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Globalization Sasha, Brandon, Dali

What is Globalization?

4/3/2014

KOF Index 2013

A generalized definition from the class of MYP4:

What do they measure?

“The use of technology to increase connectedness by upgrading internationally”

How can it be measured? The KOF index measure 3 dimensions of globalization: economic, political and social. These measurements are based off 24 variables. Based on these variables, it measures globalization on a scale of 1 (least globalized) to 100 (most globalized). It’s published by ETH Zurich.



Economic: o trade figures o foreign direct investment, stocks o income payments to foreign nationals o taxes on international trade o capital account restrictions

Social: o o o o o o o o o o

telephone traffic international tourism foreign population international letters internet users televisions per 1000 people trade in newspapers number of McDonalds restaurants numbers of Ikea trade in books

Political o embassies in country o membership in international organizations o participation in UN security council missions o international treaties


This graph shows the levels of globalization each countries has had over the years. ETH Zurich provides a way of display data based on their KOF Index. <http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch/query/>

KOF Index of globalization in 2012


Globalization has many interests at heart; its aim is not increase interconnectedness among countries, especially in the areas of politics, economics and culture. However, there is always going to be negative aspects that shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be forgotten.

There are many view points and sides to globalization.

alter-globalist, There are

these are the

anti-globalist,

hyperglobalist,

people who

these people

these are the

believe there is a

believe that it

people who

better way to

causes more

believe that

implement

damages that

globalization is

globalization.

necessary;

very good;

Neoliberalism The political philosophy that advocates and support economic liberalizations, free trade and open markets, privatization, deregulation, and enhancing the role of the private sector in modern society.


Globalization and Culture


The globalization of culture is fine, but it is when one cultural becomes dominant over the next is to when it becomes a problem. This can be referred to as a fade of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;National Identity; whereas, a foreign culture becomes the new culture of a local country erasing its national identity. A good example of this is how a new language and lifestyle can be adopted

Hello!

leaving the previous to be forgotten or abandoned. English is an example of a

Hola!

language that is globalizing across the globe.

Kamusta! Ciao!


Globalization and Environment

Climate Change 

Climate change is probably the most concerning issue, there are many possibly after effects because of it. Climate change occurs because of the greenhouse effect, mainly because of CO2 emissions. The main causes for CO2 emissions are: industrial production, transportation, and deforestation.

Global warming 

One of the most widely discussed and significant issue is global warming. The average atmospheric temperature is gradually rising. According to the scientists from The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the primary cause for global warming comes from human activities that increase emissions of carbon dioxide. Related to global warming is climate change.

The increases in these activities are partially due to the acceleration of globalization.

Climate change is the long-term shift in the earth’s climate, or weather patterns, which is caused by the augmentation of the average atmospheric temperature. The Greenhouse effect is the retention of the sun’s solar energy in the atmosphere because of the accumulation of greenhouse gasses within the planet's lower atmosphere.


1Caption

Transport As globalization increased, so did international trade, which increased international trade; transport systems multiplied. The primary mode of transport that is related the most to globalization is the airplane. Around 1900 and 2004, 86% of greenhouse gas emission increased from air travel. Air travel is liable to 4-9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere Apart from air transport, sea transports also consume a lot of fossil fuels, 2-4% from the total consumed each year. 70% of international transport of goods to the EU and 95% of trade to the US is by sea. There is also a 3% increase in shipping every year.


Industrial activities and consumption Electricity generation is major emitter of greenhouse gasses as it requires a large amount of burning coal, and oil. The growth of globalization worsens the greenhouse effect and global warming. The US is liable for 20% of the global greenhouse gas emissions However, the quickly developing of emergent countries are becoming major emitter of greenhouse gasses. They have mostly developed because of globalization. e.g. China’s demand for energy is met with new coal powered plants. Even as coal is one of the cheapest and most common fossil fuel, it is also the most pollutant; hence, China has now become one of the biggest emitter of CO2, surpassing even the US in 2007.

Deforestation

Deforestation indirectly contributes to the greenhouse effect, mostly due to the clearing and logging. Firstly, the reduction of trees reduces the volume of carbon dioxide that is converted into oxygen, which in turn increases the volume of CO2 in the atmosphere. Secondly, the burning when clearing wood emits a large volume of CO2.Deforestation is usually caused by the conversion of forested land into agricultural land.

 A total of 20% of the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is estimated to be from deforestation.  Between 1900 and 2005, 3% of the world’s forests were lost. Around 200km2 of forested land


Biodiversity 

Globalization does not directly affect biodiversity, rather it indirectly affects it. Globalization creates new needs and demands for products that are used worldwide. It emphasizes industrialization and the exploitation of resource, which in turn weakens the ecosystem. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature  22% of mammals  24% of snake species,  31% of amphibians  35% of birds  are threatened with extinction

In Borneo the growing reliance of agricultural businesses on palm oil and the paper industry cause major deforestation. ¼ of Borneo’s flora and fauna will be extinct in a few years as the forest has retreated a lot in the past 15 years.

E.g. Overfishing: The population of Atlantic cods from Canadian waters was reduced drastically in the 1970s because of its high and growing global demand. The same was the case for the Mediterranean Bluefin tuna. This fish is considered a delicacy in Japan, and is now threatened with extinction as a result of overfishing.

