception karbgáarkMeNIt contract kic©snüa/ ~ of insurance kic©snüaFanar:ab;rg/ ~ of sale kic©snüalk;/ ~ of work kic©snüakargar

controlling interest, have a

mancMENkPaKh‘unRtYtRta ¬KWmanelIsBI 50°énPaKh‘unsrubrbs;Rkumh‘un¦ controversy vaTb,divaT ¬rW vaTRbtivaT rW karCECkrkxusRtUvCasaFarN³¦ contumacy n. TudæPaB ¬karminRBmcUlxøÜneTAtulakar¦ convenience food Gaharevcx©b;Rsab;

contract (public) employee

buKÁlik¬rdæ¦Cab;kic©snüa contract law c,ab;kic©snüa 23


Economic Lexicon Part 1

¬EdlRsYl erobcM¼cMGin¦ convention 1> GnusBaØa 2> snñi)at 3> snµtikmµ¼karsnµt conversation karsnÞna/ snÞnakar conversion karbþÚr/ ~ price/rate GRtabþÚr ¬edIm,IKitbþÚrrUbiyvtßúmYyeTACarUbiyvtßúbreTs¦ convertible currency rUbiyvtßúEdlGac bþÚrykrUbiyvtßúepSg)an conveyance 1> karepÞr ¬kmµsiT§i¦ 2> ÉksarepÞr convict TNÐit ¬GñkCab;Bn§naKar¦ cooperate v. eFVIshRbtibtþikar

Tak;TgxagCMnYj/ lixiteqøIyqøgGaCIvkmµ correspondent bank FnaKareqøIiyqøg corridor rebog/ Efv/ economic ~

rebogesdækic© corroborate v. bBa¢ak;¼GHGag bEnßm/

eFVIbmaNIykrN_ corruption n. GMeBIBukrlYy cost 1> tMél 2> briyaTan 3> éføedIm

4> bnÞúkcMNay/ cMNay cost accounting KNenyüéføedIm/ KNenyüviPaK cost and freight (C & F)

cooperative adj. & n.

éføTMnijbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún

1> EdleFVIshRbtibtþikar 2> shkrN_ coordinates niyamkar ¬ry³TTwg¼ry³beNþay¦ co-owner, co-proprietor shkmµsiT§ikr/ m©as;kmµsiT§irYmKña co-ownership shkmµsiT§i co-property RTBüsm,tiþrYmKña copyright siT§icMlg/ rkSasiT§i core sñÚl/ ~ budget fvikasñÚl/ ~ funding mUlniFisñÚl/ ~ resources FnFansñÚl corn n. (US) eBat/ baby ~ esñóteBat ¬bEnø¦ corporate state rdæshRKin corporation saCIvkmµ/ multinational ~ saCIvkmµBhuCati/ ~ tax (GB) Bn§elIR)ak; cMeNjRkumh‘un correct adj. RtwmRtUv correlated response variance v:arIy:g; cMelIyTak;Tin correlation shsm<½n§/ TMnak;TMng correspondence, business karsresr

cost of goods sold or cost of sales

24

éføedImTMnijlk;ecj cost of living éføRTRTg;CIvPaB cost price éføedIm cost, historical tMélTijcUl cost, insurance, freight (CIF)

éføTMnijbUkéføFanar:ab;rgbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún cost, manufacturing éføedImplitkmµ cost-benefit analysis karviPaKcMNay nigplcMeNj cost-effective adj. EdlmanRbsiT§PaB cMNay costing karKNnaéføedIm Council of Ministers TIsþIkarKN³rdæm®nþI counter bBa¢r counter party bdiPaKI counter valuation bdiekaslvic©½y counterbalance v. raMgxÞb;\T§iBl countermand bdiesFbgÁab;munecal/


Economic Lexicon Part 1

ecjRbtiGaNtþi

credit bank FnaKar\NTan credit bureau kariyal½ypþl;B½t’man

counter-offer kareGayéføelI ¬edIm,IRbECgTij¦ counterpart smPaKI counterpart adj. bdiPaK/ ~ entry elxnabdiPaK/ ~ fund mUlniFibdiPaK counter-revolution n. Rbtibdivtþn_ country report r)aykarN_sþIBIRbeTs country-representative office

BIkitþinam ¬énshRKas>>>¦ credit in kind \NTanvtßú ¬minEmnCaR)ak;¦ credit institution sßab½n\NTan credit market TIpSar\NTan credit n. & adj. & v. 1> \NTan 2> \NTayI 3> kt;Rtaxag\NTan credit plus \NTanbUk ¬\NTanEdl KitKUrTaMgkarCYyCaR)ak;kas nigbec©keTs¦ credit rating cMNat;fñak;\NTan/ smtßPaBsgbMNulrbs;Gñkx©I credit restrictions kMhitén\NTan credit risk haniP½yén\NTan credit sale karlk;eCO credit slip b½NÑsMeNA\NTan/ skçIb½Rt \NTan credit solvency lT§PaBsgbMNul credit status CMhr\NTan credit terms lkçxNÐ\NTan credit worthiness PaBKYr)anTTYl\NTan credit worthy borrower Gñkx©IR)ak; EdlKYreGayTukcitþ credit, open \NTanKµandak;vtßúFana ¬sMrab;GtifiCnl¥rbs;FnaKar¦ credit, tax \NTanBn§ credit, trade \NTanCMnYj ¬pþl;[shRKas manTMnak;TMngCMnYjCamYyKña¦ creditor \NTayk/ m©as;bMNul credulity n. PaBgayeCO/ sT§aluPaB creeping inflation GtiprNasnSwm²

kariyal½ytMNagRbcaMRbeTs country-risk analysis karviPaKeRKaHRbeTs coupe, forest éRBKub court clerks RkLabBa¢I court or lawcourt sala kat;kþI¼CMrHkþI covenant karRBmeRBogCapøÚvkar cover note (insurance) kMNt;sMGag ¬Fanar:ab;rg¦ cover price éføelIRkb ¬éfølk;raycuHelI RkbesovePA/ TsSnavdþI >>>¦ cover, banking R)ak;Fana cover, full (insurance) b½NÑFanar:ab;rgelI haniP½yRKb;RbePT cover, temporary (insurance)

b½NÑFanar:ab;rgbeNþaHGasnñ coverage kar¼TMhM RKbdNþb; ¬]> edayb½NÑFanar:ab;rg¦ craftsmanship n. htßekaslü creation n. karbegáIt/ mabnkmµ/ nimiµtkmµ/ mabnvtßú creative thinking KMnitécñRbDit creativity KMnitécñRbDit credibility PaBKYr[eCO/ kitþinam 25


Economic Lexicon Part 1

crime bTelµIsRBhµT½NÐ criteria, criterion lkçN³vinicä½y crop n. dMNaM/ pldMNaM/ supplementary ~

currency operation RbtibtþikarelI rUbiyvtßú ¬dUcCakarbþÚrR)ak;CaedIm ¦ current account or checking account (US) KNnIcrnþ current adj. crnþ/ ~ expenditures cMNaycrnþ current assets RTBüskmµ crnþ¼cl½t current liabilities RTBüGkmµcrnþ current price éføcrnþ/ éføbc©úb,nñ/ ~ list

dMNaMrYmpSM cross check epÞógKñaeTAvijeTAmk cross class fñak;qøg cross rate, exchange cross rate

GRtabþÚrrUbiyb½NÑepÞógpÞat; ¬GRtabþÚrR)ak; eFobtam rUbiyvtßúTI3 dUcCa duløar¦ cross border (trade) qøgkat;RBMEdn ¬BaNiC¢kmµ¦ crossed cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtqUt cross-examine v. karsYrbBa¢ak;sakSI epÞógpÞat;nwgcMelIyeBlmun cross-voting n. kare)aHeqñateGayKNbkS epSg ¬minEmnKNbkSxøÜn¦ crude oil eRbgeqA culprit n. BiruT§ikCn cultivated land dIdaMduH culture vb,Fm’/ ~ of impunity vb,Fm’ rYceTas cumulated list bBa¢IbUkRtYt curb v. Tb;sáat; curfew bMrameKacr currency rUbiyvtßú/ hard ~ rUbiyvtßúxøaMg ¬rbs;RbeTsmanesdækic©maMmYn niggaybþÚr ykrUbiyvtßúepSgeTot¦/ soft ~ rUbiyvtßúexSay currency in circulation rUbiyvtßúkñúgcracr currency of account rUbiyvtßúykmkKitKUr currency of payment rUbiyvtßúTUTat; currency of the contract rUbiyvtßúén kic©snüa

taragéføcrnþ current revenue cMNUlcrnþ

¬cMNUlCaRbcaM kñúgÉksarxøH¦ current account holder m©as;KNnIcrnþ current market rate GRtaéføTIpSarRbcaMéf¶ curtailment karkat;bnßy curve ExSekag/ aggregate supply ~

ExSekagpÁt;pÁg;srub custody (keeping) karrkSaTuk custom of the port (COP)

TMenomTMlab;Ep custom-built/made ksag¼eFVI Biess

sMrab;GtifiCnNamñak; customer GtifiCn customs house TIcat;karKy customs Ky/ ~ agent Pñak;garKy/ ~ Department TIcat;karKynigrdæakr/ ~ breach bTelµIsc,ab;Ky/ ~ declaration RbtievTn_Ky/ ~ examination karRtYtBinitü énPñak;garKy/ ~ frontier RBMEdnKy/ ~ invoice vikáybRtKy/ ~ permit lixit GnuBaØatBITIcat;karKy/ ~ regulations bTbBaØtþiKy/ ~ tariff taragBn§Ky/ ~ territory tMbn;RtYtBinitüKy ¬tMbn;EdlKy 26


Economic Lexicon Part 1

Gactamcab;TMnij)an¦ customs broker buKÁl¼Rkumh‘un EdlnaM TMnijqøgkat;Ky ¬bMerIeGayRkumh‘undwkCBa¢Ún¦ customs duties (or dues) Bn§Ky cycle vdþ/ suIkø/ xYb/ CMu/ ~ of poverty vdþénPaBRkIRk

date, interest to R)ak;karmkTl;bc©úb,nñ day éf¶/ settlement ~ éf¶TUTat;bBa¢I/ éf¶CMrHbBaI¢ day labourer BlkrsuIR)ak;éf¶/ TinikCn day-release 1> éf¶rYcput ¬Bn§¦

2> RbB½n§EdlGnuBaØat[nieyaCitsMrakBIkargar edIm,IeronsURt DCB (Domestic Competitive Bidding)

karedjéføedayRbkYtRbECgkñúgRsuk de facto tamkarCak;Esþg/ tamRBwtþin½y/ ~ management karRKb;RKgtamRBwtþin½y de jure tampøÚvc,ab; dead account KNnIQb;eRbI/ KNnIgab; dead loss karxatbg;srub dead money R)ak;gab;/ R)ak;minykeTAeFVI karrksuI dead season rdUvs¶b;skmµPaB ¬]> rdUvlk;dUrminsUvdac;¦ deadline kalkMNt;/ kalbriecäTdl;kMNt; deadlock PaBTal;Rck break the ~ TMlayPaBTal;Rck dead-weight 1> TMgn;nicl/ TMgn;gab; ¬KµanCYybMerIkar¦ deal karRBmeRBogxagCMnYj/ GabNsBaØa/ get a good ~ Tij)anefak/ package ~ karRBmeRBogCakBa©b; dealer BaNiC¢kr dealership TMnak;TMngCMnYjpþac;mux dealing karlk;dUrh‘unenApSarh‘un/ CMnYj, commercial ~ esdæBaNiC¢kmµ/ fair ~ CMnYj Rsbc,ab;/ insider ~ karCYjdUrh‘uneday GñképÞkñúg ¬EdldwgB½t’mansMgat;BIRkumh‘un¦

D, d daily RbcaMéf¶/ ~ sales return cMNUllk;

RbcaMéf¶ damage karxUcxat/ Gnþray/ ~ by seawater GnþrayedaysarTwksmuTÞ damages R)ak;sMNgcMeBaHkarxUcxat danger money R)ak;pþl;bEnßmsMrab;kargar

maneRKaHfñak; DARE (Demand and Resource Evaluation) karvaytMélFnFan nigtMrUvkar data Tinñn½y/ enter v. ~ bBa©ÚlTinñn½y data processing karcat;EcgTinñn½y database mUldæanTinñn½y data-collection stage dMNak;kalRbmUl

Tinñn½y date kalbriecäT/ éf¶Ex/ interest to ~

karR)ak;mkTl;bc©úb,nñ date a cheque forward cuHkalbriecäT

GnaKtelImUlb,Tanb½Rt date of maturity éf¶dl;kMNt;sgR)ak;/ \NRbtiTan/ date, by the due dl;éf¶kMNt; 27


Economic Lexicon Part 1

dear éfø ¬pÞúynwgefak¦ dear money R)ak;x©ImanR)ak;karx<s; dearth of investment kgVHvinieyaK death mrNPaB/ karsøab;/ ~ certificate sMbuRtmrNPaB/ ~ in service benefit

decent smrmü/ ~ livelihood CIvPaBsmrmü decentralisation n. vimCÄkar decentralise v. eFVIvimCÄkar/ decentralised power GMNacvimCÄkar deciding vote sMelg]tþmanuPaB ¬e)aHeqñat¦ decile n. TsPaK ¬sßiti¦ decimal n. & adj. 1> elxTsPaK

R)ak;bMNac;mrNPaB death rate GRtamrN³ debate karCECkedjedal ¬]> enAsPa¦ debenture sBaØab½NÑ ¬ry³eBlEvg²¦/ lixitbMNul/ register of ~ bBa¢IeQµaHGñk kan;sBaØab½NÑrbs;Rkumh‘un/ ~ holder Gñkkan;sBaØab½NÑ debit n. & adj. & v. 1> \NBn§ 2> \Nayik 3> kt;Rtaxag\NBn§

2> TsPaK decision esckþIsMerc/ ~ maker GñkeFVI esckþIsMerc/ ~ making kareFVIesckþIsMerc/ ~ tree KMnUsedImeQIénRbB½n§sMerc declaration 1> kar¼esckþI Rbkas 2> lixitRbkas/ RbtievTn_/ customs ~ RbtievTn_Ky/ tax ~ lixitRbkassareBIBn§ declared value tMél)an Rbkas¼RbtievTn_ decline n. karFøak;cuHyWt² declining balance method of depreciation viFIrMls;fyCalMdab; decoding karbkRsayelxkUd

debit/credit memorandum or debit/credit memo kMNt;ehtu \NBn§¼

\NTan b¤ Rbkas \NBn§¼\NTan debt bMNul/ ~ holder embMNul/ bad ~ bMNul GaRkk;¼Bi)akTar/ doubtful ~ bMNul sgS½y/ irrecoverable ~ bMNulTarmin)an/ ~ crisis vibtþibMNul/ ~ ratio smaPaKbMNul/ secured/unsecured ~ bMNul man¼Kµan dak;RTBüFana debt-collection letter lixitTarR)ak; debt-for-nature swaps bMNuledaHdUr nwgFmµCati debtor kUnbMNul/ \Nvnþ decadence n. PaBcuHGab;»n/ GtßgÁt decapitalise n. dkTunecj deceased n. Gñksøab;

¬ERbCaPasaFmµtavij¦ deconcentration vishmCÄkar decrease karFøak;cuH/ karfycuH/ ~ in price karFøak;éfø decree Rkwtü de-dollarisation bdiduløarUbnIykmµ deduct v. kat;kg/ pat;ecj/ after deducting depreciation eRkay)anpat;rMls; deductible adj. EdlGackat;kgecj/ tax ~ EdlGackat;kgecjBIcMNUlCab;Bn§ deductive method viFITajehtupl/ viessanumanviFI

decennial population census

CMerOnRbCaCnRbcaMTsvtSr_ 28


Economic Lexicon Part 1

deflator (GDP) snÞsSn_britþprNa ¬pss¦ deforestation karkab;éRBeQI/ vivnkar defrauder GñkbnøM ¬]> Bn§¦ defray ecjcMNayCYs degradation TuBVlPaB/ karbBa©úHKuNPaB del credere R)ak; ¬bUkbEnßmsMrab;¦ FanakarTUTat;/ ~ clause RbkarFanaTUTat;/ ~ commission kMéreCIgsarFanakarTUTat; delay 1> karyWty:av/ ry³kalkMNt; yWty:av/ ~ in delivery karRbKl;yWty:av/ 2> karBnüaeBl/ grant a ~ pþl;karBnüaeBl delegate power eFVIRbtiPUkmµGMNac/

deed 1> kic©snüaCalaylkçN_GkSr 2> GMeBI ¬l¥ rW GaRkk;¦/ good ~ kuslkic© deed of assignment lixitepÞrkmµsiT§ ¬BIkUnbMNuleTAm©as;bMNul¦ deed of conveyance lixitepÞrkmµsiT§i GclnRTBü default karxusqÁg/ karxVHxat/ karKµan lT§PaBsg default of acceptance karminTTYlRBm defendant n. cugecaT deferred payments karsgR)ak;bNþak; ¬eRcInelIk¦ deferred share PaKh‘unEdlTTYlPaKlaP eRkayeK deferred/unearned revenue ¬R)ak;¦ cMNUlTTYlmun ¬KWRtUveyageTAbBa©Úlkñúg kariybriecäTeRkay²¦ deficiency PaBminRKb;RKan;/ ~ in weight PaBxVHTMgn; deficient reserves R)ak;bMrugxVH deficient supply karpÁt;pÁg;mankgVHxat deficit »nPaB/ balance of payments/ trade ~ »nPaBCBa¢Ij TUTat;¼BaNiC¢kmµ/ budget ~ »nPaBfvika/ meet v. a ~ bMeBj»nPaB deficit financing hirBaØb,Tan»nPaB deflate the economy eFVIbritþprNa esdækic© ¬tamry³karkat;bnßysac;R)ak;pÁt;pÁg; rW cMNayrdæaPi)al¦ deflation britþprNa ¬sPaBkarN_TMnij cuHéføCaTUeTA ¦ deflationary gap KMlatbritþprNa

rMElkGMNac/ epÞrGMNac delegation 1> karepÞr ¬siT§iGMNac¦ 2> KN³RbtiPU deliberation karBiPakSaedjedal delinquent adj. 1> hYskalkMNt; 2> min)anbMeBjkatBVkic©edayectna delinquent n. GnItiCnRbRBwtþelµIs deliver v. RbKl; delivered at duty paid RbKl;enAkEnøg )anbg;Bn§ehIy delivered at frontier RbKl;enARBMEdn delivery karRbKl;/ ~ against payment RbKl;TMnijeBlmankarTUTat;/ ~ order b½NÑ bBa¢aeGayRbKl;TMnij/ ~ by instalments RbKl;TMnijtamdMNak;kal/ ~ note lixit RbKl;TMnij ¬[eTAGtifiCn CamYyKñanwgTMnij¦ demagogue n. GñkbeBa©IcraRsþ/ RbCaPiftik³ demand tMrUvkar/ sMNUmBr/ ~ bill/draft lixitbþÚrykR)ak; ¬eBlbgðajFnaKar¦/ 29


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ curve ExSekagtMrUvkar/ ~ deposit R)ak; beBaØIcrnþ/ ~ exceeds supply tMrUvkarelIs karpÁt;pÁg;/ ~ loan kMcIKµankalkMNt; ¬eBlTarRtUvsg¦ demand, to be in poor minsUvmantMrUvkar demarcation (boundary) karkMNt; RBMRbTl; demilitarise v. dkT½Becj/ eFVIvieyaFkmµ de-mining kare)assMGatmIn demise 1> Ptisnüa/ kic©snüaCYl 2> mrNPaB demobilise v. rMsay ¬kgT½B¦

dependability PaBGacBwgBak;)an depletion karfycuHeRcIn²/ kareRbIGs;/ tnukmµ depletive asset RTBüfycuHtamkareRbIR)as; deport v. nireTs deposit R)ak;beBaØI/ nikçitP½NÐ/ certificate of ~ RbkasnIyb½RtbeBaØI/ demand ~ R)ak; beBaØIcrnþ/ guaranteed ~ nikçitP½NÐFana/ savings ~ R)ak;beBaØIsnSM/ fixed/time ~ R)ak;beBaØImankalkMNt;/ ~ bank FnaKar TTYlR)ak;beBaØI/ ~ guaranty account KNnI R)ak;tMkl;Fana/ ~ in transit R)ak;beBaØIkMBug epÞr/ ~ receipt bgáan;édTTYlR)ak;beBaØI/ ~ slip b½NÑsresrepJIR)ak; deposit R)ak;kk; deposit (minerals...) RsTab;Er: deposit v. 1> kk; 2> tMkl;R)ak;/ epJIR)ak;

democratisation

RbCaFibetyüPavUbnIykmµ/ RbCanuvDÆn¾ demographic rate (birth, death ...)

GRtaRbCasaRsþ ¬kMeNIt/ mrN³ >>>¦ demonetise karbBa©b;tMéleRbIR)as;én RkdasR)ak;¼kak; denationalisation niCatUbnIykmµ/ karbþÚr RTBüsm,tþirdæeTACaÉkCn denial, flat karRbEkkdac;Ghgáar

¬enAFnaKar¦ depositor GñkepJIR)ak; depreciate v. Føak;éfø depreciation 1> karFøak;éfø¼tMél 2> ¬kar¦ rMls; 3> karswkerc

denominated in USD (cheque)

depreciation allowance (accounting)

carwkCaduløarGaemrik ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦ denomination ÉktatMélénRkdasR)ak; ¬rW kak;¦ denominator (fraction) PaKEbg density dg;sIuet

TayC¢TaneGaydl;rMls; depress v. sgát;cuH ¬TIpSar/ GarmµN_/ Qñan;RhVaMgrfynþ >>>¦ depression, economic vism<aFesdækic© deputy prime minister ]bnaykrdæm®nþI deputy chairman GnuRbFan deputy manager naykrg/ bNÑaFikarrg deregulate v. eFVIbdiniy½tkmµ dereliction of duty kare)aHbg;Parkic©

Department of Overseas Trade

naykdæanBaNiC¢kmµeRkARbeTs Department of Public Prosecution

GgÁkarGyükar department store PNÐaKar 30


Economic Lexicon Part 1

derivative instrument (banking)

diagram KMnUsbMRBYj differentiate v. Ejk differentiation karEjkeGayeXIjPaBxusKña digit elx/ single ~ inflation GtiprNa

]bkrN_nisSnÞ descendant bcäaCn description 1> karBiBN’na 2> RbePTTMnij/ ~ of goods karraymuxTMnij desertification rehadæanIykmµ ¬kareFVI[

mantYelxEtmYyxÞg; digital EdlbgðajCaelx/ DIhSúItal; digitalised economy esdækic©erxUbnIykmµ dignitary \sSrCn dignity PaBéføfñÚr/ \sSrPaB dilemma n. sßanPaBRtUveFVICMerIsd¾Bi)ak dimension TMhM/ TidæPaB ¬énsPaBkarN_GVImYy¦ direct adj. pÞal;/ foreign ~ investment (FDI) vinieyaKpÞal;BIbreTs/ ~ cost tMél plitpÞal;/ briyaTanpÞal;/ ~ exchange karedaHdUredaypÞal;/ ~ export karnaMecj edaypÞal;/ ~ tax Bn§pÞal; direct v. tMrg;Tis direction 1> Tis/ TisedA 2> esckþIENnaM/ provide ~ and guidance pþl;TisedA nigkarENnaM ¬[eFVIGVImYy¦ directive karcg¥úlTis/ bTENnaM/ ~ on wages and prices bTENnaMsþIBIebovtSr_nigéfø direct-lending schemes kmµviFI\NTanpÞal; director nayk director-general GKÁnayk/ deputy ~ GKÁnaykrg directory 1> bBa¢IrayeQµaH 2> ftdak;Tinñn½y ¬kMuBüÚT½r¦ direct-transit trade BaNiC¢kmµqøgkat;pÞal; disability BikarPaB disadvantage plvi)ak/ KuNvibtþi

eTACavalrehadæan¦ design karrcnatak;Etg/ bøg;/ ~ effect \T§iBlénbøg;/ ~ weight TMgn;bøg; design v. rcnatak;Etg designation letter lixit]eTÞsnam ¬GñktMNag>>>¦ desk study karsikSaenAkariyal½y detailed adj. lMGit/ ~ instructions bTbBa¢alMGit deteriorated Gn;KuNPaB ¬TMnij¦ deterioration karGn;fy ¬KuNPaB/ éfø>>>¦ determine v. kMNt; detriment karxUcRbeyaCn_ detrimental Edl eFVIeGayxUcRbeyaCn_¼ bgáeRKaHfñak; devalue v. bBa©úuHtMélrUbiyvtßú ¬eFobnwg rUbiyvtßúÉeTot²¦ development karGPivDÆn_/ karlUtlas;/ ~

yuT§saRsþGPivDÆn_/ ~ aid CMnYyGPivDÆn_/ ~ project KMeragGPivDÆn_/ Development Triangle Zone tMbn;GPivDÆn_RtIekaN strategies

deviation 1> kargakecj 2> KMlat devise n. Gc©½yTanCaGclnRTBü

¬tammrtksasn_¦ diagnosis n. eraKvinicä½y 31


Economic Lexicon Part 1

disadvantaged caj;eRbob/ ~ farmers

discount rate

ksikrTn;exSay

discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis

disaggregation karbMEbkGgÁpSM disagree v. minRBmeRBog/ minÉkPaB/

karviPaKlMhUrsac;R)ak;Kittamry³eBl discouraged worker Blkr)ak;Twkcitþ discretion qnÞanusiT§i ¬siT§isMerceBjelj¦/ at the ~ of the government CaqnÞanusiT§i rbs;rdæaPi)al discrimination karerIseGIg disequilibrium vismta/ PaBKµanlMnwg

minyl;Rsb disagreement n. karminRBmeRBog, in the event of ~ kñúgkrNIKµankarRBmeRBog disbursement karebIkpþl;¬R)ak;¦/ ~ account KNnIraymuxkarebIkpþl;R)ak;/ ~ schedule kalviPaKebIkpþl;R)ak; discharge 1> dkbNþwg/ ~ a bankrupt

GRtaGbhar/ GRtacuHéfø

dishonoured bill of exchange

rUbiyaNtþiEdlRtUv)anbdiesF dishonoured cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt bdiesdæ ¬minTUTat;¦ disillusion esckþIRsgakcitþy:agxøaMg disincentive eRKOgbg¥ak;Twkcitþ disinflation karbnßyGtiprNa disinvestment kardkTunQb;vinieyaK dismiss v. bBaÄb;BIkargar/ edjecal/ dismissal n. karbBaÄb;BIkargar dispatch n. karbBa¢Ún/ karEbgEck dispatch v. epJI/ bBa¢Ún ¬TMnij>>>¦ dispersion diagram düaRkambMEbkray disposable personal income cMNUl enATMenrrbs;buKÁl/ cMNUlbuKÁleRkaykat;Bn§ ¬]> R)ak;ExebIkykeTApÞH)an¦ dispose v. CMrHbBa©b; dispossess dkhUtrbs;RTBü

eGaybuKÁl)anrYcputBIPaBBIkS½yFn BIeRBaH )anTUTat;bMNulehIy 2> TUTat;bMNulTaMgRsug 3> bBaÄb; ¬buKÁlik¦ disciplinary action kardak;vin½y ¬kardak;eTasxagrdæ)al¦ disciplinary council RkumRbwkSavin½y ¬GñksMercdak;vin½yelIbuKÁlik¦ disciplinary sanction TNÐkmµxagvin½y/ to impose ~ dak;vin½y disciplinary transfer

karpøas;ecjedaydak;vin½y disclaimer bTRbkasbdiesF ¬karTTYlxusRtUv/ siT§i >>>¦ discount 1> Gbhar ¬karcuHéfø¦/ cash ~ karlk;cuHéføtamkarbg;Casac;R)ak;/ to sell goods at a ~ lk;TinijcuHéfø 2> Gbharit ¬R)ak;cuHéføeGay¦ 3> cuHéfø discount a bill v. eFVIGbharrUbiyaNtþi ¬lk;rUbiyaNtþieGayFnaKar¦ discount bank FnaKarTij]bkrN_ TUTat;lixitbMNul

disproportionate (amount of cash)

vismamaRt ¬cMnYnsac;R)ak;¦ dispute vivaT/ CMelaH/ ~ settlement mechanism ynþkaredaHRsayvivaT 32


Economic Lexicon Part 1

domestic kñúgRsuk ¬rW kñúgRbeTs¦/ ~ assets (bank) RTBüskmµkñúgRsuk>/ ~ credit \NTan kñúgRsuk/ ~ demand tMrUvkarkñúgRsuk/ ~ income (DI) plTunkñúgRsuk/ ~ financing hirBaØb,Tan kñúgRbeTs/ ~ product (DP) plitplkñúgRsuk/ ~ savings sBa¢½yFnkñúgRsuk ~ supply karpÁt;pÁg;kñúgRsuk/ ~ price stability sßirPaB éføkñúgRsuk/ ~ trade BaNiC¢kmµkñúgRsuk domicile n. lMenA/ ~ of origin lMenAedIm

dissemination karpSBVpSay dissolution karrMlay distortion karERbRbYlxusPaBedIm distress (sale) edaymanFur³bnÞan;/ edaHT½l

¬karlk;¦ distribution karEckcay distribution of sample r)ayKMrUtag distribution, unequal wealth

r)ayvismFn ¬karEckcayRTBüminesµIKña¦ disturbance karrMxan/ noise ~ karrMxan edaysMelg diversification cMruHkmµ/ BiBiFkmµ dividend PaKlaP divisible adj. EdlEckdac;/ GacEbgEck/ ~ letter of credit sar\NTanGacbMEbk)an division of labour karEbgEckBlkmµ docker kmµkrkMBg;Ep

¬lMenABIkMeNIt tamFmµtaKW lMenA«Buk¦ domiciled bill of exchange rUbiyaNtþi manbBa¢ak;Gas½ydæan domiciled in Cambodia

