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7.1.1The ways of thought, the meaning,and the state of qualifications Dr. Jutamas Vareesangthip, Ph.D.(Buddhist Studies)


The Beginning of Leader in Aggaùùa Sutta ď Ź The evil and greed were aroused, there were people who begin stealing others' -the people began punishing him. That is the origin of punishment forms. Then, people began to think that they were too busy to heed (beware) every crime and abuse that happened in their society. So, they appointed someone to rectify what is right and what is wrong, give warnings , give punishment, they will give him a share of their rice. So, they went to the fairest, ablest, most likeable, and most intelligent person and appointed him to do the judging and passing out sentences on the reward of a share of rice.


The Beginning of Leader in Aggañña Sutta  the title : 'Maha-Sammata' meaning: The People's Choice.  the second title: 'Khattiya' meaning the 'Lord of the Rice Field‘  finally the third title: 'Raja' which means 'Who gladdens people with Dhamma (or Truth)'. This order was created by the people's wish and need, based on the Dhamma and not from others.  The Buddha stated again that Dhamma is indeed the best of all things.


The Ways of Thought & Meaning Buddhist’s leadership is qualities of compassion, generosity and wisdom. L earn how to use Buddhism teachings a nd practices for effective leadership ., Buddhism teaches compassion and kindness, using insight and wisdom to make decisions, and above all, thinking of others while acting. Developing these qualities can surely help create better leaders and a better world.


The ways of thought, the meaning, according to the religious principles

 Buddhist teachings focus on compassion as the foundation of all relationships and behavior. Leadership, therefore, is no different. By being compassionate,  one can become a better leader since it will mean thinking of others and listening to what they have to say.  When people are happy with what is done for them, they are happy with the leader.


Thich Nhat Hanh In The Art of Power, Thich Nhat Hanh writes, “You can evaluate the quality of your authority by looking deeply to see if compassion is the foundation of your leadership.”


Thich Nhat Hanh ď Ź He created the Order of Inter being in 1966, and established monastic and practice centers around the world


Dalai Lama Buddhism practices humility, loving kindness and the courage to stand up for what is right. The Dalai Lama writes In 365: Daily Advice from the Heart, “Once we are in power, we must be particularly mindful of what we do, but also of what we think.�


ď Ź Effective leadership will mean using these teachings to guide people and take decisions that are beneficial for society.


Mahatma Gandhi  Mohandas Gandhi was born in Oct 2, 1869 into a family of royalty. His father was the Prime Minister of a state in India and he was the son of this father’s 4th wife.  His most famous protest was called the Salt March. Against a British policy of taxing the use of salt for Indians, he would organize a 388 km march to the sea at Dandhi, Gujarat and make salt for himself. This campaign was extremely successful in upsetting the British and the government decided to negotiate with Gandhi.

Gandhi would eventually be assassinated when taking his nightly public walk in New Delhi. The whole nation mourned the loss of their leader. He would eventually be known as the Father of the Nation.


ď Ź Mahatma Gandhi was a political and spiritual leader of India. Through his cause, he helped India gained its independence and is honoured in India as the Father of the Nation. ď Ź He was an advocate of non-violence and in his civil protests, he used nonviolence to achieve his aims. His life inspired many others to go on movements for civil rights internationally.


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles  With the dawn of a new century, there is an emerging and exponentially accelerat ing force for global societal and organiz ational change. From this realization has come a call for more holistic leadership t hat integrates the four fundamental aren as that define the essence of human exi stence—  the body (physical),  mind (logical/rational thought),  heart (emotions, feelings),  and spirit


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles ď Ź One of the major driving forces behind this phenomenon is the Internet, which is bringing about f orces for change at seemingly light-year speed. ď Ź Responding to these forces will require a major organizational transformation to a learning organizati onal paradigm ď Ź that is radically different from the traditional centralized, standardized, and formalized bureaucratic organizational form based on fear that has been the d ominant organizational paradigm since the beginning of the industrial revolution Ancona, Kochan, Scully, Van Maanen, & Westney, 1999; Moxley, 2000


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles  A learning organization is one in which expansive patterns of thinking are natu red and collective aspiration is set free.  People in learning organizations are empowered to achieve a clearly articula ted organizational vision.  They are continually learning to learn together to expand their capacity to cre ate desired results


ď Ź Quality products and services that exceed expectations character ize learning organizatio ns. This new networke d or learning organizati onal paradigm is radic ally different from what has gone before:


The ways of thought

of being leaderships in religious principles ď Ź It is love-led, customer/client-obsessed, intrinsically motivated, empowered teambased, flat (in structure), flexible (in capabiliti es), diverse (in personnel make-up) and netw orked (working with many other organization s in a symbiotic relationship)


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles  in alliances with suppliers, customers/ clients, and even competitors, innovati ve, and global  The employees of learning organizations are characterized as bein g open and generous,  capable of thinking in group teams, and risk-takers with the ability to motivate others


 Furthermore, they must be able to abandon old alliances and establish ne w ones, view honest mista kes as necessary to learnin g, and ‘‘celebrate the noble effort’’ and exhibit a ‘‘do w hat it takes’’ attitude versu s the more traditional ‘‘not my job’’ attitude endemic t o bureaucracy.


