Page 1

For The Love Of Liberty African American Soldiers In The Post W War ar Years 1900-1916 By Anthony Powell

The return of black troops from the Philippines and Cuba in the summer and fall of 1902 attracted none of the publicity which had been bestowed upon black veterans of the Cuban campaign of 1898. Black regular’s still believed that they were entitled to”a a ynch, Benjamin commission from the ranks ranks.” Although, the commissioning of John R. L Lynch, O. Davis and John E. Green, Green the later two through competitive examination early in 1901 those three appointments offered a measure of hope for a short time that more black men would be represented in the officer corps. Unfortunantly there would not be a large number of black officers in the regular army until the start of the first world war. One of the three men to be granted a regular army commission was John R. L Lynch ynch, he served as ynch a major and paymaster of volunteers during the Spanish-American War, Major Lynch had this to say about his appointment in the regular army. “Shortly before peace was declared, I had occasion to pass through W ashington while on leave of absence and called Washington at the White House to pay my respects to the president. In the course of the conversation the president asked me how I liked the position. I replied that I was better pleased with it than I supposed I would be. He then asked if I should like to be selected to be retained in the regular establishment. “Then,” replied the president, “you shall be retained in the regular establishment,” for which I cordially thanked him. The president informed me at the same time that my record at the W ar Department was one of the best of the War Volunteer paymasters, which pleased him very much. This accounts for my connection with the United States Army .” 1 Army.” Captain John Roy Lynch.

2nd Lt. Benjamin O. Davis Sr.

Back row is 2nd Lt. John E. Green 25th Infantry 1901. During the years immediately following the Spanish American War, many black regulars continued to feel that the army had drawn a color line against them.2 Frank R. Steward who served in the volunteers during this time wrote in 1904 about those black officers who served in the government raised black volunteer units.”Through ”Through the exWar treme conservatism of the W ar Department, in these regiments no colored officers, no matter how meritorious, could be appointed or advanced to the grade of captain. Such was the announced policy of the department, and it was strictly carried out. The commissioning of this large number of colored men even to lieutenants was, an entering wedge. But it was also an advance singularly inadequate and embarrassing. In one of these colored volunteer, commonly called “immune” regiments, of the twelve captains, but five had previous military training, while of the twenty-four colored lieutenants, eighteen had previous military experience, and three of the remaining six were promoted from the ranks, so that at the time of their appointment twenty-one lieutenants had previous military training. Of the five captains with previous military experience, one, a year ago had been a lieutenant in the Regular Army, another was promoted from Post Quartermaster Sergeant a third at one time had been 1st sergeant of Artillery, the remaining two had more or less experience in the militia. Of the eighteen lieutenants with previous military expe-

2nd Lt. John E. Green soon after he was commissioned 1901.

1st Lt., John Green at the time PMS at Wilberforce University with his staff 1910.

rience, twelve had served in the Regular Army; eight of these, not one with a service less than fifteen years, were promoted directly from the ranks of the regulars for efficiency and gallantry. At the time of their promotion two were sergeants, five 1st sergeants and one a Post Quartermaster-sergeant. The four others from the Regular Army had served five years each. Of the six remaining lieutenants with previous military experience, four had received military training in high schools, three of whom were subsequently officers in the militia; fifth graduated from a state college with a military department; the sixth had been for years an officer in the militia. Moreover, these colored officers were not behind in intelligence. Among them were four graduates of universities and colleges, two lawyers, two teachers, one journalist, five graduates of high schools and academies, and the men from the Regular Army, as their previous non-commissioned ranks indicates, were of good average intelligence.�3 25th Infantry loading up for the trip home late 1902.

After being sent back to the United States, after the Philippine Insurrection, black regiments for the first time in many years were stationed together as whole regiments. But here again they were stationed at isolated army post, many miles from civilian populations. Richard Johnson serving with the 25th Infantry said this about its location. “In the midst of the dreary surroundings, these strenuous task no doubt made our meager recreation more appreciated. In the long winter there was little or no outdoor pleasure activity,, but we found means of producing some indoor entertainment, W With activity ith the coming of Spring the gloom was somewhat dispelled.�4

Two U. S. Army Transports that used to bring soldiers home and overseas 1902.

Non-Commissioned officers of T roop L, 9th Cavalry 1900. Troop The 9th cavalry between the years 1902 to 1904 were stationed at the Presidio of San Francisco and the Presidio of Monterey. “May 3, 1903: promptly at 2:30 PM a train Twonsend arrives at the Third and T wonsend street terminal of the Southern Pacfic Railroad. Masses of humanity cheer and factory whistles blow all anticipanting the arrival of the dinguished guest. San Francisco mayor Schmitz and M.H. De Young, chairman of the welcoming committee, greet the vistor with short speeches. Already 15 minutes behind Captain Charles Young 1902. schedule, the guest and entourage march into Third Street, where the crowd erupts, eagerly pressing against the wire cable barrier strung along the street. Lining the street, and flanking several carriages, set two troops of soldiers on horseback. The soldiers appear not in resplent dress uniforms, but seemingly in their normal working clothes fatigue dress, pillboxstyle caps, and white canvas leggings. The command forward is given; the clattering hooves of the cavalry escort mixed with the rumbling wheels of the carriages is almost drowned out by the enthusiastic crowed and the Army Band’ Band’ss lively tune as the party travels up 3rd street. these soldiers are members of the 9th Cavalry roops I and M, alry,, 3rd Squadron, T Troops M,{the commander

9th Cavalry honor guard for President Theodore Roosevelt, San Francisco, 1903. of troop I, was the third black graduate of West Point Captain Charles Young} and their duty is both honorable and unique.They are serving as “Guard of Honor and Presidential Escort, for the distinguished guest is Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States , and the troopers serving in this escort are “Buffalo Soldiers” black cavalry troopers. This is the first time that black cavalry soldiers have served as an escort of honor for a U.S. President.” While stationed in California 9th Cavalry troops were assigned to patrol the national parks during the 1903 season, including Yosemite, General Grant and Sequoia. In 1903 Captain Charles Young was named Acting Superintdent of Sequoia National Park for the summer.”Y ”Young ”Y oung and his troopers arrived in Sequoia after a 16 day ride to find that their major assignment would be the extension of the wagon road. Hoping to break consider-the sluggish pattern of previous military administrations, Young poured his consider fly.. By mid-August wagons able energies into the project, and dirt and rock began to fly were entering the mountain top forest for the first time. Still not content, Young kept his crews working and soon extended the road to the base of the famous Moro Rock. During the summer of 1903, Young and his troopers built as much road as the combined results of the three previous summers.”5

Soldiers of the 9th Cavalry in Sequoia National Park 1903.

Sergeant Jones siting on top of Moro Rock Sequioa Kings Canyon National Park 1903.

Booker T. Washington Tree Sequoia National Park 1903.

Sergeant Monrow, Troop L, 9th Cavalry 1902.

Charles Young and the road crew Sequoia National Park 1903.

Seven’s years later in 1909, the duty stations were much better, the 24th was staNiagara in the state of New York, and the 10th tioned at Madison Barracks Barracks, and Fort Niagara, Cavalry was stationed at Fort Ethan Allen Allen, Vermont, and the 25th Infantry, was staright tioned at Fort George W Wright right, and Fort Lawton Lawton, in the state of Washington, that same year the 9th Cavalry was stationed at Fort D.A. Russell, Russell in the state of Wyoming.6 White America’s racial concepts began to manifest themselves in many aspects of American life, even to the most routine after the turn of the century. The army too was affected by the social changes. The daily activities of black soldiers was usually no different from those of white soldiers, but little by little the differences began to appear. In spite of this change for the worse, blacks continued to be attracted to the army. There were many reasons why people of both races enlisted in the army of this period, financial considerations were one. For example black retired Staff Sergeant Jesse Coleman said this.”I ”I worked in Baltimore, at a livery stable with a colored man who had served during the Spanish American W ar War ar,, “He said, “If I joined the army for one enlistment and saved money,, at the end of three years I, could have enough to start my own business business. I my money 1913 saved during my first year in the army (1913 1913), four hundred dollars, we only made thirteen dollars and twenty-five cents a month.”7 Former Spanish-American War soldier Samuel N. W aller ”if he joined the army he could earn as much Waller aller, said that he was told that”if Ohio’ss coal mining as a man $1.10 a day so me and two friends caught a fright train to Ohio’ district and two weeks later were enlisted into the Army .”8 Army.” Two young troopers of the 10th Cavalry and 9th Cavalry soldier1904.

“ that joining the army gave him the only part of the American dream that America the nation would let him share in.� Samuel N. Waller 1970.

Samuel N. Waller 1901.

Walter Perryman 9th Cavalry 1906 and a unknown soldier same period. John Campbell enlisted in the 9th Cavalry in 1911 he retired in 1946.

Non-Commissioned officers Company G, 25th Infantry 1903.

For other young men, like John H. Allen Allen, who served in the 6th Virginia, Volunteer’s and the 48th Volunteer Infantry said he joined with a “romantic view of the army and a Johnson, desire to travel and see the world,” 9 and Retired Master Sergeant Richard Johnson had this to say about his enlisting in the army: “I tried to join the Navy in 1898 and was unsuccessful, the Navy recruiter a Marine Major named Biddle, sent me to the army recruiting station, he pointed out the advantage of joining the army under a short term enlistment agreement, which would be an advantage to a beginner, also it would give me an opportunity for travel which he discerned was my main urge to join the navy. With this kindly advice I acquired a new perspective toward army life. “My aimless wandering seemed about at its end, end and I lost no time making my way to the local army recruiting 10 office.” But for many black men, there was an additional reason, in civilian society black soldiers as opposed to black civilians were not relegated to a position of total subserviWaller ence. Samuel N. W aller said “ that joining the army gave him the only part of the in.”When George Schulyer Schulyer, American dream that America the nation would let him share in. enlisted in the 25th Infantry, he made this comment as to why he joined the army.”I ”I became convinced that there was no future for me in my hometown, the colored people seemed to be in a rut and I did not want to stay down there with them.”The United Campbell, States Army seemed to be the choice for me.”11 Retired Master Sergeant John Campbell said that he joined the army in 1911 because “I wanted to be somebody if I had my life to

live over again I would go back into the army because I loved it, and it made me somebody .”12 body.” For soldiers like Coleman Coleman, Johnson Johnson, Waller aller, Campbell and Schuyler Schuyler, the army offered more than just drill and fatigue duty, for most black’s it offered a way out, and an system, Johnson had this say:”While I had gained a opportunity to become a part of the system feeling of some slight importance upon taking the oath of enlistment this adornment in soldier’’s uniform, with a rifle in my hands, gave me a feeling of near exultation.”13 the soldier John Clarke a Retired black Warrant Officer made this comment about why he joined the army in 1907:”I ”I liked the uniform, and the feeling it gave me.” 14 George Schulyer was even more graphic about his reason.”I never saw any colored person in any position of authority in Syracuse, until the U.S. Army held maneuvers in the area around 1909, and several companies of black soldiers were camped in a large park where traveling circus usually performed. The black Infantry and Cavalrymen were something else again.W again.We e were impressed by their superb order and discipline, their haughty and immaculate authority.. The soldiers, represented the non-commissioned officers, and their obvious authority power and the authority of the United States.” 15The army offered schooling for those Non-Commissioned officers 10th Cavalry Fort Robinson, 1903.

Soldiers of the 9th and 10th Cavalry 1906-1916.

24th Infantry Company I, Madison Barracks, New York, 1910. 10th Cavalry troopers Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont 1910.

Non-Commissioned officers 24th Infantry Madison Barracks, New York Sergeant Major Walter B. Williams 1909. soldiers whose schooling had been retarded or even non-existent, it should be noted that most black soldiers of this period could read and write, but the education of many had not gone beyond that. Black soldiers could still show off his military skill in competition on company, regimental and army level. Among the different events were pistol and rifle marksmen ship in which black’s continued to be outstanding, broad sword, horse training, marching drill, bayonet, and tent pitching contest. George Schuyler, helps us understand why black soldiers excelled in Pistol and rifle competitions he said. “Our men trained like athletes for target practice, giving up smoking and drinking for the period, and getting much sleep. They went out on the target range, sharpeyed and iron nerved. This was necessary in order to insure high scores in slow and rapid fire at 200, 300 and 500 yards, kneeling, sitting and prone, and for the longer distances of 800 and 1,000 yards where the slightest tremor of the muscles

Company K, 25th Infantry Texas, 1906. Company G, 25th Infantry Montana, 1903.

Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant George Holland 1909.

Sergeant Morton, 9th Cavalry 1909. Sergeant Saddler QM Corps. 1906

Sergeant Brice 24th Infantry 1903. Sergeant Clem Parks 24th Infantry 1908.

Troop H. 10th Cavalry Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont 1909.

1st Sergeant 9th Cavalry Master Mason Joppa Military Lodge.

1st Sergeant 9th Cavalry on his horse Philippine Island’s 1907.

or lack of breath control would put one entirely off target. Almost all the men in B Company were either expert riflemen, sharpshooters or marksmen and wore the appropriate silver medals, which respectively add five, three or two dollars to their pay.. When the regiment passed in review the silver medals made a long monthly pay flash in the sun.”16 Black soldier’s were on the Infantry and Cavalry teams during numerous National rifle matches. In 1904 QM Sergeant Benjamin A. Anderson Anderson, of the 10th Cavalry was the number one pistol shot in the Army, winning this honor at the Department matches of the Dakota’s and Columbia, and he was awarded a gold medal.Corporal Henry Scarsce Co.K 24th Infantry Outshot “all his white associates practice.17 Corpoand competitors” with 176 out of 200 at Fort Sheridan, IL, target practice ral James E. Logan also of the 10th Cavalry was rated number two at the Department of the Missouri and Texas matches in 1903. In 1905 out of 585 expert riflemen in the Army the top rated soldier was Sergeant Abraham Hill Hill, of the 24th Infantry.18 Sergeant Emmett Hawkins of the 24th Infantry, recorded the highest total bullseye’s at 1,000 yards, 43 out of a possible 50. Stationed at Ft Missoula, MT; he won first prize at the 1903 tournament at Sea Girt, NJ; now “ranked among the most remarkable rifle shots in the world;” received “with scant courtesy by his brother officers upon his return to his post at Fort Missoula, Mont. The jealousy engendered may result in his asking for a transfer to Fort Assiniboine.” In 1906, the Army InfanSergeant Benjamin Anderson 10th Cavalry and Sergeant Abraham Hill 24th Infantry.

Parade of 25th Infantry, Honolulu, Hawaii February 22, 1915.

Ordnance Sergeant Lewis Broadus 1914 and Sergeant William Tate, 25th Infantry 1906.

ate try team included two members of the 25th Infantry, Sergeant William T Tate ate, of Co. L, and Burns of the 10th Cavalry, on September Sergeant Oscar Fox Fox, of Co M. Sergeant Dace H. Burns, 16, 1916, made 283 points out of possible 300 in Army rifle competition that year.19 Black soldiers took great pride in the achievements they made in these events George Schuyler had this to say:”Our ”Our regiment prided itself on its proficiency in military exercises, a high degree of discipline and skill was attained in our regiment because men turnover.. From 1913 to the spring of 1915, served longer in one outfit and there was less turnover we scarcely received a recruit. This made for machine like efficiency in which the men took great pride.”20 For many black soldiers, some who were veterans of many years service, for the first time in there army career’s they had the leisure and the opportunity to take up athletics, from the start black regiments made outstanding records. Sergeant John Buck of the 10th Cavalry an old Indian war veteran, had this to say about the winning ways of black soldiers: “What it took to win, we had nothing else but.”2

10th Cavalry Post football team Fort Robinson 1904.