1> Éksar ¬TaMgGs;Tak;TinnwgerOgGVImYy¦ 2> karksagsMNMuÉksar

manlMenApøÚvkarenAkm<úCa dominate v. RKbsgát; domino effect \T§iBldUmINU donation GMeNay donee bdiKÁahk donor Tayk/ Gñkpþl;CMnYy dormant adj. KµanskmµPaB/ ~ company Rkumh‘unKµanskmµPaB ¬kñúgmYykariybriecäT¦ dose xñatmaRta/ kMrit dossier sMNMuerOg double v. ekInmYyCaBIr

documents against acceptance (D/A)

double-deflation technique

pþl;ÉksarRbKl;TMnijeBlbBa¢ak;TTYlRBmCMBak;

bec©keTsbRgYmsÞÜn

documents against payment (D/P)

double-entry bookkeeping

pþl;ÉksarRbKl;TMnijenAeBlsgR)ak; dogma n. siT§anþ ¬CMenOrbs;mnusSmYyRkumEdl eKrMBwgfaGñkÉeTotTTYlykedayKµanCECktv:a¦ dollarisation duløarUbnIykmµ

viFIcuHbBa¢IeTVPaK

documentary collection

1> karRbmUlR)ak;eRkayeBl)anTTYlÉksar 2> karRbmUlÉksar documentary credit \NTanÉksar documentation

doubtful debt \NeTyüsgS½y down payment R)ak;kk;/ R)ak;bg;dMbUg downgrade v bBa©úHtMél

33


Economic Lexicon Part 1

dutiable EdlRtUvbg;Bn§/ ~ goods TMnij RtUvbg;Bn§¼Cab;Bn§ duty Bn§ ¬BiessBn§Ky nigGakrBiess¦/ ad valorem ~ Bn§yktaméfø/ customs ~ Bn§Ky/ excise ~ GakrBiess/ ~ paid price éføKitTaMgBn§ duty Parkic©/ ~ bound Cab;Parkic© duty-free EdlrYcBn§/ ~ goods TMnijrYcBn§ duty-paid goods TMnijbg;Bn§ehIy DVD DIvIDI ¬fasvIedGU¦ dwindle v eFVIrMls;bnþicmþg² dynamic adj. DINamik/ Edlman famPaB¼snÞúH dynamics n. DINamik/ famPaB dynamism DINamIs/ famPaB/ snÞúHkMlaMg

¬]> kñúgkarBüakrN_tMélsnøwkh‘un¦ downsize v. kat;bnßy downstream product plitpl xageRkam¼cugExS ¬ekItecjBIplitpledIm¦ downward tendency ninñakarfycuH dowry ekrþ×xagRsI draconian measures viFankartwgrwgsMebIm draft 1> esckþIRBag 2> rUbiyaNtþi/ bank ~ rUbiyaNtþiFnaKar ¬lixitbBa¢a[FnaKarebIkR)ak;¦ draft term lkçxNÐlixit draught animals (GB), draft animals (US) stVGUsTaj draw lots v. cab;eqñat ¬edIm,IeRCIserIs¦ drawback n. cMNucminl¥ drawback n. Bn§KybgVilsgvij ¬enAeBl

TMnijRtUv)annaMecjeTAvij¦ drawee bharit/ GñkeGayeKdkR)ak;/ GñkRtUv)anesñIeGaybg;R)ak; drawer bhar½k/ GñkdkR)ak; drawing account KNnIR)ak;beBaØI KµankalkMNt; drawing rights siT§idkR)ak; ¬siT§isMux©I¦ drop karFøak;cuH dual price system RbB½n§éføTVIk³/ RbB½n§éføBIr due 1> EdlCMBak; 2> Edldl;kMNt; due date \NRbtiTan/ éf¶dl;kMNt;sgR)ak; due-card salakb½Rtpþl;TMnij dumping karcak;Kr/ karlk;bgçÚcéfø/ ~ duty Bn§Tb;Tl;nwgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø duplication 1> kareFVI[eTVKuN 2> karRtYtKña ¬\tRbeyaCn_¦ durability PaBCab;lab;/ PaBzitezr

E, e earmark v. élTuk ¬sMrab;eKaledAGVImYy¦ earned fees kMérrk)an earnest R)ak;kk;/ kMNt; earning capacity smtßPaBrkR)ak; earnings cMNUl/ kMér/ retained ~ R)ak;cMeNjrkSaTuk

¬Edlmin)anebIk[m©as;h‘unCaPaKlaPeT¦ ease, prices are inclined to éføman ninñakarfycuH easement esvPaB/ siT§ieRbIR)as;dIGñkdéT easy money policy eKalneya)ay sac;R)ak;gayRsYl ¬EdlsMrYlkarpÁt;pÁg; sac;R)ak;edIm,IBRgIkesdækic©¦ 34


Economic Lexicon Part 1

easy terms of payment lkçxNÐTUTat;

kmµviFIsßirPavUbnIykmµesdækic©

gayRsYl

economic cost-benefit analysis (ECBA) karviPaKcMNaynigplcMeNj

ecological equilibrium lMnwgeGkULÚsuI ecological tourism eGkUeTscrN_ ecological zone tMbn;eGkULÚsuI ecology eGkULÚsuI eco-national product (ENP)

xagesdækic© economical EdlsnSMsMéc economics viTüasaRsþesdækic© economies of scale esdækic©maRtdæan economist esdæviTU economise snSMsMéc economy esdækic©/ sMéc/ balance of national ~ tulüPaBesdækic©Cati/ black ~ esdækic©ggwt/ centrally planned ~ esdækic© EpnkarRbmUlpþúM/ decentralised ~ esdækic© vimCÄkar/ capitalist ~ esdækic©mUlFn/ free market ~ esdækic©TIpSaresrI/ planned ~ esdækic©Epnkar/ political ~ esdækic© neya)ay/ ~ car rfynþsuIsaMgtic/ ~ size

plitplbrisßanCati econometrics esdækic©maRtsaRsþ/ viC¢avas;Evgesdækic© economic énesdækic©/ ~ austerity tbkmµesdækic©/ kart,itet,ótxagesdækic©/ ~ blockade/embargo karh‘u¿B½T§esdækic©/ ~ conditions lkçxNÐesdækic©/ sPaBkarN_ esdækic©/ ~ conversion bMlas;esdækic© ¬BiessBIrcnasm<½n§eyaFamkrcnasm<½n§ esdækic©minEmneyaFa¦/ ~ cooperation shRbtibtþikaresdækic©/ ~ corridor rebogesdækic©/ ~ corridor RckTVar esdækic©/ ~ crisis vibtþiesdækic©/ ~ cycle vdþ esdækic©/ ~ downturn/recession karFøak;cuH esdækic©/ ~ efficiency RbsiT§PaBesdækic©/ ~ entity GgÁPaBesdækic©/ ~ forecast karBüakrN_esdækic©/ ~ impact plb:HBal; xagesdækic©/ ~ indicator GaMgDIkarT½resdækic©/ ~ pattern lMnaMesdækic©/ ~ integration smahrNkmµesdækic©/ ~ model KMrUesdækic©/ ~ philosophy TsSnviC¢aesdækic©/ ~ policy eKalneya)ayesdækic©/ ~ projection karKn;KUrxagesdækic©/ ~ sanction TNÐkmµ esdækic©/ ~ stabilisation programme

xñatFM ¬lk;efakebIeFobnwgbrimaNva¦ education for all Gb;rMsMrab;TaMgGs;Kña Education Sector Support Programme (ESSP)

EpnkaryuT§saRsþsMrab;RTRTg;vis½yGb;rM education service esvaGb;rM effective skþisiT§i effective date éf¶RbsiT§PaB effective demand tMrUvkarCak;Esþg effective rate of protection (ERP)

GRtaKaMBarskþisiT§i effectiveness PaBskþisiT§i efficiency RbsiT§PaB efficient EdlmansmtßPaB/ Edlmanpll¥/ 35


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ worker kmµkrEdlmansmtßPaB elaborate y:agl¥itl¥n;/ briyayy:agl¥itl¥n; elasticity PaByWt/ EdlGacpøas;bþÚr)an/ ~ of supply and demand PaByWténkar

citþTukdak;eTAelInieyaCit employer nieyaCk employment 1> kargar ¬eTogTat;manR)ak; kMér¦ 2> sßanPaBmankargareFVI/ ~ rate GRta GñkmankargareFVI 3>karCYl ¬[bMerIkargar eTogTat;¦/ ~ bureau kariyal½yrkkargar eGayeFVI/ ~ shock karb:HTgÁicxagkargar empower v. pþl;GMNac¼pþl;siT§iGMNac[ emulation karRbECgtamKMrUl¥ enact a law Gnum½tc,ab; encode v. sresrCaelxkUd ¬bkERbPasa samBaØeTACaelxkUd¦ encouragement karelIkTwkcitþ/ karCMruj end product plitplsMerc end result plsMerc endangered species RbePTesÞIrputBUC ending inventory sareBIP½NÐcugRKa endorse v. 1> KaMRT 2> carxñg ¬ Éksar¦ endorse v. (an expense) cuHTidæakar ¬bBa¢ak;yl;RBmelIcMNay¦ (French: viser) endorsee GñkmansiT§ieRbIR)as;lixitsñam tamcMNarxñg endorsement bidæielx/ cMNarBIxñg/ rUbiybdiePaK/ ~ for collection cMNarxñg ÉksaredIm,IRbmUlR)ak; endorser GñkeFVIbidæielx/ GñkcarxñgÉksar/ rUbiybdiePaKI endowment R)ak;pþl;[/ TayC¢Tan ¬R)ak; EbgEckCaeTogTat;sMrab;eKaledAGVImYy¦ energy conservation karsnSMsMécfamBl energy efficiency RbsiT§PaBfamBl enforce payment v. bgçMeGayTUTat;

pÁt;pÁg; nigtMrUvkar elderly Cncas;Cra electoral official m®nþIe)aHeqñat electrification GKÁIsnIPavUbnIykmµ/ rural ~ fund mUlniFiGKÁIsnIPavUbnIykmµCnbT electronic adj. eGLicRtUnik element smasFatu eligibility for bank loans PaBGacTTYl

)an\NTanBIFnaKar eligible EdlmansiT§i/ EdlGacTTYlyk)an elite Gñkzan³x<s; embargo karh‘¿uB½T��/ ninñivarN_ ¬]> karham Xat;mineGaynaMTMnijecj-cUl¦/ lift an ~ elIkkarh‘¿uB½T§ecj/ place an ~ dak;karh‘¿uB½T§ embezzlement karekgRbv½Ba© emergency PaB bnÞan;¼Gasnñ/ in case of ~ kñúgkrNIbnÞan;/ ~ aid CMnYyse®gÁaHbnÞan;/ ~ condition lkçxNÐPaBGasnñ/ ~ fund mUlniFise®gÁaHbnÞan;/ ~ loan kMcIse®gÁaHbnÞan;/ ~ relief CMnYyse®gÁaHbnÞan;/ ~ tax Bn§visamBaØ emerging economies esdækic©kMBugegIbeT,Ig emerging markets TIpSarkMBugpuseT,Ig emission bnSay ¬]> ]sµ½nBul¦ emolument brilaP/ R)ak;bMNac;muxtMENg emotional buying motive bMNgTij edayrMePIbcitþ emphasise v. sgát;F¶n;/ KUsbBa¢ak; employee nieyaCit/ ~ oriented Edlyk 36


Economic Lexicon Part 1

karb:HBal;brisßan/ ~ protection kic©karBarbrisßan/ ~ security snþisuxbrisßan envoy eRbsit¼ebskCnBiess equality smPaB/ income ~ smPaBén R)ak;cMNUl/ ~ benefit plRbeyaCn_esµIKña/ equalisation kareFVIeGaymansmPaB equation smIkar equilibrium lMnwg/ tulüPaB/ smta/ ~ price éfølMnwg equitable edaysmFm’/ esµIPaB equities h‘unFmµta equity n. RTBüm©as; ¬RTBüskmµ dk bMNUlcrnþ nigh‘unGnueRKaH¦ equity smFm’/ with ~ EdlmansmFm’/ ~ fund mUlniFismFm’ equity capital Tunm©as;h‘unFmµta equity of redemption siTi§ls; ¬rbs;kUnbMNulGuIb:UEtk¦ equity participation PaKkmµ ¬cUlh‘un¦ equivalent smmUl/ esµIKña/ b:unKña/ ~ to smmUlnwg/ ~ value tMélsmmUl error el¥óg/ kMhus/ micäaelx/ ~ in measurement el¥ógkñúgkarvas;Evg escalation karrIkraldal ¬TMnas;¦/ kMeNInkartantwg escrow, in EdlrkSaTukkñúgédttIyCn essential Casarvnþ/ ~ goods TMnijCasarvnþ established business GaCIvkmµEdl cak;bJsehIy/ GaCIvkmµmanRsab; establishment 1> RKwHsßan 2> karbegáIt estate 1> dIkmµsiT§i ¬FM²¦

enforce v. dak;eGayRbtibtþi/ dak;bgçM[Gnuvtþ/ BRgwgkarGnuvtþn_ ¬c,ab;¦/ enforcement (n) enforceable mantMélRbtibtþi/ Gacdak;bgMç [Gnuvtþ)an engage v. Bak;B½n§cUl engagement karcUlRbLÚk engine of economic growth

k,alma:sIunkMeNInesdækic© enhancement karelIksÞÜy enough RKb;RKan; enquiry esckþIesñI/ make enquiries saksYrB½t’man enrollment rate (school)

GRtacuHeQµaHcUleron enterprise shRKas/ free ~ shRKasesrI ¬minenAeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;rdæ¦/ smallscale ~ shRKasxñattUc entertainment karkMsanþ/ ~ centre mNÐlkMsanþ entitle v. pþl;siT§i entity GgÁPaB/ legal ~ nItibuKÁl entrepreneur shRKin entrepreneurship shRKinPaB/ lkçN³ écñRbDitrksuI entry 1> elxna ¬KNenyü¦ 2> karcUl/ ~ point cMNuccUl/ RckcUl enumerator GñkcuHeFVIGegát/ GñksYrGegát ¬KYreRbI interviewer rW surveyor vij¦ environment brisßan/ ~ scan karemIl cMNucsMxan;kñúgbrisßan environmental adj. énbrisßan/ ~ impact 37


Economic Lexicon Part 1

karbþÚrR)ak;/ ~ dumping karlk;bMpøajGRta bþÚrR)ak;/ ~ gain/loss cMeNj¼kMhatelI karbþÚrR)ak;/ ~ office kariyal½ybþÚrR)ak; 2> pSar/ kEnøglk;Tij/ stock ~ pSarh‘un

2> RTBüsm,tþirbs;buKÁlEdlsøab; estate agent Pñak;garrksuICYl rWlk;Gcln RTBü estate, real GclnRTBü estimate v. )a:n;sµan/ vaytémø estimated profit R)ak;cMeNj)a:n;sµan estimation bias lMeGogénkar)a:n;sµan ethics sIlFm’/ sIlFm’viC¢aCIv³ ¬RkmsIlFm’¦ ethnography CatiBn§úviTüa Eurodollar duløarGWr:ub ¬duløarepJIkñúgFnaKarenA eRkAshrdæGaemriksMrab;bMerIBaNiC©kmµkñúgGWr:ub¦ evaluation karvaytémø/ credit project ~ karvaytMélKMerag\NTan evasion (tax) kareKc ¬Bn§¦ even number elx Kt;KUr¼KUr event RBwtþikarN_/ ~ of default krNIKµan lT§PaBsg eventuality yfaehtu evidence Psþútag evolution karvivtþn_ evolving process dMeNIkarvivtþþin_ exacerbate eFVIeGayrwtEtF¶n;F¶r examine v. Binitü ex-ante price éføEpnkar ¬muneBlGnuvtþ Cak;Esþg¦ excavation kMNay ¬buraNviTüa¦ exceed v. elIs excess n. & adj. 1> el,Is/ sMNl; ¬fvika¦ 2> elIs/ ~ capacity smtßPaBelIs ¬tMrUvkarplit¦/ ~ reserve R)ak;bMrugelIs exchange 1> karedaHdUr/ karbþÚr/ karpøas;bþÚr ¬BaNiC¢kmµ¦/ ~ control karRtYtBinitü

exchange rate or rate of exchange GRtabþÚrR)ak;/ monthly average ~ GRta bþÚrR)ak;mFümRbcaMEx/ closing ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak; enAeBlbiT/ fixed ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;minERbRbYl¼ efr/ parallel market ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;TIpSar/ forward ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;mankalkMNt;/ official ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;pøÚvkar/ spot ~ GRta

bþÚrR)ak;dl;éd exchange, letter of (or bill of )

rUbiyaNtþi excise tax GakrBiess ¬c,ab;km<úCa³ Gakr BiesselITMnijnigesvamYycMnYn¦ excise tax revenues rC¢eTyücMNUl exclusive agent tMNagpþac;mux exclusive right siT§ipþac;mux executive adj. Edl Rbtibtþi¼Gnuvtþ/ ~ body/entity/unit esnaFikar/ ~ director naykRbtibtþi/ ~ committee KN³kmµaFikar Rbtibtþi/ ~ structure rcnasm<½n§Rbtibtþi/ ~ summary esckþIsegçb ¬segçbÉksar EdlEvgsMrab;fñak;dwknaMGan¦ executive n. 1> fñak;dwknaM/ chief ~ nayk Rkumh‘un 2> GMNacnItiRbtibtþi executive power GMNacnItiRbtibtþi ¬rdæaPi)al¦/ GMNacRbtibtþi ¬sßab½nepSgeTot dUcCaRkumRbwkSaXMu¦ exemption, tax karelIkElgBn§/ muFaPaB énBn§Gakr 38


Economic Lexicon Part 1

explicit Cak;lak;/ ~ instruction bTbBa¢a

exert pressure v. dak;sMBaF/ eFVIkarekobsgát; existence GtßiPaB existing EdlmanRsab;/ ~ structure rcnasm<½n§EdlmanRsab;/ ~ level of development kMrit manRsab;¼GtßiPaB

Cak;lak; exploitation GaCIvkmµ/ ~ of natural resources kareFVIGaCIvkmµFnFanFmµCati exploration karrukrk/ oil ~ karrukrk

énkarGPivDÆn_ exit point cMNucecj/ Rckecj ex-officio tamGMNacmuxgar ¬]> tam GMNac¼edaysar muxgarCahirBaØik Kat;RtUv køayCasmaCikénKN³kmµkarhirBaØvtßú¦ exogenous xageRkA/ negative ~ factors ktþaGviC¢manxageRkA expansion karBRgIk/ vibulkmµ/ vibulkar/vitßarkmµ expatriate (or expat) GñkcMeNalRsuk/ GaNikCn expectation, rational karrMBwgsmehtupl expected profit R)ak;cMeNjrMBwgTuk expend v. cMNay/ cay expenditure n. cMNay/ capital ~ cMNay CamUlFn/ current ~ cMNaycrnþ ¬cMNayCa RbcaMkñúgÉksarxøH¦/ ~ curve ExSekagcMNay expenses, administrative cMNayrdæ)al expenses, sundry cMNayepSg² experience n. bTBiesaFn_ experiment n. BiesaFn_

eRbgkat exponential growth kMeNInGicSb:UNg;sIuEyl export v. & n. 1>naMecj 2>karnaMecj/ nIhr½N/ ~ article/item muxTMnijnaMecj/ ~ duty Bn§naMecj/ ~ subsidies ]btßmÖFn sMrab;karnaMecj/ ~ licence GaCJab½NÑnaMecj/ ~ monopoly karnaMecjpþac;mux/ ~ tariff taragBn§naMecj/ ~ of workers karnaMecj

Blkmµ exportation karnaMecj/ nIhr½Nkmµ exporter GñknaMecj/ nIharin exporting firm Rkumh‘unnaMecj exports TMnijnaMecj ex-post project evaluation karvay

tMéleRkayeBlKMeragcb; exposure (banking) haniP½y/ large ~

haniP½yFM extended fund facility (EFF)

]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;mUlniFibEnßm extension karbnþeBl ¬eGay¦ extensive adj. yfapl/ ~ agriculture ksikmµyfapl external accounts KNnIépÞeRkA external aid CMnYyBIxageRkA ¬RbeTs¦ external balance CBa¢IgTUTat;GnþrCati externalities 1> plb:HBal;mkBIeRkA

experimental learning cycle

vdþeronsURtedaydkBiesaFn_ experimentation BiesaFnkmµ/ karBiesaFn_ expertise ekaslüvic½y expiration of a contract karputkMNt; énkic©snüa 39


Economic Lexicon Part 1

ktþacMnUlbzm/ primary ~ of production ktþaplitkmµbzm factual Cak;Esþg/ ~ situation sßanPaBCak;Esþg fad GVIEdleKniymmYyRKa² fail v. xkxan/ kS½yFn/ KµaneCaKC½y fair mansmFm’/ edayyutþiFm’/ RtwmRtUv/ principle of ~ competition eKalkarN_ RbkYtRbECgRtwmRtUv/ ~ price éføsmrmü fairness PaBsmrmü fait(s) accompli(s) RBwtþin½y ¬GVIEdl)an ekItehIy bþÚrElg)an¦ fall in prices karFøak;éfø fall sharply v. Føak;cuHy:agKMhuk ¬]> éfø plitpl¦ fallacious EdlbMPan; false adj. Ekøgkøay/ minBit falsify v. Ekøgkøay family allowance(s) viPaCn_RKYsar/ R)ak;]btßmÖRKYsar family business GaCIvkmµCalkçN³RKYsar family food production plitkmµ es,ógCalkçN³RKYsar family scale (fishing) ¬karensaT¦ CalkçN³RKYsar family well-being suxumalPaBRKYsar famine TurÖikS/ karGt;Xøan fancy k,ac;k,Úr/ hWuha

2> ktþaxageRkA extract sMrg; extraction karykecjmk/ karykEr:/ nisSarNkmµ extractive industry ]sSahkmµykEr: extradition btüab½n ¬karRbKl;CnCab;ecaTeTA[RbeTsepSg¦ extraordinary session sm½yRbCMuvisamBaØ extrapolation karKn;KUr extra-structural adjustment facility (ESAF) ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;EktMrUvbEnßm extrinsic reward rgVan;mkBIeRkA ex-warehouse priceéfø¬lk;¦ecjBIXøaMg ex-works/ex-factory price éfø ¬lk;¦

ecjBIeragcRk F, f fabric of peace, strengthen the

BRgwgekasikasnþiPaBeGaypSarP¢ab;Kñal¥ face value tMélcuHelIb½NÑ facilitate v. CYysMrYl/ bgálkçN³gayRsYl facilities eRKOgsMrYlkar/ kEnøgsMrYlkar facility kargayRsYl/ ]bkrN_sMrYl/ extended fund ~ ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;mUlniFibEnßm fact GgÁehtu fact-finding mission ebskkmµEsVgrkkarBit factor ktþa/ ~ cost ktþatMél ¬BaküeRbIkñúg KNnICatisMedAdl;plitplKittaméføTIpSar bUk]btßmÖFn dkBn§pÞal;ecj¦/ primary ~ cost ktþatMélbzm/ primary ~ income

fare éføQñÜlyanCMniH/ concessionary ~ éfø

QñÜlGnueRKaH/ full ~ éføQñÜleBj/ half ~ éfø QñÜlBak;kNþal/ single/one way ~ éføeFVI dMeNIrEteTA rW Etmk/ return ~ (roundtrip ~) éføeFVIdMeNIreTAmk/ high/low season ~ éføQñl 40


Economic Lexicon Part 1

fiduciary currency rUbiyvtßú rW R)ak;Rkdas fiduciary loan kMcIKµanvtßúFana field expenditure cMnaycuHeFVIkardl;kEnøg FIFO (first in, first out) hVIúhVÚ ¬cUlmun

x<s; rWTabtamrdUv farm ksidæan, ~ equipment brikçarksidæan farming rbrksikmµ/ extensive ~ kareFVI

ksikmµtamEbbvibulvb,kmµ/ ksikmµyfapl/ intensive ~ ksikmµGtipl/ kareFVIksikmµtam EbbRbBlvb,kmµ

ecjmun¦ filing 1> kartMkl;Tuk 2> kardak;CUnBinitü filing system RbB½n§erobcMÉksar fill in a form bMeBjTMrg;EbbbT final cugeRkay/ ~ goods plitplsMerc/ ~ output Fatuecj¼plitpl cugeRkay/ ~ consumption kareRbIR)as;cugeRkay/ ~ provisions Gvsanb,BaØtiþ ¬c,ab;¦/ ~ settlement karTUTat;pþac; finance officer m®nþIhirBaØvtßú finance v. pþl;hirBaØb,Tan/ pþl;Tun financial énhirBaØvtßú/ ~ accounting KNenyühirBaØvtßú/ ~ assistance CMnYy hirBaØvtßú/ ~ autonomy sV½yPaBhirBaØvtßú/ ~ appropriation R)ak;viPaCn_/ ~ charge/ cost bnÞúkcMNayhirBaØvtßú/ ~ crisis vibtiþ hirBaØvtßú/ ~ forecast karBüakrN_hirBaØvtßú/ ~ institution sßab½nhirBaØvtßú/ ~ panic GehtuP½yhirBaØvtßú/ ~ liquidation karCMrH hirBaØvtßú/ ~ pressure sMBaF hirBaØvtßú/ ~ rate of return GRtaTajcMNUlhirBaØvtßú/ ~ reform kMENTMrg;hirBaØvtßú/ ~ services esva hirBaØvtßú/ ~ shocks karb:HTgÁicxaghirBaØvtßú/ ~ self-sufficiency PaBm©as;karxaghirBaØvtßú/ ~ standing sßanPaBhirBaØvtßú/ CMhrhirBaØvtßú/ ~ year qñaMhirBaØvtßú/ kariybriecäT

far-sighted EdlemIleXIjEvgq¶ay FAS (free alongside ship) éføTMnijdwk

dl;EKmnava fast selling items TMnijlk;dac;elOn fast-food restaurant ePaCnIydæan

Gaharrh½s fauna rc¢³stV ¬BBYkstV¦ favor karGnueRKaH favourable GMeNaypl/ ~ conditions lkçxNÐGMeNaypl/ ~ trade balance CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµl¥ favouritism GnueRKaHniym fax TUrsar feasibility study karsikSaBIPaBGaceFVI)an rW karsikSaBIsmiT§ilT§PaB feature lkçN³sMKal;/ vtßúniTÞsSn_ fee kMér/ esah‘uy/ licence ~ kMérGaCJab½NÑ feedback B½t’manRtLb; ¬B½t’manpþl;mkeGayvij¦ feet, foot hVIt/ hVÚt/ ¬rgVas;RbEvg¦ felony bT]Rkidæ fertility PaBmankUn/ ~ rate GRtamankUn feudalism skþiPUminiym fiduciary Cnkan;tMENgCaTITMnukcitþ/ abuse of ~ karrMelaPesckþITukcitþ

financial cost-benefit analysis (FCBA)

41


Economic Lexicon Part 1

fixture eRKOgbMBak;Cab;/ fixtures and fittings eRKOgbMBak; ¬TaMgGcl½t nigcl½t

karviPaKcMNay nigplcMeNjhirBaØvtßú financial manager (French:

Edllk;eTACamYynwgpÞH¦

GaNab½k/ principal ~ GaNab½k edImExS/ delegated ~ GaNab½kepÞrsiT§i

ordonnateur)

flammable substance sarFatueqH flat sMEb:t/ rab/ qakar/ ~ fee kMérqaka/ ~ price éføqakar flaw ex©aH/ KuNvibtþi flawed Edlmanex©aH/ EdlmanKuNvibtþi flexible Edlbt;Ebn)an/ Tn;Pøn;/ ~ exchange rate GRtabþÚrR)ak; rs;¼Tn;Pøn; flight of capital lMhUrelOnecjmUlFn flimsy paper RkdaseBIelo ¬RkdasesþIg¦ float v. 1> GENþt/ 2> dak;[GENþt/ floating rate GRta ¬karR)ak;¦ GENþt floating capital TuunbgVil flooded forest éRBlicTwk floor price éføGb,brma flora rukçCati flotation of a new company karcab;epIm þ

financing hirBaØb,Tan/ ~ arm saxapþl; hirBaØb,Tan/ ~ modalities EbbbTpþl;

hirBaØb,Tan finding rbkKMehIj/ lT§plrkeXIj/ KMehIj/

karrkeXIj fine v. & n. 1> pakBin½y 2> R)ak;pakBin½y finished goods/products plitpl sMerc fire insurance karFanar:ab;rgeRKaHGKÁIP½y firm GgÁPaBGaCIB/ shRKas firm offer karsnüalk;Cak;lak; firm sale karlk;pþac; ¬tamkic©snüaRtwmRtUv¦ fiscal énsareBIBn§/ ~ deficit »nPaB sareBIBn§/ ~ policy neya)aysareBIBn§/ ~ year qñaMsareBIBn§ fish culture/farming karciBa©wmRtI fisheries reform kMENTMrg;vis½yensaT

ebIkRkumh‘unfµIedaylk;snøwkh‘unrbs;Rkumh‘unenaH flow lMhUr/ karhUr flow chart tarag/ GgÁkarelx flow, stock snñiFicracr fluctuation kareLIgcuH¬éfø¦ FOB (free on board) éføTMnijdwkdl;elInava FOB airport éføTMnijdwkdl;Gakasyandæan

nigClpl fisheries resource FnFanClpl fishery karensaT fishery zone EdnensaT/ reserved ~

EdnensaTbMrugTuk fishing lot LÚt_ensaT fixed Cab;lab;/ efr/ Gcl½t/ ~ asset RTBü skmµCab;lab;/ Gclkmµ/ ~ capital TunGcl½t/ Gclkmµ¬CamUlFn¦/ ~ cost/ expenses bnÞúkcMNayefr/ ~ deposit R)ak;beBaØIman kalkMNt;/ ~ rate GRtaefr ¬minERbRbYl¦ fixing of quotas karkMNt;kUta/ kardak;kUta

FOB shipment to destination

éføTMnijdwkdl;eKaledA FOB trimmed éføTMnijdwkdl;elInava nigerobeGay FOB under tackle