2Atlantic Cod

Plants are also being affected by globalization increased popularity of exotic woods as furniture decrease significantly the abundance of these exotics plants in the forested areas


Another thing to consider is that environmental problem inevitable lead to economic problems. A drop in pollination of flora will cause the fall of yields. Countries will also need to invest more in water purifications According to OECD: “A total damages to the ecosystem would result in an annual loss of USD 68 billion to the world economy.”

Responses Political efforts: Some degree of environmental awareness can be seen from politicians. Many of solutions would be found through more “international political cooperation” and their decisions should be put in place and enforced. National politicians should make the decisions for prevention of rising environmental damages partially from globalization. Politicians have already started their responses to the increasing environmental problems. An example of these measures can be seen through the increasing number of protection for natural areas.  In 2006, 20 million km2 of land and were protected  Brasilia promised to reduce by 70% the impact of clearing the Amazonian rainforest by 2018  Industrial emission from US factories created chemical clouds that produced acid rainfall. An air quality agreement between the US and Canada put in place rules that controlled the industrial emissions. Thus, making acid rain rarer.

Caused by acid rain


Globally coordinated actions Many countries sign agreements that restrict the amount of gasses that can be emitted. Such as the Montreal protocol that was signed in 1987 by several governments. This protocol restricts the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) emissions. And the emission of this gas has been reduced dramatically over the years; so much so that in 2006, the World Meteorological Organization saw that the Ozone layer was reconstructing itself. Agreements have also been signed to restrict the emissions for the gas nitrogen dioxide.

POSITIVES Globalization has also impacted the environment in a positive manner. Many of the improvements in the usage of resources and increased awareness are due to globalization. With Globalization, more research can be conducted to create greener technology. It has also improved education and incomes as well as promoting growth and development. E.g.: in the 1990sthe World Bank successfully helped Mexico in reducing the number of unhealthy ozone days. Other multination corporations also help in conducting research to create newer, cleaner, “greener” technology and reduce the impacts of human activities on the environment. E.g.: Hybrid cars: they achieve higher fuel economy and have lower emissions New “green” Apple Mac: been built with materials that are recyclable and free of harmful chemicals. The hardware and software have also been modified to reduce the carbon footprint


Is the use of technology in globalization bringing bad or good to the world? What role does technology have in globalization? Technology plays quite a huge role in Globalization. Its part in the process of globalization includes improving and changing the methods of connection, widening advertising and ensuring that global goods are delivered on time with efficient services. Example: Coca cola uses technology and modern media to advertise its company all over the world. They use Facebook, twitter, YouTube and classical advertising (TV ads, billboards etc.)

How does that improve Globalization? Technology allows people in far, distant and remote areas to have access to other people or things. Technology improves the standard of globalization throughout the world because without it globalization would not be at the standard it is at now. Technology helps to ensure that services of the companies trading globally are efficient, it helps the world keep communicated and with the promotion of products. Example: As china at the current moment is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s super power when it comes to trade. They have airports and roads and huge cities which are built with the help of technology. 321 US companies have factories in China which would not be possible without the use of technology, which provides transportation to Chine, the machines in the factories, the buildings to house the workers everything leads back to technology.


and the Cons of to maintain globalization at the DoPros we need technology technology inright globalization standard it is at now? Yes, I believe we do need technology to main globalization at the standard it is at tight now, this is because with technology we have been able to create modes of transport, advertising and manage to keep people from all parts of the world connected.

Pros and the Cons of technology in globalization

Pros It helps to connect the world providing a better trade market It helps to keep the globalized market on point and keeping all parties involved Helps to provide people with work

Cons Technology also helps to exploit some small business owners in developing countries It provides jobs but will take away ones in another country

Large organization can lend a loan to smaller countries but when it comes time to pay the smaller countries can pay it leaving them in dept. eg. International Monetary Fund and the World Bank

Technology helps to share cultures across the world e.g. International films, art, food, religion

In conclusion, I find that technology is doing better for the world than bad in the topic of globalization. I believe this because technology helps people to trade from any corner in the word; this provides connection and security to people. Technology has helped to make globalization, to maintain it, to keep it running and without technology the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic structure would surely crumble. However it is hard to ignore the fact that technology does have a bad impact on our world too. It helps to exploit smaller businesses and the lack of international laws on globalization makes it easier for bigger companies to exploit the smaller ones.


Sources Used About.com Geography-Globalization. An Overview of Globalization and Its Positive and Negative Aspects. Colin Stief, Geography Intern. <http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissu es/a/globalization.htm> Observatoire de la compĂŠtitivitĂŠ. KOF Index of globalization 2012. <http://www.odc.public.lu/actualites/2012/03/KOF_Index _of_globalization_2012/index.html > WiseGEEK. What is cultural globalization? By Sofree. Modified: 10 March 2014. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-culturalglobalization.htm> Huwart , J. and L. Verdier (2013),Economic Globalisation: Origins and consequences, OECD Insights, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/9789264111905-en

Globalization friend or foe  

All facts and statistics are taken from: Huwart , J. and L. Verdier (2013),Economic Globalisation: Origins and consequences, OECD Insights,...

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