10th Cavalry Field and Staff basketball team Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont 1910.

For example the 25th Infantry, baseball team over a period of 20 years had the best record of any other army team. They won Department and Army championships from 1918. During 1913-1914 1913-1914, as the army champions of Hawaii, they played several 1899 to 1918 games with white team’s made up of stars from the major league’s, and also from the Pacific Coast League.22

Championship game Scholfield Barracks, Hawaii 25th Infantry Island Champs 1914.

25th Infantry Army Champions 1913-1918.

25th Infantry baseball team Island Champions 1915.

Benjamin Rogan star of the 25th Infantry and also in the baseball hall of fame.

Track and Field events, were another area in which black teams were outstanding. Between 1907 and 1922, the four black army teams were almost unbeatable. In 1914, at the territorial fair AAU Track and Field Meet at Kapiolania Park, Hawaii, the 25th Infantry carried away the championship trophy with a total of 36 points more than all other teams put together. At this meet private Gilbert Gilbert, of the 25th Infantry, smashed the world record in the 100 yard dash, with an unofficial time of 9.6 seconds, (this feat would not be repeated again until the late 1960’s), Sergeant Benjamin H. Mills, Mills also of the 25th Infantry tied the world record in the 50 and 75 yard dash. At the Panama Pacific Exposition, held in San Francisco, California, in 1915, he won the championship trophy in the 440 and 220 yard dash at the Army and Navy Track Meet.23 On June 8, 1920, at the Southern Department meet held at Camp Travis, Texas, which by the way was a try-out for the Army Olympic entrants, the Arizona District Athletic team which was composed principally of men of the 10th Cavalry and 25th Infantry, scored a total of 150 points, all the other teams combined scored only 45 points. Sergeant S.C. W Williamson illiamson, of the 10th Cavalry, won the trophy in the 100 and 220 yard illiamson dash, that next month at the Army meet in St Louis, Mo, on July 5, 1920, he repeated his

25th Infantry track meet in Hawaii 1917 they were just the best!

feat.24 Some at that time wondered why black soldier athletes excelled so well in athletics, a correspondent for the Army and Navy Journal, was so dismayed that he wrote: “Surely this is a matter for some thought on the part of those who are responsible to the nation for the maintenance of its prestige and defense.”25 It was OK for whites to win but when blacks won over whites it became a matter of prestige. Its very simple sports in the military offered black soldiers an opportunity to compete with whites on an equal basis, George Schuyler said this:”Our ”Our regiment, prided itself on its proficiency in military exercises and sports in which it customarily out did its rivals, the racial element

9th Cavalry track team 1916-1919 Philippine Islands.

9th Cavalry “Tug of War” Champs track meet Philippine Island’s 1916.

Sergeant Oscar Morgan ranking duty sergeant with F. Company , he was about forty-five years old, stood six feet four inches in his socks and was dark brown in color with an unblemished set of teeth. He wore a fierce mustache that pointed upward in the Prussian manner, and his pugnacious jaw, piano box shoulders, hamlike fists and bull voice added emphasis to his nickname. His first ten years of service had been spent winning all of the heavyweight boxing events in the Army, and last his ten years had been pent boasting about it.� George Schuyler Oscar (Tush) Morgan 25th Infantry 1908.

Boxer of the 9th Cavalry 1916

Two black pro boxers in 1903.

Oscar Morgan Boxing Champion of 25th Infantry 1890-1910.

Sergeant Hayden boxing champion of the 24th Infantry 1916.

Trophies won by the 25th Infantry over the years.

entered here because all the other regiments were white and winning over them in trackmeets and baseball was extremely relished.”26 In today’s Equestrian competition you will find very few blacks, but black horsemen ship goes back beyond the days of our last frontier, back to the days when young black slaves as stable boys, and trainers and jockeys competed for their master’s. After the Civil War blacks continued in the equestrian world. At the first running of the famed Kentucky Derby, in 1875, fourteen of the starting horses were ridden by black men, in fact the first winner was a black jockey. The late 19th century witnessed the triumphs of many talented black horsemen including the great jockey Isaac Burns Murphy, Murphy who is today buried next to one of the greatest racehorses of all time Man Of W War ar, at the Kentucky State Horse Park in Lexingar ton, and Jimmy Winkfield, the last black jockey to win the Derby in 1901-1902. As horse racing became big business, blacks were systematically excluded, despite their early triumphs, this was a reflection of the new mores of the 20th century, and was parallel by the general exclusion of blacks from the mainstream of American life at this time. Despite

One of the winners of the 1907 Manila Horse Show.

9th Cavalry competitor Manila Horse show 1916. this blacks were able to perform in military equestrian competitions, and performed quite well. At the first Manila Horse show, held in March, 1908, represtatives of the 10th Cavalry won nine blue ribbons and six red ribbons, three years later at Rutland, Vermont, the 10th Cavalry won seven prizes for outstanding horsemen ship. In the Governor’s Day competition, At the Montreal Horse Show in May of 1911, Henry R. Adair (white), of the 10th cavalry won first place in the jumping event.27

Master Sergeant Woodfork, 9th Cavalry with William H 1924.

10th Cavalry Troop L, drill team Arizona, 1913.

At the National Capital Horse Show in New York City in the mid 30’s the 10th Cavalry won first, second and fourth prizes.

Kenny Thomas doing his thing at Fort Levenworth, 1940.

In 1911 a Denver, Colorado, newspaper had this to say about the riding squad of the 9th Cavalry, “They are the pick of the regiment not alone for riding, for instance, Woodfork, Corporal W oodfork, has the reputation co-equal with the boundaries of the nation, and Army.. His work even is known in Europe as the best horse trainer in the United States Army in high schooling has been displayed in many a show and some horses here were of his Myer,, V Virginia, training...The riding squad won at these shows, first prize at Fort Myer irginia, first Riley,, Kansas, first prize at Fort Leavenworth, to say nothing of their prize at Fort Riley victorious start just after organization at Manilia in 1907.”28 ar In 1913, in Washington D.C., a 10th Cavalry Corporal won the Secretary of W War Cup Cup, presented by the Secretary of War himself to the winner. In 1915, a team of select men and horses of the 10th Cavalry were assembled at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, and trained under the supervision of Captain Babcock.This team competed in the Panama Exposition, held in San Francisco, and won 57 of the prize awards, and $1,165 in Pacific Exposition cash.29 Warrant Officer John Clarke Clarke, of the 9th Cavalry, helped to train and coordinate the mounted drill team of the 30’s, which successfully competed against the famed Royal Canadian Mounted Police team. In 1932 at the National Capitol Horse show, show held at Madison Square Garden, in New York City, 10th Cavalry riders carried away first, second and fourth prizes. Four years later Master Sergeant Charles (Runt) Pearson, Pearson of the 9th Cavalry helped train the Army Olympic Equestrian team, in 1936.30 Two 9th Cavalry horsemen Philippine Island’s 1915.

Regimental Bands 1899-1916 After the Cuban campaign black military bands really came into there own, and for the first time the army and the general public started to appreciate the quality of these musical organizations. In 1898 President William McKinley reviewed the 10th Cavalry regiment in Washington D.C., he was most impressed with its band, that same year the band and two veteran squadrons took part in the Peace Jubilee held in Philadelphia, in October. Before the 24th Infantry, went back to its home station in Utah, John Philip Sousa, leader of the United States Marine Corp Band, invited the members of the 24th’s band to a concert given by his band in there honor. Between 1899-1904 the 24th Infantry band achieved a greater degree of popularity than the other black bands, it accompanied General Young in his historic dash up the valley of the Rio Grade in the Philippine island’s in 1899, and almost constantly on the march kept up its rehearsals under supervision of Chief Musician Wilford O. Thompson Thompson, so that, when it gave its first concert in Manila, in July, 1901, its music delighted all who heard it. “This band provided music for numerous official receptions, including those in honor of General Chaffee, General Wheaton, Governor Taft, Captain Paget, of the British navy, and the admiral of the Russian squadron.31 25th Infantry Non-Commissioned Staff and Band Fort Lawton, WA 1910.

10th Cavalry band at Fort Robinson in 1902 and during the Peace Jubilee in Philadelphia in 1898.

24th Infantry band Madison Barracks, New York 1909 Chief Musician Wilford O. Thomas.

Black army musicians were versatile in the music that they played, they could play the popular favorites of the day or its orchestra could play the great symphonic selections also. The 24th Infantry band had a repertoire of more than 1,000 numbers; its musical library was valued in 1901 at $6,000 $6,000, they spent more than $2,000 on equipment between 1898-1901. Included in the programs of the 25th Infantry band were these ”Grand Russian Fantasie, Fantasie,”” by Levy Levy,, Suppe, Pique Dame Overture Overture;; Lehar Lehar,, senumbers,”Grand Widow idow;; V Verdi, Foscari,, Sousa’ Sousa’s, Tar lections from the Mary W idow erdi, duet from I Due Foscari s, Jack T ar March, and W eber Weber eber’’s, selections from Der Freischutz Freischutz.. The 1904 Worlds Fair managers asked the army to send its best bands to perform at the St. Louis World’s Fair, one of the bands that the army sent was the 24th Infantry band.32 25th Infantry band Fort Lawton, W ashington 1910. Washington

Until 1907-08 most of the black regimental bands were under the able leadership of white band leaders, Emmett Scott suggested in 1908 to Secretary of War Taft, that the army conform to the regulations that excluded blacks from joining white units, to apply also to those white chief musicians who were in the black regiments and give the opportunity to black musicians to advance to that position. Mr Taft was noncommittal, and replied that he would study the matter, Scott would not accept this answer and continued to press the War Department for a decision. Finally the War Department relented and announced that in future, bands in black regiments would be led by blacks. Implementing this decision was difficult, some regimental commanders were opposed to it, and the War Department made no effort to force them to comply. Scott continued to agitate, finally, in November, 1908, President Roosevelt wrote that he wanted “all the colored regiments supplied with colored bandmasters.�33 Black band leaders compared favorably with their white counterparts, five black alter H. Loving, Elbert W illiams, W ade Hammond, Alfred bandleader’s of this period W Walter Williams, Wade V.. King were outstanding.W J. Thomas, and Leslie V Walter Howard Loving, Loving he enlisted in the 24th Infantry in 1893 and was assigned to its band, he studied violin and later played second violin in the orchestra, after that he studied saxophone, and eventually each of the woodwind instruments. During the Spanish-American War, he was appointed Chief Musician of the 8th U.S. Volunteer Infantry band, this tour lasted only six months and on 9, March 1899, he was discharged. After his discharge he enrolled in the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, where he studied harmony, conducting, and cornet, a hard working student, he made quite an impression on his professors, both

Walter Howard Loving PC band 1909.

In September 1899, Loving decided to reenlist in the army with the hopes of becoming an army bandmaster, he joined the 48th U.S. Volunteer Infantry and was assigned to its band, within a short time he was promoted to Chief Musician. His regiment was ordered to the Philippine Islands, while awaiting transfer to the islands his unit was PC band at the White House 1909.

Walter Howard Loving PC band 1909.

hit with smallpox. To pass the time away while the unit convalesced, at Angel island in the San Francisco Bay, Loving organized a chorus of four hundred voices, to entertain “Take Brother,, On the Banks of the the troops, the chorus sang songs like, “T ake the News to Brother Wabash, and British songs based on the writings of Rudyard Kipling. En route to the Philippines his regiment landed in Yokohama, Japan, on the 28, December 1899, were permission was granted by the War Department to the commanding officer, Colonel William P. Duvall, to land the full regiment and parade it before the Emperor of Japan. The chorus and band performed on this occasion. The 48th served for one and a half years in the islands before returning to the U.S. During that period Loving was appointed 2nd Lieutenant (14 March 1901). William Howard Taft, Secretary of the Philippine Commission, attended a fiesta at San Fernando, La Union, where the 48th was stationed and was honored with a performance by the regimental Chorus and Band, he was so impressed by the performance that he asked to meet the man responsible for such beautiful music. After meeting Loving, Taft made a promise to him that when he became Civil Governor, he would set up a military band in the Philippines and said to Loving, “And I want you to be the conductor.” PC band St. Louis, Worlds Fair 1904.

Taft kept his word to Loving in 1902 he was commissioned a Sub-Inspector of the new Philippine Constabulary. Within a year and a half of the organization of the Constabulary band, two visiting members of the St. Louis Exposition Board, urged Governor Taft to send the band to the Fair, which was scheduled to open in May 1904. In attendance for the band concert at this fair, were members of royalty, high officials, and dignitaries from all over the world. Added to this group of notables were the worlds finest bands, the U.S. Marine Corp band band, the John Philip Sousa Band Band, and Loving’s old comrades of the 24th U.S. Infantry band band,, the Mexican National Band, Band the band of the British Guards, the Royal Italian band, and Le Garde Rupublicine band of France France. Grenadier Guards Four years later at the inauguration of President Taft, Loving and his Philippine Constabulary band escorted Taft from the White House to the Capitol, where he would take his oath of office. After the inauguration, Mrs Taft invited the Loving band to play at her first White House reception. In 1910 Loving studied at a musical conclave in Italy, he also studied in Germany, where he studied instrumentation and orchestration in Liepzig, there he gained access to the original manuscripts of Wagner’s works, and saw Wagners son conduct “Parsifal,” he also studied in Vienna and in London.34

Captain Loving and the PC band 1909 California.

Elbert W illiams was the first black to be appointed Chief Musician of a regular Williams army unit he served as leader of the 10th Cavalry Band from 1901 to 1902, and was leader of the 25th infantry band from 1904 to 1908.35 Alfred J.Thomas leader of the 10th Cavalry band won a scholarship from the Damrasch Institute of Musical Art in New York City, City one of only five offered by Mr Frank H. Damrasch, this school later became part of the Juilliard School Of Music, Thomas also attended the U.S. Military Bandmaster’s course for two years on a full scholarship, receiving his diploma in June 1914. The 10th Cavalry band under his leadership became the first black army band to tour the far-east and mid-east, they went to Singapore, Columbo, Ceylon, Aden, Arabia, Port Said, Egypt, and Alexandra, V alletta, Malta, Gibraltar Valletta, Gibraltar..36 Band Leader Alfred J. Thomas 1909.

Leslie V .King V.King .King, of the 25th Infantry was another outstanding bandleader. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, he enlisted in the 3rd Alabama Volunteer Infantry, he served with this unit until 20, March 1899, a month after his discharge he reenlisted in the regular army and was assigned to the 25th Infantry, which at the time was stationed at Fort Grant, Arizona, in 1902 he won an assignment to the regimental band, over the next ten years he would learn to play all band instruments, and would be promoted to all non-commissioned grades in the band. Most of Mr King’s musical training he received 1. In while in the army, he graduated from the Washington Conservatory of Music, in 191 1911 1918 the Nogales Herald had this to say about Mr King and his band: “A rare musical treat was appreciated by hundreds of Nogales residents who parked their machines and crowed the walks about the band stand in the city plaza last night, and listened to the concert rendered, by the 25th Infantry band. Lieutenant Leslie King, wielded the baton in his usual excellent form and the classic and catchy airs of the program were tunefully rendered by the musicians. Through the Herald, the Chamber of Commerce and public, extends its thanks and appreciation of the concert, to King and the members of the

Band Leader Lesley King 25th Infantry 1910.