éføTMnijdwkdl;eRkamdgeyag 42


Economic Lexicon Part 1

vinieyaKpÞal;BIbreTs/ ~ inflows lMhUrcUlBI breTs ¬CMnYy/ rUbiyb½NÑ>>¦/ ~ liabilities (bank) RTBüGkmµbreTs/ ~ reserves FnbMrug breTs/ ~ trade BaNiC¢kmµ eRkARbeTs foreign-aid programme kmµviFICMnYybreTs

focal point cMNucRbsBV focus v. & n. 1> epþat 2> cMNucepþat following tameRkay/ ~ year qñaMeRkay

¬qñaMeRkayTI1¦ follow-up v. & n. tamdanbnþ food mðÚbGahar/ es,óg/ ~ price index snÞsSn_éfømðÚbGahar/ ~ products/stuffs

foreign-trade turnover

cMNUlBaNiC¢kmµeRkARbeTs foreman emkar/ emRkum ¬Cag/ kmµkr¦ foresight karyl;dwgmun forest éRBeQI/ protected ~ areas tMbn;éRBkarBar/ ~ concession éRBsm,Tan/ coupe ~ éRBKub/ operable ~ éRBeQIGac eFVIGaCIvkmµ)an forest product/sub-product GnupléRBeQI forestry rukçsaRsþ forfeit money R)ak;Bin½y forfeit v. kat;ecj/ )at;bg; ¬CakarBin½y¦ forfeited to the government ¬RtUv)an¦ rwbGUsCasm,tþirdæ forgery karEkøg form RTg;RTay/ legal ~ rUbPaBKtiyutþ form (document) TMrg;kar ¬Éksar¦

plitples,óg food balance tulükares,óg ¬brimaN

es,ógTaMgGs;Edlman eFobnwg cMnYnRbCaCn EdlRtUvciBa©wm¦ food for work es,ógsMrab;Blkmµ ¬]> GgárBlkmµ¦ food security snþisuxes,óg FOR (free on rail) éføTMnijdwkdl;elIpøÚvEdk force 1> kMlaMg 2> kMlaMgBlkmµ force majeure RbFanskþi force, come into cUlCaFrman/ manRbsiT§PaB forecast v. & n. BüakrN_ foreclose a mortgage v. bþwgGMNUs/ rwbGUskmµsiT§iGclnvtßúdak;Fana/ bþwgTamTar kmµsiT§i niekçbRTBü¼RTBübBa©aM ¬edaysareK min)ansgbMNultamkic©snüa¦ foregoing esckþIeTIbelIkeLIg foreign breTs/ ~ accounts KNnIenA breTs/ ~ assets RTBüskmµbreTs/ RTBübeBaØI enAbreTs/ ~ balance CBa¢IgTUTat; GnþrCati/ ~ currency/exchange rUbiyvtßú breTs ¬rW rUbiyb½NѦ/ ~ exchange auction karedjéfø rUbiyb½NÑ/ ~ direct investment (FDI)

form and legal concepts of the law

TMrg; nig Kti énc,ab; formal pøÚvkar/ erobry/ ~ sector vis½y erobry formalities EbbbT/ TMrg;EbbbT/ TMrg;kar/ fulfil v. ~ bMeBjEbbbT formulation mission ebskkmµelIkmti forward mankalkMNt; ¬enAGnaKt¦/ ~ delivery karRbKl;mankalkMNt;/ 43


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ price éfølk;mankalkMNt; forward v. bBa¢ÚnTMnij forwarding agency TIPñak;gardwkCBa¢Ún forwarding, advice of lixitCUndMNwg

free of charge eday\tbg;éfø free on board and trimmed (see FOB trimmed) éføTMnijdwkdl;elInava

bBa¢ÚnTMnij

free on rail (see FOR) free on truck (see FOT) free will ¬eday¦ suT§citþ freedom of association

nigerobeGay

FOT (free on truck) éføTMnijdwkdl;elIrfynþ foul bill of lading b½NÑdwkCBa¢Únminl¥

¬EdlbBa¢ak;BIsßanPaBTMnijminl¥enAeBl m©as;navaTTYlva¦ foundation 1> RKwH/ mUldæanRKwH/ xøwmsar 2> mUlniFi founder n. sßabnik/ GñkbegIátRkumh‘un founder v. rlM/ TTYlbraC½y founding instrument ÉksarbegáIt ¬Rkumh‘un¦ frame Rkb/ Rkbx½NÐ framework Rkbx½NÐ franchise siT§ieRbIeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ ¬edIm,IeFVIGaCIvkmµ¦ franchisee GñkTTYlsiT§ieRbIeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ franchiser Gñkpþl;siT§ieGayeRbIeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ fraud karéKbnøM fraudulent EdléKbnøM free esrI/ ~ market economy esdækic© pSaresrI/ carriage ~ dwkeGayminKitéfø ¬GñkTijmin)ac;ecjéfødwkeT¦

esrIPaBksagsmaKm freehold property kmµsiT§iKµankalkMNt; freeze kk/ bgák/ wage freeze karbgák

ebovtSr_ ¬mineGayeLIgcuH¦ freight éfødwkCBa¢Ún/ ~ forward éfødwkRtUv bg;edayGñkTij freight prepaid éfødwkCBa¢Ún)anbg;mun freight, ad valorem éfødwkCBa¢Únyktam éføTMnij frequency PaBjwkjab;/ eRhVkg; ¬]> viTüú¦ freshwater Twksab/ ~fisheries karensaTTwksab ~fish RtITwksab fringe benefits GtßRbeyaCn_bEnßm frozen account KNnI p¥wb¼bBaÄb; frozen assets RTBüp¥ib/ RTBüCab;kþI frozen capital mUlFn p¥wb¼bBaÄb; fruitful EdlmanEpøpáa fuel eRKOgeqH/ \n§n³ full eBj/ Eq¥t/ sBVRKb;/ ~ price éføeBj ¬KµancuHéfø¦/ ~ capacity smtßPaBeBjelj full time work kargareBjem:ag fully fledged bank FnaKarmanRKb;esva ¬EdlFMFat;eBjrUbrag¦

free alongside ship (FAS)

éfødwkTMnijdl;EKmnava free board and lodging

Gaharnigsñak;enAeday\tbg;éfø free currency rUbiyvtßúTijlk;)anedayesrI ¬rdæKµandak;kMhitRtYtRta¦ 44


Economic Lexicon Part 1

full-right representative tMNageBjsiT§i fully paid up Edl)anTUTat;TaMgRsug function muxgar fund mUlniFi/ ~ accounting systems RbB½n§KNenyümUlniFi/ ~ flow lMhUrmUlniFi/ ~ raising karérGgÁasmUlniFi fund (French: provision) sMviFanvtßú

gamble on the stock exchange v.

elgEl,gTijdUrsnøwkh‘un gap KMlat garment industry ]sShkmµkat;edr garnishee n. ttiyCnGMNUs ¬GñkEdlCMBak; R)ak;dl;buKÁlmñak; ehIyEdlRtUvtulakarbBa¢a[ sgR)ak;eTAm©as;bMNulrbs;buKÁlmñak;enaH¦ gateway mat;Rck/ international communication ~ mat;RckTUrKmnaKmn_GnþrCati gather RbmUlpMúþ

¬sMrab;TUTat;mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦ fundamental adj. CaRKwH/ CamUldæan/ ~ research karRsavRCavCaRKwH funding agency/project TIPñak;gar¼ KMerag pþl;mUlniFi funds held in trust mUlniFibeBaØI ¬]> GgÁkar k EdleTIbbegáItfµI minTan;manKNnIenAFnaKar enAeLIy. TaykGacpþl;R)ak; eGayGgÁkar k edayepJIvacUl KNnIrbs;GgÁkar x Edlman TMMnak;TMngl¥CamYyxøÜn edIm,I[GgÁkarenHebIkpþl; bnþeTA[GgÁkar k¦ fungibility PaBEdlGacykeTACMnYsKña)an ¬rbs;nimYy²Kµan lkçN³¼tMrUvkar edIm,IsMKal; ecjBIKñaeT³ ]> EdkeKal¦/ fungible adj. fungibles TMnijGacføwg¼rab;>>>)an future value tMélGnaKt

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) hÁat;/ kic©RBmeRBogTUeTAsþIBI

taragBn§KynigBaNiC¢kmµ GDP (gross domestic product) pss

¬plitplkñúgRsuksrub¦ gem or gemstone t,ÚgmantMél gender eynD½r ¬tYnaTIbursRsþI¦ gene EhSn/ modify a gene EkécñEhSn general 1> TUeTA/ eKalkarN_ ¬kñúgRbkas>>¦/ ~ points (in law) kMNt;TUeTA/ ~ provisions bTb,BaØtþiTUeTA 2> GKÁ/ ~ director GKÁnayk general and administrative expenses

cMNayTUeTA nigcMNayrdæ)al general inspector GKÁaFikar/ deputy ~ GKÁaFikarrg general inspectorate GKÁaFikardæan general ledger (accounting) esovePAFM general meeting mhasnñi)at general partner GñkcUlh‘unKµankMrit ¬TTYlxusRtUvKµankMrit¦ general regulations nItirYm

G, g gain n. & v. 1> kMeNIn/ capital ~ tMélelIs

¬elIkarlk;RTBüskmµCab;lab;¦ 2> ekIneT,Ig/ cMeNj ¬CaR)ak;¦ galloping inflation GtiprNaelatepøaH 45


Economic Lexicon Part 1

general rule, as a tamviFanTUeTA generality PaBTUeTA generalisation kareFVI[manlkçN³TUeTA Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) RbB½n§GnueRKaHTUeTA generally accepted accounting principle (GAAP) eKalkarN_

goal eKaledA going concern GaCIvkmµmandMeNIrkar going price éføFmµta/ éføcrnþ going rate GRtaFmµta/ GRtacrnþ gold standard sþg;darmas/ ~ system RbB½n§bþÚrR)ak;tamsþg;darmas goods TMnij/ capital ~ TMnijmUlFn/ consumer/consumable ~ TMnijeRbIR)as;/ dry ~ RkNat;nigexaGav/ faulty ~ TMnij xUcKuNPaB/ finished ~ plitplsMerc/ free circulation ~ TMnijcracresrI/ luxury ~ TMnijRbNit/ household ~ TMnijeRbIR)as;kñúg pÞH/ manufactured ~ TMnijeFVIedaym:asuIn/ ~ and services TMnij nigesva/ ~ in bond TMnijenAXøaMgKy ¬rg;caMkarbg;Bn§¦/ ~ in stock TMnijkñúgsþúk/ ~ left on hand TMnijRtUv )anbdiesFminTTYl/ ~ in transit TMnijqøg kat;/ ~ on consignment TMnijepJIeTAlk; goodwill 1> ekrþ×eQµaHCMnYj/ mUlniFiBaNiC¢kmµ 2> suqnÞ³ governance GPi)alkic©/ local ~ GPi)al kic©mUldæan government rdæaPi)al/ ~ and institutional accounting KNenyürdæaPi)al nigKNenyü sßab½n/ ~ agency sßab½nrdæ/ ~ securities sBaØab½NÑrdæaPi)al

KNenyümankarTTYlsÁal;TUeTA genetic énEhSn/ ~ sequence lMdab;EhSn genetic modification (GM) karécñµEhSn/ GM food GaharécñEhSn/ GM agriculture ksikmµécñEhSn genome CINUm/ sMNMuEhSn genus BYk/ CMBUk ¬stV/ rukçCati >>>¦ geography, economic PUmiviTüaesdækic© geology PUKBÖsaRsþ gesture kayvikar gift GMeNay gilt-edged investments vinieyaKman suvtßiPaBx<s; ¬]> b½NÑrtnaKar¦ global adj. sakl/ srub/ ~ demand tMrUvkarsrub/ ~ social product plitpl sgÁmsrub/ ~ economic recession karFøak;cuHesdækic©Casakl globalisation of economy

saklPavUbnIykmµesdækic© glossary sTÞanuRkm/ bTanuRkm glut eRcInkkkuj/ ~ the market eRcIn liclg;TIpSar

grace period (debt payment)

efrevlaGnueRKaH grade (civil servant) fñak; grading karEbgEckKuNPaB grand plan bøg;cMbg

GNP (gross national product) plitplCatisrub/ plTunCatisrub/ ~ deflator

snÞsSn_britþprNaplitplCatisrub 46


Economic Lexicon Part 1

TUTat;/ ~ certificate or certificate of ~ b½NÑFanaKuNPaB/ quality ~ karFanaKuNPaB

grand total srubrYm grandstanding karykkMBs; grant GMeNayhirBaØvtßú/ ~ aid CMnYy\tsMNg graphics RkahVik/ BinÞúerxIy_ grassroots level kMritmUldæan grassroots organisation

guaranteed bill of exchange

rUbiyaNtþimankarFana guaranteed deposit fund R)ak;kk; guarantees and commitments under signature (banking) karsnüatamhtßelxa

GgÁkarfñak;eRkam ¬kMritRbCaCn¦ gratuity R)ak;sKuN/ sT§aTan/ CMnUn ¬tbsñg¦

guarantor GñkFana ¬]> elIGñkNamñak;

Greater Mekong Sub-region

kñúgkarsgbMNul¦

mhaGnutMbn;emKgÁ

guardianship GaNaBüa)al

green revolution bdivtþn_ébtg greenhouse pÞHkBa©k;/ ~ effect bc©½y pÞHkBa©k;/ ~ gas ]sµ½npÞHkBa©k; grid bNþaj ¬RbTak;RkLa¦ gross dul/ srub/ ~ domestic product (GDP) plitplkñúgRsuksrub ¬pss¦/ ~ margin cMeNjdul/ Gb,hardul ¬Ca PaKryénéfølk;¦/ ~ national product (GNP) plitpl¼plTun Catisrub/~ price éfødul/ ~ negligence kareFVsRbEhsF¶n;F¶r ¬c,ab;¦/ ~ output Fatuecjdul/ ~ profit cMeNjdul/ ~ proceeds/receipts/returns cMNUldul/ ~ weight TMgn;dul groupage/grouped bill of lading

guideline eKalkarN_ENnaM guilt BiruT§PaB

H, h habitual CaTMlab; hacker hak;K½r ¬GñklYceRCotcUleTAkñúg

RbB½n§kMuBüÚT½rrbs;GñkdéT ¦ half Bak;kNþal/ first ~ of the 6th century Bak;kNþalTI1 énstvtSr_TI6 hallucination mmal/ karmmal hand bill xitþb½NÑ ¬b½NÑeXasnapSBVpSay EckeGaypÞal;éd¦ handicraft sib,kmµ/ vtßúeFVIedayéd/ ~ goods TMnijsib,kmµ handle cat;Ecg/ edaHRsay/ ~ a situation edaHRsaysßankarN_ handling (goods) karelIkdak; hard rwg/ lM)ak/ ~ condition lkçxNÐ twgEtg/ ~ bargain kartéfød¾twgEtg/ ~ cash

vikáybRtdwkCBa¢Únsrub growth kMeNIn/ karlUtlas;/ ~ rate GRtakMeNIn GSP (Generalised System of Preferences) RbB½n§GnueRKaHTUeTA guarantee karFana/ vtßúFana/ ~ for a loan vtßFanasMrab;kMcI/ ~ of payment karFana

47


Economic Lexicon Part 1

hidden adj. bgáb;/ ~ reserves FnbMrugbgáb; hierarchy zananuRkm high grade (ore) KuNPaBx<s; ¬Er:¦ high school viTüal½y/ junior ~ GnuviTüal½y high-tech (sector) bec©kviTüax<s; ¬vis½y¦ hindsight karyl;dwgtameRkay ¬KWman

sac;R)ak;mankñúgéd hard disk (computer) fasrwg hardware eRKOgcRkF¶n;/ Faturwg ¬kMuBüÚT½r¦ harmonisation suxdumnIykmµ/ kareFVI[

manPaBcuHsMrugKña harmonised EdlrlUnKña harmony PaBsuxdumrmna harsh conditions lkçxNÐtwgEtg haulage éfødwkTMnij/ kardwkTMnij ¬tamrfynþ rW rfePøIg¦/ ~ cost (rates) éfødwkTMnij/ ~ company/firm Rkumh‘undwkCBa¢ÚnTMnij hazardous EdlRbkbedayeRKaHfñak; head office kariyal½yFM/ TIcat;karFM head tax Bn§mnusS heading cMNgeCIg/ xÞg; ¬taragtulükar¦

bTBiesaFn_edayRBwtkiþ arN_)anekIteLIgehIy¦ hire-purchase agreement kic©snüaCYl-

Tijpþac;/ kic©snüaTijbNþak; historic/historical cost tMéltam RbvtþisaRsþ ¬tMélCak;EsþgkalBIeBlTijcUl¦ historical steps CMhanmanGtßn½yCaRbvtþisaRsþ hold in trust kan;kab;CakarepJITuk holder (of a cheque...) Gñkkan; holder in due course Gñkkan;kab;RtwmRtUv/ Kahkniy½t holding company Rkumh‘unhUlDij ¬kan; kab;Cag 50°énPaKh‘unkñúgRkumh‘unmYyeTot¦ home market pSarkñúgRsuk homelessness PaBKµanpÞHsMEbg home-made plitenA kñúgRsuk¼pÞH homogeneity PaBesµIsac; homogenous adj. sPaK/ esµIsac; ¬dUcKña¦ honorarium R)ak;sKuN horizontal epþk/ ~ coordination karsMrbsMrYltamExSepþk ¬rW ExSTTwg¦ horticulture sakvb,kmµ/ kareFVIc,ardMNaM host government rdæaPi)alm©as;pÞH

headquarters (of a company)

TIsñak;karkNþal health care karEfTaMsuxPaB healthy EdlmansuxPaBl¥/ ~ balance sheet taragtulükarEsþgplcMeNj/ ~ profit plcMeNjkñúgcMnYny:ageRcIn hearing svnakar heavy equipment brikçarFunF¶n; heavy industry ]sSahkmµFunF¶n; hedged ¬EdlRtUv)an¦karBarkarxatbg; heir TayaT ¬GñkTTYlmrtk¦ hereafter BIenHteTA hereby tamry³enH heritage mrtk/ national ~ ebtikP½NÐCati heterogeneity PaBminesµIsac; heterogeneous laycMruHKña/ visman/ visPaK ¬mindUcKña/ minesµIsac;¦

hot money (money moving frequently from one country to another) luyekþA household RKYsar/ RKY/ female-headed ~ RKYsarRsþIemRKY/ male-headed ~ RKYsar 48


Economic Lexicon Part 1

idle TMenrecal/ KµaneRbIkar/ ~ capital TunKµaneRbIkar/ ~ time em:agTMenrecal ¬m:asuIneFVIkar)anEtKµandMeNIrkar¦ illegal adj. xusc,ab;/ ~ contract kic©snüa xusc,ab; illicit adj. xusc,ab;/ ~ alcohol Rsaxusc,ab; ill-will TuqnÞ³ ¬bMNgGaRkk;¦ imbalance GtulüPaB/ nantþþPaB imaginary profit cMeNjRbDit immaculate Ecs ¬fµI/ s¥at¦ immediate objective TisedAbnÞan; immediate payment karTUTat;Pøam² immediate supervisor GñkemIlkarxus RtUvpÞal; immobilise (finance) eFVIGclkmµ immoral GsIlFm’ immovable (property) n. GclnRTBü immunity 1> PaBsuaM ¬nwgCMgW¦ 2> GP½yÉksiT§i/ diplomatic ~ GP½yÉksiTi§ karTUt impact plb:HBal; impartial minlMeGog impartiality PaBminlMeGog/ GnaKti impeccable \tex©aH imperfection PaBmanex©aH/ GnibuNPaB impetus n. snÞúHCMruj implementation of a law karGnuvtþn_c,ab; implementing agency TIPñak;garGnuvtþ import karnaMcUl/ GahrN/ ~ duty Bn§ naMcUl/ ~ permit GaCJab½NÑnaMcUl/ ~ quota kUtanaMcUl

bursemRKY household equipment brikçareKhkic© household survey GegátRKYsar housing pÞHsñak;enA/ karpþl;pÞHsñak;enA/ pÞHsMEbg ¬xÞg;cMNay¦/ ~ loan kMcIsMrab;

sg;¼TijpÞH human-capital investment vinieyaK

TunmnusS humanism mnusSniym humanitarian assistance CMnYymnusSFm’ humanitarian relief

karse®gÁaHEpñkmnusSFm’ humanity mnusSCati/ nrCati husbanding of resources karKitKUr

sMécFnFan hydropower construction sMNg;

varIGKÁisnI hyperinflation GtiprNaelatepøaH hypothesis smµtikmµ

I, i idea KMnit ideal ]tþmKti idealised condition lkçxNÐsuRkitPaB identification GtþsBaØaNkmµ/ ~ mission

ebskkmµ rksMKal;¼bMpusKMnit identify v. EsVgrkemIl/ rksMKal;/ sMKal; )antamPinPaK/ ideology menaKmn_viC¢a 49


Economic Lexicon Part 1

importer GñknaMcUl/ Gaharin import-export GahrN-nIhrN/

inclusive Edlrab;bBa©Úl/ Cabriyab½nñ income cMNUl/ plTun/ bdilaP/ disposable ~ cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§/ cMNUleRbI)anedayesrI/ private ~ cMNUleRkABIebovtSr_/ personal ~ cMNUlpÞal;xøÜn/ ~ account KNnIcMNUl/ ~ (collected) in advance cMNUl)anTTYlmun/ ~ per capita cMNUlkñúgmnusSmñak;/ ~ tax Bn§elIR)ak;cMNUl/ ~ statement r)aykarN_

karnaMecj-naMcUl imports TMnijnaMcUl/ vieTsP½NÐ impose taxes eGaybg;Bn§ impoundment karXat;cab;Tuk ¬rfynþ/ TUk>>>¦ impression cMNab;GarmµN_ improvement karEklMG/ suvuDÆikmµ impunity niTNÐPaB/ PaBrYceTas/ culture of ~ vb,Fm’niTNÐPaB impurity n. 1> PaBminsuT§ 2> GVIEdleFVI[minsuT§ ¬]> kkr¦ in good faith edayesµaHRtg; in post kñúgtMENg inaccuracy PaBminRtwmRtUv inaccurate adj. minRtwmRtUv inactive adj. Gskmµ inadequate minsmlµm inappropriate minsmRsb/ ~ aid CMnYy minsmRsb incapacity GsmtßPaB/ physical/mental ~ kar)at;bg;smtßPaBxag bBaØa¼kaysm,Ta incentive eRKOgelIkTwkcitþ/ karelIkTwkcitþ/ investment ~ karelIkTwkcitþvinieyaK inception karkekIt incertitude PaBminR)akd incessant Edl\tQb;Qr incidence n. karekItman/ ~ of tax bnÞúkBn§ ¬cMnYnR)ak;Bn§RtUvFøak;elIbuKÁlNamñak;enAcugbBa©b;¦ incident ]b,tþiehtu incidental bnÞab;bnSM inclusion karrab;bBa©Úl

cMNUl income-generating activities

skmµPaBbegáItR)ak;cMNUl income-outlay accounts

KNnIcMNUl-cMNay incompatibility vismitPaB/ PaBmincuHsMrug incompetence GsmtßPaB inconvenience plvi)ak inconvertible currency rUbiyvtßúminGac bþÚr ¬ykrUbiyvtßúdéT¦ )an incorporated cUlCaRkumh‘un/ )ancuHbBa¢I CaRkumh‘un incorporated company Rkumh‘un ¬CanItibuKÁleBjelj¦ increase v. & n. 1> ekIn 2> kMeNIn incremental EdlekInCadMNak;² indebtedness PaBCMBak;bMNul indefinite minCak;lak;/ KµankMnt; indemnify v. eFVIsMNg indemnity 1> sMNg karxUcxat¼CMgWcitþ 2> R)ak;bMNac; independent audit svnkmµÉkraCü in-depth suICMerA/ ~ evaluation karvaytMél suICMerA 50


Economic Lexicon Part 1

index snÞsSn_ indexation kardak;snÞsSn_ ¬]> eGay

GtiprNa/ GtiprNakal inflexibility PaBrwgkMRBws/ PaBminrs;revIk inflict v. a penalty dak;eTasT½NÐ ¬]> cab;eGaybg;pakBin½y¦ inflow lMhUrcUl influential Edlman GnuPaB¼\T§iBl influx lMhUrKMhukcUl informal sector vis½yminerobry/ vis½y esdækic©eRkARbB½n§

ebovtSr_ERbRbYleTAtamGtiprNa¦ indicator GaMgDIkaT½r/ sUcnakr indigenous people RbCaCnedIm indirect tax Bn§Rbeyal individual ÉktþCn/ buKÁl/ ~ insurance karFanar:ab;rgbuKÁl inducement eRKOgCMrujTwkcitþ industrialisation ]sSahUbnIykmµ industrious adj. ]sSah_¬Büayam¦ industry ]sSahkmµ/ rbr/ primary ~ ]sSahkmµvtßúFatuedIm/ secondary ~ ]sSahkmµEkécñ ¬BIvtßúFatuedImeTAplitpl¦/ light ~ ]sSahkmµFunRsal/ heavy ~ ]sSahkmµFunF¶n;/ extractive ~ ]sSahkmµ nisSarNkmµ ¬]> ]sSahkmµTajykEr:¦ inefficiency GRbsiT§PaB inequality vismPaB/ PaBminesµIKña/ income ~ vismPaBénR)ak;cMNUl infant mortality rate GRtamrN³kumar inference karsnñidæan inflammable goods TMnijGacqabeqH inflate bMe)a:g/ eFVIeGaymanGtiprNa/ inflated price éføbMe):ag ¬tMelIgx<s;eday Kµanehtupl¦ inflation GtiprNa/ ~ accounting KNenyü GtiprNa ¬éføRTBüskmµmanKitbBa©Úl GtiprNa¦/ ~ factor ktþaBRgIk/ ktþaGtiprNa inflationary gap KMlatGtiprNa inflationary period ry³eBlman

information and communication technology (ICT) bec©kviTüaB½t’man

nigTUrKmnaKmn_ information technology (IT)

bec©kviTüaB½t’man infrastructure ehdæarcnasm<½n§ infringe v. RbRBwtþxus/ elµIs ¬c,ab;/ kic©snüa>>> ¦/ infringement n. inheritance mrtk ¬GMBIGñksøab;¦ in-house adj. kñúgGgÁPaB/ ~ language training karbNþúHbNþalPasakñúgGgÁPaB initial adj. dMbUg/ ~ capital mUlFndMbUg ¬sMrab;cab;epþImGaCIvkmµ¦/ ~ price éfødMbUg initial outlay or initial capital outlay

esah‘uybegáItshRKasdMbUg initial v. cuHhtßelxasegçb/ initialisation n. initiative KMnitpþÜcepþIm/ karpþÜcepþImKMnit injunction (judge's order) GFibBa¢a ¬bBa¢arbs;ecARkm¦ injustice GyutiþFm’ in-kind contribution viPaKTanCavtßú input n. FatucUl 51


Economic Lexicon Part 1

inquiry karsaksYr ¬B½t’man/ éfø>>¦/ letter of ~ lixitsaksYrB½t’man insensitivity 1> GevTyitPaB

insufficiency PaBminRKb;RKan; insurance karFanar:ab;rg/ all risks ~ karFanar:ab;rghaniP½yRKb;RbePT/ car ~ karFanar:ab;rgelIrfynþ/ life ~ karFana r:ab;rgelICIvit/ ~ agent Pñak;garFanar:ab;rg/ ~ certificate viBaØabnb½RtFanar:ab;rg/ ~ company Rkumh‘unFanar:ab;rg/ ~ law c,ab;sþIBIkarFanar:ab;rg/ ~ policy b½NÑsnüa r:ab;rg/ ~ premium(s) buBVlaPFanar:ab;rg insured n. GñkRtUv)anFanar:ab;rg insurer GñkFanar:ab;rg intake karRsUbcUl intangible GrUbI/ ~ assets RTBüGrUbI integration smahrNkmµ/ karbBa©ÚlKña/ ~ of industry smahrNkmµ]sSahkmµ/ vertical ~ smahrNkmµbBaÄr integrity PaBs¥ats¥M/ territorial ~

2> PaBmincab;GarmµN_ insider trading karCYjdUrh‘uneday GñképÞkñúg ¬EdldwgB½t’mansMgat;BIRkumh‘un¦ insolvency PaBminGacsgbMNul)an/ GsaFPaB inspect v. eFVIGFikarkic©/ RtYtBinitü inspection GFikarkic©/ ~ fee kMéresva GFikarkic©/ pre-shipment ~ GFikarkic©TMnijmun eBlpÞúk/ ~ certificate viBaØabnb½RtGFikarkic© inspectorate RkumGFikarkic© installation zbnkmµ/ karerobcMtMelIg/ ~ cost cMNaypÁMútMelIg instalment R)ak;sgbNþak;/ ~ system RbB½n§TUTat;bNþak; instalment sales credit or instalment plan buying karlk;¼Tij edayTUTat;sg

bUrNPaBEdndI

bNþak;

intellectual property kmµsiT§ibBaØa intelligible Edlyl;)an intensification RbBlkmµ/ RbBlvb,kmµ/ agricultural ~ RbBlvb,kmµksikmµ intensive Gtipl/ ~ agriculture ksikmµGtipl intention bMNg/ ectna interaction Gnþrkmµ interactive Gnþrskmµ

instalment shipment

karbBa¢ÚnTMnijCabeNþIr² institutional finance hirBaØvtþúsßab½n institutionalisation sßabnUbnIykmµ institutionalise eFVIsßabnUbnIykmµ/ ksag