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles  Here, people are empowered with committed leaders at the strategic, empowered team, and personal levels that act as coaches in a ‘‘learning organization’’ constantly striving to listen, experiment, improve, innovate, and create new leaders Ancona et al., 1999; Bass, 2000; McGill & Slocum, 1992


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles For the learning organization, developing, leading, motivating, organizing, and retaining people to be committed to the or ganization’s vision, goals, culture, and val ues are the major challenge. A major proposition of this review is that spiritual leadership is necessary for the transformation to and continued success of a learning organization.


ď Ź Spiritual leadership taps into the fundament al needs of both leader and follower for spiritua l survival so they beco me more organizationall y committed and produ ctive.


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles  Arguing that previous leadership theories have focused in varying degrees on one or m ore aspects of the physical, mental, or emoti onal elements of human interaction in organi zations and neglected the spiritual compone nt.  Define spiritual leadership as comprising the values, attitudes, and behaviors that are nece ssary to intrinsically motivate one’s self and others so that they have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles ď Ź This entails 1. creating a vision where in organization members experience a sense of calling in tha t their life has meaning and makes a differen ce; ď Ź 2. establishing a social/organizational culture based on altruistic love whereby leaders and followers have genuine care, concern, and appreciation for both self and others, thereby producing a sense of membership and feel understood and appreciated.


ď Ź First examine leadership as motivati on to change and review motivation-bas ed path–goal, charism atic, transactional, and transformational leade rship theories.


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles ď Źthen note the accelerating call for spirituality in the workplace, describe the universal human need for spiritual surviv al through calling and membership, make a clear distinction between religion and s pirituality


The ways of thought of being leaderships in religious principles  Review religious- and ethics and valuesbased leadership theories that emphasize that leaders must get in touch with their c ore values and communicate them to follo wers through vision, values, and personal actions.  In doing so, leaders must be attuned to satisfying followers’ needs for spiritual survival through the universal spiritual va lues of humanity, charity, and reality.


ď Ź It appears that the requirements for intrinsic motivation in t he new learning organi zational paradigm, cou pled with its demands on employee time, requ ire that people must no w satisfy, at least to so me degree, their funda mental needs for spirit uality at work.


Religion versus spirituality A key reason for excluding questions of workplace spirituality from leadership and ot her theories of management practice to date appears to be due to the confusion and confo unding surrounding the distinction between r eligion and spirituality.


Religion versus spirituality ď Ź Spirituality reflects the presence of a relationship with a higher power or bei ng that affects the way in which one op erates in the world. ď Ź Spirituality is broader than any single formal or organized religion with its pre scribed tenets, dogma, and doctrines Zellers & Perrewe, 2003


Religion versus spirituality Instead, spirituality (e.g., prayer, yoga, meditation) is the source for one’s search for spiritual survival —for meaning in life and a sense of interconnectedness with other bein gs


Religion versus spirituality ď ŹThe spiritual quest is one that emphasizes a dynamic process wh ere people purposefully seeks to di scover their potential, an ultimate p urpose, and a personal relationshi p with a higher power or being that may or may not be called God


Religion versus spirituality The renowned Dalai Lama (1999) is very clear in making the distinction between spiritualit y and religion in his search for an ethical sy stem adequate to withstand the moral dilem mas of the new century. ‘Religion I take to be concerned with faith in the claims of one faith tradition or another, an aspect of which is the acceptance of some form of heaven or nirvana.


Religion versus spirituality Connected with this are religious teachings or dogma, ritual prayer, and so on. Spirituality I take to be concerne d with those qualities of the human spir it—such as love and compassion, patie nce tolerance, forgiveness, contentmen t, a sense of responsibility, a sense of h armony—which bring happiness to bot h self and others’.