Wade Hammond of the 9th Cavalry was another early black bandleader, he would be appointed regular army bandleader or Chief Musician in 1908. In 1912 the army gave him permission to attend a two year course at the Royal Musical School For Bandmaster Bandmaster’’s, near London, England. No matter were he served his band became very popular, in 1914 at Douglas, Arizona, the Chamber of Commerce of that city minted one thousand copper commemorative medals in honor of Mr Hammond’s band, the inscription read “Ninth, Regiment.”37 U.S.A. A Live Band From A Live Regiment.” In 1915 the mayor of the town presented a diamond studded, gold medal to Mr Hammond, it had been purchased with funds raised among the townspeople, in recognition of the fine music that the band had provided. In 1916 his regiment was ordered to the Philippine Island’s for service, they would serve in the island’s for the next six years, during that time Mr Hammond was invited to organize the bands for the new Philippine National Guards, while in the island’s he helped to set up the department of band music at the University of Manila.38 Wade Hammond 9th Cavalry, Fort D.A. Russell, 1909.

Band Leader Wade Hammond 9th Cavalry 1909.

9th Cavalry band Fort D.A. Russell, Wyo 1909.

Band Leader King, 1st Sergeant Broadus and Corporal Page 1907.

Drum Major William Brown 25th Infantry band Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 1914.

Two members of the 25th Infantry band Fort Lawton, WA, 1910.

Old Stereotypes The assignments of black soldiers were increasingly restricted because of racial bias during this period. The old stereotypes were applied more often, racial separation was more strictly enforced and even the army was more callous in its treatment of blacks. A good example of that callous treatment of black soldiers was the Brownsville raid of 1906. In the summer of 1906, the 25th Infantry was ordered to change station from Nebraska, to the state of Texas. On August 13, 1906 the infamous Brownsville incident happened. Chaplain Steward, went from Fort McIntosh, Texas, near Laredo, to visit 12 black soldiers of his regiment who were incarcerated at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, they were alleged to have been responsible for the shooting spree in Brownsville, which resulted in the death of a bartender and the wounding of a police lieutenant. Steward conversed with the men and later reported that they were in “excellent health and spirits, manifesting no signs of consciousness of evil doing, and appeared entirely confident as to the issue, and made no complaint whatever of their lot.” Being personally acquainted with the men and knowing their good reputation,” He felt very strongly that they were “victims of Texas hate,” and not likely to be found guilty.” The men felt the same way. Nevertheless, without any sort of a public hearing, President Roosevelt ordered them summarily “Discharged without honor,” along with 155 others from three companies of the first battalion. None of the men was ever brought to trail on specific charges or, with the assistance of an attorney, given an opportunity to confront and cross examine his accusers.Chaplain Theophilas Gordon Steward called it Texas, the “Hell hole of World,” the W orld,” He kept thinking of the bad feeling in 1903, when the 25th had a run in with Texans at a Kansas encampment, “During my whole experience in the army the only time that I have been assaulted by uncivil and ribald speech by a man in the uniform of a soldier was at Fort Riley, Kansas, and the man who did so was a Texas militia man,” he wrote the regimental adjutant, his letter ended on a prescient note, “T “Texas, fear,, exas, I fear means a quasi battle ground for the 25th Infantry.” try .” Chaplain Theophilas G. Steward 1905.

At discharge had one year, five months, and twenty–three days to serve before retirement. Even those men that were sick in the Post Hospital, or locked up in the guard house were discharged. One of the old soldiers was Charles Dade, Cook D/25th Inf, the Cleveland Gazette said of the scene, while surrendering his rifle at Ft Reno, OK, after his discharge: “All right sir sir,, all right, sir sir,, Lieut. Higgins, here it is.’ Dade handled the rifle officer.. He turned his face to hide the tears which carressingly as he passed it over to the officer can’tt help it,’ he were falling from his eyes upon the shining barrel of the gun. ‘I just can’ muttered apologetically to a comrade as he turned away away.. ‘I’ve been in the service 22 kinfolks.’’’ 40 years and its hard to give up a gun that is about like my own kinfolks.’ The black community was horrified at what happened to the men of the 25th Infantry, as being unjust, they were not the only one’s many white’s also were horrified at 1st. Sergeant Mingo Sanders Company B, 25th Infantry and baseball team Brownsville, Texas 1906.

what happened, so much so that an official inquiry was made to find out what evidence the President used in finding the men’s guilt. Even the Army and Navy Journal, in its issue of November 24, 1906, made the statement: “The finding against the Negro soldiers is based upon the testimony of white men, given under circumstances that deprive it of all value as legal evidence. Each of the soldiers at Fort Brown, at the time of the outrage, inquiry,, positively denied that he, or any of his comrades, so far which gives rise to this inquiry knew,, had anything to do with the shooting, and a number of them testified under as he knew oath that it was the work of men outside the post.”41 Not until 1972, when 165 of the men were dead, was that injustice corrected. Acknowledging that it could never really be redressed, Secretary of the Army, Robert F. FroehIke , changed 167 discharges which read “discharged without honor,” to Honorably Discharged.” Looking back at 1906, one of the survivors, Edward W Warfield, arfield, fondly remembered his chaplain, he said that Steward visited and assisted him following the incident at Brownsville. Even after Brownsville, black troops would be used to put down labor unrest and other disturbances that local authorities could not handle, this accured for the 25th Infantry three years later, at Spokane, W Washington ashington,, when worker worker’’s of the I.W I.W.W .W.. went on ashington .W order,, the 10th strike, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were used to help local police keep order 42 Texas, later.. Cavalry was used for similar duty in T exas, a few years later During the great forest fires of 1910, in Montana, and Idaho, black soldier’s again established a reputation for valor and devotion to duty when they were called out to help fight the fires that caused an immense amount of damage and loss of life. In a letter to the Department of Agriculture, dated October, 10, 1910, a Mr Greeley wrote. “I wish to express in definite form my deep appreciation of the services rendered by the United States troops which were detailed to assist the Forest Offices in this district in fighting forest fires during the past season. These troops consisted of: Companies G, and I, of the 25th Infantry, who were assigned to duty on the Coeur d’Alene National Forest, Forest at Avery and Wallace, Idaho, respectively. and Companies L, and M, of the same regiment, who were assigned to duty on the Flathead National Forest Forest, at Kalispell, and Gerry, Montana, and on South Fork, of the Fathead River. The services rendered by these troops were very efficient and furnished most timely and effective assistance to the officers of the Forest Service, during a very critical situation. Companies G, and I, of the 25th Infantry rendered memorable service in preserving Wallace, allace, Idaho, when order and protecting life and property at the towns of Avery and W Wallace, those points were imminently threatened by forest fires, and in the case of W allace, partially consumed. The discipline and organization of these two companies during the ser-critical emergency of that character proved of inestimable value both to the forest ser

vice and to the interest of the government, and citizens of those localities.” localities.”43 The Spokesman Review of Spokane, Washington, had this to say about some of the men of the 25th Infantry: “Avery was one of the last places in the Couer d’ Alone reserve to be reached by the fire. While the flames were pressing down upon it, the women and children were removed on a special train. They were given just thirty minutes to get ready. Already the roar of the approaching fire could be heard. Four passenger coaches were loaded, and the train set out for St. Joe under the command of Sergeant John James of Company G, 25th United States Infantry, from Fort George Wright, Washington, a Negro company, which, had been detailed to patrol the burning district and preserve order. Privates Chester Gerrard Gerrard, William Houge Houge, Roy Green Green, and Grandwill W W.. Bright were stationed on the platforms of the cars. “They stuck to their posts like men, said Ranger Debitt. The forest all along the way were on fire, the heat so intense that the varnish on the coaches blistered and the The Negro soldiers stood on the exterior platforms through this bath of windows cracked.The fire and kept the doors closed, holding back the heat-crazed women and children, many of whom would have leaped off and been lost if they had not been restrained.” “Another very,, the Negro soldiers remaining train of box cars carried most of the men away from Avery to the last.”44 Sergeant John James.

Camp of Company G, 25th Infantry Couer d’ Alone reserve

“New Black Chaplains for a changing W orld 1906-1917� World Allensworth, Steward and Anderson would be replaced by three very energetic aldo Scott Black clergymen Washington E. Gladden Gladden, Oscar J. W Waldo Scott, and Louis Augustus Carter. Chaplain Washington E. Gladden, Carter Gladden of the 24th Infantry, was born in 1866 in South Carolina. He was commissioned after the retirement of Chaplain Allen Allensworth, on May 21, 1906. At fourteen years old he went to Great Bend, Kansas, and worked for the Hulme & Kelly flouring mills. For the next twelve years he worked from laborer to chief engineer. During those years he mastered a course in electrical engineering. From an early period in his life Gladden had a religious spirit, at fourteen he organized a Sunday school, and would drive 20 miles into the country on Saturday night to be on time for his Sunday school. In 1889 Gladden made a trip to Africa on behalf of the Baptist missions to look into the possibility of emigration and missionary work. At this time there was a big push led by Rev. Henry M. Turner to get American

Seated Anderson 10th Cavalry and Prioleau, 9th Cavalry Standing Scott, 25th infantry and Gladden, 24th Infantry 1908.

Blacks to emigrate to Africa. Gladden made an extensive report to the American Baptist Home Missionary Society, in which he brought out that one of the biggest factor’s of failure in mission work in Africa was that those who were sent to the field lacked medical knowledge and sanitary information that would render them immune the great epidemics that often broke out in South-Central Africa. On his return that following year in 1890, he was ordained and took charge of the First Baptist Church in Great Bend, Kansas. Gladden enrolled in the Western College, Macon, Mo. In 1895 under the direction of the American Baptist Home Missionary Society of New York, he was sent to Colorado, to organize a Baptist mission in Colorado Springs. Gladden, organized St. John’s Baptist Church in Colorado Springs. He was known as pastor who ran his church on sound business plan. He often said that the church organization was a business as well as a spiritual institution. With that in mind he ran his church on cash basis and “pay as you go plan.” When Gladden left Colorado Springs, in 1906 his church was debt free.45 In 1906 Gladden applied for a commission as a regular army chaplain to fell the vacancy caused by the retirement of Chaplain Allensworth of the 24th Infantry, without the assistance of the newspapers or political influences. His name was sent by President Theodore Roosevelt, to the Senate for confirmation on May 21, 1906. Gladden accepted the position and joined his regiment in San Francisco, on July 25, 1906, it left for the Philippine Islands. After a two year tour of the Island’s his regiment was sent back to the United States and was stationed at Madison Barracks, New York(1908-1914) Chaplains Scott and Gladden Mexico 1916.

aldo Scott, Scott was born in Ohio in 1866 and educated in Ohio. Scott Chaplain Oscar J. W Waldo attended Wesleyan University, Wilberforce University, and Denver University. He received his Theological education at Drew Theological Seminary and Lliff Seminary. Scott was commissioned as chaplain of the 25th Infantry regiment in 1907.47 Chaplain Scott of the 25th Infantry with President William Howard Taft 1910.

Louis Augustus Carter, Carter was born February 20, 1876, in Auburn, Alabama. He attended Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama (1895-97), and Selma University, Selma, Alabama (1897-1900), and although he did not graduate from either institution, he attended the Virginia Union University Theological School, Richmond, Virginia (1901-04), as a special student and graduated from there with a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) degree. After his ordination at Auburn in 1899, he served pastorates in Dawkins, Alabama (1899-1900); Orange Court House (1901-02), Trevilians (1903), and Ashland (1904), Virginia; and Knoxville, Tennessee (1905-10). As pastor of the 1,500 member First Baptist Church of Knoxville, he was active in the “colored” Y.M.C.A. and was said to have done more to encourage young men to participate in “Y” activities than any other clergyman in that city. Guadalupe College of Texas awarded him a Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) degree in 1907. Although his popularity and success as a pastor was characterized as “phenomenal,” he applied for an appointment as chaplain of the 10th Cavalry, with references from two members of the U.S. House Representatives, the mayor and former mayor of Knoxville, the president of the East Tennessee Bankers Association, and several attorneys, and numerous ministers. In April 1910 he became the eighth Black pastor to be commissioned a Regular Army chaplain and served on continuous active duty for thirty years. 48

Chaplain Louis Augustus Carter, 10th Cavalry seated front row 1913.

Like the other chaplains before them Gladden, Scott and Carters ministry was well received. Attendance at one of Chaplain Gladdens Sunday services reached a total of 558 men at one service alone, during one three month period the average attendance was more than 400 men each Sunday service.49 Because of various bills to eliminate Blacks from military service (Between the years 1906-1917, various congressmen discussed or introduced bills to eliminate Blacks from the military altogether. For example, in 1911, Representative John Nance Garner of Texas introduced a bill (H.R. 1262) “to repeal the statues which authorized the formation of the four Negro regiments.” 50 The bill died in committee, never coming to a vote. A few years later, in 1914, Representative Frank Park of Georgia, in opposition to Black men as officers, introduced a bill “to make it unlawful to appoint as commissioned or noncommissioned officers in the Army and Navy of the United States any person of the Negro race.” However, like the earlier bill, this bill H.R. 17541 also did not get out of committee),51 Black chaplains worked extra hard with and for their men. While his regiment was stationed in the Philippine Island’s (1911-15), Gladden put into use the first motion-picture machine in the island’ island’ss at Camp Stotsenburg, on Pampanga island. island Gladden promoted and encouraged the men of his regiment in athletic compition. He was an aggressive advocate of making Army Post as attractive for the enlisted men as possible, in order to keep them from seeking the pleasure in the dives that often surrounded military reservations. 52 In 1909, Chaplain Gladden was appointed to an Army Board of Chaplains who’s job it was to make recommendations for an increase in the number of chaplains in the army. Chaplain Gladden was elected as the recorder of the board when it met at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Chaplain Gladden 1909.

During his service with the 25th (1907-16) Chaplain Scott served in the Philippine Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, and also served in Mexico with the 10th Cavalry. Chaplain Scott was an enthusiastic preacher, and always promoted a positive image of Black manhood. One way that Scott did this was by bringing important Blacks to lecture on post to the soldiers. In 1912 while the 25th was stationed at Fort George Wright, Washington, Scott had as his guest speaker Mr Mr.. Matthew Henson who spoke on the subject “The North Pole.” (Henson, was the first man to set foot on the North Pole, he was with Admiral Perry on his Polar expedition in 1909). 53 At Schofield Barracks, in the Hawaiian Island’s, in 1914 he had two Black speakers on his program one was Mr Mr.. C. A. Cottrill Cottrill, the collector of Internal Revenue for the island’s, and Mr W.F .F.. Crockett Crockett, the only Black member of the Hawaiian Legislature from the island of Maui.54 Upon entering the Army, Chaplain Carter quickly concluded that personal contact with the enlisted men was the key to winning their confidence and respect and to helping him understand their attitudes, behavior, and problems. He attributed whatever success he had in his Army ministry to personal contact in hospitals and guard houses, in garrison and in the field, in barracks and homes, and at places of recreation and worship. He promoted sports, entertainments such as minstrel and vaudeville shows, literary societies, and debating clubs. He innovated special programs such as “Letter W Writing Week” riting W eek” during the week before Mother’s Day, and “Man’ “Man’ss Night” which consisted of a short, spirited, and convincing talk by surgeons, clergymen, other professional men, and business men. Chaplain Oscar W. Scott 25th Infantry 1913 in Hawaii.