Casßab½n instruction bTbBa¢a/ esckþIENnaM instrument briFan/ ]bkrN_/ negotiable ~ ]bkrN_TUTat; instrument of accession lixitUbkrN_

inter-bank adj. GnþrFnaKar/ ~ settlement system RbB½n§TUTat;GnþrFnaKar inter-censal decade TsvtSr_cenøaHCMerOn interdependence karBwgEp¥kKñaeTAvijeTAmk interest 1> plRbeyaCn_ 2> karR)ak;/

cUlCaPaKI instrument of ratification

lixitUbkrN_énkarpþl;sc©ab½n 52


Economic Lexicon Part 1

compound ~ karR)ak;smas, high/low ~ karR)ak; x<s;¼Tab/ simple ~ karR)ak;samBaØ/ ~ due date éf¶KitkarR)ak;/ ~ period

mUlniFirUbiyvtßúGnþrCati International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) GgÁkarGnþrCati

kalKitkarR)ak;

xagsþg;darUbnIykmµ

interest rate GRtakarR)ak;/ ~ for savings

internet GuinfWNit/ ~ -cafe salbMerIGuinfWNit intersect v. (graph lines) kat;Kña inter-sectoral Gnþrvis½y interview v. & n. 1> sMPas/ eFVIsMPas 2> bTsMPasn_/ semi-structured ~

GRtakarR)ak;snSM interference kareRCotERCk integrate v. eFVIsmahrNkmµ/ dak;bBa©Úl/ ~ed pest management (IPM)

bTsMPasn_Bak;kNþalerobry ¬eRbIbBa¢IsMnYr mYyPaK nigsYrEfmmYyPaK¦ interviewee n. GñkeqøIysMPasn_ interviewer n. GñksYrsMPasn_ intimidate v. bMPitbMP½y intra-cluster kñúgrgVg;kBa©úM intrinsic sCÄnþik³ introduction esckþIepþIm intuition GBÖnþjaN

viFankarcMruHEfTaMdMNaM interim sþITI/ beNþaHGasnñ intermediary project KMeragGnþrkarI intermediate goods TMnijGnþrkarI intermediate output FatuecjGnþrkarI/ plitplGnþrkarI intermediate technology bec©kviTüa fñak;kNþal intermediation GnþrkarIkmµ/ financial ~ GnþrkarIkmµhirBaØvtßú intern n. (see trainee) kmµsikSakarI internal épÞkñúg/ ~ affairs kic©karépÞkñúg/ ~ audit svnkmµépÞkñúg/ ~ control karRtYt BinitüépÞkñúg/ ~ rate of return (IRR) GRta TajcMNUlépÞkñúg/ ~ transfer bEgVrépÞkñúg international GnþrCati/ ~ standard sþg;dar GnþrCati/ ~ bidding/tendering karedjéfø CaGnþrCati/ ~ relations TMnak;TMngGnþrCati

inundated forest (see flooded forest)

éRBlicTwk invalidate v. cat;TukCaemaX³ invaluable adj. kat;éfømin)an invasion karlukluy/ ~ of privacy karrMelaPsiTi§CaÉkCn inventory sareBIPNн/ sþúk/ TMnij/ draw up an ~ eFVIbBa¢IsareBIP½NÐ inventory stock card b½NÑsþúk invest v. vinieyaK/ eFVIvinieyaK investigate v. esuIbGegát investment n. vinieyaK/ karbNþak;Tun/ ~ licence GaCJab½NÑvinieyaK

International Air Transport Association (IATA) smaKm

dwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasGnþrCati International Monetary Fund (IMF) 53


Economic Lexicon Part 1

investor vinieyaKin/ GñkvinieyaK invisible adj. emIlmineXIj/ ~ assets

J, j

RTBüGrUbI invoice vikáybRt involuntary Gectna/ \tbMNg involvement kar cUlBak;B½n§¼Bak;B½n§ IOU (I owe you) lixitTTYlCMBak;

jettison TMlak;GIv:an;ecalxøHedIm,IsMral

¬nava/ ynþehaH¦ job kargar/ white-collar ~ or office ~ kargarkñúgkariyal½y/ ~ description BiBN’ nakagar/ ~ design KMeragkargar/ bøg;kargar/ ~ grading/ranking cMNat;fñak;kargar/ ~ holder Gñkkan;kargar/ ~ lot TMnijcMruH mYydMu² eRcInGn;² niglk;efak²/ ~ rotation karbþÚrevnkargar/ ~ specialisation ÉkeTskmµkargar/ ~ title eQµaHkargar joblessness PaBGt;kargareFVI/ nikmµPaB joint (enterprise, committee) cMruH joint (liability) ¬karTTYlxusRtUv¦ rYmKña/ ~ and several liability karTTYlxusRtUv rYmKñanigerog²xøÜn joint account KNnIrYm ¬manm©as;KNnIBI 2nak;eLIgeTA¦

¬xJúMCMBak;Gñk¦ irrecoverable Edl RbmUlmin)an¼ Tarmin)an irregular mineTogTat;/ minRbRktI irregularities (mistakes) PaBminRbRktI

¬kMhus¦ irrelevant EdlminTak;Tg irreversible adj. EdlminGacERbRkLas;)an irrevocable adj. minGacbdiesF)an/ ~ letter of credit sar\NTanminGac

bdiesF)an irrigate v. eRsacRsB/ irrigation n. issuance kare)aHpSay ¬RkdasR)ak;¦ issue bank FnaKare)aHpSayRkdasR)ak; issue v. (a licence) ecj ¬GaCJab½NѦ/ currency issued rUbiyvtßúe)aHpSay issuing bank (for a letter of credit)

joint inter-ministerial committee

FnaKarebIksar\NTan

KN³kmµaFikarcMruHGnþrRksYg joint owner m©as;kmµsiTi§rYmKña joint venture ¬KMerag¦ vinieyaKcMruH/ ~ enterprise shRKassmasPaBesdækic©cMruH joint-stock bank FnaKarrYmPaKh‘un

IT (Information Technology)

bec©kviTüaB½t’man item 1> GIv:an;/ mux ¬TMnij¦ 2> xÞg;/ cancel an ~ (accounting) bdiesFelxna/ enter an ~ cuHelxna/ off-balance sheet items xÞg;eRkAtaragtulükar

joint-stock company (see public limited company)

saCIvkmµRkumh‘unPaKh‘un 54


Economic Lexicon Part 1

journal 1> Tinñanub,vtþi ¬KNenyü¦ 2> sarB½t’man journal voucher b½NÑTinñanub,vtþi/ skçIb½RtcuHbBa¢I journalising karcuHTinñanub,vtþi judgement 1> karvinicä½y 2> salRkm ¬tulakar¦ judicial record lixitefáaleTas ¬tulakar¦ judicial reform kMENTMrg;RbB½n§yutþiFm’ judiciary GgÁecARkm jump-start cab;epþIm[)anqab; junk n. rbs;Gt;RbeyaCn_/ rbs;eGtcay juridical Ktiyutþi ¬EdlRsbtamc,ab; nig rebobrbbén c,ab;¼tulakar¦ jurisdiction Ednsmtßkic©/ yutþaFikar just adj. RtwmRtUv/ yutþiFm’ justification of a project kareFVIyutþikmµ KMerag/ karbgðajehtuplBItMrUvkareFVIKMerag justified (expense...) ¬cMNay>>>¦ man skçIkmµ justify eFVIyutþikmµ

L, l label søak ¬sMrab;biTelIplitpl¦ labour Blkmµ ¬kargar rWBlkr¦/ casual ~ BlkmµGENþt ¬ry³eBlkargarxøI¦/ manual ~ htßkmµ/ organised ~ BlkmµcUlshCIB/ skilled ~ BlkmµmanCMnaj/ ~ card b½NÑ kargar/ ~ force kMlaMgBlkmµ/ ~ laws c,ab; Blkmµ/ ~ productivity plitPaBénBlkmµ/ ~ security snþisuxBlkmµ/ ~ turnover GRtabuKÁlikecj ¬BIGgÁPaB¦/ ~ union or trade union shCIB labourer Blkr/ day ~ TinikCn/ Blkr

suIR)ak;éf¶ labour-intensive adj. eRbIBlkmµeRcIn/ GtiBlkmµ/ ~ industry ]sSahkmµGtiBlkmµ lack kgVH/ ~ of balance )at;tulüPaB/ ~ of confidence kgVHTMnukcitþ lading n. karpÞúkTMnij/ ~ port kMBg;EppÞúkTMnij laissez-passer lixitebIkpøÚv land dI/ dIFøI/ ~ alienation karepÞrkmµsiT§idI/ ~ conflict TMnas;dIFøI/ ~ degradation karcuH KuNPaBdI/ karxUcdI/ ~ dispute vivaTdIFøI/ ~ encroachment karrMelaPykdI/ ~ grabbing karT®nÞanykdI/ ~ owner m©as;dI/ ~ ownership kmµsiT§idIFøI/ ~ reform kMENTMrg;dIFøI/ ~ survey GegátdIFøI/ zanKNit/ ~ restructuring karEkERbdIFøIeLIgvij/ ~ settlement dMeNaH RsaydIFøI/ ~ tenure karkan;kab;dI

K, k

key role tYnaTIKnøwH keynote address sunÞrkfaKnøwH kind, payment in karTUTat;Cavtßú

55


Economic Lexicon Part 1

2> plitpllk;dac;CageK/ market ~ plitpl¼Rkumh‘un naMmuxeKelITIpSar leading naMmuxeK/ ~ indicator GaMgDIkaT½rnaMmux eK ¬Edlbgðajninñakar)anmunGaMDIkaT½rÉeTot¦ lease Ptisnüa/ karCYl ¬edaymankic©snüa¦/ finance ~ PtisnüahirBaØvtßú ¬kñúgenHshRKas RtUvkt;RtaRTBüCYlBIeKkñúgtaragtulükar nig eFVIrMls;va¦/ operating ~ PtisnüaRbtibtþikar ¬kñúgenHshRKasminRtUvkt;RtaRTBüCYlBIeKkñúg taragtulükareT¦ lease v. CYl/ ~ back CYlmkvij

land dispute settlement committee

KN³kmµaFikaredaHRsay)atuPaBdIFøI landless adj. KµandI landlessness PaBKµandIFøI landlocked country RbeTsKµanRcksmuRT landlord m©as; dI¼pÞH ¬EdlCYl[eK¦ landscape eTsPaB/ protected ~ tMbn;eTsPaBkarBar large-scale survey GegátRTg;RTayFM latent minTan;Cak;Esþg launch n. kardak;ecjCaelIkdMbUgnUv ¬]> plitplelITIpSar¦ law c,ab;/ draft ~ esckþIRBagc,ab;/ ~ of contract c,ab;énkic©snüa

least developed countries (LDCs)

RbeTslUtlas;ticCageK ledger (accounting) esovePAFM/ purchase ~ esovePAFMTij legacy 1> Gc©½yTanCaclnRTBü ¬tammrtksasn_¦ 2> Gc©½yTan ¬ekrþצ legal tamc,ab;/ nItüanukUl ~ capital edImTun tamc,ab;/ ~ document Éksartamc,ab;/ ~ representative GñktMNagtamc,ab;/ ~ framework Rkbx½NÐc,ab;/ ~ decision esckþIsMerctamc,ab;/ ~ reserves FnbMrug tamc,ab; legal effect GanuPaBKtiyutiþ legal entity/person nItibuKÁl

Law on Co-Statute of Civil Servants

c,ab;sþIBI shlkçnþik³m®nþIraCkarsuIvil Law on Financial Management

c,ab;sþIBIhirBaØvtßúsMrab;karRKb;RKg Law on Social Security

c,ab;sþIBIrbbsnþisuxsgÁm lawful Rsbc,ab; lawless EdlGt;c,ab; ¬Kµanc,ab;RKb;RKg rW KµankareKarBc,ab;¦ laws and regulations c,ab; nig bTb,BaØtiþ¼lixitbTdæan lawsuit erOgkþI lawyer Gñkc,ab;/ emFavI lay in stock v. bBa©ÚlXøaMg lay off v. bBaÄb;buKÁlik lay out v. cay ¬R)ak;¦ layout of letter TMrg;¼bøg; sMbuRt leader 1> GñkdwknaM/ popular ~ emxül;

legal substance (French: nature juridique) nItisarCati legal tender rUbiymaRta/ R)ak;Edlc,ab;

TTYlsÁal; legality PaBtamc,ab;/ nItüanukUlPaB legalise v. eFVIeGayeTAtamc,ab;/ 56


Economic Lexicon Part 1

eFVInItüanukUlkmµ legatee Gc©½yTanlaPI ¬GñkTTYlsñgmrtk tamry³mrtksasn_¦ legator Gc©½yTayk legislation c,ab;/ nItikmµ legislative power 1> GMNacnItibBaØtþi ¬sPa¦ 2> GMNacbBaØtþi ¬sßab½nepSgeTot dUcCa RkumRbwkSaXMu¦ legislative structure rcnasm<½n§nItibBaØtþi legislator GñkeFVIc,ab;/ nItiBn§ legislature 1> GgÁnItibBaØtþi ¬GgÁkareFVIc,ab;¦ 2> nItikal ¬énsPa¦ legitimate eBjlkçN³RtwmRtUv/ eBjc,ab;/ FmµanurUb lend v. eGayx©I lender GñkeGayx©I/ ~ of last resort Gñk[ x©ICacugeRkay lending institution sßab½n \NTan¼ [x©IR)ak; lessee Ptik³/ GñkCYl ¬BIeK¦ lessor PtibtI/ GñkCYleGay let v. CYl ¬pÞH/ kariyal½y >>>¦ letter lixit/ covering ~ (or US: cover ~) lixitGmÉksar/ ~ of attorney lixitepÞrsiT§i/ ~ of credit (L/C) lixit\NTan/ ~ of exchange rUbiyaNtþi/ ~ of indemnity lixitFanasg/ ~ of intent lixitbBa¢ak;eKal bMNg/ lixti Esþgectna/ ~ of inquiry lixit saksYrB½t’man/ ~ of non-conviction lixit bBa¢ak;faKµaneTas level kMrit/ multi-level eRcInkMrit/ ~ of development kMritGPivDÆn_

lever Xñas; leverage KMnas;/ kareRbIkMcImankarR)ak;efr

eTArksuIedIm,I)ancMeNjelIsBIkarR)ak; levy v. & n. 1> hUtBn§ 2> Bn§ ¬CaBiessBn§bEnßm¦ liabilities bMNul/ RTBüGkmµ/ meet one’s liabilities sgbMNulrbs;xøÜn liability 1> bMNul 2> karTTYlxusRtUv/ ~ insurance karFanar:ab;rgelIPar³TTYlxusRtUv liable adj. for TTYlxusRtUv ¬tamc,ab;¦ cMeBaH liaison TMnak;TMng/ sm<n§kar/ ~ office kariyal½yTMnak;TMng libel karsresrbrihaekrþ× liberal democracy and pluralism or liberal multi-party democracy

lT§iRbCaFibetyüesrIBhubkS liberal profession viC¢aCIv³esrI liberality or liberal gift sT§aTan liberalisation esrIPavUbnIykmµ/ ~ of trade esrIPavUbnIykmµBaNiC¢kmµ Libor (London Interbank Offered Rate)

GRtakarR)ak;rvagFnaKarBaNiC¢enATIRkugLúg licence GaCJab½NÑ/ lixitGnuBaØat licensed manGaCJab½NÑ/ RbtiRsut/ ~ bank FnaKarRbtiRsut licensed technology bec©kviTüaTijBIeK licensee Gñkkan;GaCJab½NÑ licit adj. RtUvc,ab; lien 1> R)atiePaKbMNul ¬vtßúdak;FanabMNul¦ 2> siT§iXat;Tuk life expectancy GayukalmFüm/ Gayurs; 57


Economic Lexicon Part 1

2> sac;R)ak;TMenr/ ~ ratio smaPaKsac;R)ak;TMenr liquidity (banking) sac;R)ak;nigRTBü gaybþÚrCasac;R)ak;/ total ~ rUbiyvtßúTUeTA (M2) list bBa¢I/ ~ price éføelIbBa¢I ¬kataLúk¦/ listed company Rkumh‘unEdlmansnøwkh‘un lk;-Tij enApSarh‘un litigation bNþwgvivaT/ karbþwgpþl; livelihood CIvPaB/ karrkciBa©wmCIvit/ lively y:agskmµ/ ~ market TIpSarman skmµPaBrs;revIk livestock stVciBa©wm ¬ykpl¦ living 1> CIvPaB/ karrs;enA/ ~ standard kMritCIvPaB/ cost of ~ cMnayRTRTg;karrs;enA

enAmFüm life or death issue bBaðasøab;rs; life skill bMNinCIvit life span Gayukal ¬BIeBlekItdl;søab;¦ lifestyle rebobrs;enA lifetime Gayukal/ mYyGayu LIFO (last in, first out) lIhVÚ ¬cUleRkay

ecjmun¦ likelihood PaBTMng limit n. & v. 1> RBMEdn/ ~ of liability

RBMEdnénkarTTYlxusRtUv/ 2> dak;kMritRBMEdn limitation n. kardak;kMritRBMEdn limited liability karTTYlxusRtUvmankMNt;/ ~ company Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvmankMrit limited partner GñkcUlh‘unmankMrit ¬TTYlxusRtUvmankMrit¦ line (department) ¬mnÞIr¦ ExSbeNþay line item (budget) matika ¬fvika¦ line of credit or credit linekMrit\NTan link cMNgTak;Tg linkage karcgP¢ab;/ cMNgTak;Tg liquid assets RTBübþÚrykR)ak;)anrh½s liquid investments vinieyaKedaysac;R)ak; liquidate v. CMrH/ TUTat; ¬bMNul/ bBa¢I¦/ ~ a debt TUTat;bMNulTaMgmUl liquidation karrMlay ¬Rkumh‘un¦/ karCMrHbBa¢I/ compulsory ~ karCMrHbBa¢ICakatBVkic© ¬tam karsMercrbs;tulakar¦/ voluntary ~ karCMrH bBa¢eI daysµR½ Kcit/þ ~ report r)aykarN_CrM HbBa¢I liquidator GñkCMrHbBa¢I/ GñkRtYtBinitükar biTRkumh‘un liquidity 1> snÞnIyPaB/ lT§PaBsgbMNul

load factor, passenger (air travel)

GRtabMeBjekAGIGñkdMeNIr ¬tamynþehaH¦ loading and unloading of goods

karpÞúk nigkarerITMnij loading capacity cMNuHpÞúk loading port EppÞúkTMnij loan kMcI/ \NeTyü/ bMNul/ bridging ~

kMcIpøas;pÞHfµI ¬enAeBlpÞHcas;lk;minTan;dac;¦/ soft ~ kMcIkarR)ak;Tab/ ~ at call kMcIKµankal kMNt; ¬RtUvsgvijeBleKTar¦/ personal ~ kMcIpÞal;xøÜn/ unsecured ~ kMcIKµankarFana/ ~ disbursed kMcI)anebIkpþl; loan service (interest payment) esvabMNul lobby v. ekogKr/ eXasnabBa©úHbBa©Úl local ¬én¦mUldæan/ kñúgRsuk/ ~ authority

GaCJaFrmUldæan location TItaMg logging karkab;eQI/ illegal ~ karkab;eQI xusc,ab; 58


Economic Lexicon Part 1

logic tkáviC¢a/ LÚsuik logistics PsþúPar/ karpÁt;pÁg; logo rUbsBaØa long-life assets RTBüGayukalEvg long-term ry³eBlEvg/ TIXkal/ ~ liabilities bMNulry³eBlEvg loophole cenøaHRbehag/ tax ~ cenøaHRbehagén

magnitude TMhM mail transfer karepÞr¬R)ak;¦taméRbsnIy_ mail, electronic sareGLicRtUnik/ GuIEml main adj. cMbg mainstream v. bRBa¢ab maintain v. accounting book

kan;kab;bBa¢IKNenyü maintenance karEfTaM/ ~ expenses/ costs cMNayEfTaM major adj. cMbg/ sMxan; majority PaKeRcIn/ sMelgPaKeRcIn ¬e)aHeqñat¦ mala fide seller Gñklk;Edlmanl,ickl minl¥ maladministration karRKb;RKgGsmtßPaB mal-development karGPivDÆn_xusTMng malpractice rebobrbbminl¥/ kMhusqÁg malthusianism nibulniym/ m:al;Tusniym manage v. RKb;RKg/ cat;Ecg management karRKb;RKg/ ~ control karRtYtBinitükarRKb;RKg manager GñkRKb;RKg/ bNÑaFikar/ financial ~ GaNab½k managerial accounting KNenyüRKb;RKg managership PaBCaGñkRKb;RKg managing director naykRKb;RKg mandate n. 1> siT§iGMNac 2> GaNtþi mandate v. 1> pþl;siT§iGMNac 2> tMrUv/ the law mandates that... c,ab;tMrUvfa mandatory adj. Edlxanmin)an manifest nievTnb½NÑ/ bBa¢I GñkdMeNIr¼ TMnij dwkCBa¢Ún ¬tamynþehaH rW nava¦

Bn§ ¬EdlGaceKecosvagminbg;Bn§edayRsbc,ab;¦ loose-leaf ledger esovePAFMsnøwkdac;BIKña loss kMhat/karxatbg;/ kar)at;bg;/ actual total ~ kMhatsrubCak;Esþg lot n. LÚt_/ fishing ~ LÚt_ensaT low-income group/households

Rkum¼RKYsar manR)ak;cMNUlTab lump-sum R)ak;bg;TaMgdul/ ~ payment karTUTat;tamrebobem:Akar ¬rW qaka¦ lump-sum tax Bn§em:Akar luxury RbNit/ ~ goods TMnijRbNit/ ~ trade BaNiC¢kmµvtßúRbNit M, m M1 (money) rUbiyvtßú M2 (liquidity) rUbiyvtßúTUeTA macro- m:aRkU macroeconomic analysis

karviPaKm:aRkUesdækic© macroeconomic stability sßirPaBm:aRkU

esdækic© macroeconomics m:aRkUesdækic©

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Economic Lexicon Part 1

market n. TIpSar/ black ~ pSarggwt/ capital ~ TIpSarTun ¬sMrab;vinieyaK¦/ ~ capitalisation tMélRkumh‘unKittam tMélTIpSarénsnøwkh‘un/ closed ~ TIpSarbiT ¬lk;[EttMNagpþac;mux¦/ open ~ TIpSarcMh ¬RKb;KñaGacTij¼lk;)an¦ ~ demand/need tMrUvkarTIpSar/ ~ economy esdækic©TIpSar/ ~ failure braC½yénTIpSar/ ~ forces kMlaMg TIpSar/ money/finance ~ TIpSarrUbiyvtßú ¬kMcIry³eBlxøI²¦/ ~ practice TMlab;TIpSar/ ~ price éføenATIpSar/ ~ saturation titßikmµ kñúgpSar/ PaBEq¥teBjedayTMnijénTIpSar/ ~ segmentation karEbgEckTIpSar/ ~ value

man-made disaster mhnþraybgáedaymnusS manner EbbbT manual 1> htßkmµ 2> esovePAk,Ün manufacture kmµnþsal manufactured goods TMnijkmµnþsal manufacturing kmµnþsalkmµ/ karplit

¬y:ageRcIn²edayeRbIm:asuIn¦ margin Gb,har/ kMrit/ m:aCIn/ ~ of error kMritel¥óg/ ~ of lending kMriteGayx©IR)ak;/ ~ of profit kMritR)ak;cMeNj marginal benefit plcMeNjÉktabEnßm

¬kñúgkarbegáInmYyÉktaplitpl¦ marginal cost éføedImÉktabEnßm ¬edIm,I plitbEnßmmYyÉktaplitplelIsEpnkar¦/ bnÞúkcMNaym:ahSúINal; marginal project KMeragbnÞab;bnSM

tMélTIpSar ¬tMélenAéf¶enH¦/ tMélFanik/ ~ share/penetration cMENkTIpSar market v. lk;elITIpSar/ ~ a new product lk;plitplfµIelITIpSar marketable Gaclk;y:aggay marketing m:aXItTIg/ karbeBa©jlk;elITIpSar/ ~ chain ExScgVak; m:aXITIg¼TIpSar

marginal propensity to consume

kMritTMenarénkareRbIR)as;bEnßm marginal propensity to save

kMritTMenarénkarsnSMbEnßm marginal revenue cMNUlÉktabEnßm ¬BIkarlk;plitplbEnßmmYyÉkta¦ marginal utility plRbeyaCn_ÉktabEnßßm marginalisation m:aCInUbnIykmµ/ karRcan cUlsßanPaBKµansiT§iGMNac marginal-tax ratio smaPaKkMeNIn cMNUlBn§eFobnwgkMeNInplTunCatisrub marine xagsmuRT/ ~ concession Edn sm,TanTwkéRb/ ~ fisheries ensaTsmuRT/ ~ insurance karFanar:ab;rgpøÚvsmuRT mark down v. bBa©úHéfø mark up v. tMelIgéfø

market-regulated economy

esdækic©TIpSarerobry/ esdækic©niy½tTIpSar mark-up Gb,har marriage certificate sMbuRtGaBah_BiBah_ mass media RbB½n§pSBVpSay ¬B½t’man¦ mass production karplitRTg;RTayFM master adj. eKal/ em/ ~ budget fvikaem/ ~ map EpnTIeKal/ ~ plan Epnkar¼bøg;eKal/ ~ sample KMrUtagem master’s degree fñak;GnubNÐit matching concept/convention

eKalkarN_énPaBsuIKña 60


Economic Lexicon Part 1

material sMPar³/ RkNat; maternal mortality rate

¬cMNay¦EfTaMsuxPaB medium mFüm/ ~ grade KuNPaBmFüm/ ~ term loan kMcIry³eBlmFüm meet CYb/ edaHRsay/ bMeBj ¬lkçxNЦ/ ~ a deficit bMeBj»nPaB meeting CMnYb/ karRbCMu/ ¬RbCMumhaCn

GRtamrN³matuPaB mature eBjv½y/ cas;TMu/ ~ economy esdækic©rIkcMerIneBjelj maturity bkáPaB/ PaBeBjv½y/ PaBcas;TMu/ kalvsan/ kalkMNt;/ date of ~ éf¶dl; kMNt; ¬sg¦ maximisation GtibrmanIykmµ mayor ecAhVayRkug mean (statistics) mFüm/ arithmetic ~ mFümnBVnþ/ geometric ~ mFümFrNImaRt means meFüa)ay/ ~ of production meFüa)ayplitkmµ measurability PaBGacvas;)an measure 1> TMhM/ rgVas; 2> viFankar/ economic ~ viFankaresdækic©/ fiscal ~ viFankarsareBIBn§

MEFP (Memorandum of Economic and Financial Policy: for the IMF)

GnusSarN³sþIBIeKalneya)ayesdækic©nighirBaØvtßú MFN (Most Favoured Nation clause) lkçxNÐGnueRKaHbMputEpñkBaNiC¢kmµ membership smaCikPaB memorandum CMnYysµartI/ GnusSarN³/ ~ of association GnusSarN³begáItRkumh‘un/ lkçnþik³Rkumh‘un/ ~ of understanding (MOU) GnusSarN³RBmeRBog mental ability smtßPaBxagbBaØa mental job kargareRbIxYrk,al ¬EdlRtUvriHKit¦ mercantile adj. énBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ marine

measurement of profitability

kgnavaBaNiC¢kmµ¬rbs;RbeTsNamYy¦/ ~ country RbeTs ¬mancMNUledaykareFVI¦ BaNiC¢kmµ mercantilism BaNiC¢kmµniym

karvas;EvgPaBmancMeNj mechanism 1> ynþkar 2> esnaFikar ¬sßab½n¦ mechanisation ynþkmµ/ ynþtUbnIykmµ media or mass media RbB½n§pSBVpSay mediation karsMruHsMrYl mediator GñksMruHsMrYl medic n. GñkevC¢saRsþ medical ¬én¦ evC¢saRsþ/ ~ assistant CMnYyevC¢saRsþ medical aid n. GñkCMnYyevC¢saRsþ

merchandising service establishment

RKwHsßanesvakmµTMnij merchant BaNiC¢kr merger karrMlaybBa©ÚlKña ¬nUvRkumh‘unBIr rW eRcIn CaRkumh‘unmYy¦ merit kusl/ kuslkic©/ KuNsm,tþi message sar messenger narsar/ elxharI

medical care (expense)

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Economic Lexicon Part 1

method viFI methodology viFIsaRsþ micro biology mIRkUCIv³ microcosm Gtisuxumelak micro-credit mIRkU\NTan microeconomics mIRkUesdækic© micro-finance mIRkUhirBaØvtßú

misappropriation of public funds vitikmµ

FnsaFarN³/ karekgRbv½Ba©RTBüsm,tþisaFarN³ miscalculate v. KNnaxus miscellaneous epSg²/ KNnIcMNay{epSg²} misdemeanour bTmCÄwm ¬kMritTabCagbT]Rkidæ¦ mission ebskkmµ/ ~ letter lixitbBa¢a ebskkmµ/ ~ statement esckþIRbkasebskkmµ misunderstanding karyl;RcLM/ karyl;xus mixed economic entity GgÁPaBesdækic©cMruH

middle class vNѳkNþal ¬rW vNѳKhbtI¦ middleman QµÜjkNþal/ KYkeC/ eCIgsar/

GnþrkarI

mobilisation of private savings

migrant CncMNakRsuk/ nirRbevsn_

karekNÐRbmUlR)ak;snSMÉkCn mobilise v. ekNÐRbmUl/ RbEmRbmUl

migrate v. from/to eFVIcMNakRsuk rW

cakRsuk BI¼eTA migration cMNakRsuk/ BhiRbevsn_/ snþrRbevsn_ milestone 1> eKal ¬R)ab;cMgay¦ 2> RBwtiþkarN_sMxan; ¬kñúgdMeNIrkarvivtþn_énGVImYy¦ milieu mCÄdæan military eyaFa/ eyaFin/ ~ region eyaFPUmiPaK

modality of investment

EbbbTénkarvinieyaK mode n. m:Ud/ rebob model n. KMrU moderate adj. & n. 1> lµm ¬]> minefak minéfø¦ 2> mCÄnikCn modernisation TMenIbPavUbnIykmµ/ TMenIbkmµ modernise eFVITMenIbkmµ modification karEkERb/ kMENERb module m:UDIl modus operandi EbbbTRbtibtþikar momentum snÞúHeCOneTAmux/ kMlaMgrujRcan/ m:Um:g; monetarism rUbiyvtßúniym