Religion versus spirituality ď Ź Spiritual concerns are thus separate from the concerns of any religious group and are not synonymous with those of religion ď Ź There is even the potential, if spirituality is viewed through the lens of religion, for it to b e divisive in that it may exclude those who do not share in the denominational tradition or c onflict with a society’s social, legal, and ethic al foundations of business and public admini stration


Religion versus spirituality ‘‘Adherence to a religious workplace orientation can lead to arrogance that a particular company , faith, or even nation is somehow ‘‘better’’ or w orthier than another Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003, p. 13 The common bridge between spirituality and religion is altruistic love—regard or devotion to the interests of others. In this respect, the basic spiritual teachings of the world’s great religions are remarkably similar


Religion versus spirituality In religion this is manifested through the Golden Rule (sometimes called the ‘‘Rule of Reciprocity’’) : ‘‘do unto others as you would have them do unto you’ which is common to all major religion Josephson, 1996; Shared Belief in the Golden Rule, 2003


Religion versus spirituality Strategic leaders—through choices about vision, purpose, mission, strategy, and their i mplementation—are responsible for creating vision and value congruence across all orga nizational levels as well as developing effecti ve relationships between the organization an d environmental stakeholders Of utmost importance is a clear compelling vision of where the organization wants to be in the near to distant future.


The process of spiritual leadership The vision defines the broad journey and helps move the organization towar d a desired future. This visio n should vividly portray a jo urney that, when undertaken , will give one a sense of cal ling, of one’s life having me aning and making a differen ce. To do so, it should energ ize people, give meaning to work, and gain commitment. It also should establish a st andard of excellence.


The process of spiritual leadership In mobilizing people it should have broad appeal, define the vision’s destination and jo urney, reflect high ideals, and encourage hop e and faith. The vision, coupled with the -organization’s purpose (its reason for existence) -and mission (what the organization does and who it serves), work in concert to define the organization’s core values.


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations Altruistic love is also given from the organization and is received in turn from foll owers in pursuit of a common vision that driv es out and removes fears associated with wo rry, anger, jealousy, selfishness, failure, and guilt and gives one a sense of membership— that part of spiritual survival that gives one a n awareness of being understood and apprec iated.


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations Thus, this intrinsic motivation cycle based on vision (performance), altruisti c love (reward), and hope/faith (effort) r esults in an increase in ones sense of s piritual survival (e.g., calling and memb ership) and ultimately positive organiza tional outcomes such as increased


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations There are great emotional and psychological benefits from separating love, or care and concern for others, from need, which is the essence of giving and receiving unconditio nally. Both medicine and the field of positive psychology have begun to study and confir m that love has the power to overcome the destructive influence of the four main grou ps of destructive emotions Allen, 1972; Jones, 1995; Keys, 1990; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000;Snyder Ingram, 2000


Four main groups of destructive emotions 1. fear—including anxiety, worry, and apprehension; 2. anger—including, hostility, resentment, envy, jealousy, and hatred; 3. sense of failure—including such things as discouragement, depressed moods, and various guilt feelings that lead to self-destr uction; 4. pride—including prejudice, selfishness, self-consciousness, and conceit.


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations 1. Trust/loyality: In my chosen relationships, I am f aithful and have fait h in and rely on the character, ability, str ength, and truth of o thers.


ď Ź 2.Forgiveness/acceptance/ gratitude: I suffer not the burden of failed expectatio ns, gossip, jealousy, hatre d, or revenge. Instead, I ch oose the power of forgiven ess through acceptance an d gratitude. This frees me f rom the evils of self-will, ju dging others, resentment, self-pity, and anger and giv es me serenity, joy, and pe ace.


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations 6. Humility: I am modest, courteous, and without false pride. I am not jealous, rud e, or arrogant.


7. Kindness: I am warm-hearted, considerate, humane, and sympa thetic to the feelings and needs of others.


ď Ź 8.Empathy/ compassion: I read and understand the feelings of others. W hen others are suffe ring, I understand a nd want to do somet hing about it.


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations 9. Patience/meekness (gentleness) /endurance: I bear trials and/or pain c almly and without compl aint. I persist in or remai n constant to any purpo se, idea, or task in the fa ce of obstacles or disco uragement. I pursue stea dily any project or cours e I begin. I never quit in spite of counter influenc es, opposition, discoura gement, suffering, or mi sfortune.


Values of hope/faith and altruistic love as personal affirmations 10. Excellence: I do my best and recognize, rejoice in, and celebrate the noble efforts of m y fellows.


ď Ź 11. Fun: Enjoyment, playfulness, and activity must exist to stimulate minds and bring happiness to one’s place of work. I therefore view my daily activ ities and work as not to be dreaded yet, instead, as reasons for smiling and having a terrific day in ser ving others.


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7.1.1The ways of thought, the meaning,and the state of qualifications