“They Followed The Standards Images Of The African American Military Family 1900-1917.”

25th Infantry non-coms and families on board the USA Transport Logan 1911.

“About 2:30 on the afternoon of the same day the Kilpatrick slipped her nose at the foot of Wall Street while the regimental band stood on the forward deck and played “there is no place like Home Sweet Home” Strong men, women, and children with hearts full of anxiety stood on the deck gazing at the tall buildings the like of which had never been by many. Tears of Joy flowed down the checks from the eyes of many as they gazed upon the land that gave them birth for the first time in many moons.” Sergeant Vance Hunter Marchbanks 1909. U.S. Army Transport Kilpatrick New York City, July 25th 1909.

1st Sergeant Vance Hunter Marchbanks.

Soldiers and families on Army Transport Hawaii 1913.

“We arrived in Port Said, Egypt at 4:00 am June 23rd 1909, went ashore and stayed over night in a beautiful hotel. We had a wonderful time and returned to the ship on the 24th.� Sergeant Marchbanks

Sergeant Vance Marchbanks and family Egypt 1909.

Soldiers and families on the Army Transport 1909.

“The sea was calm, with hardly a riffle, compared with the Indian ocean, everyone was jubilant over the change, and from early morning until late in the afternoon the herrican deck was letterly covered with hilarious humanity, chattering like black birds alighted in good feeding place. Sad faces were again showing signs of satisfaction. Whist games were being played from foremast to stern. Little children were gaily running here and there keeping parents and nurses busy watching with some degree of anxiety for the safety of their charges.� Sergeant Vance Marchbanks.

Sergeant Rosco Ellis, Non-Commissioned Staff 24th Infantry 1910.

Officers wives on the Army Transport 1909.

“More than twenty men of the Tenth Cavalry married native women and settled around Burlington, Essex Junction and Winooski, Vermont. Some settled on nearby farms, while others went to Canada. So far as I know none have regretted their decision. When the regiment left Vermont in 1913 those who were married to native white women could either give up their wives and go with regiment or give up the regiment and stay with their wives. Nearly all who were married choose the latter. Men who are loyal citizens are nearly always efficient soldiers. Good soldiers are as a rule normal men and as rule make good husbands and fathers.� Vance H. Marchbanks

1st Sergeant Robert Johnson 10th Cavalry and wife Fanny Fort Ethan Allen Vermont 1910.

10th Cavalry and 24th Infantry soldiers with family and wife 1914.

Chaplain George W. Prioleau 9th Cavalry and Family 1908.

25th Infantry soldiers of the NCS and Band with there families Fort Lawton, 1910.

24th Infantry Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant George Holland and family 1911 Philippine Island’s Retired soldier and Filipina wife 1907.

Sergeant Fairfax Burnside 9th Cavalry and his family 1909 Fort Robinson.

Service School Sergeant and wife 1907.

Sergeant’s Stafford and Hill and wives Philippine Island’s 1908.

Soldier of the 25th Infantry and wife Hawaii 1913 and four wives of members of the 25th Infantry stationed at Scholfield Barracks 1913.

Sergeant Lomie Page and family at Schofield Barracks Hawaii in 1914 and 1916.

Chaplain George Washington Prioleau and his family at his retirement 1919.

Chaplain Carter was one who would go out his way to ensure that Black soldiers got a fair deal. In 1913 a Black trooper of the 10th Cavalry was visiting a Douglas, Arizona, cowboy,, and the provocation erupted saloon he encountered racial slurs from a white cowboy cowboy,, was jailed, and charged with murder murder.. into a gunfight. The soldier killed the cowboy Wanting to ensure that the soldier received a fair trial in the local civilian court, Carter lawyer.. Subsequently Subsequently,, the soldier went throughout the regiment to raise funds for a good lawyer was acquitted on the basis of self-defense. 55 Carter advanced racial pride and an interest in Black studies by making “The Crisis� magazine and books about Black soldiers available in the libraries and by presenting impressive programs during regimental anniversaries that recounted the military successes of the Black soldier on the frontier and in Cuba, Philippines, and Mexico. He was known by his commanders as a forceful public speaker and preacher who attracted large congregations and as a good influence over the enlisted men. In March 1916, Chaplain Gladden, and his regiment joined the American Punitive Expedition in Mexico under General John J. Pershing. Gladden was placed in charge of all the mail for the expedition. While handling a large sack of mail he was injured. Gladden was taken out of Mexico on a litter to Fort Bless, Texas, and from there to Letterman General Hospital at the Presidio of San Francisco, California. After nine months in the hospital Chaplain Washington E. Gladden, was retired for Medical disability on May 23, 1917. After his retirement he made his home in Los Angeles, California.56 Chaplain Scott also served with his regiment the 10th Cavalry in Mexico (1916-1917) Chaplain Scott on his horse Dolly, Mexico 1916.

“Mexico, the prelude to the Great W ar 1916” War When Woodrow Wilson was elected Twenty-eighth President of the United States the most serious international problem that he faced was relations with Mexico. Politics in that country had turned violently revolutionary after President Porfirio Diaz was deposed in 1911. The next President was assassinated in a military coup. The general who succeeded him was driven from power by the Constitutionalist, led by General Venustiano Carranza Carranza, who had the sympathy of President Wilson. Peace was not restored, however, and the revolution continued. One of those who opposed “V “Venus” Carranza, was Francisco”Pancho”V Francisco”Pancho”Villa illa. Villa enus” Carranza illa had been helped in years past by Americans, but when, in 1915, he was driven back by government aided Carranza troops, Villistas caused serious trouble for both governments by raiding Mexican towns along the border from Texas to California. As spring drew near in 1916, the Great War in Europe, threatened to engulf the United States and Mexico became a secondary concern.President Wilson had stated that he did not want to intervene in Mexico’s internal affairs, he knew that some action was called for to protect American lives and property across the border.57 General Francisco”Pancho” Villa

General John J. Pershing 1916.

Starting in the early part of 1912, the Army started to move troops to the Mexican border to help protect American lives and property, the first black unit to move to the border was the 9th Cavalry, which took station at Douglas Arizona, with out laying camps on the border line with Mexico. The 10th Cavalry was ordered to the border that next year, and was stationed at Fort Hauchuca, Arizona, with small border camps along the border line reaching to California.58 In 1916 the 24th Infantry would serve on the border at Columbus, New Mexico, two years later the 25th Infantry would be stationed on the border at Nogales Arizona.59

The situation on the border was potentially explosive and was made more so when Villa, who had lost much of his power, took it upon himself to embroil Mexico and the United States in war. If he could fight the Americans and win, he believed, he would be looked on as a national hero and regain his lost power. So on the ninth day of March 1916, a large force of Villistas crossed the border into the small town of Columbus, New Mexico, burning and looting the town while they killed American soldiers of the 13th Cavalry and citizens.60 The American public demanded punishment for Villa’s raid. Although Wilson was a pacifist candidate, he had to uphold the honor of the United States. He announced that he would send troops into Mexico to capture the outlaws, but he did so only after receiving reluctant permission from General Carranza. Wilson’s advisor told him that he would have to make a good show of military strength against Mexico, which was not considered a world power, to prove to Germany that the United States, would be a formidable foe if they were drawn into the European war. On the other hand, Wilson did not want to commit too much of nation’s military force in Mexico in case he chose to intervene in

The 10th Cavalry moved to the border to Fort Hauchuca Arizona in 1913 and would stay until 1931.

1st Sergeant Thomas Jordan, 10th Cavalry 1917.

Trooper Prowl, 10th Cavalry Arizona 1917. and the four amigos.

Europe. The Punitive Expedition, as the invading U.S. force was called, entered Mexico, on March 15, 1916, and chased Villa and his band for three hundred and fifty miles south into Chihuahua. Black troopers of the 10th Cavalry would play a major role in this expedition, and would be joined later by the 24th Infantry, who would be used to guard the line of communications. In April, two American troopers were killed in a skirmish with Mexican civilians and Mexican soldiers at the town of Parrall, in June, after Carranza had warned Wilson, that Mexican soldiers would fire on any American troops that moved in any direction but north, Twelve black soldiers of the 10th Cavalry were killed when they were ordered to go through the village of Carrizal, and twenty-three others were taken prisoner.

10th Cavalry part of the U.S. invading force into Mexico 1916.

10th Cavalry members in the field and ready for action.

Major Charles Young would serve as the highest ranking black officer with the 10th Cavalry as commander of the 2nd squadron in 1916.

“Mexico was the most trying ordeal any body of soldiers had ever experienced. For more than 11 months the regiment was in the field, part of the time living on the country. Native beef and parched corn was the principal ration and for many days the men were without salt. They were in the mountains of Mexico following the hot trail of Mexican bandits. Men wore out their clothes and shoes, and were obliged in many instances to use their shelter tents for patches, and their stirrup hoods tied around their feet to keep them from being absolutely bare-feet.� 1st Sergeant Vance Marchbanks

During this battle black soldiers though out-numbered again showed exceptional valor under fire. Corporal’s John A. Jeter Jeter,, Howard D. Queen, and Howard C. Houston, recalled some aspects of this fight. 61 Queen remembered the remarks of Captain Boyd, just before the engagement began: “I value each of you as ten Mexicans, do not let it be said that American troops fired the first shot. If they fire on us, we will answer them shot for shot. The only thing I will not forgive is showing your backs to the enemy,” Houston, recalled that Captain Boyd, said to the assembled soldiers: “ My orders are to Villa go east to V illa Ahumada on the other side of this town, and I am going through and taking all of you men with me.” Jeter remembers only that Boyd gave the drill book command, “ Fight on foot, action right.” 62 The advance commenced with troop K, on the right, echeloned back slightly in order to cover the right flank. Lieutenant Adair’s platoon of troop C, similarly echeloned back on the left. The led horses had been sent back several hundred yards to the rear. Jeter, said for the first two or three hundred yards of the advance, there was silence, then at about 250 yards the Mexicans opened fire.The advancing American soldiers instantly returned the fire, in the face of heavy machine gun fire, troop C, steadily advanced forward. Corporal Jeter’s platoon advanced until stopped by the Mexican machine gun’s, but they were not stopped for long Jeter say’s: I fired my first clip and raising my right arm, I rolled to the left to reload, the earth where my right arm and shoulder had been lying was ploughed by machine gun bullets. After this I was able to locate the enemy gun, and being an expert shot, it was only a short time before it was out of action.”63 The Mexican’s numbered around 400 to 450 men, the first to fall on the Mexican side was General Gomez. Captain Corella Gonzales, who was in command of the machine gun’s and who was standing near General Gomez, when he was killed recorded the dismay and confusion caused by the advancing black soldiers. “The noise of the fusillade drowned the last note of the bugle, General Gomez, dropped instantly, with a bullet through his forehead. The most fearful disorder spread through our ranks, since many of our poor soldiers did not have time obey,, to dismount, nor draw their weapons. They did not know what to do or whom to obey the horses were stampeded, entangled in the maguey rope reins and halters, running ground”. Captain in all directions, many of them with their viscera dragging on the ground” Gonzalez was able for a moment to direct the fire of the machine gun against troop C, the Americans were momentarily checked but then continued their advance.64 Captain Boyd Boyd, was killed leading his men over a wide irrigation ditch in front of the Mexican position. It was at this point that Sergeant Will Hines Hines, with great courage crawled up to a Mexican machine gun post and single handily put it out of commission, he was killed within moments after his heroic feat. The remaining troop C, officer Lieu-

10th Cavalry prisoners in Mexico 1916.

tenant Henry Adair was killed leading his troopers toward a line of houses, he fell into the arms of Sergeant Bloodgood Bloodgood, his last words were: “I’m done, Sergeant take the troop Winrow inrow, a soldier with over twenty forward and take the town.” Ist Sergeant William W inrow eight years service was also killed during the engagement.65 One survivor Private Sam H. Harris of T roop C, said this about the fight: “We were out on the bareflat sprawled on Troop our stomachs, under the hot sun in plan view of the enemy. “It was murder murder.” .” I forgot everything but my gun and ammunition. I was trying to see how fast I could load, pick my target, fire and eject. It was like running small machinery on pice work. “Within half an hour of the beginning of the fight the Mexicans started Flanking us. We could see the dust they kicked up as they started crawling and running with their bellies low, well orver to the right and lift, in groups. “I got most ten alone. I picked them carefully before I fired and I saw them drop when I let fly. My guess is that a good one hundred Mexicans “were left there in the mesquite and along the fence and ditch.”66 Corporal Henry Houston of troop K, describes the fight on the right flank. “After the Mexican’ Mexican’ss opened fire we then received orders to lie down and commence firing using the battle sight. All our men were taking careful aim and the Mexicans and their horses were falling in every direction. But the Mexican forces were too strong for us, so even though we were inflicting terrible execution they out numbered us too greatly for us to stop their advance around our flank. At this stage the Mexicans were so close that it was almost impossible to miss them. They were about 30 yards from our right flank, I tried to swing my platoon around so as to help out the one on the right, but it was impossible. About that time Captain Morey yelled to 1st Sergeant Page, “Sergeant Page! Good God can’tt stop man, they are right on you! and Page responded, “I see them, Captain, but we can’ them and we can’ can’tt stay here because it’ it’ss getting too hot!” By this time bullets were falling like rain, and Captain Morey ordered all of us to look out for ourselves. 67 Americans were outraged, Wilson had to choose carefully the correct course of action. He demanded the release of the prisoners, but did not declare war. Within a short time Carranza did release the prisoners, but again asked for an unconditional withdrawal of American troops. Talks between the two countries dragged on for another seven months, in the meantime Wilson was reelected, and on February 5, 1917, the last of the American troops quietly left Mexico. 68 After 1900 the negative influence of racism overcame the positive force of the needs of defending our nation. It was a force that grew quickly in the first years of the 20th century. The new social mores of white America, becoming a colonial power, the stationing of black soldiers close to cities, increased black militancy and their greater awareness of the racial situation, all worked to destroy the good life for black soldiers. African American soldiers like Sergeant major, Eugene P P.. Frierson of the 10th Cavalry, were

10th Cavalry prisoners in Mexico and after their release 1916.

well aware of the attitude of white America he wrote from Ft Huachuca, on the 28,of August 1914, “If there is any doubt on the part of any citizens as to our valor valor,, courage, and obedience in the Army ar Department, in War Army,, I simply refer him to the records of the W color.. They Washington, DC....Men are not superior by reason of the accident of race or color honesty,, are superior who have the best heart and the best brain. Superiority is born of honesty of virtue, of charity charity,, and above all of the love of liberty liberty,” ,” Black soldiers continued to perform the daily routine, but unfortunately for the most part the general public ignored ”The discrimination, segregation, and antipathy them. As historical research has shown,”The World War toward black soldiers and officers that occurred during W orld W ar I, should have been no surprise to any one familiar with the events of the previous twenty-five years.” Captain John Henry Allen, a former Battalion Sergeant Major of the 25th Infantry who died of pneumonia while on duty in France in 1919 wrote this poem of the colors of the 25th called the “Rings upon the Pike,” when he was a member of the regiment:

10th Cavalry regiment heading home from Mexico February 1917.