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) eKaledAGPivDÆn_shsSvtSr_ mineral concentrate Er:cMraj; minicomputer kMBüÜT½rFuntUc minimisation Gb,brmaPavUbnIykmµ/ tax ~

kareFVI[bnÞúkBn§fycuHTabbMput minimise v. bnßydl;kMritGb,brma mining GaCIvkmµEr:/ karykEr: minor adj. & n. 1> tUctac/ bnÞab;bnSM 2> GnItiCn minority PaKtic/ Gb,PaK

monetarisation of the deficit

rUbiyvtßúnIykmµén»nPaB monetary adj. én rUbiyvtßú¼luy/ ~ policy neya)ayrUbiyvtßú/ ~ overhang rUbiyvtßúelIs tulüPaB/ ~ confidence TMnukcitþelIrUbiyvtßú/ 62


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ stabilisation sßirkmµ¼sßirPavUnIykmµrUbiyvtßú/ ~ transaction RbtibtþikarKitCa luy¼rUbiyvtßú money rUbiyvtßú/ luy/ ~ (M1) rUbiyvtßú (M1), ~ (M2) rUbiyvtßúTUeTA (M2), quasi- ~ rUbiy vtßúepSg²/ ~ in circulation rUbiyvtßúcracr/ ~ economy esdækic©rUbiyvtßú/ ~ laundering karlagluykxVk;/ ~ market TIpSarrUbiyvtßú ¬kMcIry³eBl xøI²¦/ ~ supply karpÁt;pÁg; rUbiyvtßú¼sac;R)ak;/ ~/funds at call rUbiyvtßú¼

eRBogBhuPaKI/ ~ aid/assistance CMnYyBhuPaKI multinational BhuCati/ ~ corporation Rkumh‘unBhuCati multiple-shop undertakings

Rkumh‘unmansaxaeRcIn multiplier emKuN multi-purpose allocation

karélEcksMrab;eKaledAeRcIny:ag multi-stage eRcIndMNak;/ ~ design bøg;eRcIndMNak;/ ~ frame eRKageRcIndMNak;/ ~ sampling karykKMrUtageRcIndMNak; mutation n. rUbvivtþn_ mutatis mutandis EdlRtUvpøas;bþÚrtam karcaM)ac; mutual eTAvijeTAmk/ ~ assistance karCYyKñaeTAvijeTAmk/ ~ insurance karFanar:ab;rgeTAvijeTAmk/ ~ benefit manplRbeyaCn_eTAvijeTAmk/ mutual fund sgÁhFn mutual societies sgÁhsmaKm

mUlniFiEdlGacpþl;eGay)anPøam² moneylender \NTayk/ GñkrksuIcgkarR)ak; monitor v. XøaMemIl ¬ÉksarxøHeRbIBakütamdan¦ monoculture Ékvb,kmµ/ eFVIdMNaMmYymux monopolise v. eFVIpþac;mux monopoly n. PaBpþac;mux/ monopolistic adj. monthly RbcaMEx/ ~ statement r)aykarN_¼ sMrg;KNnI RbcaMEx/ ~ returns cMNUlRbcaMEx moral obligation katBVkic©pøÚvcitþ morality sIlFm’/ good ~ mansIlFm’l¥/ social ~ sIlFm’sgÁm morbidity PaBmanCMgWeFVIeGaysøab; mortgage niekçb/ GuIb:UEtk/ vtßúbBa©aMbMNul mortgagee mças;bMNulGuIb:UEtk/ niekçbKahk mortgager/mortgagor kUnbMNulGuIb:UEtk

mutually supportive

CYyRTRTg;KñaeTAvijeTAmk

most favoured nation (MFN) clause

N, n

lkçxNÐGnueRKaHbMputEpñkBaNiC¢kmµ motion of censure jtþibenÞas motivate v. CMrujTwkcitþ/ bMpusTwkcitþ movable (property) clnvtßú multi-disciplinary team RkumBhuCMnaj multilateral BhuPaKI/ ~ agreement kic©RBm

nascent economy esdækic©kMBugcab;kMeNIt nation RbCaCati/ sgÁmCati national énCati/ ~ accounting KNenyü Cati/ ~ budget support ]btßmÖBIfvikardæ ¬]> cMeBaHfvikaextþ¦/ ~ bank FnaKarCati/

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Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ debt bMNulCati ¬x©IedayrdæaPi)al¦/ ~ income plTunCati/ ~ Institute of Statistics viC¢asßanCatisßiti/ ~ patrimony ebtikP½NÐCati/ ~ product plitplCati/ ~ economic management karRKb;RKg

esdækic©Cati nationality sBa¢ati/ ~ of ships sBa¢atinava nationalise v. eFVICatUbnIykmµ/ eFVICatikmµ nationwide TUTaMgRbeTs natural énFmµCati/ ~ condition lkçxNÐ FmµCati/ ~ asset RTBüsm,tþiFmµCati ¬FnFan FmµCatiGVImYy¦/ ~ disaster eRKaH¼mhnþray FmµCati/ ~ unemployment rate GRta nikmµPaBFmµCati/ ~ resource FnFanFmµCati/ ~ loss kar)at;bg; ÉkÉg¼edayFmµCati nature 1> FmµCati 2> critlkçN³ ¬rbs;mnusS¦ near-liquid asset or near money

RTBüCitdUcrUbiyvtßú ¬RTBüskmµEdlGacbþÚrCa rUbiyvtßú)any:aggay¦ need tMrUvkar/ ~ for affiliation tMrUvkar edIm,Icgsm<½n§ needs tMrUvkar ¬caM)ac;CamUldæan¦/ ~ assessment study karvaytMélBItMrUvkar negation GviC¢mankmµ negative adj. GviC¢man/ ~ interest karR)ak; GviC¢man ¬GRtakarR)ak;TabCagGRtaGtiprNa¦ negligence kareFVsRbEhs/ gross ~ kareFVsRbEhsF¶n;F¶r negotiable adj. 1>Gaccrca)an/ ~ price éføGaccrca)an 2>GacCYjdUr)an/ ~ debt instrument rUbiyaNtþi\NeTyüGacCYjdUr)an/ ~ documents ÉksarykTUTat;)an/

~ instrument ]bkrN_TUTat; negotiate v. crca/ negotiation n. neocolonialism GaNaniKmniymEbbfµI net suT§/ sCÄtþikr/ ~ exports karnaMecjsuT§/ ~ cost tMél suT§¼sCÄtþikr/ ~ foreign assets RTBüskmµbreTssuT§/ ~ foreign current transfer (NFCT) karepÞrbreTscrnþsuT§/ ~ foreign factor income (NFFI) ktþaplTun breTssuT§/ ~ income cMNUlsuT§/ ~ indirect taxes (NIT) Bn§RbeyalsuT§/ ~ national product plTunCatisuT§/ ~ profit R)ak;cMenj suT§/ ~ present value (NPV) tMélbc©úb,nñ suT§/ ~ taxable income cMnUlCab;Bn§suT§/ ~ worth mUlniFipÞal;suT§/ tMélBitRTBüskmµsuT§

¬RTBüskmµKittamtMélBitenATIpSar ehIydkbMNulcrnþ¦ network bNþaj neutralisation GBüaRkwtPavUbnIykmµ/ GBüaRkwtkmµ new international economic order (NIEO) lMdab;esdækic©GnþrCatifµI newly fµI²/ ~ industrialised countries (NICs) RbeTseFVI]sSahUbnIykmµfµI newsletter RBwtþib½RtB½t’man next of kin jatiCitCageK NGO (non-government organisation)

GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al nine years basic education

karGb;rMmUldæanry³eBl 9qñaM nobility vNѳGPiCn nomenclature namvlI ¬matika¦/ muxTMnij nominal carwk/ ~ GNP plitplCatisrub 64


Economic Lexicon Part 1

carwk/ ~ rate of interest GRtakarR)ak; carwk/ ~ value tMélcarwk nomination karEtgtaMg nominee GñkTTYlkarEtgtaMg/ ~ account KNnIkan;kab;kñúgnambuKÁlmñak;eTot non-commercial bank FnaKarGBaNiC¢

non-resident GnivasnCn rW GnivasCn non-returnable packing sMbkevcx©b;

minRbmUlvij non-tax features lkçN³minTak;TgnwgBn§dar non-taxable adj. minCab;Bn§/ ~ income

cMNUlminCab;Bn§

non-agricultural or non-farm employment kargarminEmnksikmµ non-aligned movement clnamincUl

non-timber forest products (NTFPs)

bkSsm½<n§

non-government organisation (NGO) GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al non-household sector vis½yminTak;Tg

RbCaCnminEmnGñkTIRkug norm bTdæan normalisation RbRktIPaBkmµ/ bktikmµ/ niy½tkmµ North, the (countries) ]tþrRbeTs ¬RbeTsGñkman¦ notarial deed lixitviBaØabnkmµ notary public sarkarI note sarxøI²/ lixit/ kMNt;sMKal;/ advice ~ lixitCUndMNwg/ bank/currency ~ Rkdas R)ak;/ covering ~ lixitGm/ credit/debit ~ lixit\NTan¼\NBn§/ delivery ~ lixit RbKl;TMnij/ dispatch ~ lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij/ promissory ~ b½NÑCMBak;R)ak;/ b½NÑsnüa

nwgRKYsar

noticeable change

non-negotiable instrument ]bkrN_

karERbRbYlKYr[kt;sMKal; notification karCUndMNwg/ ~ procedure nItiviFICUndMNwg notifying bank FnaKarCUndMNwg notion sBaØaN novation kic©RBmeRBogepÞrkic©snüa ¬[PaKITI3¦

GnupléRBeQI non-urban population

non-compliance karminRbtibtþitam/ PaB

minRsbtam non-concessional adj. minpþl;sm,Tan non-convertible currency

rUbiyvtßúminGacbþÚr ¬ykrUbiyvtßúdéT¦ )an non-delivery karminRbKl; non-discriminatory adj. minerIseGIg non-durables TMnijminKg;yUr ¬Gahar/ sarB½t’man>>>¦ non-food items TMnijminEmnGahar

minGacykeTATUTat;)an non-payment karminTUTat; non-performance karminGnuvtþn_/

karKµanlT§pl non-performing loan kMcIBi)akTar non-refundable adj. EdlminbgVilsgvij

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Economic Lexicon Part 1

novelty adj. & n. PaB¼rbs; fµIEbøk NPRS (National Poverty Reduction Strategy) yuT§saRsþCatikat;bnßyPaBRkIRk nuclear-family structures rcnasm<½n§

obsolete hYssm½y occupation 1> muxrbr 2> karkan;kab; occupancy rate (hotel) GRtasñak;enA

RKYsarsñÚl ¬«BukmþaynigkUn¦ null and void emaX³ nullification emaXkmµ/ nullify v. eFVI[ eTACaemaX³ nullity emaXPaB numeracy karecHelx numerator (fraction) PaKyk nutrition GaharUbtßmÖ

occupational accident eRKaHfñak;enA

¬sNæaKar¦ eBlbMeBjkargar occupier Gñkkan;kab; oceanography saKrsaRsþ odd job kargarl¥itel¥ac odd number elxess offence bTelµIs/ eTaskmµ offer 1> kareGayéfø/ cash ~ karsMubg;Ca sac;R)ak; 2> karRbkaslk; ¬kñúgéføNamYy¦/ introductory ~ éføTak;m:Uy ¬cMeBaHplitpl fµI¦/ special ~ TMnijlk;efakBiess offer and demand karpþl;nigtMrUvkar off-farm employment kargareRkAksidæan officer m®nþI official pøÚvkar/ ~ confirmation esckþI bBa¢ak;CapøÚvkar/ ~ rate GRtapøÚvkar Official Gazette raCkic© ¬esovePA¦ official n. m®nþIpøÚvkar/ GñkpøÚvkar officialdom kariyaFibetyü offload v. CMruHecj ¬nUvGVImYyEdlxøÜn mincg;Tuk ]> snøwkh‘unelIstMrUvkar¦ offset v. b:Hb:Uvvij/ kat;kgvij offshore adj. eRkAeqñr ¬eRbgkat¦

O, o obedience karsþab;»vaT object to v. CMTas;/ RbqaMg objection, have no Kµankaryl;Tas; objective n. & adj. 1> kmµvtßú/ TisedA

2> stüanum½t/ EdlQrelIkarBitCak;Esþg objectivity kmµvis½yPaB obligation katBVkic©/ be under ~ man katBVkic©/ meet one’s obligations sg

bMNulrbs;xøÜn obligatory CakatBVkic©/ xanmin)an observation 1> karsegát ¬emIl¦ 2> esckþIsegát ¬karkt;sMKal;¦ observe v. segát observer GñksegátkarN_ obsolescence PaBhYssm½y

off-the-job training

karbNþúHbNþaldac;BIkargar ombudsman m®nþIesuIbGegátBIkartv:a

¬cMeBaHsßab½nrdæ b¤GgÁkarFM²¦ 66


Economic Lexicon Part 1

operation Rbtibtþikar/ insurance ~ RbtibtþikarFanar:ab;rg operational costs bnÞúkcMNayRbtibtþikar operative system RbB½n§Rbtibtþikar operator Rbtibtþikr opinion eyabl;/ mti/ ~ poll karsÞg;mti opportunity kalanuvtþiPaB/ »kas opportunity cost tMél»kasRtUv)at;bg;/ tMélénkarlHbg; opposition 1> karRbqaMg rW CMTas; 2> bkSRbqaMg optical fiber cable ExSkabGubTic optimal allocation karélEckRbesIrbMput optimism suTidiæniym optimistic estimate kar)a:n;sµansuTidæi optimise v. eFVIeGay)anRbesIr ¬bMput¦ option CMerIs/ at your ~ tamCMerIsrbs;Gñk/ share ~ siT§iTijPaKh‘un ¬kñúgéføNamYyenA eBlNamYy¦ naGnaKt

omission 1> karxkxan ¬min)aneFVI¦ 2> karkat;ecj 3> GVIEdl min)aneFVI rW kat;ecj omnibus adj. cMruHmux/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBogcMruHmux/ ~ bill of lading GBaØtb½RtrYm on an equal footing edayesµIPaBnigesµIsiT§i on the path of reform elImaKa’énkMENTMrg; onerous adj. Gs;esah‘uyeRcIn one-stop service esvaRckecjcUlEtmYy ongoing activity skmµPaBkMBug dMeNIrkar¼ RbRBwtþeTA on-the-job training karbNþúHbNþal P¢ab;nwgkargar open adj. cMh/ ~ economy esdækic©ebIk cMh/ ~ account KNnIcMh ¬kt;RtakarTij eCOedayGñkTijKµandak;vtßúFana¦ open balance smtulümanelx ¬minsUnü¦ open cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtKµanqUt ¬b¤cMh¦ open credit \NTanKµandak;vtßúFana ¬sMrab;GtifiCnl¥rbs;FnaKar¦ open market pSarcMh/ pSaresrI/ ~ operations RbtibtþikarelIpSarcMh open policy eKalneya)ayebIkTUlay

oral agreement/contract

kic©RBmeRBog¼ kic©snüapÞal;mat; ¬minEmnCalaylkçN_GkSr¦ order 1> bBa¢a/ provincial/municipal ~ dIkaextþ¼Rkug/ 2> lMdab; 3> sNþab;Fñab;/ public ~ sNþab;Fñab;saFarN³

open the trade sector v.

ebIkTUlayvis½yBaNiC¢kmµ opening balance smtulüedImRKa

order for payment (French: mandat de dépense) GaNtþiebIkR)ak;cMNay order form/slip b½NÑbBa¢aTij order, purchase b½NѼkar bBa¢aTij ordinary share PaKh‘unsamBaØ ordnance yuT§P½NÐ/ unexploded ~

opening bank (for letters of credit)

FnaKarebIksar\NTan operating budget fvikaRbtibtþikar operating costs/expenses bnÞúkcMNay RbtibtþikarFmµta 67


Economic Lexicon Part 1

yuT§P½NÐminTan;pÞúH

outlook TsSnvis½y/ karRbemIlemIlGnaKt output Fatuecj/ plitpl/ final ~

organic agriculture ksikmµsrIragÁ organic/organisational law

Fatuecj sMerc¼cugeRkay

c,ab;erobcMGgÁkar

output tax or VAT (value added tax)

organisation chart GgÁkarelx organisational structure

GakrelItMélbEnßm outreach kareQagdl;/ karQandl; outsource v. cuHkic©snüaxageRkA outstanding adj. enACMBak;/ ~ balance smtulüenACMBak;/ ~ cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt minTan;sgR)ak;/ ~ loans kMcIenACMBak; ~ student sisSBUEk

rcnasm<½n§cat;taMg Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) GgÁkarshRbtibtþikaresdækic©

nigGPivDÆn_ orientation kartMrg;Tis oriented (orientated) tMrg;eTArk/ sMedA/

outstanding obligations (debt)

manninñakareTArk origin RbPBedIm/ edImkMeNIt/ bJsKl;/ certificate of ~ viBaØabnb½RtRbPBedIm TMnij/ country of ~ RbeTsRbPBedIm origin, zero point Kl;G½kS original cost tMélenAeBlcUl ¬tMélsMPar³eBlTijcUl¦ original invoice vikáybRtedIm originating bank FnaKarebIksar\NTan orthodox policy eKalneya)aysmµamti ��RsmtamkarCMenO¼mtiCaTUeTA¦ outcome lT§pl outdated, out-of-date hYssm½y outflow lMhUrecj outgoing letters lixitecj outgoings cMNay outlays (financial) cMNay/ debt amortisation ~ cMNayrMls;bMNul outlet kEnøglk;ecj

outward-looking country

bMNulhYskalbriecäT RbeTsebIkcMh ¬eq<aHeTAxageRkA¦ overcapacity smtßPaBelIs ¬tMrUvkarplit¦ overcharge kMérykelIs ¬elIskMritsmrmü¦ overcontrol karRtYtBinitühYs overdraft 1> kardkR)ak;elIsR)ak;beBaØI 2> \NTankMNt;/ \NTanelIssmtulü ¬FnaKar¦ overdraft, to grant an

GnuBaØat\NTanelIssmtulü overdue hYskalkMNt;sg/ ~ bill lixit TarR)ak;hYskalkMNt;/ ~ loans R)ak;kMcI hYskalkMNt;sg/ ~ payment karsgR)ak; hYskalkMNt;sg overfishing karensaTRtIhYsRbmaN overheads or overhead expenses/costs

cMNay Rbeyal¼TUeTA ¬cMNayeTogTat; nig sMxan;² dUcCa QñÜlpÞH/ TUrs½BÞ/ sMPar³kariyal½y>>> EdlminTak;TgedaypÞal;nwgkarplit¦ 68


Economic Lexicon Part 1

overheated economy esdækic©rt;ekþAeBk

¬bBa¢IbBa¢ak;karevcx©b;TMnij¦

¬kMeNInskmµPaBesdækic©EdleFVI[mankMeNIn GtiprNa¦ overlap RtYtKña/ KgKña overlook emIlrMlg overpopulation RbCaCneRcInhYs overproduction briplitkmµ/ karplitelIs overriding (in law) sMxan;CagGVIÉeTot over-sampling karykKMrUtagelIs overseas adj. enAbreTs/ ~ branches saxaenAbreTs oversight 1> karRbEhsePøcPøaMg 2> karemIlxusRtUvelI/ karTTYlbnÞúk overspending cMNayhYskMNt; overstaffed EdlmanbuKÁlikeRcInhYs overtime, work v. eFVIkarem:agbEnßm overview karBinitüCaTUeTA/ TsSn³rYm overwhelming majority PaKeRcInelIslb; owner m©as;/ m©as;kmµsiT§i/ kmµsiT§ikr/ ~ of the goods m©as;TMnij ownership kmµsiT§i/ PaBCam©as;

packing, non-returnable

sMbkevcx©b;minRmmUlykvij pact ktikasBaØa ¬kic©RBmeRBogCapøÚvkar¦ paddy RsUv/ ~ husking karkinRsUv/ ~ plots GMBkERs paid holidays éf¶Qb;sMrakmanebovtSr_ paid-up capital mUlFn)anbg;CMrH ¬edImTunEdl)anbg;ehIy¦ panel of experts KN³CMnajkar panic karP½yep¥Il/ GehtuP½y/ financial ~ GehtuP½yhirBaØvtßú paper loss/profit cMeNj¼xat elIRkdas ¬RTBü)ancuH¼ekIntMélb:uEnþminTan;)anlk;ecjeT¦ paper money luyRkdas/ RkdasR)ak; paperwork kargarRkdassñam par value tMélcuHelIb½NÑ ¬rW tMélcarwk¦ paradox brmti/ Rbtimti paradoxically EdlRbTaMgRbeTIsépÞkñúg paramedic n. GñkGmevC¢saRsþ paramedical adj. GmevC¢saRsþ parameter ):ar:aEm:Rt pare the budget v. bnßyfvikabnþicmþg² parent company Rkumh‘unem park ]Tüan/ national ~ ]TüanCati partiality n. PaBlMeGog ¬kñúgkarCYyKaMRT¦ participant n. GñkcUlrYm participate v. cUlrYm participation 1> karcUlrYm 2> PaKkmµ ¬karbNþak;Tun¦

P, p package kBa©b;/ ~ budget kBa©b;fvika/ pay/salary ~ kBa©b;ebovtSr_ ¬ebovtSr_ nig R)ak;]btßmÖepSg² sMrab;kargarGVImYy¦ ~ tour

kBa©b;ExSTsSnkic© packaging (accounting) sMbkevcx©b; packing list bBa¢Ievcx©b;

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Economic Lexicon Part 1

pay out v. TUTat;¼bg; R)ak;ecj pay up v. TUTat;sgR)ak;CMBak;eK payable adj. sg)an/ ~ to bearer sgeGayGñkkan;/ ~ to order sgtambBa¢a payback period 1> ry³eBlRtUvsgkMcIvij

participatory poverty assessment (PPA) karvaytMélPaBRkIRkedaymankarcUlrYm participatory rural appraisal (PRA)

karvaytMélCnbTedaymankarcUlrYm partner édKU/ smaKt/ GñkcUlh‘un partnership 1> PaBCaédKU 2> CMnYjh‘unKña part-time work kargarmineBjem:ag party (to the contract) PaKI ¬énkic©snüa¦ pass the test (education) eFVIetsþCab; passbook esovePAR)ak;beBaØI passive adj. Gkmµ passport lixitqøgEdn past-due debt bMNulhYs kalkMNt;¼ éf¶kMNt;sg patent RbkasnIyb½Rt ¬GnuBaØateGayRbkb GaCIvkmµ¦/ )a:tg;/ ~ licence b½NÑ):atg; patrimony ebtikP½NÐ/ RTBüsm,tþi/ ekrþ×mrtk ¬EdlmanCab;tmkBIxag«Buk¦ patron Gñk]btßmÖ/ emekIy/ bri)al pattern lMnaM/ KMrU/ trading ~ lMnaMeFVI BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ of rotation lMnaMvilpøas;bþÚrKña pawn v. bBa©aM pawnbroker kugsuI ¬bBa©aM¦

2> ry³eBl RbmUlTun)anvij¼Rsg;edIm ¬)ancMeNjesµITundak;cuH¦ payee GñkRtUv)anbg;R)ak;[ payer Gñkbg;R)ak;¬[eK¦ paying bank FnaKarTUTat; paying business GaCIvkmµ¼CMnYj Edl pþl;cMeNj payment karTUTat;/ karbg;R)ak;/ karsgR)ak;/ ~ by instalments karsgbNþak; ¬]> tamEx¦/ ~ credit \NTanTUTat;/ ~ currency rUbiyvtßú TUTat;/ ~ in kind karTUTat;Cavtßú/ ~ systems RbB½n§TUTat;/ ~ mechanism ynþkarTUTat;/ ~ warrant GaNtþiebIkR)ak; payoff n. R)ak;bg;pþac; payout n. 1> R)ak;TUTat;ecj 2> R)ak;bg;CYy Rkumh‘unNamYy ¬]> edayrdæaPi)al¦ payroll bBa¢I¼tarag ebovtSr_ peace building karksagsnþiPaB pecuniary Tak;TgnwgR)ak;kas/ ~ motives ehtuplxagluykak; penalise v. Bin½y/ dak;eTas penalty eTasT½NÐ/ eTasbBaØtþi/ karpakBin½y pending accounts KNnIBüÜr ¬rg;caM karedaHRsay¦ pension esaFnnivtþn_/ R)ak;ruWERtt/ ~ fund mUlniFiesaFnnivtþn_

pay as you earn (PAYE)

RbB½n§Bn§kat;TukelIR)ak;ebovtSr_ pay at sight sgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksar pay back v. sgvij pay n. ebovtSr_/ R)ak;kMér/ holidays with ~ éf¶Qb;sMrakmanebovtSr_/ leave without ~ karQb;sMrakKµanebovtSr_ pay off v. 1> TUTat;¼bg; pþac; 2> TUTat;R)ak;pþac; nigbBa©b;kargarGñkNamñak; 70


Economic Lexicon Part 1

pensioner GñkTTYlesaFnnivtþn_ per diem ¬R)ak;¦ cMNaytaméf¶ ¬Kittam

perpetual inventory system

RbB½n§sareBIP½NÐnirnþn_ perpetuity nic©PaB person buKÁl/ physical/natural ~ rUbvnþbuKÁl/ legal person/entity nItibuKÁl personal pÞal;xøÜn/ ~ consumption kareRbIR)as;pÞal;xøÜn/ ~ effects sMPar³ eRbIR)as;pÞal;xøÜn/ ~ loan kMcIpÞal;xøÜn ¬sMrab; kareRbIR)as;kñúgRKYsar rW pÞal;xøÜn minEmnsMrab; GaCIvkmµeT¦/ ~ property RTBüpÞal;xøÜn/ ~ revenue R)ak;cMNUlbuKÁl/ ~ selling kareXasnapSaylk;pÞal; ¬énbuKÁlmñak;¦/ ~ income tax Bn§elIR)ak;cMNUlbuKÁl

cMnYnéf¶ nigtamFmµtamanGRtaesµIKñasMrab; buKÁlikRKb;kMrit¦ percentage PaKry perception sBaØaxn§/ cMNab;GarmµN_ performance TegVI/ karGnuvtþn_/ lT§pl/ ~ standard sþg;dar lT§pl¼Rbtibtþi performing EdldMeNIrkar/ ~ asset RTBüskmµdMeNIrkar/ non ~ asset RTBüskmµ mindMeNIrkar period ry³eBl/ GMLúgeBl/ RKa ¬KNenyü¦ periodic tamkalkMNt;/ eTogeBl/ samayik/ ~ control system RbB½n§RtYtBinitütamkal kMNt;/ ~ order system RbB½n§bBa¢aTijeTogeBl periodical n. kalikb½Rt ¬TsSnavdþI/ RBwtþib½Rt>>>¦ periodically edayeTogeBl periodicity samyikPaB perishable adj. EdlgayxUc¬KuNPaB¦/ ~ goods TMnijgayxUc perishables n. TMnijgayxUc perks (or perquisites) GtßRbeyaCn_ bEnßm ¬pþl;CabEnßmelIebovtSr_¦ permanent Gcié®nþy_/ ~ establishment RKwHsßanGcié®nþy_/ RKwHsßanCab;lab;/ ~ organ GgÁkarGcié®nþy_ permit lixitGnuBaØat/ Tidæakar/ building ~ lixitGnuBaØatsagsg;/ export/import ~ lixitGnuBaØatnaMecj¼naMcUl/ work ~ lixit GnuBaØateGayeFIVkar ¬sMrab;CnbreTs¦

personal identification number (see PIN) personality 1> buKÁliklkçN³ ¬KYrkt;sMKal;¦

2> Gñkl,Il,aj personnel buKÁlik/ ~ benefits GtßRbeyaCn_ pþl;eGaybuKÁlik perspective yfaTsSn_/ TsSnvis½y PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Techniques) bec©keTsBinitü

vaytMélKMerag ¬rW kmµviFI¦ pessimistic estimate kar)a:n;sµanTuTidæi pesticides fñaMsMlab;stVcéRg petition jtþi petroleum eRbgkat/ eRbg\n§n³/ ~ security agreement kic©RBmeRBogsþIBI snþisuxeRbg\n§n³ petty cash sac;R)ak;bnþicbnþÜc/ ~ custodian Gñkkan;hibR)ak; ¬R)ak;tictYc¦/ ~ book esovePA cMNaytUctac/ ~ fund ebLa/ mUlniFisMrab;

71


Economic Lexicon Part 1

cMNaybnþicbnþÜc/ ~ voucher b½NÑcMNayebLa Ph.D. (degree) fñak;bNÐit phase n. dMNak;kal Phillips curve ExSekaghVIlIB ¬bgðaj TMnak;TMngrvagGRtaERbRbYlénR)ak;ebovtSr_ eTAnwgkMritnikmµPaB¦ phone card s½BÞb½Rt ¬katTUrs½BÞ¦ physical rUbvnþ/ Cak;Esþg/ ~ accounts KNenyürUbFatu/ ~ environment brisßan rUbvnþ/ ~ factor ktþarUbvnþ/ ~ infrastructure ehdæarcnasm<½n§rUbvnþ/ ~ investment vinieyaK rUbvnþ ¬CasMPar³/ R)ak;kas>>¦/ ~ resources FnFanrUbvnþ ¬GaKar/ ]bkrN_>>¦ physical therapist GñkBüa)aledayclna phytosanitary PUtKamGnam½y piece rate GRtatamÉktaplit ¬kMérKittambrimaNplit)an¦ pilot project KMeragsakl,g

planning Epnkarkmµ/ kareFVIEpnkar/

karksagEpnkar plant n. 1> eragcRk 2> eRKOgm:asuIn plantation cMkar/ rubber ~ cMkarekAs‘U platform evTika/ kmµviFIneya)ay ¬rbs; KNbkS¦ playback karcak;eLIgvij ¬ExSGat;>>¦ pledge karsnüa/ R)ak;snüaeGay plenary session sm½yRbCMueBjGgÁ plot dILÚt_/ k,aldI plough back v. vinieyaKbnþ ¬nUvR)ak;cMeNj¦ pocket of poverty RcklðkmanPaBRkIRk polarisation, social PaB)ak;EbksgÁm/ karRbmUlpþúMCa ¬BIr¦RkummanKMnitpÞúyKña police record, copy of the

lixitefáaleTas ¬rbs;b:UlIs¦ policy brief segçbsMrab;eKalneya)ay policy formulation nimµitkmµ¼karksag eKalneya)ay policy framework Rkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay policymaker Gñkksag¼GñkkMNt; eKalneya)ay

