realising 21st Century Learning environments: research document NSW CEFPI Mayfield 2014
re a l i s i n g c 2 1 s t l e a r n i n g e n v i ro n m e n t s
Informed by the Mayfield Project 2014 theme Inside Out – Upside Down – Joined Up and the sub-theme Relationships, the premise of engage.envision.enrich was originally developed around the school’s vision and it’s relationship to an architectural design brief. As many of the team were architects, the team were seeking a way for educators to be involved in the final built outcome especially as they would be an end user. Thus, the project sought to investigate:
Daina Cunningham Architectural Graduate -NBRS+PARTNERS Pam Doherty Architect - Billard Leece Partnership Kenny Giblin Primary Teacher - Marrickville West P.S. Cathy Kubany Architect – NSW Government Architects Office Edward La Science Teacher - Turramurra High School Noam Raz Architect - MAAP Alison Sheil Architect - Fulton Trotter Architects Lyndall Smith Architect – NSW Government Architects Office
a) the possibility of implementation of 21st Century Learning environments from a ‘grass-roots’ approach. b) a toolkit consisting of a set of spatial tools that complement 21C pedagogical approaches and engaged learning. The provocations that developed the project included: What if the school vision drove a strategic architectural brief? What if teachers and students were involved in the architectural briefing process? What if teachers were able to adapt / create 21st Century Learning environments themselves? What if there was a common language between architects and educators?
MENTORS Shayne Evans Architect - Stanton Dahl Architects Vicki Steer Principal - Ravenswood School for Girls Alastair Blyth Education Consultant - United Kingdom FACILITATORS Felicity Lewis StudioGL
Education can be encouraged from the top down but can only be improved from the ground up..â&#x20AC;? Sir Ken Robinson
Entering into the information age, education has undergone an inside-out/upside-down transformation commonly referred to as “21st Century” or “engaged” learning and teaching. The need for rapid change and the complexity of the systems (pedagogical, social, learning and spatial) affected has led to myriad approaches to the adoption of new educational paradigms. If we believe in 21st Century (21C) learning, how can others be engaged to believe in it too? From this provocation, we intended to develop a tool kit for school leaders to use to engage their stakeholders and community in developing a vision to underpin a design brief for school design in the future. What we discovered was that whole school change is BIG and takes time. However, there are many committed teachers who are ready to begin implementing engaged teaching and learning now. We got excited about harnessing their initiative by developing a tool kit of spatial considerations that could support the new pedagogical approaches.
This shift involves building more than a faster caterpillar - it demands careful redesign of all aspects of education – pedagogy, curriculum, learning spaces, resource provision and the place of education in building both local and global collaborative communities. Dr Julia Atkin
What follows is an explanation of the ‘process’ we undertook to identify this niche or gap in the implementation of 21C learning and teaching. While we started looking for the drive for change from the topdown, we found many teachers who are ready to sow and grow engagement in the microcosm of their classroom, from the bottom up.
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Kerrie Murphy Building, The International Grammar School, Sydney. Architect: Allen, Jack + Cottier. Photo by NSW GAO
vision We believe in 21st Century Learning. Our premise for the Mayfield Project 2014 began by focusing on the development of a vision for a school and its alignment with an architectural design brief for the development of modern learning environments.
Twenty-first-century learning means that students master content while producing, synthesising, and evaluating information from a wide variety of subjects and sources with an understanding of and respect for diverse cultures. Students demonstrate the three Rs, but also the three Cs: creativity, communication, and collaboration....” 3 Barnett Berry, CEO Centre for Teaching Quality
“It’s no longer enough to “know things.” It’s even more important to stay curious about finding out things.” 4 Milton Chen, Executive Director, Emeritus
“No longer does learning have to be onesize-fits-all or confined to the classroom. The opportunities afforded by technology should be used to re-imagine 21stcentury education, focusing on preparing students to be learners for life.” 5 Karen Cator, Director, US Dept of Education
To achieve a vision for 21C learning and teaching, decision makers need to engage with and improve the physical environment. Schools need to develop a strong educational vision to guide the school community in developing innovative and engaging physical environments that can be tailored to meet student needs. As a group we identified through precedents, discussions and workshops, a lack of vision and an over reliance on prescriptive, outdated facility standards. A fear of the unknown and entrenched cultures of practice were identified as impediments to change. We have observed that such impediments can generate built outcomes which fail to address changes in pedagogy. In addition to influencing decision makers, we wish to empower the school community, from the ground up, to shape learning environments to be innovative, engaging and enjoyable places to learn and teach. The exemplar projects we viewed had direct involvement from the school community including parents, students and teachers. The school’s vision was reflected in the brief, ensuring desired outcomes were achieved. It was identified, however, that school community members often lack the language or tools needed to create an effective architectural/ built environment brief and architects need greater understanding of 21C modes of learning.
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literature We reviewed literature to understand what 21C Learning or “engaged” learning and teaching was and how other schools had re-designed their curriculum and space to facilitate and support these models.