1. “T is but a banner of Azure blue goes floating by “Tis Woven of silken threads, the Nations coat of arms a centerpice The Standard on the right-her stars and stripes mount high And all our hopes and all our strength for these! 2. There is no need that we shall call them splendid The rings upon the pike-they tell a tale Of victories won; of how the brave defended That standard and those colors-And not once did fail. 3. Whether on T exas’ sun-baked plains Texas’ or in Dakota’ Dakota’ss tumbled bad lands dear dear,, Marching through blinding snows and flooding rains They met the Red Foeman, and without fear fear.. 4. To Keep the peace they stood, “The Men at Arms,” And answerd every call their Chieftian sent They beat back forest fires from settler settler’’s farms And held in leash the mobs on murder bent. 5. And when there came a call to foreign wars, Did these men falter , did they fail that day? Look to the old men’ men’ss battle scares And there upon the pike-San Juan and the sea! 6. And in the murky damps of old Luzon, They builded camp fires all the way From Caloocan to Bamban, and back and on! Across the mountain trails unto the sea! 7. And everywhere brought peace and happiness; And everywhere they put the foe to flight, And they who first engaged them in the fight, Returned to lay their arms down and to bless.

8. There is no need to call our colors splended, The rings upon the Pike-They tell the tale. It is that we as they who have defended, Shall now defend them and shall never fail 69

Archival Materials National Archives, Old War Records.National Archives, Punitive Expedition Records. During the course of research and preparation, the writer interviewed the following persons: 1915-1945 1915-1945), Tucson, Arizona, 1974 , Colonel Samuel Baker, Baker 25th Infantry, served from (1915-1945 Clarence C. Clendenen 1918-1953 Clendenen, Cavalry, U.S.Army,(1918-1953 1918-1953), Monrovia, California, 1974, John 1928-1944), Troop M, and Band,10th cavalry (1907Clarke, Bandleader, 9th cavalry (1928-1944 A. Clarke 1928-1944 19071928 1928), Berkeley, California, 1979. Jesse Coleman Coleman, 25th Infantry private to 1st sergeant (1913-1942 1913-1942), Staff Sergeant, M.P.s (1942-1944 1942-1944),Phoenix, Arizona, 1975. John A. Campbell Campbell, 1913-1942 1942-1944 1-1917) 1917-1919 9th cavalry (191 (1911-1917) 1-1917), 368th Infantry 92nd Infantry Division (1917-1919 1917-1919), 10th Cav1919-1923 1923-1935 1935-1945 alry (1919-1923 1919-1923), QMC (1923-1935 1923-1935), 25th Infantry (1935-1945 1935-1945), Phoenix, Arizona, 1975. 1915-1945 First Sergeant Judge Cross Cross, 25th Infantry (1915-1945 1915-1945)Phoenix, Arizona,1975. Mrs Green, wife of Lt Col, John E. Green, Jeter, Ernistine Green Green Oakland, California 1979. John A. Jeter 191 1-1917 1917-1919 10th cavalry, Troop C, (191 1911-1917 1-1917)2nd Lt, cavalry (1917-1919 1917-1919), Troop C, 10th cavalry 1919-1927), Vallejo, California, 1975. Archie Jones Jones, 10th cavalry, Troop K, (191 1911-1941 1-1941) (1919-1927 191 1-1941 1919-1927 1941-1946 Jr son of Master Sergeant Armor (1941-1946 1941-1946), Tucson, Arizona, 1975. Leslie V V.. King Jr. bandleader Leslie King King, Los Angeles, California, 1975. Edith Loving, Loving wife of bandleader Walter Howard Loving Royston 10th cavalry (19351935Loving, Oakland, California,1980. William Royston, 1942 1942) served as a 2nd Lt of the 9th cavalry during World War II, Richmond, California, Sr who served with the 25th Jr son of former Major Moody Staten Sr, 1981. Moody Staten Jr, 1935Infantry (1905-1917 1905-1917), Los Angeles, California, 1975. Kenny Thomas Thomas, 10th cavalry (19351905-1917 1942 arfield 1899-1919 1942), Richmond, California, 1981. Corporal Edward W Warfield arfield, 25th Infantry (1899-1919 1899-1919) aller, served at Fort Brown in Brownsville, Texas 1906 Los Angeles, 1968. Samuel N. W Waller aller 1887-1927 served during the Spanish-American War (1887-1927 1887-1927) through the 1st World War Los 191 1-1941 Angeles, California, 1974-1979. Luther O. W Williams illiams, 9th cavalry (191 1911-1941 1-1941), 349th Field illiams illiams Jr 1941-1945 Artillery (1941-1945 1941-1945) Los Angeles, California, 1975. Livingston W Williams Jr.. 25th Infantry (1940-1942) 2nd and 1st Lt 24th Infantry (1942-1945 (1942-1945) Air Force Chief Master Sergeant (1945-1970) Tucson 1986.

Regimental Sergeant Majors 1899-1917 9th Cavalry, William H. Brown, Robinson, 1900-1901, Alonzo Myers Myers, Brown 1899, Daniel C. Robinson Horace Cooper Thomas Goodloe John A. Logan 1901-1904, Cooper, 1904, Goodloe, 1904, Logan, 1904-1915, Milton T. Dean urner Dean, 1915-1917,10th Cavalry, Charles B. T Turner urner, 1899, Presley Holliday Holliday, 1899-1908, Charles Faulkner Faulkner, 1907, John C. Pendergrass Pendergrass, 1908-1910, Eugene Frierson Frierson, 1910-1917, illiams 24th Infantry, Walter B. W Williams illiams, 1901-1917, George D. Powell Powell, 1906, Mack Stanfield Stanfield, 1906-1907, 25thInfantry, James P P.. Dundee Dundee, 1898-1899, William McBryar McBryar, 1899, Anthony A. Marrow W yatt Huffman Marrow, 1899-1919, Huffman, 1903-1904.

”The Black Soldier and Officer In the United States Army 1Marvin Fletcher,”The Army,, 18911917.,” 1917.,”University of Missouri Press, 1974. p28,29. 2After 1890 lynching in the Unites States dramatically jumped from 127 in 1889 1889, to 192, in 1890, in 1892 there were 235, in 1893, 200 and in 1894 199 199,”The Kansas City Daily,” 1904. News clipping in author’s collection. 3Martin E. Dann, “The Black Press 1827-1890,” G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, 1971 p293, 387. 4 The resistance to discrimination by black soldiers is longer than most historians realize. For example, see Frank N. Schubert, “Black Soldiers on the White Frontier: Some Factors Influencing Race Relations,” Relations,”Phylon,XXXII(winter, 1971), and Willard B. Gatewood roops in Florida, 1898, “Florida Historical Quarterly, XLIX (July, 1970), 1-15. Jr, “Negro T Troops Black soldiers took the law into there own hands at Sturgis City City,, Dakota (1885), at San Carlos Agency exas (1900), near Fort Niobrara, Nebraska Agency,, Arizona (1899), at El Paso, T Texas yoming (1892), at Huntsville, Alabama (1898), and at Athens, Ohio (1904), at Suggs, W Wyoming ashington, (1904), similar incidents took place at San Antonio (1911) and at Seattle, W Washington, exas, aco, T exas (1912), at Iwilei, Hawaii, (1915), Del Rio, T Texas, exas,(1916) and at W Waco, Texas exas, (1917), and Houston,T exas, Houston,Texas, (1917) of all the incidents the most serious was the Houston affair in which 16 white civilians and five blacks soldiers were killed outright. 5AGO 73129, NA, RG 94, The AFro-American Sentinel(Omaha, Nebraska), 2 April 1898; ”the Negro is better able to with stand the SA War Invest, 2:871, made this comment:”the Cuban Climate than the white man.” man.”U.S., Congress, House, Committee on Military Affairs, House Miscellaneous Documents, No. 64, 45th Congress, 2nd Session, 1877, VI, 20. 6George W. Prioleau, to H.C. Smith, May 13, 1898, Cleveland Gazette Gazette, May 21, 1898. George Prioleau was serving as Chaplain of the 9th cavalry at the time of this letter, Prioleau served with the 9th cavalry from 1894 to 1916, he also served with the 10th cavalry and the 25th Infantry. He retired from the army in 1919 as a Major. ”Colored American,” newspaper (Washington D.C.), 7William C. Payne, to the editor of the”Colored August 13, 1898. Payne was serving on board U.S.S. Dixie off San Juan, Puerto Rico, July 24, 1898. Tampa Morning T ribune, May 5, 1898. 8T Tribune, Record, June 25, 1898. After an investi9John E. Lewis, to the editor, Springfield Illinois Record gation the army turned over to local authorities for trial two 10th cavalrymen, James Johnson and John Young. At the time of his letter to the Record, Lewis was serving as a corporal with Troop H, 10th Cavalry, over the next two years he would write several letters about the treatment of black soldiers, during and after the war. Lewis would retire from the 10th Cavalry in 1906. 10For several somewhat different versions of the Tampa riot, see Atlanta Constitution Constitution, ribune, June 12, 13, 1898; Augusta Chronicle, June 11,1898; Tampa Morning T Tribune, ribune,June 8, 1898; Cleveland Gazette Gazette,June25,July 2,1898; Richmond Planet Planet,, June 18,1898. Apparently the riot was triggered by a group of intoxicated white volunteers from Ohio who decided to have some fun with a two-year-old Negro boy. The child was snatched from his mother by a white soldier, who entertained his comrades by holding him in one hand and spanking him with the other. Then, held at arm’s length with his head down, the child served as a target for several soldiers to demonstrate their marksmanship. Presumably the winner was the soldier who sent a bullet through a sleeve of the boys shirt. Having had their fun, the soldiers returned the dazed child to his hysterical mother.quote from Willard B. Gatewood Jr, “Black Americans and the White Man’ Man’ss Burden, 1898-1903,”

University of Illinois Press, 1975. p52. Star, September 11John R. Conn to Mrs J. W. Cromwell, August 24, 1898, in the Evening Star 17, 1898. (Washington D.C.). John Conn was serving as a Corporal in Co. H, 24th Infantry, he would serve in the army in the Philippine islands during the Insurrection 18991902. ”The Cuban and Porto Rico Campaigns,” (New York: Charles 12Richard Harding Davis,”The Scribners Sons, 1904), p244. 13 “The Santiago Campaign Campaign: Reminiscences of the Operations for the Capture of Santiago de Cuba in the Spanish-American War, June and July, 1898 (Richmond: Williams Printing, 1927), p.421-423 ,Edward L Jr 14 Baker Baker,Edward L.,Jr Jr.QM Sgt U.S. Army, Born on Platte River, Laramie Co.,WY,28 Dec 1865; enlisted at Cincinnati, OH, in D/9th Cavalry, 27 Jul 1882; trumpeter, 2 Jul 1883; discharged, 26 Jul 1887; enlisted B/10th Cavalry,25 Aug 1887; regimental clerk, 4 May 1888; chief trumpeter, 10th Cavalry, 9 Feb 1890; quartermaster sergeant, 10th Cavalry, 28 Jan 1891; enlisted 25 Aug 1892; promoted sergeant major, 10th Cavalry, 25 Aug 1892; attended cavalry school, Saumar,France, Nov 1896–May 1897; enlisted 25 Aug 1897; appointed first lieutenant, 10th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, 2 August 1898; mustered out and reverted to sergeant major, 10th Cavalry, 8 Mar 1899; appointed captain, 49th Infantry, 9 Sep 1899;mustered out 30 Jun 1901; discharged from 10th Cavalry, 5 Sep 1901; appointed second lieutenant, Philippine Scouts, 7 Feb 1902; promoted first lieutenant, 10 Sep 1906; promoted captain, 12 Sep 1908; resigned 31 Oct 1909, enlisted,Ft McDowell, CA, post quartermaster sergeant, 7 Nov 1909; retired 12 Jan 1910, in accordance with Special Order 41, War Department, 6 Jan 1910. VA Pension File XC 2715800, Edward L. Baker.”He served in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Kansas, Indian Territory, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana. He took part in numerous scouts, arduous marches, and expeditions against isolated bands of Indians and other marauders from 1882 to 1898 on our western frontier....”Widow’sDeclaration for Pension, 1916,VAPension,FileXC2715800, Edward L.Baker. As chief trumpeter,10th Cavalry, at Ft Apache, AZ, 1890,subscribed $.50 to testimonial to General Grierson.Listof subscriptions, 23 Apr 1890, 10th Cavalry papers, MHI. Married Mary Elizabeth Hawley, born Mary E. Prince and widow of Heber Hawley, Santa Fe, NM, 31 Jul 1887; no previous marriages. VA Pension File XC 2715800, Edward L. Baker. Medical history: typhoid, 1875; kicked by horse, 5 Oct 1882; “constipation in line of duty, cured...,” 8–9 Mar 1884; dystentary, 1890; gunshot wound, 1898; dystentary, 30 Aug–15 Sep 1898; bronchitis, 1909; “alcoholism acute, not in line of duty...,” 18–19 Jun 1909.. VA Pension File XC 2715800, Edward L. Baker. Stationed at Ft Assiniboine, MT, 1897, with wife and five children: Edward Lee Baker, Eugenia Sheridan Baker, Myrtle Mary Baker, Gwenderlyn James Baker, Dexter Murat Baker; father French; mother colored American. War Department GO# 34, 1924. GO #14, 1924. GO #21, 1925. ,” August 24, 1898. 15John R. Conn, to “The Evening Star Star,” enth Cavalry ,” Tucson, ACME Printing 1921, p.32-33. Of 16E. N Glass,,”History of the T Tenth Cavalry,” the four soldiers William H. Thompkins, would retire from the army in 1916 as a first sergeant of the 25th Infantry, George H Wanton, would serve in the 10th cavalry for the next 27 years and would retire as a Master sergeant in 1927. Dennis Bell, would die by the hands of a fellow soldier in 1904 at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. 17Unsigned, Illinois Record Record,, October 8, 1898. Carter P. Johnson, was born July, 1851, at Staunton, Virginia. Was appointed from the ranks to 2nd lieutenant, June 14, 1883, for the next 20 years he served with the 10th cavalry.