PIN (personal identification number)

elxsMKal;pÞal;xøÜn/ elxGtþsBaØaNbuKÁl pioneer industry ]sSahkmµQanmux pioneering work kargarQanmux¼ RtYsRtay pisciculture karciBa©wmRtI/ mcävb,kmµ pittance R)ak;cMNUld¾sþÜcesþIg place kEnøg plan n. Epnkar/ five-year ~ EpnkarR)aMqñaM/ investment ~ EpnkarvinieyaK/ rolling ~ EpnkarrMkil planned economy esdækic©Epnkar planner GñkeFVIEpnkar/ EpnkarI

political platform (of a party)

kmµviFIneya)ay ¬rbs;KNbkS¦ poll n. kare)aHeqñat polling station kariyal½ye)aHeqñat pollutant n. sarFatubMBul pollution karbMBul/ air ~ karbMBulxül; polyculture kareFVIVdMNaMeRcInmux/ Bhuvb,kmµ population RbCaCn/ ~ growth rate GRta kMeNInRbCaCn/ ~ policy eKalneya)ayRbCaCn 72


Economic Lexicon Part 1

port of loading/shipment kMBg;EppÞúkTMnij portfolio investments vinieyaKCamUlb½Rt

pragmatic adj. EdlKitBIlT§pl/ Edlmanpl pre- mun/ buer/ pre-Angkor buerGgÁr/ pre-crisis munvibtþi/ pre-action controls karRtYtBinitümunskmµPaB precarious path KnøgeRKaHfñak; precedent n. krNIyutþisaRsþ ¬tulakar¦ preceding mun/ ~ year qñaMmun ¬qñaMmunTI1¦ precious stones t,Úg ¬fµ¦ mantMél preclude RcanecalCamun pre-concession inventory

¬PaKh‘unTaMgGs;rbs;vinieyaKinNamñak;¦ position 1> CMhr 2> tMENg/ vacant ~ tMENgTMenr positive adj. viC¢man/ ~ balance of payments CBa¢IgTUTat;viC¢man/ ~ cash flow lMhUrsac;R)ak;viC¢man ¬sac;R)ak;hUrcUlFMCag sac;R)ak;ecj¦/ ~ interest karR)ak;viC¢man ¬GRtakarR)ak;x<s;CagGRtaGtiprNa¦ possession karkan;kab;/ ePaK³ post CaeRkay/ ~ auditing svnkmµCaeRkay post a profit/loss RbkasCa saFarN³¼ pøÚvkar BI cMeNj rW kMhat

sareBIP½NÐbuersm,Tan precondition buerlkçxNÐ ¬lkçxNÐRtUv bMeBjCamun¦ predictability n. PaBGacTsSn_Tay)an/ TsSlT§PaB predictable adj. GacTsSn_Tay)an preemption siT§iTijmuneK ¬nUvsnøwkh‘un ecjpSayfµIEfmeTot¦ pre-existing condition lkçxNÐmantaMgBImun pre-feasibility study karsikSamun karsikSaBIPaBGaceFVI)an preference cMNUlcitþ preference share h‘unGnueRKaH ¬EdlCa erOy² KµansiT§ie)aHeqñateT b:uEnþTTYl)anPaK laPmunh‘unÉeTot nigRtUvsgmunh‘unFmµta kñúg krNIrMlayRkumh‘un¦ preferential EdlmansiTi§/ EdleKcUlcitþ ¬CagGVImYyeTot¦/ ~ creditor \NTayk mansiTi§TarbMNulmun/ ~ duty (tariff) GRta Bn§KyGnueRKaHBiess ¬Tab¦ pre-investment agency TIPñak;garBinitü

post an entry/item to the ledger

cuHelxnaeTAkñúgesovePAFM post-action controls karRtYtBinitü

eRkayskmµPaB post-date v. cuHkalbriecäTGnaKt potential n. & adj. 1> skþanuBl 2> skþanuPUt potentiality skþanuPaB poverty PaBRkIRk/ TurKtPaB/ ~ reduction karkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk/ ~ line bnÞat;RkIRk power GMNac/ siT§iGMNac/ kMlaMg/ GanuPaB power boat Lúgbut ¬GUb½r¦ power grid/network bNþajGKÁIsnI power of attorney lixitRbKl;siT§i practice karGnuvtþn_ Cak;Esþg¼RbcaM/ professional ~ RbRBwtþikmµviC¢aCIv³ practitioner GñkGnuvtþ ¬RbcaM¦ 73


Economic Lexicon Part 1

lT§PaBmuneBlvinieyaK prejudice 1> buervinicä½y 2> kareFVI[xUcxatdl; preliminary adj. epþImmux/ ~ discussion karBiPakSaepþImmux premises GaKar nigdICitGaKar ¬kmµsiT§ikr EtmYy¦ premium buBVlaP/ at a ~ Edllk;)anéfø ¬elIsFmµta¦/ insurance ~ buBVlaPFanar:ab;rg prepaid expense cMNaybg;mun prepaid income cMNUlTTYlmun prerequisite buBVlkçxNÐ prescription bBaØtþi¼evC¢bBa¢a present v. bgðaj/ presenter Gñkbgðaj/ presentation bTbgðaj present value tMélbc©úb,nñ press release RbkasB½t’man prestige kitüanuPaB/ PaBefáIg/ ~ product plitplRbNitfáúMefáIg presumption karsnµtCamun/ sc©FarN_/ ~ of innocence sc©FarN_énnireTas pre-tax profit cMeNjmunbg;Bn§ prevalence eRbv:aLg;¼PaBCaTUeTA price éfø/ agreed ~ éføRBmeRBog/ all-in ~ éføsBVRKb;/ bargain ~ or cut ~ éføefakNas;/ list ~ éføelIbBa¢I¬kataLúk¦/ ~ and salary freeze karTb;éfø nigebovtSr_mineGayeLIg/ ~ discrimination karerIseGIgkñúgkarkMNt;éfø/ ~ list bBa¢Iéføø/ closing/opening ~ éføeBl ehobbiThag¼ebIklk;/ cost ~ éføedIm/ competitive ~ éføRbkYtRbECg/ fair ~ éfø yutþiFm’/ rock bottom ~ éføefakbMput/ selling ~ éfølk;/ ~ fixing karXubXitkMNt;éfø

prices to suit all pockets éføsmRsb nwglT§PaBTijrbs;RKb;Kña pricing karkMNt;éfø/ ~ system RbB½n§kMNt;éfø clearance ~ karkMNt;éføedIm,IbeBa©jTMnij primary bzm/ dMbUg/ ~ factor income ktþa cMNUlbzm/ ~ factor of production ktþa plitkmµbzm/ ~ health care (PHC) karEfTaM suxPaBbzm/ ~ needs tMrUvkarcaM)ac; CamUldæan/ ~ sampling unit (PSU) ÉktaykKMrUtag dMbUg/ ~ selection CMerIsdMbUg/ ~ stratification RsTab;nIykmµdMbUg/ ~ -sampling frame (PSF) eRKagykKMrUtagdMbUg primary education karGb;rMkMritbzm prime cost tMélplitpÞal; ¬KµanbUkcMnayTUeTA¦ principal (in power transfer) GaNtþiTayk principal accountant

KNenyükredImExS ¬RksYghirBaØvtßú¦ principal insurance company

Rkumh‘unFanar:ab;rgedIm principle of equality and mutual benefit

eKalkarN_esµIPaBnigmanRbeyaCn_eTAvijeTAmk prior adj. BImun/ ~ agreement

kic©RBmeRBogBImun prioritise v. eFVIGaTiPavUbnIykmµ priority n. GaTiPaB/ have/take ~ over manGaTiPaBelI private company or privately owned company Rkumh‘unÉkCn private income cMNUleRkABIebovtSr_ private investor vinieyaKinÉkCn

¬mnusSFmµtaEdlmanR)ak;vinieyaK¦ private economic entity 74


Economic Lexicon Part 1

GgÁPaBesdækic©ÉkCn privatisation ÉkCnnIykmµ/ ÉkCnPavUbnIykmµ privilege 1> ÉksiT§i ¬GtßRbeyaCn_Biess¦ 2> buBVsiT§i ¬siT§iBiess¦ pro forma invoice vikáybRtbeNþaHGasnñ proactive skmµRKb;RKg/ skmµRbyuT§ probability RbU)ab‘ÍlIet/ PvnIyPaB/ ~ sampling karykKMrUtagedayRbU)ab‘ÍlIet

kic©snüaEbgEckplitkmµ productive adj. manplitPaB/ ~ assets RTBüskmµmanplitPaB/ ~ ratio smaPaK plitPaB productivity plitPaB profession n. viC¢aCIv³/ medical ~ viC¢aCIv³ ¬xag¦ eBTü professional énviC¢aCIv³/ ~ fees esah‘uy viC¢aCIv³/ ~ secrecy karrkSasMgat;viC¢aCIv³ profile n. TMrg;/ rUbPaBTUeTA ¬]> énRkumh‘un cMeBaHsaFarNCn¦ profit cMeNj/ R)ak;cMeNj/ healthy ~ cMeNjeRcIn/ ~ margin GRtacMeNj/ Gb,har/ ~ sharing karEbgEckR)ak;cMeNj

procedural law (French: code de procédure) c,ab;nItiviFI procedure nItiviFI proceeds R)ak;cMNUl/ pl/ net ~ cMNUlsuT§ process dMeNIrkar processing karEkécñ/ RbRBwtþkmµ/ karcat;Ecg ¬Tinñn½y>>¦/ certificate of ~ viBaØabnb½RtbBa¢ak;

profit and loss account or profit and loss statement (US) KNnIcMeNjxat

BIkEnøgEkécñ

KNnIlT§pl/ r)aykarN_cMNUlcMNay profitability PaBmancMeNj programme of action kmµviFIskmµPaB progress vDÆnPaB/ PaBeCOnelOn/ CMenOn/ ~ report r)aykarN_CMenOn/ ~ payment karTUTat;tamdMNak;énCMenOnkargar/ in ~ kMBug eCOnelOn

proclamation esckþIRbkas/ karRbkas procurement lT§kmµ/ karpÁt;pÁg;/ ~ phase

dMNak;kalpÁt;pÁg; producer plitkr/ ~ surplus plelIs)an dl;plitkr product plitpl/ ~ breadth cMnYnmuxplitpl/ ~ cycle vdþplitpl/ ~ depth Funplitpl ¬kñúgExSplitplnimYy²¦/ ~ line/ range ExS plitpl ¬plitplRbhak;RbEhlKña 1ExS¦/ ~ mix l,ayplitpl ¬plitplTaMgGs; Edldak;lk; rWplitedayshRKasNamYy¦ production plitkmµ/ ~ accounts KNnI plitkmµ/ ~ cost cMNayplitkmµ/ ~ line ExSsgVak;plitkmµ/ ~ system RbB½n§plitkmµ

progressive personal income tax

Bn§kMeNIntamfñak;elIcMNUlbuKÁl prohibition karhamXat; prohibitive adj. 1> Edlx<s;hYslT§PaB ¬éfø/ tMél¦ 2> EdlhamXat; ¬c,ab;¦ project KMerag/ ~ appraisal karvaytMél KMerag/ ~ cycle vdþénKMerag/ ~ formulation karksagKMerag/ ~ justification yutþikmµKMerag/

production-sharing contract (PSC)

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Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ proposal sMeNIKMerag/ ~ implementation

prosecutor RBHraCGaCJa prospect niTsSn_ ¬karrMBwgTuk¦ prospecting licence GaCJab½NÑsMrab;kar

karGnuvtþn_KMerag/ projection karKn;KUrCamun proliferation karrIksay ¬cMnYn¦

rukrk ¬eRbgkat/ Er:>>>¦

promise to pay (French: engagement de dépense) karsnüacMNay promissory note b½NÑCMBak;R)ak;/ b½NÑsnüasg promotion 1> kartMelIgzan³ ¬buKÁlik¦

2> karpSBVpSay ¬lk;plitpl¦ 3> karCMruj/ ~ of commercial interests karCMrujplRbeyaCn_BaNiC¢kmµ

prospective buyer GñkTijkñúgkarrMBwg prospector Gñkrukrk ¬Er:>>>¦/ buersI prospectus briyayb½NÑ prosperity vibulPaB protection kic©¼kar karBar/ environment(al) ~ kic©karBarbrisßan protectionist measure

viFankarkarBarplitplkñúgRsuk protocol 1> BiFIsar ¬Éksar¦ 2> BiFIkar ¬sMrab;BiFIepSg²¦ protracted war s®gÁamruaMér: provision 1>esckþIEcg/ bTb,BaØtþi rWbBaØtiþ ¬c,ab;¦/ final ~Gvsanb,BaØtþi/ transitional ~ Gnþrb,BaØtþi 2> viFankareRtom 3> vtßúpÁt;pÁg;/ sMviFanvtßú provision dealer, retail Gñklk;raynUv TMnijes,ógGahar provision reserve sMviFanFn provisional invoice vikáybRtbeNþaHGasnñ proxy 1> GñkTTYlkarepÞrsiT§i/ GaNtþiKahk 2> ÉksarsiT§iRbTan/ lixitepÞrsiT§i 3> siT§iRbTan/ karepÞrsiT§i

promotional strategy

yuT§saRsþpSBVpSay ¬lk;plitpl¦ prompt adj. Pøam²/ ~ cash R)ak;bg;dl;éd/ ~ delivery karRbKl;Pøam²/ ~ payment karTUTat;Pøam² proof Psþútag/ skçIkmµ propensity TMenar/ ]bnisS½y property RTBü/ sm,tþi/ RTBüsm,tþi/ kmµsiT§i/ dInigGaKar/ ~ insurance karFana r:ab;rgRTBüsm,tþi/ ~ tax Bn§elIRTBüsm,tþi¼ kmµsiT§i proportion n. smamaRt/ in ~ to smamaRtnwg proportional allocation

karélEcksmamaRt proportional tax system RbB½n§Bn§smamaRt

prudent monetary policy

proposal sMeNI/ project ~ sMeNIKMerag proprietor, proprietress, n. m©as;/ kmµsiT§ikr prosecution 1> bNþwgsaFarN³/ karbþwgecaT

eKalneya)ayrUbiyvtßúRbugRby½tñ prudential measure viFankarRbugRby½tñ prudential rule viFanRbugRby½tñ

Rbkan; 2> Gyükar ¬PaKIedImecaTkñúgerOgRBhµTNЦ 76


Economic Lexicon Part 1

public administration rdæ)alsaFarN³ public n. & adj. 1>saFarNCn/ general ~ saFarNCn 2>saFarN³/ ~ accounting/ accounts KNenyüsaFarN³/ ~ company or ~ limited company (PLC) Rkumh‘un

purposive sampling karykKMrUtagtam

eKaledA Q, q

PaKh‘un/ saCIvkmµ ¬manecjsnøwkh‘unlk;[ saFarNCn¦/ ~ finance hirBaØvtßúsaFarN³/ ~ adminstrative establishment RKwHsßan rdæ)alsaFarN³/ ~ entity GgÁPaBrdæ ~ order sNþab;Fñab;saFarN³/ ~ proclamation esckþIRbkasCasaFarN³/ ~ sector vis½y saFarN³/ ~ utilities shRKaspÁt;pÁg;saFarN³ ¬pþl;esvasMrab;plRbeyaCn_saFarN³dUcCa Twk/ GKÁIsnI/ ]sµ½n/ TUrKmnaKmn_¦/ ~ works saFarN³kar public relations TMnak;TMngsaFarN³ publicise v. pSBVpSay ¬c,ab;¦ public-spirited EdlKitRbeyaCn_saFarNCn publish v. 1> e)aHBum<pSay 2> RbkaspSay/ RbkaspSayCasaFarN³ purchase ledger esovePAFMTij ¬kt;RtakarTijcUl¦ purchase v. & n. 1> Tij/ ~ on credit TijeCO 2> karTij purchaser GñkTij/ likely/prospective ~ GñkTijEdleKrMBwg purchasing power GMNacTij/ lT§kmµBl/ ~ of the currency GMNacTijénrUbiyvtßú purge visuT§ikmµ/ viercnkmµ/ karsMGitsMGag purify v. cMraj;eGaysuT§/ bnSúT§/ eRcaHsMGat purpose eKaledA

qualification KuNvuDÆi/ kMritCMnaj/

KuNsm,tþixagCMnaj/ lkçN³sm,tþi qualified acceptance karTTYlRBm

edaymanlkçxNÐ qualitative énKuNPaB/ ~ method viFIsaRsþ ¬viPaK¦ tamEbbKuNPaB quality shipped KuNPaB ¬TMnij¦ eBlpÞúk quality standard sþg;darKuNPaB/ bmanIyKuNPaB quantitative énbrimaN/ ~ method viFIsaRsþ ¬viPaK¦tamEbbbrimaN quarrying GaCIvkmµ¬yk¦fµ quarter 1> RtImas/ 2> mYyPaKbYn/ 2nd ~ of 7th century mYyPaKbYnTI2énstvtSr_TI7 quarter-day éf¶RbKl;R)ak;¬QñÜl¦RbcaMRtImas quarterly adj. & adv. RbcaMRtImas quasi-money rUbiyvtßúepSg² quasi-public institution

sßab½nsaFarN³Rbhak;RbEhl questionnaire bBa¢IsMnYr ¬sMrab;sMPasn_¦ quick ratio smaPaKrh½s quintile bBa©PaK ¬sßiti¦ quorum kUr:um ¬cMnYnmnusScaM)ac;sMrab;ebIkkarRbCMu¦ quota kUta/ fixing of ~ karkMNt;kUta/ ~ regime rbbkUta/ ~ sampling karykKMrUtagtamkUta 77


Economic Lexicon Part 1

spot ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;dl;éd rate éfø ¬Ékta¦ ratification karpþl;sc©ab½n/ sc©anumti rating kareFVIcMNat;fñak; tMél¼KuNsm,tþi/ performance ~ kareFVIcMNat;fñak;lT§plkargar ratio smaPaK/ Gnu)at/ ~ analysis

quotation éføRbkas ¬enATIpSar¦/ karRbkas éfø/ share ~ karRbkaséføsnøwkh‘un/ keen ~

éføTak;Taj ¬KYreGaycg;Tij¦ quote v. & n. 1> kMNt;¼):an;sµan/ ~ in local currency kMNt;éføCarUbiyvtßúkñúgRsuk 2> éføkMNt; quoted company Rkumh‘uncUlpSarh‘un ¬snøwkh‘unmanlk;¼Tij enApSarh‘un¦ quoted price éfø)anRbkas quotient n. plEck

karviPaKsmaPaK rational smehtupl/ sniTanIy/ ~ expectation karrMBwgsmehtupl rationale sniTanPaB/ ehtupl rationality sniTanPaB rationalisation sniTankmµ/ kareFVI[rwtEt manRbsiT§PaB/ ~ of civil servants sniTankmµm®nþIraCkar raw adj. eqA/ ~ data Tinñn½yeqA ¬minTan; viPaK¦/ ~ materials vtßúFatuedIm real Bit/ ~ GNP plitplCatisrubBit/ ~ rate of interest GRtakarR)ak;Bit real estate/property GclnRTBü ¬dI nig ¼b¤ GaKar¦/ ~ agency TIPñak;garGclnRTBü realism R)akdniym reality n. tfPaB/ karBit realisation smiT§ikmµ/ smiT§ipl realise v. sMerc/ eFVIeGaysMerc realty GclnRTBü reasonable smrmü reassess v. vaytMéleLIgvij/

R, r racism BUCsasn_niym raise v. 1> tMelIg/ ~ taxes tMelIgBn§

2> ekNÐRbmUl/ érGgÁas ¬R)ak;¦ rally (price) eLIgéføvij ¬eRkayBI)ancuH¦ random écdnü/ ~ check karRtYtemIl écdnü/ ~ sample KMrUtagécdnü randomisation écdnünIykmµ range n. 1> RbeLaH/ price ~ RbeLaHéfø/ ~ of vision RbeLaH ¬cMgay¦ emIleXIj 2> cMnYnmux ¬plitplRbePTNamYy¦ 3> CYr ¬PñM¦ rank zan³/ zannþrs½kþi ¬m®nþIraCkar¦ rank v. eFVIcMNat;fñak; ¬tamlMdab;¦ ransom R)ak;elaHxøÜn rate GRta/ exchange ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;/ closing ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;enAeBlbiT/ forward ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;mankalkMNt;/ ~ of interest GRtakarR)ak;/ ~ of return GRtaTajcMNUl/

reassessment n. rebate 1> karcuHéfø ¬elI TMnijminRtUv)a:n;¼

karsgR)ak;munéf¶kMNt;¦ 2> kar bnßy¼cuH éfø ¬[GtifiCnEdlTijeRcIn¦ 3> karbgViltMél ¬mYyqñaMKitmþgCakardwgKuN 78


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ expenditure cMNaymþgehIymþgeTot recycling karEkécññeLIgvij red soil dIRkhm red tape kariyaFibetyü/ EbbbTniym redeem v. 1> sgpþac;/ ~ a debt sgbMNulpþac;

dl;GtifiCn¦ receipt bgáan;éd/ lixitTTYl receiver GñkTTYl recession, economic karFøak;cuHesdækic© recidivism, case of krNIminragcal recipient GñkTTYl/ ~ country RbeTs TTYl ¬]> CMnYy¦ reciprocity bdikar/ PaBmaneTAmanmk recognise sÁal;/ TTYlsÁal;/ recognised RbtiRsut recommendation Gnusasn_/ mtipþaMepJI recompense v. & n. 1> sg ¬karxUcxat¦/ 2> sMNg reconcile v. bnSúI/ sMrbsMrYl/ pSHpSaeLIg vij/ reconciliation n. reconnaissance study karsikSaEsVgyl; reconversion karpøas;bþÚreLIgvij/ karerob cMeLIgvij record n. & v. 1> kMNt;Rta/ Rbvtþi/ ÉtTKÁkmµ ¬lT§plx<s;bMput¦/ ~ profits cMeNjx<s;bMputminFøab;man 2> kt;Rta recourse ])aRs½y ¬siT§irbs;Gñkkan;rUbiyaNtþi kñúgkartamTarsMNgBIGñkeFVIbidæielx¦ recoverable (debt) EdlGacRbmUlvij)an recovery 1> karykcUlvij ¬R)ak;bgáar¦ 2> karRbmUlmkvij/ ~ of debts karRbmUl R)ak;bMNulmkvij 3>karerIb ¬esdækic©¦ recreation (service) kMsanþ rectangular strategy yuT§saRsþctuekaN rectification karEktMrUv recurrent adj. mþgehIymþgeTot/

2> bþÚr¼lk; ykR)ak; ¬]>sBaØab½NѦ redemption n. karsgpþac; ¬bMNul¦ rediscount bunGbhar ¬eFVIGbharmþgeTot¦ redistribution karEbgEckeLIgvij redress n. sMNg ¬karxUcxat/ CMgWcitþ¦ reduction karkat;bnßy/ budget ~ karkat;bnßyfvika redundancy programme kmµviFIbBaÄb; BlkredaykgVHkargar redundant adj. EdleRcInelIstMrUvkar rW KµanRbeyaCn_ re-election kare)aHeqñatsaCafµI reexportation karnaMecjbnþ/ bunnIhrNkmµ referee GaCJakNþal reference book esovePA eyag¼RsavRCav reference period RKa¼ry³eBl eKal referral hospital mnÞIreBTübEg¥k refinancing (loan) bunhirBaØb,Tan ¬kMcI¦ reflect v. qøúHbBa©aMg reforestation kardaMéRBeQIeLIgvij/ bunvnkar reform n. & v. 1> kMENTMrg; 2> EkTMrg; refund v. & n. 1> sgvij 2> R)ak;sgvij refusal karbdiesF/ karRbEkk/ ~ of acceptance karbdiesFkarTTYlRBm regardless edayminKitdl; regime rbb/ financial ~ rbbhirBaØvtßú 79


Economic Lexicon Part 1

region tMbn;/ sub-~ GnutMbn;/ military ~ eyaFPUmiPaK/ military sub- ~ tMbn;Rbtibtþikar swkrg regionalisation tMbn;PavUbnIykmµ register n.&v. 1> bBa¢I 2> cuHbBa¢/I cuHbBa¢k I ar registered capital mUlFn)ancuHbBa¢I ¬CapøÚvkar¦

reinvest v. 1> vinieyaKbnþ ¬vinieyaKR)ak; cMenjeTAkñúgGaCIvkmµvij¦ 2> vinieyaKeLIgvij reject v. & n. 1> Rcanecal 2> vtßúRcanecal ¬eRBaHminRtUvsþg;dar¦ related ¬Cab;¦ Tak;Tg¼Tak;Tin relation TMnak;TMng relative adj. EdleFob/ ~ price éføeFob relative advantage ]tþmPaBeRbobeFob relative majority vote sMelgPaKeRcIn edayeFob ¬)ansMelgeRcInCagebkçCnmñak;eTot¦ relative n. sac;jati/ jatiBn§ relativity saebkçPaB ¬PaBmanTMnak;TMng¦/ rWLaTIvIet release v. beBa©j/ edaHElg/ bn§Úr ¬sMBaF¦ relevant adj. EdlBak;B½n§/ ~ institution sßab½nBak;B½n§ relief n. CMnYy/ tax ~ karGnueRKaHBn§/ ~ assistance CMnYyse®gÁaHbnÞan; relinquish bgVileGayvij/ e)aHbg; remainder sMNl; ¬GVIEdlenAsl;¦ reminder n. lixitrMlwk ¬]> [mkbg;Bn§¦ remission of taxes karbgVilsgR)ak;Bn§ ¬Edl)anbg;elIs¦ remittance karepJIR)ak;ecj/ visC¢na/ karepÞrR)ak; remote area tMbn;dac;Rsyal

registered letter/parcel

lixit¼kBa©b;beBaØI GnusiT§i registered office (of a company)

TIcat;karcuHbBa¢ICapøÚvkar registrar m®nþIcuHbBa¢I ¬Gñkkan;kab;bBa¢I¦ registration n. karcuHbBa¢I/ ~ certificate viBaØabnb½RtcuHbBa¢I/ ~ number elxcuHbBa¢I regressive tax system RbB½n§Bn§fycuH ¬fyGRtaenAeBlcMnUlekIneLIg¦ regular adj. eTogTat;/ ~ income R)ak;cMNUleTogTat; regularity PaBeTogTat;/ niytPaB regularisation niytkmµ regularly edayeTogTat; regulate v. RKb;RKgeday bTbBa¢a¼ bTb,BaØtþic,ab; regulations bTbBa¢a ¬lixitbTdæan kñúg ÉksarxøH¦/ commune ~ dIkaXMu/ general ~ nItirYm/ internal ~ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg regulator niytkr rehabilitation karsþareLIgvij/ nItism,Ta/ ~ project KMerag nItism,Ta¼sþareLIgvij/ ~ of finances karsþarhirBaØvtßúeLIgvij reimburse v. sgvij ¬R)ak;Edl)ancMNay¦ reimbursement karsgvij reinsurance ¬kar¦ Fanar:ab;rgbnþ

removal from a government office

dkecjBImuxtMENgGVImYykñúgrdæaPi)al remunerate v. pþ;l;laPkar remuneration laPkar/ R)ak;kMér/ R)ak;Ex/ R)ak;QñÜl/ R)ak;bMNac; renew v. a licence bnþGaCJab½NÑ renewable energy famBlkekIteLIgvij 80


Economic Lexicon Part 1

rent v. & n. 1> CYl 2> R)ak;QñÜl ¬sMxan; elIGclnRTBü ¦ rental 1> R)ak;QñÜl ¬GclnRTBü nig clnRTBü¦ 2> karCYl renter GñkCYlBIeK reorganisation karerobcMeLIgvij repatriation matuPUminivtþn_ repayment n. karsgvij/ R)ak;sgvij/ ~ schedule tarageBlsgR)ak; repeat order karbBa¢aTijEfmeTot ¬nUvmuxTMnijdEdl¦ repercussion (of an incident) RbtiXat replacement investment vinieyaKbnøas; replacement value tMélpøas;ecj ¬pøas;rbs;mYyedayrbs;mYyepSgeTot¦ replenish v. bMeBjeLIgvij replicate eFVIcMlgtam/ eFVIsaCafµI ¬tamlMnaMdUcKña¦ report r)aykarN_/ annual ~ r)aykarN_ RbcaMqñaM/ market ~ r)aykarN_éføTMnijenATIpSar representative tMNag/ GñktMNag/ authorized ~ GñktMNagmansiT§iRbTan reproductive adj. énkarbnþBUC/ ~ health suxPaBbnþBUC repurchase karTijykvij reputation ekrþ×eQµaH/ kitþinam/ good ~ kitþisBÞ request v. & n. 1> esñI 2> sMeNI require v. tMrUv[ ¬eFVIGVImYy¦/ required reserves R)ak;bMrugtamkartMrUv ¬]/ kñúgc,ab;¦ requirement kartMrUv

resampling karykKMrUtagsaCafµI reschedule (a loan) eFVIkalviPaKfµI rescind v. a contract lubecalkic©snüa rescue v. & n. 1> se®gÁaH 2> karse®gÁaH research v. & n. 1> RsavRCav 2> kar RsavRCav/ ~ and development (R & D)

karRsavRCav nigGPivDÆn_ researcher GñkRsavRCav/ associate ~ GñkRsavRCavrg/ fellow ~ GñkRsavRCav/ senior ~ GñkRsavRCavCan;x<s; reserve FnbMrug/ zbnIyPNÐ/ ~ of value FnbMrugmantémø/ ~ ratio smaPaKFnbMrug/ ~ requirement account KNnIFnbMrug katBVkic©/ ~ requirements kartMrUvFnbMrug/ ~ tranche PaKFnbMrug reserve fund mUlniFibMrug reserve member (of a committee)

smaCikbMrug ¬énKN³kmµaFikar¦ reserved bMrugTuk/ ~ forest éRBbMrugTuk reserve, Tonle Sap biosphere

zbnIyCIvmNÐlbwgTenøsab residence nivasdæan/ nivasndæan resident nivasCn¼nivasnCn/ Gñksñak;enA/ non- ~ GnivasCn¼GnivasnCn resident representative tMNagRbcaMRbeTs residual value tMélsMNl; resignation karlaElgBItMENg resolution n. 1> esckþIsMerccitþ ¬énGgÁRbCMu¦/ 2> karedaHRsay/ conflict ~ karedaHRsayTMnas; resort rmNIydæan/ ~ site mNÐlkMsanþ/ 81