18John C. Pendergrass, July?, 1898 to Retired sergeant Robert Anderson, Illinois Record September 3, 1898. At the time of this letter Pendergrass was 1st sergeant of Troop A, 10th cavalry, later that month he would be commissioned a 2nd lieutenant, serving with the 10th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, until March 1899, He would retire from the army as Regimental Color Sergeant of the 10th cavalry in 1906. ”Colored Regulars,” Philadelphia, A.M.E. Book Concern 1904, p207. 19T. H. Steward,”Colored The Nation Nation,” LXVI (May 5, 1898), p. 335.for the next 27 years and would retire as a 20"The Master sergeant in 1927. Dennis Bell, would die by the hands of a fellow soldier in 1904 at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. 17Unsigned, Illinois Record Record,, October 8, 1898. Carter P. Johnson, was born July, 1851, at Staunton, Virginia. Was appointed from the ranks to 2nd lieutenant, June 14, 1883, for the next 20 years he served with the 10th cavalry. 18John C. Pendergrass, July?, 1898 to Retired sergeant Robert Anderson, Illinois Record September 3, 1898. At the time of this letter Pendergrass was 1st sergeant of Troop A, 10th cavalry, later that month he would be commissioned a 2nd lieutenant, serving with the 10th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, until March 1899, He would retire from the army as Regimental Color Sergeant of the 10th cavalry in 1906. ”Colored Regulars,” Philadelphia, A.M.E. Book Concern 1904, p207. 19T. H. Steward,”Colored The Nation Nation,” LXVI (May 5, 1898), p. 335. 20"The 21"The Cleveland Gazette,” May 13, 1898. 22"The Cleveland Gazette,” October 1, 1898. 23"The Cleveland Gazette,” October 22, 1898. 24"Cleveland Gazette,” April 21, 1900. Fifty years in the Gospel Ministry 25Steward, “Fifty Ministry,” p.341,342. 26"Colored American Magazine,” July 13, 1901 27"Indianapolis, Freeman,” January 25, 1902. 28William T. Anderson to the Adjutant General, Department of Dakota, 10 May 1898, Selected ACP, W.T. Anderson, RG 94, NA,William T. Anderson to George A. Myers, Cleveland, Ohio, 4 May 1898, 3 June 1898, George A. Myers Papers, Box 6, Folders 3 nad 4, Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio. Under Fire W ith The T enth U.S. Cavalry,” Cavalry p. 291. 29 Cashin, “Under With Tenth Under Fire W ith The T enth U.S. Cavalry With Tenth Cavalry,,” p. 110; Marvin A Kreidberg and 30Cashin, “Under Merton G. Henry, “History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army Army,, 17751945,” pp. 159-162. Theophilus G. Steward to the adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 5 July 1898, Sleeted ACP, T.G. Steward, RG 94, NA; Special Orders No. 180, Adjutant General’s Office, War Department, Washington, D.C., 2 August 1898; Alexander, Battles and Victories, pp. 355-362. Blacks and the Military in American History,” History p. 81. 31Foner, “Blacks The Black Soldier and Officer in the U.S. Army 32Fletcher, “The Army, 1891-1917,” p. 155. The Black Military Experience in the American W est 33Carroll, “The West est,” p. 525. 34"Army and Navy Journal,” 37, September 23, 1899. p. 238. 35T. G. Steward, “The Negro Not Inferior,” Army and Navy Journal 41, November 21, 1903, p 290. Fifty Years 36Steward, “Fifty ears,” pp. 348. 37John E. Lewis, to the editor Illinois Record Record, August 13, 1898, during the San Juan Hill battle, 1st sergeant Saint Foster, 1st sergeant William H. Givens, 1st sergeant John Buck, and sergeant Thompson, of the 10th cavalry would command there troops when their

officers where either wounded or killed. ”Under Fire with the 10th Cavalry ,” F. Cavalry,” 38Cashin, Alexander, Anderson, Brown, Bivins,”Under Tennyson Neely, Publisher, New York, 1899. pp.359, 360, 361. 39 Benjamin O. Davis, had served during the Spanish American war with the 8th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, in 1898, as a 1st lieutenant, after the war he enlisted in the 9th cavalry as private with a view to getting a regular army commission, at the time he was commissioned he was serving as a Squadron Sergeant Major. He would eventually become the first black regular army general during World War II. He would retire from the army in 1948 after 50 years service, he died in 1970 in Chicago, ILL. ”America’ ”America’ss First Black General, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr Sr.. 1880-1970,” 40Marvin E. Fletcher,”America’ University Press of Kansas, 1989, pp.14,15. John H. Allen ar 41John Allen, Army service Experiences Questionnaire ,”Spanish-American W War ar.. Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion V eterans Research Project,” Veterans Project,”Department of the Army U.S. Army Military History Research Collection Carlisle Barracks, Pa. 1969. Allen served with the 6th Vigrina, as Quartermaster Sergeant, 1898-1899, and with 48th Volunteer’s as Regimental Commissary Sergeant, 1899-1901. ”Colored Citizen,” November 11, 42Letter from Captain William B. Roberts, in Topeka,”Colored 1898, Roberts was Captain of Company F. 23rd Kansas Volunteer Infantry, he was from the town of Parsons Kansas. 43There were also State Volunteer units with black officers these included, the 9th Battalion of Ohio National Guard Guard Guard, and 8th Illinois National Guard,with all black officers, irginia V olunteers with white and black officers, the 3rd North Carolina Volunteers the the 6th V Virginia Volunteers with all black officers, two Indiana companies A,B National Guard, Company L 6th Massachusetts V olunteer olunteers, all white officers, 23rd KanVolunteer olunteer,, Third Alabama V Volunteers, sas V olunteer Infantry Volunteer Infantry,, all black officers. Of those black state Volunteers their were three black colonels, there were twelve black majors.Two other black major’s were commissioned in the Volunteers as paymasters C.Wright and John Roy Lynch, Lynch would later on be appointed a captain in the regular army in 1901, and would retire in 1911 as a major. Gazette, 44Letter from George W. Prioleau, to H. C. Smith, October.,1898, Cleveland Gazette October 22, 1898 45John E. Lewis, to the “Illinois Record” December 3, 1898. 46 Richmond Planet, 27 Aug 1898. 47 ANJ 37 (12 May 1900): 869. "Dispatch” (Richmond, Va.). 48"Dispatch” eekly Blade,” July 1, 1899; A.R. Abbott, “Negro Soldiers for the 49 See also “Parsons W Weekly Philippines,” Anglo-American Magazine, II(November, 1899), 453-457. 50The activities of black regulars in the Philippine Islands between 1899 through 1902 are chronicled in the Regimental Records of the 24th and 25th Infantry, and 9th and 10th Cavalry, Record Group 94, National Archives.The first black troops to arrive were companies of the 24th Infantry and 25th Infantry they arrived in Manila in mid July, 1899. Personal Interview with Samuel N. W aller Waller aller,, who was serving with Co.K and G, 24th Infantry, April 4, 1899 to April 3, 1902, during the war with Spain he had served in the 10th U.S. Cavalry, with author Los Angeles, Ca 1976, also at the California Veterans home Yountville, 1978-79. 51Francis B. Heitman, Histroical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, volume 2. P, 451-474, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1903. Samuel N.

Waller aller,, interview Los Angeles, CA, with author 1976. ”The Samuel N. W aller 52Samuel Waller aller,, interview interview, Yountville, CA, with author 1979. William G. Muller,”The Twenty-Fourth Infantry Past and Present.” Present.”pp36,37 53 These black soldiers were awarded Certificates of Merit between October 6, 1899, and December 7,1900, 1st sergeant Jacob W W.. Stevens Stevens, 24th Infantry, sergeant Tennie Cranshaw Cranshaw, 24th Infantry, privates John Smith Smith, Earnest Stokes Stokes, 24th Infantry, corporal, John H. Johnson Clark 24th Infantry, private Benjamin Johnson, 24th Infantry, private Lig J. Clark, H. Goode, 24th Infantry, private Amos Stuckey, 24th Infantry, private Samuel Copland, 24th Infantry, private Edward M. Monroe, 24th Infantry, private Gus J. Williams, 24th Infantry, private George W. Fearington, 9th Cavalry, sergeant James R. Lightfoot, 25th Infantry, Musician Joseph White, 24th Infantry, sergeant Richard Miller, 9th Cavalry. Sergeant Richard Miller, had also served during the Civil War, enlisting in 1864, he would retire from the army as Regimental Supply Sergeant of the 9th Cavalry in 1905. 54 Regimental Returns 25th Infantry, July 1900, National Arivhes, Record Group 94. T. H. Wiseman, to the editor The Freeman(Indianapolis, June 23, 1900, Wiseman was serving in Co. K, 25th Infantry. 55 John H. Nabkivell,”The History of the Twenty-Fifth Regiment United States Infantry,” The Smith-Brooks Printing Company, Denver, Colorado, 1927,pp109,110. 56Dalbert P. Green, enlisted in the army in 1886, he served with the 25th Infantry from private to Regimental Supply Sergeant he would retire from the army in 1916, at the time he was stationed at Schofield Barracks, in Hawaii, with the 25th Infantry. I found that he was recommended as the letter shows, but I have not been able to find him listed among those in the official records.John H. Nabkivell,”The History of the Twenty-Fifth Regiment United States Infantry,”The Smith-Brooks Printing Company, Denver, Colorado, 1927,pp109,110. 57 CG, DIV PI, Manila, 8 Feb 1901, to AGO, AGO File 355163.See Regimental Records of the 48th and 49th Infantry, Record Group 94 National Archives, these black soldiers were Commissioned, 48th U.S.V. Infantry, Captains: James E. Hamlin, Leon W. Denison, Robert R. Rudd, James W. Smith, William H. Jackson, Thomas Grant, Alexander V. Richardson, William A. Hawkins, John J. Oliver, Stephen G. Starr, William H. Brown, John Buck, First Lieutenants: Jerry M. White, Charles C. Caldwell, John W. Brown, Jacob C. Smith, James F. Powell, John H. Anderson, Peter McCown, Hammond J. Parker, Lewis M. Smith, William H. Allen, Frank W. Cheek, William W. Purnell. Second Lieutenants: James B. Coleman, John K. Rice, Wilson Ballard, Joseph Moore, David B. Jeffers, Lincoln Washington, Walter Green, Joseph C. Andrews, Frank R. Chisolm, Green F. Marion, Charles B. Turner, George W. Taylor, Herbert E. Gee, Walter H. Loving. 49th U.S. V. Infantry, Captains: Robert Gage, William M. Hawkins, Emmanuel Bass, Floyd H. Crumbly, Edward L. Baker Jr, John C. Proctor, Robert G. Woods, Thomas Campbell, Frank R. Steward, Charles W. Jefferson, William R. Staff, William D. Edwards, Gilbert C. Smith, Hamilton H. Blunt. First Lieutenants: David J. Gilmer, William H. Butler, Leon H. Jordan, Thomas C. Butler, James H. Thomas, Macon Russell, William D. Pritchard, Charles Spurlock, Charles Perry, Lafayette A. Tillman, Ebbert W. Maden, Robert Blakeman, William Blaney, William C. Warmsley. Second Lieutenants: Alfred M. Ray, William McBryar, Wyatt Huffman, Beverly Perea, George E. Payne, Robert L. Gough, Leander W. Hayes, Horace F.

Wheaton, Henry F. Walls, Guilford E. Campbell, James M. Dickerson. 27 of these soldiers had served for at least 20 years as non-commissioned officers in the regular army, two were holders of the “Medal Of Honor,” and two others holders of the “Certificate Of Merit.” Of these black volunteer officers only three would still hold there commissions after the Filipino War, Walter H. Loving, with the Philippine Constabulary, Edward L. Baker and David J. Gilmer and George S. Thompson and Richard Newton with the Philippine Scouts. 58RichardJohnson,”MyLifeInTheU.S.Army,1899to1922,” Unpublished Autobiography,1969 U.S. Army Military History Research Collection.pp3,4,5,7,11,12,13,16,17,20, Richard Johnson served from 1899 to his retirement in 1922, as is already noted in the text he served in the 48th Volunteer’s after that he would serve in the 25th Infantry in the islands and in Montana, in 1904 he joined the Medical Corps, serving in the U.S. and the Philippines, after his retirement he stayed in the islands, during World War II, he was caught in the calamity of the fall of the islands to the Japanese, and was interned for the duration. After the war he moved back to the U.S. to New England. 59Middleton Saddler,to”The Freeman, (Indianapolis) November 18, 1899. Middleton Saddler, joined the army in 1887, he served in the 25th Infantry, in Co. K, and as Battalion sergeant major, from 1889 to 1902, he was appointed Post Q.M. sergeant, in early 1902, he would retire from the army in 1917, after his retirement he moved his family to Oakland, California, and became a prominent East bay minister. 60 John W. Galloway to editor, Cleveland Gazette, November 19, 1899. 61 Richmond Planet, February 3, 1900. 62 William R. Fulbright, to the editor, June 10, 1901. 63 Robert L. Campbell to Booker T. Washington, December 24, 1900 Washington Papers; Campbell 17 years later in France during WW1 as 1st Lieut 368th Infantry 92nd Infantry Division would be awarded the DSC. Milwaukee Wisconsin Weekly Advocate, May 17, 1900. 64Patrick Mason, to the editor”Cleveland Gazette,” September 25, 1900. At the time of this letter Patrick Mason was a sergeant with Co. I, 24th Infantry, ironically some weeks after this letter Mason was killed in combat. Enlisted with twenty–eight years continuous service, Ft D. A. Russell, WY, 9 Dec 1898; appointed corporal, at Ft Douglas, UT, 23 Jan 1899; promoted to sergeant, 3 Feb 1899. Muster Roll, Co.I 24, Jan–Feb 1899.Reduced to private, 3 May 1899. Muster Roll, I/24, May–Jun 1899.Sick in first Reserve Hospital, Manila, Philippines, since 24 Aug 1899; disease contracted in line of duty. Muster Roll, Co.I 24, Jul–Aug 1899.Absent sick at Convalsecent Hospital, Corregidor island, since 24 Aug 1899. Muster Roll, Co.I 24, Sep–Oct 1899.Absent at Cabanatuan, Philippines, since 23 Dec 1899. Muster Roll, Co.I 24, Nov–Dec 1899.Letter from Corregidor, 19 Nov 1899. Gatewood, “Smoked Yankees”, 257. Record Group 94 National Archives. 65John W. Calloway to the editor, no date, in Richmond Planet, September 30, 1899. For his court martial, see the correspondence in #17043, #198322, and #356799, Adjutant General’s reports National Archives, Record Group 94. 66Stephen Bonsal,”Negro Soldier in War and Peace,”North American Review, CLXXXVI, 1907, pp326. Manila Times, July 9, October 15, 1901. 67 Williard Gatewood Jr.,”Black Americans and the White Man’s Burden 1898-

1903,” University of Illinois Press, 1975. pp287,288. 68David Fagan,”Record of Events,” Regimental Returns, 24th Infantry, November 28, 1899. 69Rienzi B. Lemus, to the editor, no date, in Richmond Planet, November 11, 1899. 70Manila Times, July 9, October 15, 1901. 71 Funston,”Memories of Two Wars,”pp376,380. 72Funston,”Memories of Two Wars,”pp 430,431. 73 “New York Times, October 29, 1900. Funston,”Memories of Two Wars,”pp376,380, 430,431. Indianapolis Freeman, December 14, 1901. 74 San Francisco, Chronicle, dateline Washington, DC, 7 Feb 1902:”DuBose, Russell, E/9Cav, hanged yesterday; belonged to “a negro regiment. While their troop was operating against the insurgents in the province of Albay last August these men deserted and were afterward discovered serving in the ranks of the enemy,”ANJ 26 Aug 1901, AGO Special Order 80, Department of California, 16 Dec 1901. 75Army and Navy Journal, June 28, 1902, January 11,1902. 76Gianakos,”Spanish-American War and Double Paradox.” 48-49 77Rienzi B. Lemus, to editor of Richmond Planet Planet,, November 4, 1899. "Army and Navy Journal,” August 2, 1902. 78"Army 79Rienzi B. Lemus, to the editor Richmond Planet, November 4, 1899. Interview with Samuel N. W aller former private Co. K and G, 24th Infantry, Yountville, California, 1978. Waller C. W. Cordin, to editor, Cleveland Gazette, March 17, 1900. ”My Life In The U.S. Army Army,, 1899-1922.” 80Richard Johnson,”My George H. White 1901 White, of Edgecombe County N.C. was White, Army & Navy Journal, 1901. 81George a graduate of Howard University, a successful Lawyer, and the last Black to serve in the U.S. Congress(1897 to 1901), until the 1920’s for his famous valedictory speech in the House of Representatives, see Congressional record, 56 Congress, 2nd Session pp. 163438.It is interesting that of the four black regiments three were stationed in the cold north, the 25th Infantry was sent to Fort Niobrara, in Nebraska, the 24th Infantry was sent to Fort Missoula, Montana, the 10th Cavalry, to Fort Robinson Nedraska, Nedraska Only the 9th Cavalry was able to get a station in a mild climate, they were stationed in California, at San Francisco, and Monterey Monterey.. 82 Thompson had served from 1884 with the 24th Infantry, 10th Cavalry and 25th Infantry, he received his commission in 1905 and would serve in the Philippine Island’s until his dismissal from the Army in 1910, GO 29, AGO, 21 Feb 1910. “Convicted by general court martial, Camp Daraga, Albay, Philippines, of conduct unbecoming an Officer and Gentleman, charges were “immorality with native woman, allowing enlisted men to violate quarantine, and borrowing money from his first sergeant, 48th Co, Philippine Scouts. 83Cleveland Gazette Gazette, 25 Dec 1915.VA Pension File XC 2653514 on file in Veterans Benefit Office, rather than NationalArchives. ”History of the 10th Cavalry ,” p.38-41 84 Glass,”History Cavalry,” "Reminiscences of an Active Life ynch,” John 85"Reminiscences Life, The Autobiography of John Roy L Lynch,” Hope Franklin, The University of Chicago Press, 1970 P 406. John R. L ynch was commissioned first in the volunteers as a Major and paymaster 86John Lynch in 1898, in 1901 he was commissioned a regular army Captain. John E. Green at the time of his commissioning on February 2, 1901 was a corporal in the 24th Infantry, he would serve in the 25th Infantry, from 2nd lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonel over the next 28 years, he would retire in 1929. Benjamin O. Davis was serving as Sqd. Sgt.

Maj. with the 9th Cavalry at the time he received his commission. He would serve for the next forty seven years and would retire as Brigadier General in 1948. Colonel Green like Davis would have a son who would graduate from West Point, B.O.Davis Jr Jr,, in 1936, and Robert W W.. Green in 1950. Colonel Green died in 1965 in Oakland, California. ,” 87T.G.Steward, “The Colored Regulars, in the United States Army Army,” Philadelphia A.M.E.Book.,pp.299,327.These noncommissioned officers were commissioned for gallantry in the Cuban Campaign, 1st sergeant Peter McCown, 1st sergeant John Buck, sergeant W illiam H. Brown, Sergeant Joseph Moore, 1st sergeant W illiam William William Washington, 1st sergeant John C. Proctor illiam Mcbryar yatt Proctor,, sergeant W William Mcbryar,, sergeant W Wyatt Huffman, sergeant Macon Russell, sergeant Andrew J. Smith, sergeant John G. Beckham, 1st sergeant W illiam H. Franklin, 1st sergeant Alexander Richardson, 1st William sergeant Alexander W illiams, 1st sergeant Edward W illiams, sergeant W illiam Williams, Williams, William Wilkes, sergeant Benjamin F oods, private Thomas C. F.. Sayer Sayer,, 1st sergeant Robert G. W Woods, Butler Butler,, saddler sergeant Jacob C. Smith, saddler sergeant John W W.. Brown, sergeant Stephen Starr Starr,, QM sergeant Joseph L. Jones, Sergeant Major Edward L. Baker Baker,, Sergeant Major John H. Anderson, Regimental QM sergeant Alfred M. Ray Ray,, 1st ser ser-illiams H. Givens, 1st sergeant Saint Fosgeant John C. Pendergrass, 1st sergeant W Williams ter -sergeant James R. Gillespie.of Gillespie. these ter,, sergeant Elisha Jackson Post Quartermaster Quartermaster-sergeant non-commissioned officers, Edward L Baker, William McBryar were holders of the Medal of Honor, McBryar was awarded his during the late 1880’s in Arizona. ”My life in the U.S. Army 88Retired Master Sergeant Richard Johnson,”My Army,, 1899-1922,” unpublished manuscript, U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, January, 1969 89YOUNG, Charles U.S. Army Born in KY, 1868;United States Military Academy graduate. Leslie’s Weekly 87 (25 Aug 1898): 143.Biographical article in Colored American Magazine, 4 (Jan–Feb 1904): 249–50.On graduation from military academy, assigned to A/25th Infantry, Ft Custer, MT. ANJ 27 (12 Oct 1889): 122.Second Lieutenant, 9th Cavalry; mentioned as 1889 graduate of U.S. Military Academy. Billington, New Mexico’s Buffalo Soldiers, p.190.”A colored man, graduate of West Point, joined the post [Ft Robinson, NE] for duty.” Corliss, Diary, II, 28 Nov 1889.Arrived at Ft Robinson, after graduation leave; assigned to B/9th Cavalry; transferred to Ft Duchesne, UT, with unit. Post returns, Ft Robinson, Nov 1889–Sep 1890.Mentioned. ANJ 27 (16 Nov 1889) and 27 (18 Jan 1890).Commander, Ft Robinson, to Young, 5 Apr 1890, complains of his “tactical errors” as officer of the guard. LS, Ft Robinson. Commander, Ft Robinson, to Young, 28 Apr 1890, reprimands him for neglect of stable duty. LS, Ft Robinson. Young has had more consideration than any white officer; commander hopes he will improve. CO, Ft Robinson, through AAG, DP, to AG, USA, 7 May 1890, LS, Ft Robinson.Young required to vacate his quarters; Major Randlett’s quarters to be considered two sets when he vacates and Young will be allowed to choose one of them. CO, Ft Robinson, to Post QM, 24 Jun 1890, LS, Ft Robinson.Granted forty–five days leave from Ft Duchesne. ANJ 28 (20 Jun 1891): 732. Officer–in–charge and teacher, post school, Ft Duchesne, 1 Nov 1892–30 Apr 1893. Reports of Post School, Ft Duchesne.At Ft Duchesne with 9th Cavalry, then transferred to Wilberforce University as professor of militayr science, then to L/9th Cavalry. Clark, “History of the Twenty–fourth United States Infantry,”11–12.To succeed Lieutenant Alexander as military instructor, Wilberforce University. Cleveland Gazette, 26 May 1894. On detached service from Ft Robinson at Wilberforce University from 1 Sep 1898. On

three–officer board investigating vandalism at Ft D. A. Russell, Post return, Ft Robinson, Sep 1894. Directed to appear before examination board, Ft Leavenworth, KS, by Special order 208, Adjutant General’s Office, 3 Sep 1896.In Leavenworth for promotion examination, could not get accommodations in town and had to stay in Kansas City, MO. ANJ 34 (19 Sep 1898): 40.Military instructor at Wilberforce, passed examination at Leavenworth for promotion to first lieutenant; now paid $1,800 per year, “has a handsomely furnished home free, and is only 32 years old.” Cleveland Gazette, 12 Dec 1896. Relieved from duty at Wilberforce to command battalion of OH colored volunteers; said to be first instance in which colored officer has commanded battalion in Army. Richmond Planet, 21 May 1898.Commander, I/9th Cavalry, Ft Duchesne, as of 31 Dec 1900. Hamilton, “History of the Ninth Cavalry,” 102.Captain, I/9th Cavalry, Nov 1901. ANJ 39 ( 9 Nov 1901): 234.”The colored officer of the Ninth Cavalry, who will in future be stationed at the Presidio, was a great favorite on the Sheridan coming from Manila to San Francisco, and was in great demand. His skin is of the darkest hue of the race, but he is exceedingly clever, a West Point graduate, and a pianist of rare ability.” Indianapolis Freeman, 27 Dec 1902.At the Presidio of San Francisco, 1902. See FARRINGTON, George, Private, I/9th Cavalry. Lieutenant B. R. Tillman, son of Banjamin R. Tillman, “the South Carolina Negro hater,” gave banquet to number of Army officers, including Captain Young; when asked if he had made a mistake inviting Young, he said,”No, he is a gentleman and a friend of mine.” Indianapolis Freeman, 31 Jan 1903.Selected for duty as military attache’ to Haiti and San Domingo. S Indianapolis Freeman, 4 Jun 1904.Young’s letterfrom Wilberforce, OH, 29 Jun 1907, solicits funds to build monument to Paul Lawrence Dunbar; $500 collected so far, mostly from whites. Cleveland Gazette, 3 Aug 1907. WY. Wyoming Tribune, 5 Aug 1911.To be promoted to major in the autumn; will command third squadron, 9thCavalry, and have highest rank achieved except for chaplains. Cleveland Gazette, 12 Aug 1911.Went to Liberia with three young men of his choosing to organize and equip the Liberian army, including Wilson Ballard, Major, Liberian Defense Forces, who stayed five years; Young replaced in 1916 by John Green, who continued to help government settle its many border disputes. Fletcher, “The Negro Soldier and the United States Army,” 172, 178Assigned to military attache’ duty in Liberia; soon to be major. Cleveland Gazette, 6 Jan 1912. Accompanied to Liberia by three bright young Afro–American collegemen to organize Liberian constabulary; they havemilitary titles conferred by Liberian government and include Dr. (Captain)Arthur M. Brown, at $1,600 per year and quarters. Cleveland Gazette, 10 Feb 1912. Just promoted, on duty as military attache in Liberia;holds highest rank of any Negro in Regular Army; graduate of U.S. MilitaryAcademy, “quiet, unassuming and very popular.” Wyoming Tribune,14 Sep 1912. Mentioned. Work, Negro Yearbook, 1912, 77.Led successful Liberian effort to suppress revolt of coastal Croo tribe. Cleveland Gazette, 15 Feb 1913.Slightly wounded in action in recent conflict with Liberiannatives. Cleveland Gazette, 5 Apr 1913.”An army officer in Washington, D.C., is authority for the following ‘tribute’ to Young’s discretion: ‘Army ettiquette requires that all officers at a post make a call on a newcomer, an officer, at the earliest possible moment after his arrival. Major CharlesYoung, who was stationed at a post where I was, waited as long as possible, and then having ascertained beyond adoubt that the new officer was not at home, called and left his card. It goes to show Major Young’s appreciation ofhis position.’ RATS!” Cleveland Gazette, 11 Apr 1914.To command Haitian constabulary although he wants to resumecommand of his battalion of the 10th Cavalry on the Mexican border in AZ. Cleveland Gazette, 12 Feb 1916.Awarded Spingarn Medal by

Governor S. W. McCall of MA at meeting of National Association for the Advancement of ColoredPeople; medal for “the Afro–American male or female, who has made the highest achievement, during the preceding year in any field of elvevated or honorable human endeavor.” Cleveland Gazette, 26 Feb 1916. Received Spingarn medal for work in organizing and training Liberian constabulary. Cleveland Gazette, 4 Mar 1916.”Young Promoted!” to lieutenant colonel. Cleveland Gazette, 15 Jul 1916.Led in fight against Pancho Villa at Aguas Calientes, Chihuahua, Mexico; charged on horseback and routed enemy without fire; led 10th Cavalry to resuce of 13th Cavalry at Santa Cruz de Villegas, Chihuahua, 1916; Major Frank Tompkins of 13th said, “By God, Young, I could kiss every black face outthere;” Young, unsmiling, responded, “Well, Tompkins, if you want to, you may start with me.” Clendenen, Blood on the Border, 257, 259.Camp No. 24, National Indian War Veterans, Washington, D.C., firstall–black camp and bears his name, meets at U.S. Soldiers Home butmembership drawn from city as well as home. Winners of the West 6 (May 1929): 1.Biographical sketchin Logan and Winston, eds., Dictionary of American negro Biography, 677–79. ) 90Regimental Returns, 9th and 10th Cavalry, and 24th and 25th Infantry, June, 1908 through December 1913. RG 94, NA. Retired Staff Sergeant Jesse Coleman Interview with author Phoenix, Arizona, 1975, 91Retired Sergeant Coleman served with the 25th Infantry from 1913 to 1940, during World War 11, he served with the QMC., retiring from the Army in 1947. Interview with Samuel N. W aller 92Interview Waller aller,, Yountville Ca, 1976. ar 93John H. Allen, Army service Experiences Questionnaire, “Spanish-American W War ar.. Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion V eterans Research Project,” Department of the Veterans Army U.S. Army Military History Research Collection Carlisle Barracks, Pa. 1969. Allen served with the 6th Vigrina, 1898-1899, with 48th Volunteer’s 1899-1901. 94Retired Master Sergeant Richard Johnson,””My life in the U.S. Army Army,, 1899-1922,” unpublished manuscript, U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, January, 1969, p 2. Johnson served in the 48th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, from 1899 to 1901, he served with the 25th Infantry from 1901 to 1904, and with the Medical Corps, from 1904 to 1922. 95Interview with Samuel Waller, Yountville Ca, 1976. George.S. Schuyler “Black and Conservative,” Arlington House, New Rochelle, New York, 1966, p36. Schuyler served with the 25th Infantry, from 1912 to 1917, he served in Co B, and H, during World War 1, he was commissioned a 1st lieutenant, and assigned to Camp Grant, Illinois, and was discharged after the War in 1919. Interview with Retired Master Sergeant John Campbell, Phoenix, Arizona, 1975. John 96Interview served with the 9th cavalry 1911-1914, Mounted Service Detachment Colored, Fort Riely, Kansas, 1914-1917 with the 92nd Infantry Division 317th Ammunition train during World War I, with the 10th cavalry 1919-1923, and the QMC 1923-1935, and the 25th Infantry 1935-1942, and back with the 92nd Infantry Division 1942-1945. 97Johnson, “My life in the U.S. Army 1899-1922,” p7. Retired CWO John Clarke, Interview with author Berkeley, California, 1977. Clarke 98Retired enlisted in the army in 1907, and was assigned to the 10th Cavalry, during the First World War, he was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant, after the war he served again with the old 10th horse. In 1929 he was promoted to Warrant Officer and assigned to the 9th Cavalry, Clarke served with the 9th until the later part of 1944 when he retired from the Army.