Economic Lexicon Part 1

kEnøgrmNIydæan resource FnFan/ ~ consumption kareRbIR)as;FnFan resource-rent tax (RRT) Bn§CYlFnFan response bias lMeGogkñúgcMelIy response rate GRtaeqøIytb responsibility karTTYlxusRtUv responsible, to hold cab;eGayTTYlxusRtUv responsiveness n. kar¼PaB eqøIytb restoration n. karsþarCYsCul[dUcedIm restraining force kMlaMgbg¥ak; restrict v. dak;kMhit/ ~ credit dak;kMhit elI\NTan restriction n. kMhit/ kardak;kMhit/ trade ~ kMhitBaNiC¢kmµ restructured loan kMcI)anerobcMeLIgvij ¬BnüaeBlsg¦ resumption of exports karbnþnaMecj eLIgvij ¬eRkay)anp¥akmYyry³¦ retail outlet hag¼kEnøg lk;ray retail, to sell lk;ray retailer, retail dealer Gñklk;ray retail-trade business GaCIvkmµ¼ BaNiC¢kmµ lk;ray retained earnings R)ak;cMeNjrkSaTuk retained imports TMnijnaMcUlsMrab;eRbI R)as; ¬kñúgRsuk¦ retention of staff karrkSaTukbuKÁlik ¬kMueGayeKecjBIGgÁPaB¦ retiree nivtþCn retirement karcUlnivtþn_ retirement pension esaFnnivtþn_

retrenchment karkat;bnßy ¬cMnay¦ retroactive Rbtiskmµ/ ~ effect \T§iBl

Rbtiskmµ retrospection karRkeLkemIleTAGtItkal return 1> R)ak;cMNUl 2> lixitRbkas/ tax ~ lixitRbkassareBIBn§/ nil ~ lixitRbkas

sareBIBn§EdlKµanbMNulBn§RtUvbg; return on investment ratio smaPaK

cMNUleFobnwgTunvinieyaK return, rate of GRtaTajcMNUl returnable pack(ag)ing sMbkevcx©b; RbmUlvij¼epJITuk returned cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtbBa¢ÚnRtLb; returns 1> TMnijbBa¢ÚnRtLb; 2> cMNUlBIvinieyaK revaluation karvaytMéleLIgvij revealed comparative advantage

]tþmPaBeRbobeFobBinitüeXIj revenue cMNUl/ R)ak;cMNUl/ ~ policy eKalneya)ayxagcMNUl/ unearned ~ cMNUlTTYlmun reverse an entry v. cuHbRBa©aselxna/ eFVIRbtiRkanþelxna reversible EdlGacERbRkLas;)an review karBinitüeLIgvij/ ~ mission ebskkmµBinitüeLIgvij/ for ~ and decision/approval edIm,IBinitü nigsMerc revise v. EksMrYl/ revised plan Epnkar EksMrYl revocable letter of credit

sar\NTanGaclubvij)an revoke a licence dkhUtGaCJab½NÑ ¬mkvij¦ 82


Economic Lexicon Part 1

revolving fund Tuncl½t reward n. & v. 1> rgVan; 2> pþl;rgVan; right n. & adj. 1> siT§i 2> RtwmRtUv right of first refusal siT§ibdiesFTImYy right of way siT§iqøgkat; ¬dIeK¦ right to the lease siT§iPtisnüa

S, s SAC (structural adjustment credit)

\NTankMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§ ¬rbs;FnaKar BiPBelak¦ safeguard v. KaMBar safety suvtßiPaB/ ~ net sMNaj;¼RbB½n§suvtßiPaB salary ebovtSr_/ R)ak;Ex/ starting ~ ebovtSr_ cab;epþImbMerIkar/ ~ index snÞsSn_ebovtSr_/ ~ loan (receivable) kMcIelIebovtSr_ sale karlk;/ cash ~ karlk;ykCasac;R)ak;/ for ~ lk; ¬sresrelIpøakRbkas¦/ ~ invoice vikáybRtlk;/ ~ contract kic©snüalk;/ ~ on credit karlk;eCO/ ~ on instalment plan karlk;eGaysgbNþak;/ ~ or return epJIlk; ¬Gñklk;rayTUTat;sgEtéføTMnijlk;dac; ehIybgVilTMnijenAsl;[Gñklk;dMuvij¦/ ~ proceeds/revenue cMNUlBIkarlk; sales R)ak;lk;)an/ cMnYnTMnijlk;)an/ ~ manager naykRKb;RKgkarlk;/ ~ mix sareBIP½NÐTMnijsMrab;lk;/ ~ promotion karpSBVpSaylk;/ ~ returns TMnijlk;min dac;bBa¢Únmkvij/ ~ tax Bn§elIcMNUllk;)an/ ~ value tMéllk;¬)an¦/ ~ volume cMnYn Éktalk; ¬)an¦ salesman Gñklk;/ tMNaglk; salination or salinisation karERbCaéRb ¬]> dIéRb¦ salvage v. & n. 1> RbmUlvij 2> rbs;)an

¬siT§iénkic©snüaCYl¦ riot n. & v. 1> kub,kmµ 2> eFVIkub,kmµ rise v. & n. 1> ekIn 2> kMeNIn risk haniP½y/ PaBRbfuyRbfan/ eRKaHP½y/ at owner’s ~ haniP½yr:ab;rgedaym©as; ¬TMnij¦/ ~ consideration karBicarNaBI haniP½y/ ~ taking karh‘anRbfuynwghaniP½y/ aggregate credit ~ haniP½y\NTansrub rival n. KURbECg road tax Bn§pøÚv role play sMEdg ¬tY¦ roll over v. (loan) pþl;saeLIgvij ¬kMcI¦ rough estimate kar)a:n;sµanec,al² routine n. TMrg;kardEdl² row CYr/ CYrepþk ¬tarag¦ royalties sYy ¬rW kMérsYysar/ R)ak;bg;éfø

QñÜleFVIGaCIvkmµ/ R)ak;lk;sñaéd¦ rule viFan/ ~ of law nItirdæ ruling esckþIsMercCapøÚvkar ¬tulakar¦/ saldIka ¬tulakarkMBUl¦ ruling prices éføCak;Esþg run a factory ¬RKb;RKg¦ dMeNIrkareragcRk running costs cMNay ¬sMrab;¦ dMeNIrkar rush hour em:agmmajwk

83


Economic Lexicon Part 1

BIkarRbmUl ¬BI GKÁIP½y/ navalic>>>¦ 3> kar se®gÁaH ¬nava b¤TMnijpÞúk¦ salvage/scrap value tMélRbmUl)anvij ¬eBlbeBa©jlk;rbs; rWeRKOgcRkcas;²¦ sample n. KMrUtag/ ):an;/ take a ~ v. ykKMrU tag/ ~ allocation karélEckKMrUtag/ ~ design bøg;KMrUtag/ ~ group RkumKMrUtag/ ~ overlap karKgKMrUtag/ ~ implementation karRsg; KMrUtag/ ~ selection kareRCIsKMrUtag/ ~ survey GegátKMrUtag sample v. ykKMrUtag/ sampled children kumar ¬RtUv)an¦ ykCaKMrUtag sampling karykKMrUtag/ ~ bias lMeGogyk KMrUtag/ ~ domain tMbn;ykKMrUtag/ ~ error el¥ógykKMrUtag/ ~ efficiency RbsiT§PaByk KMrUtag/ ~ frame eRKagykKMrUtag/ ~ rate GRta ykKMrUtag/ ~ variance v:arIy:g;ykKMrUtag sanction TNÐkmµ/ kmµvi)ak/ economic ~ TNÐkmµesdækic© sanction, with your Edl)ankarGnuBaØat BIelakGñk sanctuary TICMrk/ fish ~ kEnøgGPirkSBUCRtI/ wildlife ~ EdnCMrkstVéRB saturate v. ep¢ak/ eFVItitßikmµ saver GñksnSMR)ak;/ snñiFikark³ savings R)ak;snSM/ sBa¢½y/ ~ account KNnI snSM¼sBa¢½y/ ~ bank FnaKar snSM¼sBa¢½y/ ~ curve ExSekagR)ak;snSM/ ~ bank book esovePAebLasMéc saw mill eragcRkGareQI scale xñat/ TMhM/ fñak;/ maRtdæan ¬énEpnTI¦/ economies of ~ esdækic©maRtdæan

scarcity PaBkMr/ tnuPaB scenario esNarIy:U/ qak schedular tax Bn§viPaKtamRbePTcMNUl schedule, time tarageBl/ kalviPaK scheme eRKagkar scope visalPaB/ EdnGnuvtþ ¬c,ab;¦/ TMhM scrap product plitplkaksMNl; scrap/salvage value tMélRbmUl)anvij

¬BIkarbeBa©jlk;plitplkaksMNl;¦ sea-damaged EdlxUcxatedaysarTwk

smuRT seal n. & v. 1> Rta 2> e)aHRtabiT ¬]> kugtWenIr¦/ sealed tender karedjéfø

kñúgeRsamsMbuRtbiTCit seaport kMBg;EpsmuRT seasonal tamrdUv/ manlkçN³rdUvkal seaworthiness lT§PaBeFVIdMeNIrtamsmuRT secondary bnÞab;bnSM/ ~ need tMrUvkar bnÞab;bnSM/ ~ data Tinñn½yRbPBTIBIr secondary school salamFümsikSa/ higher ~ salamFümsikSaTutiyPUmi/ lower ~ salamFümsikSabzmPUmi second-stage unit (SSU) ÉktadMNak;TIBIr secretariat elxaFikardæan secretary elxaFikar/ ~ general GKÁelxaFikar/ ~ of state rdæelxaFikar sector n. vis½y/ ~ -wide TUTaMgvis½y sectoral adj. tamvis½y/ ~ level kMritvis½y secured mankarFana/ assets fully ~ RTBü

skmµmankarFanaeBjelj securities mUlb½Rt/ ~ market pSarmUlb½Rt 84


Economic Lexicon Part 1

security 1> snþisux/ food ~ snþisuxes,óg

seller, best esovePAlk;dac;bMput seller, quick TMnijlk;dac;qab; ¬gaylk;;¦ selling karlk;/ ~ order bBa¢alk;/ ~ price

2> karFana 3> rbs;Fana ¬R)atiePaK¦ 4> GñkFana Security Council (UN) RkumRbwkSasnþisux ¬Gsb¦ security, without edayKµanvtßúFana

éfølk; semi-autonomous Bak;kNþalsVy½t semiconductor GgÁFatuBak;kNþalcMlg

SEDP (Socio-Economic Development Programme) EpnkarGPivDÆn_esdækic©-sgÁmkic© seed n. RKab;BUC/ ~ capital Tun edIm¼BUC ¬edIm,I[)anduHdal¦/ ~ money R)ak; edIm¼BUC seizure karrwbGUs selection kareRCIs/ kareRCIserIs/ ~ error el¥ógkñúgkareRCIs/ ~ interval cenøaHeRCIs/ tentative ~ kareRCIsbeNþaHGasnñ self-determination sV½ysMerc self-employed people CnbMerIGaCIB[xøÜnÉg self-financing sV½yhirBaØb,Tan self-help approach viFIsaRsþCYyxøÜnÉg self-managing sV½yRKb;RKg self-regulating mechanism ynþkar

¬eGLicRtUnik¦ semi-finished product plitplBak;

kNþalsMerc send back v. epJIRtLb;vij send for collection v. epJIeTARbmUlR)ak; sender GñkepJI senior adj. fñak;x<s;/ ~ minister eTsrdæm®nþI/ ~ officer m®nþIfñak;x<s; seniority GtItPaB/ promotion by ~

tMelIgfñak;tamGtItPaB sensitive issue bBaðaresIb sensitivity PaBresIb/ PaBqab;rMePIb/ PaBqab;ejac/ evTyitPaB/ ~ analysis viPaKénevTyiTPaB sensitise v. bMpuskarPJak;rlwk series of reports kMrgr)aykarN_ servant GñkbMerI/ civil ~ m®nþIraCkarsuIvil/ public ~ m®nþIraCkar service esva/ esvakmµ/ ~ fees kMéresva/ ~ contract kic©snüaesva/ ~ charge éføesva ~ industry ]sSahkmµesva service v. a debt sgkarR)ak; session sm½yRbCMu/ plenary ~ sm½yRbCMu eBjGgÁ set n. sMrab; ¬]> kUnesamYysMrab;¦/ bNþúM

sV½yEktMrUv self-reinforcing system RbB½n§sV½yBRgwg self-reliance PaBm©as;kar/ karBwgEp¥kelIxnÜø Ég self-sufficiency PaBGacpÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉgRKb; self-sustaining sV½yRTRTg; self-weighting sV½yTMgn;/ ~ design bøg;sV½yTMgn;/ ~ sample KMrUtagsV½yTMgn; sell lk;/ ~ at auction lk;edjéfø/ ~ at a discount lk;cuHéfø/ ~ on credit lk;eCO/ ~ up RbmUllk;eRkayeBlkS½yFn/ ~ retail

lk;ray 85


Economic Lexicon Part 1

¬]> bNþúMeKaledA¦ settlement dMeNaHRsay/ karTUTat;/ final ~ karTUTat;pþac;/ ~ bank FnaKarTUTat;/ ~ credit \NTanTUTat; several (liability) dac;BIKña/ erog²xøÜn ¬karTTYlxusRtUvminrYmKña¦

short of, be v. xVHxat/ Gs; short term ry³eBlxøI/ ~ payoff

plry³eBlxøI shortage kgVH/ karRkxSt;/ ~ in weight kgVHTMgn; short-change v. Gab; ¬R)ak;¦ xVH shortcoming kgVHxat shortfall kgVH ¬fvika¦/ cMnYnxVH short-season rice RsUvRsal show of hands n. kare)aHeqñatedayelIkéd sick leave karQb;sMrakeBlQW sick pay R)ak;]btßmÖeBlQW side effect plb:HBal;bnÞab;bnSM/ bc©½yrg sight bill/draft rUbiyaNtþibgðaj ¬bþÚryk R)ak;)anenAeBlbgðaj¦ sight payment karsgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksar sight deposit R)ak;beBaØIGacebIk)antamsMeNI ¬edayBMucaM)ac;pþl;dMNwgmun[FnaKar¦ signatory htßelxI significance sar³sMxan; silting (of waterways) karduHdI silviculture rukçvb,kmµ simple samBaØ/ ~ entry elxnasamBaØ ¬mancuHKNnIEt 1KU¦/ ~ interest karR)ak; samBaØ ¬KitelIEtR)ak;edIm¦

severance payment (or golden handshake) R)ak;bMNac;eBlQb;eFVIkar/

R)ak;ebIkpþac; sex worker GñkrksuIpøÚvePT share n. h‘un/ snøwkh‘un/ ~ market pSarh‘un share n. & v. 1> cMENk/ market ~ cMENk TIpSar 2> EckrMElk/ ~ experiences Eck

rMElkbTBiesaFn_ shareholder Gñkkan;PaKh‘un/ PaKTunik³/ influential ~ PaKTunik³man\T§iBl sharing PaKkmµ/ karEbgEck shelter n. CMrk/ tax ~ CMrkecosBn§ shipped bill of lading GBaØatb½NÑdwk TMnijtamnava shipped quality KuNPaB¬TMnij¦eBlpÞúk shipping agent Pñak;garnavacr shipping company Rkumh‘unnavacr shipping note lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij shop around v. rkemIlTMnij ¬éfø/ KuNPaB>>> edIm,ITij¦/ ERCTMnijemIl shoplifting karlYc\v:an;kñúghag shopping n. karedIrTijTMnij/ international ~ karBieRKaHéføCaGnþrCati short bill rUbiyaNtþikMNt;ry³eBlxøI short delivery karRbKl;TMnijxVH short notice, at CUndMNwgmunry³eBlxøI

simple random sampling

karykKMrUtagécdnüsamBaØ simple response variance

va:rIy:g;cMelIysamBaØ simple unbiased estimate

kar)a:n;sµansamBaØminlMeGog simplification n. kareFVIsamBaØkmµ/ ~ of 86


Economic Lexicon Part 1

customs procedures kareFVIsamBaØkmµnItiviFIKy simplify n. eFVIeGaysamBaØ simulation kareFVIRtab;tam sine qua non condition

smuggler Gñkrt;Bn§ smuggling karrt;Bn§ social énsgÁm/ sgÁmkic©/ ~ cost bnÞúksgÁm/ karxatbg;xagsgÁmkic©/ ~ cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) karviPaKcMnay nigplcM enjxagsgÁmkic©/ ~ impact plb:HBal;sgÁm/ ~ insurance cost bnÞúkcMNayFanar:ab;rgsgÁm/ ~ justice yutþiFm’sgÁm/ ~ morality sIlFm’ sgÁm/ ~ order sNþab;Fñab;sgÁm/ ~ product plitplsgÁm/ ~ reintegration bunsmah rNkmµsgÁmkic©/ ~ safety net RbB½n§suvtßiPaB sgÁm/ ~ security/welfare (budget expenditure) R)ak;viPaCn_sgÁm/ ~ security snþisuxsgÁm/ ~ security contribution viPaKTansnþisuxsgÁm/ ~ status zan³ ¬kñúg¦ sgÁm/ ~ strictures bBaØtþisgÁm/ socio-economic adj. esdækic©-sgÁmkic©/ ~ policy eKalneya)ayesdækic©-sgÁmkic©/ ~ survey Gegátesdækic©-sgÁmkic© sociology sgÁmviTüa soft currency rUbiyvtßúexSay

lkçxNÐxanmin)an single entry (accounting)

rebobcuHbBa¢IÉkPaK single indicator technique

bec©keTsGaMgDIkaT½reTal single window RckecjcUlEtmYy sinking fund mUlniFidak;snSMbMrug ¬TwkR)ak; dkmkrkSaTukedayELky:ageTogTat; sMrab; edaHRsaytMrUvkarGVImYynaGnaKtdUcCasg bMNulCaedIm¦ Sino-Khmer Exµrkat;cin site TIkEnøg size TMhM skill CMnaj/ life ~ bMNinCIvit slogan Baküesøak slope of a curve/line cMeNatén ExSekag¼ bnÞat; sloppy adj. x¢Ix¢a/ ~ work kargarx¢Ix¢a slum n. sgáat;RkIRk¬rexkrxak¦/ ~ -dwellers Gñkrs;enAkñúgsgáat;RkIRk slush fund hibexµA ¬begáItedaysMgat;¦ small-scale xñattUc

¬minGacbþÚrykrUbiyvtßúdéTeTot)an¦ soft goods TMnijvaynP½NÐ soft loan kMcImankarR)ak;Tab ¬TabCagGRta enATIpSar¦/ kMcIKµankarR)ak; soft market TIpSarmankarpÁt;pÁg;eRcInCag tMrUvkar soft repayment terms lkçxNÐsgGnueRKaH software (computer) sUhVEvr soil erosion kareRcaHdac;dI sole agency TIPñak;garpþac;mux

SME (small and medium enterprise)

shRKasFuntUc nigmFüm smoking gun PsþútagekþA² smooth adj. relag/ rlUn/ ~ operation dMeNIrkarrlUn ¬l¥¦ 87


Economic Lexicon Part 1

sole agent/representative tMNagpþac;mux sole distributor GñkEbgEckpþac;mux sole proprietorship 1> ÉkkmµsiT§i

specification yfaRbePT specify v. bBa¢ak;/ kMNt;/ specified period kal kMNt;¼bBaØtþi specimen KMrUbgðaj/ bdirUb/ ~ signature

2> shRKasÉkbuKÁl solicitor Gñkc,ab; ¬PaKeRcIn CYyBieRKaH eyabl; nigerobcMÉksarxagc,ab;¦ solidarity n. samKÁIPaB solvency saFnPaB/ lT§PaBsgbMNul solvent saFnIy ¬EdlGacsgbMNul¦ sophisticated technology bec©kviTüa eCOnelOnnigsµúKsµaj sort v. erobtamlMdab; sound adj. RtwmRtUv/ RbkbedayKtibNÐit sound the market v. sÞabsÞg;TIpSar South, the TkSiNRbeTs¬RbeTsRk¦ sovereign immunity GP½yÉksiT§irdæ ¬siT§i rbs;rdæedIm,I)anrYcputBIkarbþwgTarsMNgxUcxat¦ sovereign risk haniP½yrdæaPi)alminGac sgR)ak; sovereignty GFibetyüPaB spatial sampling karykKMrUtagtamkEnøg

KMrUhtßelxa speculation n. 1> karqk;»kasekgcMeNj ¬kñúgkarTij¼lk;¦/ oil ~ karqk;»kasekg

cMeNjkñúgeRbgkat 2> karvaysµan/ pure ~ karvaysµansuT§saF spoilage n. 1> karxUcKuNPaB ¬rbs;hUb¦ 2> rbs;xUcKuNPaB spoils C½yP½NÐ/ vtßúrwbGUs)an spot price éføTijlk;dl;éd ¬TUTat; nig RbKl;TMnijPøam²¦ spouse shB½T§ spread, spreading n. karrIkraldal squeeze v. expenditure rwtt,itcMNay stabilisation sßirkmµ¼sßirPavUbnIykmµ/ ~ policy neya)aysßirkmµ stability, economic sßirPaBesdækic© stable exchange rate GRtabþÚrR)ak;man sßirPaB staff buKÁlik stage n. dMNak;/ dMNak;kal

special drawing rights (SDR)

siT§idkBiess special economic zone tMbn;esdækci ©Bei ss special promotion zone (SPZ) tMbn;

stagflation (stagnation + inflation)

kars<wkRTwgmanGtiprNa stagnation kars<wkRTwg/ GvDÆnPaB/ economic ~ kars<wkRTwgesdækic© stake PaKkmµ/ karcUlh‘un stakeholder GñkmanPaKh‘un/ GñkBak;B½n§ stamp duty Bn§Etm standard sþg;dar/ ~ cost tMélsþg;dar/

GPivDÆn_Biess speciality ÉkeTs/ rbs;Biess specialisation ÉkeTsnIykmµ/ CMnajnIykmµ specialised bank FnaKarÉkeTs specific period of time ry³¼kMNt; eBlCak;lak; 88


Economic Lexicon Part 1

~ deviation KMlatsþg;dar/ draft ~ sþg;dar RBag/ compulsory ~ sþg;darbBa¢a/ gold ~ sþg;dar¼xñat mas/ ~ of living or living standard kMritCIvPaB/ up to ~ dl;kMrit sþg;dar ~ operating procedures nItiviFI Rbtibtþikarsþg;dar

eKaledA¼ecjdMeNIr statistics sßiti status sßanPaB/ zan³/ ~-inquiry agency TIPñak;garRsavRCavsßanPaBRkumh‘un/ ~ quo sßanPaBCak;EsþgkMBugman/ ~ symbol nimitþ

sBaØasMKal;zan³ statute lkçnþik³/ co-~ of civil servants shlkçnþik³m®nþIraCkarsuIvil statute of limitation GaCJayukal steadily CaeTogTat;/ CaCMhan² steering committee KN³kmµaFikar dwknaMkargar¼nayk stem n. edIm ¬cMENkeRkABIKl;Cab;b£s nig cugCab;søwk¦/ cassava ~ edImdMLÚgeQI ¬]> sMrab;eFVIBUC¦ step (in a process) CMhan ¬kñúgdMeNIrkar GVImYy¦/ ~ by ~ mYyCMhanmþg² stereotype n. pñt;KMnit stevedore kmµkrkMBg;Ep stevedoring karelIkdak;TMnijecjcUlk)a:l; stewardship n. karEfTaMRKb;RKg stiff price éfø x<s;¼x<s;eBk stimulate v. CMruj/ bMpus stipulate v. Ecg stock n. snøwkh‘un/ ~ exchange/market pSarh‘un stock n. sþúk/ snñiFi/ TMnij/ opening ~ sþúkedImRKa/ out of ~ Gs;BIsþúk/ ~ control karRtYtBinitüsþúk/ ~ in hand sþúkkñúgéd ¬mankñúghag¼XøaMg¦/ ~ in trade sþúkTMnij sMrab;lk;/ ~ turnover (ratio) GRtabgVilsþk

standard-conversion factor (SCF)

ktþabMElgsþg;dar standardisation sþg;darUbnIykmµ stand-by adj. eRtom/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBogeRtom/ ~ credit \NTaneRtom standing (bank) sþg;Dig¼sßanPaB/ bank of good ~ FnaKarmansþg;Digl¥ standing order lixitbBa¢aGcié®nþy_ ¬[

FnaKarepÞrR)ak;y:ageTogTat;eTAKNnImYy eTotrhUtdl;manbBa¢afµI¦ standpoint, from the economic

tamTsSn³esdækic© staple product plitplmUldæan start-up cost esah‘uycab;epþIm state enterprise or state-owned enterprise shRKasrdæ state general budget fvikaTUeTArbs;rdæ State Treasury rtnaKarCati statement esckþIRbkas/ r)aykarN_/ financial ~ r)aykarN_hirBaØvtßú/ ~ of account sMrg;¼r)aykarN_ KNnI/ ~ of affairs bBa¢IsareBIP½NÐeBlkS½yFn/ ~ of receipts and payments r)aykarN_cMNUl cMNay/ monthly ~ r)aykarN_RbcaMEx station of destination/origin sßanIy

89


Economic Lexicon Part 1

¬kñúgmYyqñaM¦/ ~ lines muxTMnijkñúgXøaMg stock v. sþúk ¬TMnijTuklk;¦ stock, natural fish sþúkRtIFmµCati stockbroker KYkeCh‘un stockout n. Gs;BIsþúk ¬PaB¦ stockpile v. & n. sþúkeRcIn² ¬nUvGVImYy sMrab;eRbIenAéf¶eRkay¦ stocktaking kareFVIsareBIP½NÐ/ ~ sale karlk;LayLúgmuneBleFVIsareBIP½NÐ ¬edIm,I[ RsLHXøaMg¦ stopfiler (tax) Gñkdak;RbkassareBIBn§ min)anRKb;elIk storage karsþúk ¬Tukdak;GIv:an;kñúgXøaMg¦ storekeeper/shopkeeper m©as;hag

lkçN³CaRbB½n§ student stipends R)ak;bMNac;sMrab;nisSit study tour TsSnkic©sikSa sub-class fñak;rg sub-classification cMNat;fñak;rg subcontract v. em:Akarbnþ/ cuHkic©snüabnþ subcontractor Gñkem:Akarbnþ/ GñkcuHkic©snüabnþ sub-decree GnuRkwtü subdivide v. Eckbnþ ¬KNnI/ Rkum>>¦ subjective choice CMerIsGtþenam½t sublet, sublease CYlbnþ sub-national adj. fñak;eRkamCati subordinate entity GgÁPaB eRkam»vaT¼

cMNuH subpoena v. & n. 1> ekaHsakSI ¬tulakar¦/ 2> dIkaekaHsakSI sub-product, forest GnupléRBeQI subrogation ])aeTskmµ/ kardak;CMnYs sub-sample KMrUtagrg subscribed capital mUlFn)ancuHeQµaH

straight-line depreciation method

viFIrMls;esµIPaK strategic needs tMrUvkarCayuT§saRsþ strategist n. yuT§saRsþviTU/ GñkyuT§saRsþ strategy yuT§saRsþ stratification RsTab;nIykmµ stratum RsTab;/ ~ mean mFümPaKénRsTab; strike kUdkmµ stringent twgruwg/ ~ measures viFankartwgruwg strong market pSarxøaMg ¬TIpSarman

subscribing to securities

briviskmµmUlb½Rt subscription kar Cav¼sMuCav/ ~ price éføCav subsectoral level kMritGnuvis½y subsidiary adj. rg/ ~ account KNnIrg/ ~ ledger esovePAFMrg subsidiary n. (company) buRtsm<½n§ ¬Rkumh‘unemkan;kab;h‘unCag 50°¦/ wholly owned ~ saxa ¬Rkumh‘unemkan;kab;h‘un TaMgGs;¦ subsidise v. pþl;]btßmÖFn/ CYybMeBjxat subsidy, subvention n. ]btßmÖFn/

GñkTijeRcIn¦ structural adjustment kMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§/ ~ loan kMcIsMrab;kMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§ structural adjustment facility (SAF)

]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;kMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§ structure n. rcnasm<½n§/ ~ of banking institutions rcnasm<½n§sßab½nFnaKar structured experience bTBiesaFn_man 90


Economic Lexicon Part 1

karpþl;/ ~ and demand karpÁt;pÁg;nigtMrUvkar/ ~ curve ExSekagkarpÁt;pÁg; support v. & n. 1> KaMRT/ RTRTg;/ ~ service esvakmµKaMRT 2> kar KaMRT¼RTRTg; supporting document ÉksarGm ¬rdæ)al¦/ skçIb½Rt ¬KNenyü¦