”Black and Conservative,” p34. 99 Schuyler,”Black ”Black and Conservative, “ P57. 100Schuyler’s”Black 101Chicago Broadax Broadax, 29 Jun 1904. "Adjutant General’ eam of 1904, 102"Adjutant General’ss Report 1904,” Competition of the Army Cavalry T Team Held at Fort Riley 1-17, 1904 Riley,, Kansas, August 1 11-17, 1904. Sergeant Benjamin A. Anderson Anderson, served 20 years in the 10th Cavalry, in late 1904 he was appointed Post QM Sergeant U. S. Army, served sa such his last ten years in the army. “Competition of the Army Cavalry Team of 1903, Held at Fort Sheridan, Illinois Illinois, August 25, 26,and 28, 1903. G.O. 101, section 111, p45-59, 1905. Abraham Hill, served with the 24th Infantry for over 30 years he served in Company B, from 1883 to 1906 in that year he was promoted to Regimental Color Sergeant, Sergeant Hill retired from the Army in 1913. 103Anthony L. Powell, “The Black Soldier Athlete 1881-1940,” 1976. John H. Nankivell, “History of the 25th Infantry”, 1926, p.163-173.: Indianaplis Freeman, 28 Nov 1903. Army Infantry”,1926, and Navy Journal, 19. 25 July 1903, p. 1185. February 8, 1909, p. 797. March 10, 1906, p. 784; March 28, 1908, p. 797, July 11, 1908, p. 1243; March 19, 1910, p. 859; March 18, 1916, p. 945. 104Schuyler’s.””Black and Conservative,” p56. 105E. L. N. Glass, “History of the 10th Cavalry Cavalry,,1921.” pp54,55,61,63,66.Acme Printing Company, Tucson, Arizona. John Buck was a soldier who had served during the Indian Campaigns of the late 1880’s, in Arizona. During the Spanish-American War, he took command of his troop, which was troop B, of the 10th Cavalry, after the officer in command had been wounded, later he served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 9th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, and as a Captain of the 49th U.S. Volunteer Infantry, after the Insurrection, he went back into the ranks as NCO, and would retire from the 10th Cavalry as a Regimental Color Sergeant, in 1908. He was the manager of the 10th Cavalry baseball team, from 1902 to 1908. ”The Black Soldier Athlete 1881-1940,” 1976. John H. Nankivell, 106Anthony L. Powell,”The “History of the 25th Infantry” Infantry”,, 1926, p.163-173. ”History of the 25th Infantry”,1926 Infantry”,1926, p.163-173.John L. Thompson, 107John H. Nankivell,”History ”The Bystander History of Colored Officers Training Camp,”The Bystander,, ‘ Des Moines, Iowa, 1917. p.61. Anthony L. Powell “The Black Soldier Athlete 1881-1940,” 1976. ”The Black Soldier Athlete 1881-1940,” 1976. John H. Nankivell, 108Anthony L. Powell,”The enth Cavalry”, “History of the 25th Infantry”,1926, p.163-173. Glass, “History of the T Tenth p.92. Army and Navy Journal 109Army Journal, September 11, 1915, p1385. ”Black and Conservative,” p56. 110Schuyler’s.”Black ”History of the10th Cavalry ,1921.” 111E.L.N.Glass,”History Cavalry,1921.” ,1921.”pp54,55,61,63,66. Acme Printing Company, Tucson, Arizona ”Statesman” ”Soldier Boys Make Fine Showing,” 112Newspaper,Denver,Colorado,”Statesman” ”Statesman”1/21/11,”Soldier Joseph Woodfork served with the 9th Cavalry from 1898 to 1924, he would retire as a 1st Sergeant. "The Burlington Free Press, 3 May, 1913. E.L.N. Glass, “History of the 10th Cavalry 113"The Cavalry,, 1921.” 1921.”pp66. Acme Printing Company, Tucson, Arizona. 114Interview with (Ret).CWO John Clarke, Oakland, Ca, 1980, (Ret) Major’s Bill Royston and Kenny Thomas, Richmond, Ca, 1981. ,” p38, ANJ, 18 March, 1899,p 684; 30 August 115Glass, “History of the 10th Cavalry Cavalry,” 1902, p 1325, Wilford O Thompson, would be the last white band leader of the 24th

Infantry, he served with it from 1897 to 1908, at that time he was transferred to the 9th Infantry band. 116 Regimental Returns 24th Infantry, March 1904, ANJ, 30 August, 1902. AGO 512625, ANJ, 27 February 1909, p 716; 25th Infantry Band Concert Programs from 1900-1927 ”Keep Step T o The Music Of The Union,” Anthony L. Powell, part of the authors collection,”Keep To Black Heritage, Vol. 19, No. 5; May-June, 1980. 117Scott to Taft, 12 December 1906, box 5, BTW, Papers; Scott to R.W. Thompson, 26 October 1908, box 42, BTW, Papers; Elting E. Morison, ed., “The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt,” 6:1365. Scott to several newspaper editors, 19 December 1908, box 378, BTW, Papers, Scott to Charles W. Anderson, 3 June 1907, box, 35, BTW, Papers, Only four black illiams of the 25th Infantry, Wade Hammond of the 9th Cavalry, Alfred J. men, Elbert W Williams Thomas, of the 10th Cavalry, and Edward Polk of the 24th Infantry, would be advanced that first year. Interview with Edith Loving, the wife of Walter H. Loving, Oakland,California, 1980118Interview ouch,” 1982. Claiborne T. Richardson, “The Filipino-American Phenomenon: The Loving T Touch,” o The Music Of The Union,” vol. 19, No 5, May-June, p5,6,7,13. Powell’s “Keep Step T To 1980, Black Heritage. 119 Regimental Returns 10th Cavalry , 25th Infantry, 1899-1908. The Chicago Defender 120The Defender, 19 October October,, 1912 1912;; Judson Ehrbar, Register, Julliard School of Music, Regimental Returns 10th Cavalry, May to July, 1909. Thomas would also serve in France as a 1st Lieutenant with the 92nd Division. Leslie V 121Leslie V.. King King, next to Walter H. Loving, was one of the best black bandleaders, he served in the army until 1935, interview with Leslie King Jr Jr.. 1972-1984, Most of Mr King’s military and band documents are part of the authors collection. Defender, 18 May, 1912; The Crisis 5:2(December, 1912):63. ANJ, 22 122 The Chicago Defender August 1914, p.1648; The Crisis 9:5, March, 1915: 218, Wade Hammond would serve in the 10th Cavalry, from 1922-1931, and with the 25th Infantry, 1931-1940. After retirement from the army he moved to Phoenix, Arizona, and was the founder and first President of the Phoenix Chapter of the Urban League. 123 Cleveland Gazette Cleveland Gazette Gazette, 1 Dec 1906.Cleveland Gazette, 23 Feb 1907.Entered Freedmen’s Hospital, Howard University, Washington, D. C., with diabetic gangrene infection of foot, 12 Aug 1929; died 15 Aug 1929. Pittsburgh Courier Courier,, 31 Aug 1929.Died after leg amputated; employed with Interior Department until death; resided 463 New York Avenue, Northwest, Washington, D. C. New York Age Age, 31 Aug 1929.Leaves wife Luella and “a host of other relatives and friends;” remains are at John T. Rhines funeral chapel, Third and I Streets, Southwest, Washington. Washington Star Star, 23 Aug 1929.Former member and past patron, Ada Chapter, No. 2, Order of the Eastern Star. Washington Star Star, 24 Aug 1929.Former masonic grand master; members of Grand Lodge met at Masonic Temple, 1111 19th Street, Northwest, Washington, 24 Aug 1929, to arrange funeral, which is scheduled for 26 Aug 1929. Washington Star Star, 24 Aug 1929.Funeral scheduled for 1 p.m., 26 Aug 1929, with interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Washington Star Star, 25 Aug 1929.Buried at Arlington Cemetery; survived by widow, Luella M. Sanders. Chicago Defender Defender,, 31 Aug 1929. 124 Cleveland Gazette Gazette,, 24 Nov 1906. Court of Inquiry 125Court Inquiry, pp 1671-72; 1665-68; 1390; Macklin Court Martial Martial, p 239. Regimental Returns 25th Infantry, October, November, 1903, RG 94, NA. Summary Discharge, p. 301; Court of

1111 19th Street, Northwest, Washington, 24 Aug 1929, to arrange funeral, which is schedStar, 24 Aug 1929.Funeral scheduled for 1 p.m., 26 Aug uled for 26 Aug 1929. Washington Star 1929, with interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Washington Star Star, 25 Aug 1929.Buried at Arlington Cemetery; survived by widow, Luella M. Sanders. Chicago Defender Defender,, 31 Aug 1929. 124 Cleveland Gazette Gazette,, 24 Nov 1906. Court of Inquiry 125Court Inquiry, pp 1671-72; 1665-68; 1390; Macklin Court Martial Martial, p 239. Regimental Returns 25th Infantry, October, November, 1903, RG 94, NA. Summary Discharge, p. imes 301; Court of Inquiry, pp 2121-22,, ANJ ANJ, 17, November 1906, p. 314. The New York T Times imes, arfield 3 October, 1972, San Francisco Examiner Warfield arfield, of ComExaminer,, 12 February, 1973. Edward W pany B, was one of two survivors of the 1906, group of 167 men still living in 1972, Dorsie Willis was the other. Warfield was one of the 14 men a 1910 Court of Inquiry permitted to reenlist, he would stay in the army until 1919, when he was honorably discharged. wenty-Fifth Regiment of United States Infantry 126Nankivell, “History of the T Twenty-Fifth Infantry,, 18691926 1926,,pp.205, the author has an original copy of resolution of the city council of Spokane, dated December 29, 1909. 127 Nankivell’ Nankivell’ss History History,pp.133-36, Spokesman Review ,” Spokane, Washington, August 26, 1910. Sergeant John James 128Spokesman Review,” James, had served in the 25th Infantry, at the time of the fire over twenty five years, he would retire from the army in 1915 as 1st Sergeant of Company G. The Negro T rail Blazers of California 129Delilah L. Beasley, “The Trail California,” Los Angeles, 1919, p.294. Negro T rail Blazers 130Beasley, “Negro Trail Blazers,” p. 294. Selected ACP, W.E. Gladden, RG 94, NA, Returns 24th Infantry, May, June, July, 1906, January to December 1908, RG 94, NA. 131Selected ACP, O.J.W. Scott, RG 94, NA, Returns 25th Infantry March 1907, RG 94, NA. 132Selected ACP, L.A.Carter, RG 94, NA. Negro T rail Blazers 133Beasley, “Negro Trail Blazers,” p. 295. Chaplain W. E. Gladden, to Adjutant General office Washington, D.C., June, July, and August 1909, File 53910, RG 94, NA. 134Congressional Record, House, 62d Congress, 1st session(1911), p.26. 135Congressional Record, House, 63d Congress, 2d session(1914) p.11278. Army and Navy Journal, Journal June 3, 1911,p. 1216. 136Army "Army and Navy Journal,” 13 March 1909, p. 797. 137"Army "Honolulu Star Bulletin,” 1914. 138"Honolulu 139Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center And School, Student Handout, Fort Hamilton, New York. Selected ACP L.A. Carter, RG 94, NA. Negro T rail Blazers 140Beasley, “Negro Trail Blazers,” p. 295. 141Porfirio Diaz, was President of Mexico, from 1876-1911, after Diaz resigned in 1911, Francesco Madero, became President, 11 months later he was overthrown and murdered, General Victoriano Huerta, became Mexico’s next leader, after two years of his rule and with the help of the American government, he too was forced to resigned, General Carranza became the next President, and he would rule until 1920, when he met death during the revolution of General Alvaro Obregon. Francisco Villa (Doroteo Arango) was born in the state of Durango, after the shooting of a young aristocrat for the rape of his sister he joined a bandit gang in which he soon became its leader, with the outbreak of the revolution in 1911, he joined the Madero party and started with fifteen men began to organize an army, which had its ups and downs over the next decade, he was assassinated in the summer of 1923.

142Regimental Returns, 9th Cavalry, January 1912-to December 1915. 143 Returns 24th Infantry, March, 1916, March, 1917. ,” 144 Glass, “History of the 10th Cavalry Cavalry,” ,”pp.68-80.Colonel Frank Tompkins, “Chasing Villa,” illa,”pp. 48-54, 145 Interviews Rev Rev.. John A. Jeter Jeter,, who served as a Corporal of Troop C, 10th Cavalry, at his home Vallejo, California, 1975. John A. Jeter, served with the 10th Cavalry, from 1911 to 1926, Howard Queen, served in the regiment from 1913 to 1917, Howard Houston, from 1913 to 1917, all three would serve as Officer’s during the First World War. 146Clarence C.Clendenen, “Blood on the Border Border,, The United States Army and the Mexican irregulars,” The Macmillan Company, London, 1969, p307. H.B. Wharfiled, 10th Cavalry & Border Fights, p. 31. Corporal H. C. Houston letter, dated September 11, 1916. Personal interview with the Rev Rev.. John A. Jeter Jeter, who served as a Corporal of Troop C, 10th Cavalry, at his home Vallejo, California, 1975. John A. Jeter, served with the 10th CavQueen served in the regiment from 1911 to 1917, Enalry, from 1911 to 1926, Howard Queen, listed Ft Ethan Allen, VT, 13 Apr 1911; captain, 15 Oct 1917; served with 368th Infantry, World War I, in battles at Vosges Mountains, Meuse Argonne, Metz; served in World War II as colonel, 366th Infantry, in Africa, Sicily Sicily,, Italy Italy; attached to 15th Air Force, Apr–Nov 1944, guarding bases in Italy Italy,, Corsica, Sardinia Sardinia; attached to Fifth Army Nov 1944–Feb campaign retired as colonel, 30 Nov 1953 with over thirty–six years; 1945, in Rome–Arno campaign; bachelor of science in electrical engineering from Howard University, 1925; head, mathematics department, Downington (PA) Industrial and Agricultural School, 1953–54; resources examiner, Revenue Department, State of PA, as of 1965. Wharfield, 10th Cavalry and Border Fights, Fights 39.On Carrizal expedition 1916; enroute to Villa Ahumade, “our or or-ders were that the troops would move into the town in a column of twos at the gallop, and if fired upon we would use our pistols, the men on the right firing to the right and the men on the left firing to the left;” left;”. Clendenen, Blood on the Border Border, 305.Howard Houston, from 1913 to 1917.Corporal, K/10th Cavalry, on march to Carrizal, Mexico, “The water was the worst I ever drank;” walked away from fight with Corporal H. D. Queen, stole U.S. cavalry horses from Mexicans and found own lines. Clendenen, Blood on the Border Border,, 305, 310.At Carrizal. Carroll, The Black Military Experience Experience, 502.Wrote letter to sister of his commander, First Lieutenant Jerome H. Howe, 11 Sep 1916, describing fight at Carrizal; during World War I, served in France as captain. Wharfield, 10th Cavalry and Border Fights Fights,, 31. Personal interview 147Personal interview,, with author of Corporal John A. Jeter Jeter, Troop C, 10th Cavalry, Vallejo, California, 1975, 148Captain Dainel Gonzalez Corella, “The Fight at Carrizal,” included in General Alberto Salinas Carranza, La Expedition Punitive, Mexico City, 1936, p 280. 149Lewis Morey, “The Cavalry Fight at Carrizal,” Cavalry Journal, XXVII (Jan., 1917,), illiam W inrow pp. 449-56. Sergeant W William Winrow inrow,, had served in the 10th Cavalry, from the late part of 1889, and had served in all enlisted grades at the time of his death he had been 1st ill Hines Sergeant Tr.C 10th Cavalry Killed in action, Sergeant of Troop C, since 1905. W Will near Carrizal, Mexico, 21 Jun 1916. Hines Road, FT Huachuca, AZ, named for him. Orville A.Cochran to H. B. Wharfield, 5 Apr 1965, 10th Cavalry papers, MHI. Wharfield, 10th Cavalry and Border Fights, 36, 39. 150 El Paso, Times interview with Sam H. Harris Harris, Troop C, 10th Cavalry June 26, 1916 Columbus, New Mexico. Jones Troop K, 10th Cavalry, Tucson, Ari151 Houston’s letter, interview with Archie Jones,

zona, 1976. Henry C Houston ,1st Sgt Tr.K 10th Cavalry, was a Corporal, Tr.K 10th Cavalry, on the march to Carrizal, Mexico, “The water was the worst I ever drank;” I walked away from fight with Corporal H. D. Queen Queen, we stole U.S. cavalry horses from Mexicans ”The and found own lines”. Clendenen, “Blood on the Border”, 305, 310. At Carrizal. Carroll,”The Black Military Experience”, 502. Wrote letter to sister of his commander, First Lieutenant Jerome H. Howe, 11 Sep 1916, Hines Road, FT Huachuca, AZ, named for him. Orville A.Cochran to H. B. Wharfield, 5 Apr 1965, 10th Cavalry papers, MHI. Wharfield, 10th Cavalry and Border Fights, 36, 39.