R)ak;bMeBjxat subsistence agriculture ksikmµCIvRBwtþi/

ksikmµRKan;EtmYyrs; subsistence production plitkmµCIvRBwtþi/ karplitRKan;EtmYyrs; substance sarFatu substandard eRkamsþg;dar substantial adj. dMukMPYn/ ~ funding karpþl;fvikaCadMukMPYn subtotal srubrg succeeding stage dMNak;kalCabnþ successor Gñkbnþevn sue v. bþwg sum 1> TwkR)ak; 2> plbUk summit snñisITkMBUl sundry account KNnIcMruH supervise v. Binitütamdan supervision karBinitütamdan/ GaNaBüa)al/

Supreme Council of the Magistracy

]tþmRkumRbwkSaénGgÁecARkm surcharge éføykbEnßm/ Bn§ykbEnßmelI TMnijnaMcUl ¬edIm,ICYyCMrujplitkmµkñúgRsuk¦ surety n. 1> GñkFana 2> rbs;Fana surplus Gtierk/ pl elIs¼elIstMrUvkar surtax Bn§bEnßm survey n. & v. Gegát/ ~ area tMbn;Gegát/ ~ data Tinñn½yGegát/ ~ error el¥ógGegát/ ~ operation RbtibtþikarGegát/ general ~ GegátTUeTA survivability PaBGacrs;)an/ financial ~ PaBGacrs;)anxaghirBaØvtßú survivor CnenArs; suspend v. BüÜr/ p¥ak suspense account KNnIrg;caM ¬kt;RtaCa beNþaHGasnñnUvTwkR)ak;EdlKNenyükrmin Tan;dwgfa RtUvkt;cUlKNnIc,as;las;NamYy¦ suspension kar BüÜr¼p¥ak sustain v. RTRTg;/ self- ~ing sV½yRTRTg;/ ~ life RTRTg;CIvit sustainability cIrPaB sustainable adj. mancIrPaB/ ~ agriculture ksikmµmancIrPaB/ ~ development karGPivDÆn_mancIrPaB

under financial ~ of the Ministry of Economy and Finance eRkamGaNaBüa)al

hirBaØvtßúénRksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú supervisor GnurkS/ GñkBinitütamdan supervisory authority GaCJaFrGaNaBüa)al supplementary crop dMNaMrYmpSM supplemental budget fvika]bsm<½n§

¬RbtibtþikarhirBaØvtßúénGgÁPaBrdæEdlmanlkçN³ ]sSahkmµ nigBaNiC¢kmµ EtBMuEmnCanItibuKÁl¦ supplementary bEnßm/ ~ schedule

tarag¼Éksar B½t’manbEnßm supplier GñkpÁt;pÁg; supply 1> sMPar³pÁt;pÁg; 2> karpÁt;pÁg;/ 91


Economic Lexicon Part 1

sympathy n. smancitþ ¬CYyKaMRT>>>¦ symptom eraKsBaØ/ nimitþehtu synchronisation smkalkmµ synergy famBlelIs)anBIkarpÁúMKña

¬]> karbBa©ÚlFnFanrksuICamYyKña edIm,I)an cMeNjeRcInCagenAedayELk²BIKña¦ synthetic products plitplsMeyaK system of proportional representation

RbB½n§smamaRt ¬e)aHeqñat¦ systematic CaRbB½n§/ CayfaRkm/ ~ factor ktþaCaRbB½n§/ ~ land registration karcuHbBa¢I dIFøICaRbB½n§/ ~-risk phenomenon )atuPUt eRKaHfñak;manlkçN³CaRbB½n§/ ~ sampling karykKMrUtagCaRbB½n§ systematise RbB½n§nIykmµ T, t table tarag tabulation karelIkCatarag take into account ykmkKit/ rab;bBa©Úl take stock v. eFVIsareBIP½NÐ take up references v. RbmUlBt’man take v. legal action against bþwgtam

pøÚvtulakarcMeBaH/ GnuvtþviFanc,ab;cMeBaH take-home pay R)ak;cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§/ ebovtSr_suT§ takeover karcUlRtYtRta ¬edayTijykCag 50°énPaKh‘unrbs;Rkumh‘un¦/ take over v. takings n. R)ak;TTYl)an ¬BIkarlk;kñúg ry³eBlNamYy¦

tangible assets RTBüskmµrUbI/ RTBürUbI target cMNucedA/ eKaledA/ Epnkar/ sales targets Epnkarlk; ¬tYelx¦ ~ group RkumeKaledA/ ~ market TIpSareKaledA tariff 1> bBa¢Iéfølk; 2> taragBn§Ky/ Bn§naMcUl task Parkic©/ ~ -oriented epþatelIParkic©/ ~ force Rkumkargar taste cMNUlcitþ tax Bn§/ Bn§dar/ back ~ bMNulBn§BIqñaMmun²/ emergency ~ Bn§visamBaØ/ ~ accounting KNenyüBn§dar/ ~ avoidance karecosvagBn§ ¬edayc,ab;mancenøaHRbehag¦/ ~ assessor Pñak;garkMNt;Bn§/ ~ base mUldæanykBn§/ ~ burden bnÞúkBn§/ ~ collection karRbmUlBn§/ ~ credit \NTanBn§/ ~ collector GñkRbmUl Bn§/ ~ evasion kareKcBn§ ¬elµIsc,ab;nigRtUv maneTasT½NЦ/ ~ exempt EdlelIkElgBn§/ ~ exemption karelIkElgBn§/ ~ holiday ry³eBlrYcBn§/ vismBn§/ ~ loophole cenøaH RbehagénBn§/ ~ moments »kashUtBn§/ ~ on profit Bn§elIR)ak;cMeNj/ ~ payment year qñaMbg;Bn§/ ~ rate GRtaBn§/ ~ rebate karbnßy Bn§/ ~ receipts/revenues cMNUlBn§/ ~ relief karbn§ÚrbnßyBn§/ ~ reduction karkat;bnßyBn§/ ~ revenues efforts or ~ effort kMlaMgcMNUl Bn§dar/ ~ treatment cMNat;kar¼RbRBwtþikmµ Bn§/ ~/taxation year qñaMCab;Bn§ tax v. hUtBn§/ ykBn§ taxable adj. 1> Cab;Bn§/ ~ income cMNUl

Cab;Bn§ 2> EdlGachUtBn§)an taxpayer GñkCab;Bn§ technical assistance CMnYybec©keTs 92


Economic Lexicon Part 1

¬GaCIvkmµ¦ terms lkçxNÐ/ easy ~ lkçxNÐFUrRsal/ ~ and conditions of a contract xøwmsar niglkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ ~ of a contract lkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ ~ of payment lkçxNÐ TUTat;/ ~ of reference lkçxNÐeyag ¬sMrab; epÞógpÞat;¦/ lkçxNÐkargar ¬kic©snüakargar¦/ ~ of sale lkçxNÐlk; territorial integrity bUrNPaBEdndI tertiary education ]tþmsikSa test n. & v. 1> etsþ 2> eFVIetsþ test the market v. sÞabsÞg;TIpSar testament mrtksasn_ testimonial sMbuRtKaMRT ¬eGaycUleFVIkar¦ textile vaynPNÐ/ ~ industry ]sShkmµ vaynPNÐ theory RTwsþI think-tank Rkumpþl;KMnit third party PaKITIbI/ ttiyCn threshold n. kMritcab;ERbRbYl/ kaMQancUl thrift plan EpnkarsnSMsMéc tied aid CMnYymancMNg time eBl/ kal/ kalkMNt;/ ~ deposit R)ak;beBaØImankalkMNt;/ ~ dimension TidæPaBxageBlevla/ ~ draft rUbiyaNtþi mankalkMNt;/ ~ frame Rkbx½NÐeBlevla/ ~ limit for delivery kalkMNt;RbKl;TMnij/ ~ policy b½NÑsnüaFanar:ab;rgmankalkMNt;/ ~ segment kMNat;eBl/ ~ table tarageBl/ ~ value tMéltameBl/ ~ work kargarKit em:ag ¬TUTat;kMértamcMnYnem:ag/ éf¶¦

technical fix dMeNaHRsay¼Rckecj

bec©keTs telegraphic address GasydæanTUrKmn_ telegraphic transfer karepÞrR)ak;edayTUrKmn_ telex TUrBum< teller ebLakr temporary beNþaHGasnñ/ ~ cover b½NÑFana r:ab;rgbeNþaHGasnñ/ ~ unemployment

nikmµkalik tenancy n. 1> ry³eBlCYl ¬GclnRTBü¦ 2> siT§ikan;kab; ¬GclnRTBüCYl¦ tenant GñkCYl ¬dI/pÞH>>>¦/ Ptik³/ ~ farmer ksikrCYldIeK tendency ninñakar/ rising ~ ninñakarekIneLIg tender karedjéfø ¬edIm,IeFVIkarpÁt;pÁg;¦ tender terms and conditions book

esovePAbnÞúk ¬sMrab;edjéfø¦ tenderer Gñkedjéfø tendering karedjéfø ¬edaymandak;Éksar tMél):an;sµanlMGit¦ tenure 1> ry³eBlkan;kab;tMENg/ GaNtþi 2> siT§ikan;kab;tMENg¼RTBüsm,tþi 3> karkan;kab; ¬dI/ pÞH¦ tenurial right siT§ikan;kab; ¬dI/ pÞH¦ term GaNtþi/ry³eBl/ long ~ ry³eBlEvg/ TIXkal/ medium ~ ry³eBlmFüm/ short ~ ry³eBlxøI/ GcIrkal/~ in/of officeGaNtþi term-deposit account KNnIbeBaØIman kalkMNt; terminal contract kic©snüamankalkMNt; termination karbBa©b; ¬kargar¦/ karbBaÄb; 93


Economic Lexicon Part 1

timely return (of a cheque...)

bgVilvijTan;eBl tip TwkEt ¬R)ak;[eRkA¦ title 1> cMNgeCIg 2> gar title deed b½NÑkmµsiT§i title, land b½NÑkmµsiTi§dI toll éføeRbIesva ¬]> eRbIpøÚv/ s<an ¦ tool ]bkrN_/ Rbdab;Rbdar top-down paradigm KMrUBIelImkeRkam total n. & v. srub/ grand ~ srubrYm/ subtotal srubrg track record n. RbvtþieCaKC½y-braC½y tracking kartamdanemIl trade BaNiC¢kmµ/ CMnYj/ GaCIB/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ balance CBa¢IgBaNiC¢ kmµ/ ~ barriersr)aMgBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ deficit »nPaBBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ discount/terms karcuH éføkñúgGaCIB ¬eGayGñkRbkbrbrdUcKña¦/ ~ name eQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ/ yIeha/ ~ reference TIsMGag bBa¢ak;xagGaCIB/ ~ representation tMNag BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ tariff taragBn§Ky trade v. pøas;bþÚrBaNiC¢kmµ/ eFVICMnYj trademark sBaØaBaNiC¢kmµ trade-off karedaHdUr ¬TMnij¦Kña trader QµÜj/ GñkCMnYj/ BaNiC¢kr trade union shCIB trading karCYjdUr/ kareFVIBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ partner édKUBaNiC¢kmµ trading capital TunbgVil trading losses kMhateFVIGaCIvkmµ ¬eBl R)ak;cMNUl)anticCagR)ak;cMNayecj¦ 94

traditional CaRbéBNI/ ~ savings R)ak; snSMtamTMlab;/ ~ way of life rebobrs;enA CaRbéBNI traffic cracr/ ~ order sNþab;Fñab;cracr trainee or intern (US) kmµsikSakarI/ Gñkhat;kar training karbNþúHbNþal/ on-the-job ~ karbNþúHbNþalP¢ab;nwgkargar/ off-the-job ~ karbNþúHbNþaldac;BIkargar ¬]> enAmhaviTüal½y¦ transaction Rbtibtþikar/ kic©karCMnYj transfer v. & n. 1> epÞr 2> karepÞr/ bEgVr/ karepÞrR)ak;/ Gnub,Tan (French: cession), ~ deed lixitepÞr/ ~ payments R)ak;epÞrTUTat; ~ pricing kardak;éføedIm,IepÞrR)ak; transferable adj. GacepÞr)an/ ~ credit \NTanGacepÞr)an transferee n. Gnub,Tanik/ GñkRtUv)aneK epÞreGay transferor n. GñkepÞr ¬[eK¦ transformation (products...) karbMEbøg tranship or transship v. epÞrBIyan mYyeTAyanþmYyeTot ¬edIm,Idwkbnþ¦/ transhipment n. karepÞr transit qøgkat;/ ~ account KNnIqøgkat;/ ~ goods TMnijqøgkat;/ ~ passenger GñkdMeNIr qøgkat;/ ~ licence GaCJab½NÑsMrab;TMnijqøgkat; transitional adj. Gnþrkal/ ~ economy esdækic©Gnþrkal/ ~ measures viFankar Gnþrkal/ ~ period ry³eBlGnþrkal transmission karbBa¢Ún ¬sar¦ transnational corporation (TNC)

Rkumh‘unrMlgCati


Economic Lexicon Part 1

transparency n. tMlaPaB transporter GñkdwkCBa¢Ún trauma n. rbYs ¬pøÚvkay rW pøÚvcitþ¦ travel agency TIPñak;gareTscrN_/ TIPñak;gar

RKb;RKgkarkS½yFnEdlEtgtaMgedaytulakar¦ trustee ordinance bTbBa¢a RbtisiT§iCn ¼Gñksñgkar trusteeship PaBTTYlxusRtUv

Kmnakar

trusteeship council

traveller’s cheque mUlb,Tanb½RteTscrN_ traveller’s letter of credit sar\NTan

RkumRbwkSaPi)alRbtisiT§iCn trustworthy EdlKYreGayTukcitþ eTscrN_ T account KNnIRbePTGkSr T travelling salesman Gñklk;cl½t tuition class karsikSabg;éfø treasurer n. hirBaØik/ rtnakr turning point cMNucbt; ¬eBlEdlman karpøas;bþÚr¦ treasury rtnaKar/ ~ bill b½NÑrtnaKar ¬ry³kalxøICagmYyqñaM¦/ ~ bond b½NÑrtnaKar turnkey contract kic©snüaesakñúgéd ¬ry³kalEvg¦ turnover plrbr/ plGaCIvkmµ/ R)ak;cMNUl treatment n. RbRBwtþikmµ/ cMNat;kar/ karcat;Ecg turnover rates of labour GRtaecjcUl énBlkr treaty sn§isBaØa treble v. ekInmYyCabI two-track approach viFIedaHRsayBIrpøÚv trend ninñakar/ market ~ ninñakarTIpSar two-way eTVTis/ BIrpøÚv trial balance taragtulüPaB typical CatYy:ag trickle-down effect plb:HBal;snSwm²/ plb:HBal;bnÞab;bnSM trillion, one (US) mYylanlan U, u tripartite adj. RtIPaKI trust fund mUlniFimrtk ¬mUlniFiRKb;RKg ultimate area unit (UAU) edayRbtisiT§iCnsMrab;GtßKahk¦ ÉktatMbn;cugeRkay trust fund facility (TFF) ultimate goal eKaledAcugeRkay ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;mUlniFimrtk ultimate sampling unit (USU) trust letter lixiteCOTukcitþ ÉktaykKMrUtagcugeRkay trustee (one to whom a right has been ultimatum n. »sanvaT unaccountable adj. 1>minGacBnül;)an assigned by will, gift... French: ayant 2> KµanKNenyüPaB/ minTTYlxusRtUv cause) RbtisiT§iCn trustee in bankruptcy shbdiPaK ¬Gñk unaccounted for adj. )at;edayKµankarBnül; 95


Economic Lexicon Part 1

unaided edaykMlaMgpÞal;xøÜn unaltered Edl\tpøas;bþÚr unanswered EdlKµancMelIy unascertained goods TMnijRcbUkRcbl;

undermentioned manerobrab;dUcxageRkam underproduction 1> karplitminRKb;tMrUvkar

2> karplitmineBjkMlaMg underrate v. vaybenßak undersell v. 1> lk;efakCag ¬KURbECg¦ 2> lk;eRkamtMél ¬edIm¦ undersigned, the GñkcuHhtßelxa ¬BIeRkam¦/ htßelxI understanding karyl;dwg/ karyl;Kña eTAvijeTAmk/ snÞidæPaB/ good ~ karyl;dwg l¥/ memorandum of ~ GnusSarN³RBmeRBog underwrite v. 1> CYyFana 2> CYyr:ab;rg underwriter GñkFana undisclosed income cMNUl\tRbkas/ cMNUllYclak; undivided profits R)ak;cMeNjminEbgEck undoubted eday\tsgS½y unearmarked fund mUlniFiKµanélTuk edayELk unearned fees kMérminTan;rk)an unemployed adj. & n. 1> Gt;kareFVI 2> GñkGt;kareFVI/ nikmµCn unemployment PaBGt;kareFVI/ nikmµPaB/ seasonal ~ nikmµPaBtamrdUv/ temporary ~ nikmµkalik/ ~ benefit R)ak;]btßmÖcMeBaH nikmµPaB/ ~ rate GRtanikmµPaB unendorsed EdlKµanbBa¢ak;xagxñg

¬minTan;EbgEcktamRbePT¦ unavailing efforts karRbwgERbgKµan)anpl unbalanced budget fvikaKµantulüPaB ¬man»nPaB¦ unbanked cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtminTan; dak;cUlKNnIFnaKar unbiased \tlMeGog uncalled capitalmUlFnminTan;ehA ¬[bg;¦ uncashed cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtminTan; ebIkykR)ak; unclaimed EdlBMuRtUv)anTamTar uncleared goods TMnijminTan;qøgKy uncontrollable expenses cMNayRKb; RKgmin)an uncrossed/open cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt KµanqUt undated KµancuHéf¶Ex/ ~ bond b½NÑTTYl sÁal;bMNulKµankalkMNt; undercoverage (insurance) karFana r:ab;rgdNþþb;minsBV undercut v. lk;efakCag underdeveloped countries

RbeTsGn;fy/ RbeTsGnaPivDÆn_ underemployed 1> KµankargareFVIeBj elj/ ~ capital TuneRbImin)aneBjelj 2> GñkKµankargareFVIeBjelj underlease (see sublease) CYlbnþ undermanager bNÑaFikarrg

unequal wealth distribution

r)ayvismFn unexpected fall karFøak;cuH\trMBwgTuk unexpended balance smtulüminTan;cMNay unexpired cost (accounting) 96


Economic Lexicon Part 1

tMélkñúgbBa¢I/ tMélKNenyü unfair KµansmFm’/ minyutþiFm’ unfavourable minGMeNaypl/ ~ conditions lkçxNÐminGMeNaypl unfilled order b½NÑbBa¢aTijmin)anGnuvtþ unfit for work EdleFVIkarminekIt unforeseen adj. min)anRbemIleXIj/ \tRBagTuk ¬cMNay¦ unfounded adj. KµanmUldæan unification n. karbRgYbbRgYm/ ÉkPavUbnIykmµ unified rYmEtmYy/ ~ as one rYmKñaCaFøúgmYy uniformity lkçN³ÉkPaB unify v. bRgYbbRgYm unilateral ÉketaPaKI unincorporated mincUlCaRkumh‘un unintentionally edayGectna unionisation karcUlshCIB unit 1> Ékta/ ~ of analysis ÉktaviPaK/ ~ of account ÉktaKit/ ~ price/rate éføÉkta 2> GgÁPaB united rYbrYmKña unknown (factor, quantity...) GBaØat unlawful elµIsc,ab;/ ~ means meFüa)ay elµIsc,ab; unlimited liability karTTYlxusRtUvKµankMrit unloading karerITMnij

unproductive assets RTBüskmµKµan

plitPaB unqualified acceptance karTTYlRBm

eday\tsMéc unquestionable KµanGVIKYrq¶l; unrecorded adj. min)ankt;Rta unregistered Edlmin)ancuHbBa¢I unremunerative adj. Kµan)anpl/

KµancMeNj unrestricted random sample

KMrUtagécdnüKµankMNt; unsafe adj. KµansuvtßiPaB unserviceable adj. minGaceRbIR)as;)an unsettled adj. minnwgn ¬FatuGakas¦/ min Tan;edaHRsay ¬vivaT¦/ minTan;sg ¬bMNul¦ unskilled adj. KµanCMnaj/ ~ labour BlkmµKµanCMnaj unstable adj. KµansßirPaB unstratified sampling karykKMrUtag KµanRsTab; unsuccessful adj. min)aneCaKC½y unsuitable adj. minsmRsb untied aid CMnYy\tcMNg up and down eLIgehIycuH up to date (information) adj. Tan;eBl update v. eFVIbc©úb,nñPaB ¬kñúgÉksarxøH eFVIcrnþkar¦ upgrade v. tMelIg smtßPaB¼KuNPaB/ eFVI[RbesIr upheaval karvwkvr/ claclxøaMg upkeep (expenses) cMNayEfTaM

unmarketable, unmerchantable

Edllk; minecj¼mindac; unpaid (cheque) ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦minTUTat; unpaid balance smtulüminTan;TUTat; unpaid capital TunminTan;)anbg; 97


Economic Lexicon Part 1

upper credit tranche PaK\NTanxagelI upward tendency ninñakareLIg urbanisation nKrUbnIykmµ/ Ministry of Land Management, Urbanisation and Construction RksYgerobcMEdndI

valuables n. vtßúmantMél valuation ekaslvic½y/ karkMNt;tMél value added (VA) tMélbEnßm value added tax (VAT) GakrelItMél

bEnßm ¬Gtb¦ value date éf¶KitkarR)ak; value n. & v. 1> tMél 2> vaytMél value, declared tMél)an Rbkas¼ raykarN_¼RbtievTn_ variable n. & adj. 1> Gefr 2> ERbRbYl variance (statistics) v:arIy:g; variation bMErbMrYl/ karERbRbYl vault cash sac;R)ak;kñúgXøaMg vehicle yan/ motor ~ yanynþ velocity of circulation el,Ón ¬én¦ cracr velocity of money el,ÓncracrrUbiyvtßú vendee GñkTij vendor Gñklk;

nKrUbnIykmµ nigsMNg; urgent bnÞan;/ ~ needs tMrUvkarbnÞan; useful life (accounting) GayukaleRbI R)as; ¬énRTBüskmµ¦ user costs bnÞúkcMNaycMeBaHGñkeRbIR)as; ¬kñúgkareRbIR)as;GVImYy dUcCa fñl;>>>¦ usual supplier m:UypÁt;pÁg;CaRbcaM usurer RBwT§ikr ¬GñkykkarR)ak;x<s;hYsehtu¦ usury RBwT§ikmµ ¬karykkarR)ak;x<s;hYsehtu¦ utensil Rbdab;RbdareRbIR)as;kñúgpÞH ¬BiesskñúgpÞH)ay¦ utilities karpÁt;pÁg;saFarN³ utility company Rkumh‘unpÁt;pÁg;saFarN³ ¬Rkumh‘un Twk ePøIg esvakmµsMxan;² sMrab; saFarN³Cn¦

verbal (widely used in error for “oral”) pÞal;mat;/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBog pÞal;mat;/ ~ warning karRBmanpÞal;mat; verbally (used in error for “orally”)

V, v

edaypÞal;mat; vertical bBaÄr/ ~ programme kmµviFIbBaÄr ~ communication karR)aRs½yTak;Tgtam ExSbBaÄr/ ~ integration smahrNkmµbBaÄr ¬Rkumh‘un¦/ vested interest plRbeyaCn_cak;b£s veteran (soldier) GtItyuT§Cn viability PaBGacrs;)an vibration rMj½r

vacancy kEnøg¬eFIVkar¦TMenr vaccine fñaMbgáar validate v. pþl;suBlPaB/ bBa¢ak;faBit validity suBlPaB/ PaBmantMél/ ry³kal

mantMél valorem (see ad valorem) valuable goods TMnijmantMél 98


Economic Lexicon Part 1

vicious circle n. GnÞak;vilvg; ¬Gt;Rckecj¦ vicious cycle n. GnÞak;Cavdþ video vIedGU video CD suIDI vIedGU view TsSn³/ karyl;eXIj village development committee (VDC) KN³kmµkarGPivDÆn_PUmi violate v. rMelaP ¬c,ab;>>>¦ violence higSa/ GMeBIhigSa virtue KuNFm’ visible adj. ¬Gac¦emIleXIj/ ~ trade

voucher sMeNA/ b½NÑtMNagR)ak;/ b½NÑcMnay vulnerability PaBgayrgeRKaH

W, w wage ebovtSr_/ R)ak;kMér/ R)ak;QñÜl/ ~ rise (US: raise) eLIgebovtSr_/ ~ and price controls karRtYtBinitüebovtSr_nigéfø/ ~ earner GñkeFVIkarykebovtSr_/ Ptikar/ ~ freeze karbgákebovtSr_ ¬mineGaycuHeLIg¦/ ~ indexation kardak;snÞsSn_ebovtSr_

BaNiC¢kmµrUbI vision ckçúvis½y visual control karRtYtBinitüedayeRbIEPñk vocation ]bnisS½y/ to have a ~ for

man]bnisS½ykñúgkar>>> vocational training karbNþúHbNþal viC¢aCIIv³/ ~ center mCÄmNÐlbNþúHbNþal

viC¢aCIv³¼]bnisS½y void adj. emaX³/ null and ~ emaX³ volume of exports (or imports)

brimaNTMnijnaMecj ¬rWnaMcUl¦ voluntary adj. edaysµ½RKcitþ/ ~ restriction/ limitation kardak;kMrit¼kMhit edaysµ½RKcitþ vote kare)aHeqñat/ ~ of confidence kar e)aHeqñatTukcitþ/ kare)aHeqñatsMEdgkarTukcitþ vote-counting station

kariyal½yrab;snøwkeqñat voter registration station kariyal½y

cuHeQµaHGñke)aHeqñat voting right siT§ie)aHeqñat 99

¬pSarP¢ab;nwgGRtakMeNIncMNayRTRTg;CIvPaB¦/ ~ scale taragkaMebovtSr_/ ~ work kargarsuIR)ak;kMér waive v. lHbg;siT§i ¬]> edIm,IeFVIkartva:¦/ ~ tax eGayrYcBn§ waiver n. 1> karlHbg;siT§i/ karelIkElg 2> Éksar lHbg;siT§i¼elIkElg warehouse XøaMg/ PNÐaKar warehouseman qµaMXøaMg warehousing karTukdak;TMnijkñúgXøaMg warning karRBman/ kardas;etOn warrant 1> dIka 2> b½NÑGnuBaØat/ ~ of attorney lixitepÞrsiT§i warrantee GñkTTYl)ankarFana warrantor GñkFana warranty karFana war-risk insurance karFanar:ab;rg haniP½ybgáedays®gÁam wastage karx¢Hx¢ay


Economic Lexicon Part 1

waste kaksMNl;/ liquid ~ kaksMNl;rav/ solid ~ kaksMNl;rwg watershed TICMral waterways pøÚvTwk weak market pSarexSay ¬minsUvmanGñkTij¦ wear and tear karswkric weighted average mFümPaKsmta welfare state rdæmanKitKUreRcInxagsgÁmkic©/

suxevTn_RbeTs well GNþÚg/ drilled ~ GNþÚgxYg/ ring ~ GNþÚgdak;lU wetlands dIesIm ¬dITMnabmanTwkdk;edayGenøI¦ white book esovePAs white-collar worker nieyaCit/ buKÁlik kariyal½y whole TaMgmUl/ TaMgGs; wholesale karlk;dMu/ ~ price éfølk;dMu/ ~ trade BaNiC¢kmµlk;dMu wholesaler Gñklk;dMu wildlife stVéRB/ ~ sanctuary EdnCMrkstVéRB will 1> qnÞ³ 2> mrtksasn_ wilful damage karxUcxatbgáeLIgeday ectna windfall profit cMeNjPøam²\trMBwgTuk winding up 1> karrMlay ¬Rkumh‘un¦ 2> karCMrHbBa¢I winner GñkQñH/ C½ylaPI withdraw v. dk/ dkxøÜn/ ~ an order lubecal karbBa¢aTij/ ~ money dkR)ak; ¬BIKNnI¦ withholding tax Bn§kat;Tuk/ ~ payable Bn§kat;TukRtUvbg; 100

work kargar/ GVIEdleFVI)an/ sñaéd/ ~ in progress (WIP) kMBugplit ¬RTBükMBug

plit KWtMéleFVI)anenAcugRKa¦ work out v. KNna work v. eFVIkar/ ~ full time eFVIkareBj em:ag/ ~ overtime eFVIkarem:agbEnßm/ ~ part time eFVIkarmineBjem:ag work, art sñaédsil,³ worker 1> Blkr 2> kmµkr workforce kMlaMgBlkmµ ¬BlkrTMagGs; kñúgkariyal½y rW eragcRk¦ working capital TunbgVil/ Tuncl½t working condition lkçxNÐkargar working day éf¶eFVIkar working group Rkumkargar working paper ÉksarBiPakSa ¬r)aykarN_sikSaRsavRCavBIerOgGVImYy¦ workman kmµkr work-related illness CMgWbNþalBIkargar workshop 1> eragCag/ 2> sikçasala/ vKÁGnuvtþ writ dIkabgÁab; ¬tulakar¦ write down v. kt;RtabBaú©HtMélRTBüskmµ ¬kñúgbBa¢IKNenyü¦ write v. off a debt lubbMNul ¬ecjBIbBa¢I¦ write-back (of provisions...)

karykvijnUv ¬sMviFanFn>>> kñúgKNenyü¦ written, in writing CalaylkçN_GkSr


Economic Lexicon Part 1

Y, y yardstick xñat year (fiscal, financial...) qñaM/ kariybriecäT

¬sareBIBn§/ hirBaØvtßú>>>¦ year on year qñaMelIqñaM/ BImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM/ ~ change bMErbMrYlqñaMelIqñaM ¬bMErbMrYleFob nwgeBldUcKñaénqñaMmun¦ yield Tinñpl young people RbCaCnv½yekµg/ RsTab;yuvv½y Z, z zero population growth (ZPG)

kMeNInRbCaCnkMritsUnü zone tMbn;/ hSÚn/ core ~ tMbn;sñÚl/ buffer ~ tMbn;RTnab;/ inter ~ GnþrtMbn; zoning karEbgEcktMbn;

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