Some of the key publications that helped us develop Examples were given on how the ‘Learning Futures’ our line of inquiry and research are discussed below: schools implemented the four principles in the image Learning Futures: A Vision for Engaging Schools6 below, and the resultant benefits and outcomes. 11 articulated a number of key principles for contemporary Two years ago we asked ourselves, ‘what would future-proof our improvement?’ schools. We knew it had to be about a new level of engagement – making sure our learners and teachers were passionately involved in and excited by learning. dan moynihan, cEo harris FEdEraTion
Extended learning relationships
local businesses internet sports institutions
School as basecamp
co-construction democratic community
School as learning commons
ABOVE: Learning Futures’ four approaches to increasing engagement in schools. Image by Innovation Unit
2 The Engaging School: A Handbook for School Leaders7 described the 7 steps to becoming an engaging school (see opposite) and provided models for implementation ranging from a cross-curricular approach to withdrawal of students from their regular timetable for week long intensives. The School Works Tool Kit, 20018 helped us understand practical examples of how students could be consulted about ‘problems’ or impediments to fully engaged learning and how they could work together to discover and develop solutions. The framework below influenced our own tool kit :
Identify the “problem” (or pedagogical approach to be implemented)
Articulate the design solution
Confirm the intended outcome.
Identify the educational or management change needed
The South Australian Teaching for Effective Learning - Framework Guide,9 gives teachers the pedagogical foundations and framework to develop their teaching and give consideration for the best arrangements for learning such as student grouping, use of space and access to resources. The framework guide was based on the two national goals (opposite) from the Melbourne Declaration of 2008, to promote engaged teaching and learning.
7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Steps to becoming an Engaging School Secure commitment from stakeholders Build the case for engaged learning and empower teachers Present the case to stakeholders Develop proposals for implementation Commit to implementation Plan for implementation Implement and review
ABOVE: An excerpt from the South Australian Teaching for Effective Learning - Framework Guide.
Australian schooling promotes equity and excellence
All young Australians become successful learners, confident, creative individuals and active and informed citizens 10
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students = key collaborators
Looking at a number of publications including Designing for Education, Open the Windows, Reimagining Outdoor Learning Spaces and Changing Classrooms also allowed us to see exemplary educational facilities that had helped transform learning spaces on both a whole school and classroom specific level. What these precedents told us was the way space and pedagogy for engaged learning and teaching is designed. That is: Students are considered key collaborators and stakeholders who have input into the design process. The community is seen as a vital part of the learning process. Measurement of learning outcomes needs to be addressed to reflect these new paradigms. 21st-Century Learning and teaching requires changes to physical space, pedagogy and management of space and time, that inherently breaks down the established, traditional hierarchy. The design of 21st Century Learning and teaching spaces facilitated real-world work settings, choice, variety, nature, meaning and fun within a curriculum that leveraged technology as a key social and academic component of the learning experience.
change to measurement of outcome
physical + pedagogical change
Winanga-Li, Aboriginal Child & Family Centre, Gunnedah Designed by NSW GAO, Photo by: Brett Boardman
brief The value of a well considered architectural brief was explored by the group. As discovered in previous sections, a strong educational vision when aligned with a design brief can have a great impact on the built outcome. What are the consequences of a strategic brief versus one that is purely functional? How does the design brief differ between public and private sectors? Can engaging environments be created within a variety of budgets? We believe they can.
Typically an architect receives a project brief that lists quantitative requirements, the name of the space and the square metre area to be provided. A well considered architectural brief includes both the qualitative and quantitative requirements. Architects value and require an understanding of the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pedagogical approach so that they can create a built environment that is fit for purpose, now and into the future. An example brief statement that informs the design requirements for a space is as follows:
The .... learning environment needs to be welcoming, stimulating, safe and conducive to a variety of teaching and learning experiences. The collaboration between students and their teachers and peers will improve targeted intervention of students with specific needs, to opportunity for peer evaluation and mentoring. It should be a multifunctional, creative and engaging space. This could be achieved through vibrant use of colour, recyclable and sustainable material and modular furniture. Client of Fulton Trotter Architects
Traditional classroom of the 1940s, The Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s School Archive Collection
When preparing an architectural brief for a new facility, it is important to consider and include:
1 2 3
context statement about the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history, environment, current and future demographics description of the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vision for learning and teaching comments on learning approaches that will be employed, for example, team teaching, project based learning, individual and small groups and learning by presentation.
2 learning vision
The Bunjil Centre, Chelsea Primary School, Victoria Australia, Clarke Hopkins Clarke Architects, Photo by Rachael Dere
We believe creative minds can work with the school vision, budget, facility standards and procurement methods to produce great school environments that encourage contemporary learning. We have seen a variety of school transformations that have come about due to a well articulated vision of learning. Those of our site visits that explore this in reality are herein discussed.
For Public Schools, the government procurement structure and issues of equity and budget have led to built environments that are based on a component design range of standards. The traditional high level stakeholder procurement strategy and design process often does not include the end users. The NSW Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Local Schools Local Decisions reform will provide greater opportunity for the Principal and the school community to shape their school vision and environment.
Driven by executive policy Quantitative drivers Limited end user input Standardised facilities Prescribed suppliers
Disparities in the procurement approach were identified as the main difference shaping the built outcomes for public and private schools.
Driven by school vision with Principal championing change Qualitative drivers End user input Unique facilities Choice of suppliers
Variety of furniture allows for differentiation of space for individual through to small group work at Merrylands East Public School, Photo by NSW GAO
What can kids do in school that they can’t do out of school?” John Goh
A refurbished learning space at Merrylands East Public School; Tables and chairs have writable whiteboard surfaces and allow for small group and individual activities. Photo by GAO
Merrylands East Public School Merrylands East Public School have worked with their existing built environment over the past 3 years to create an enriching 21C School. With the school motto 'Motivate Educate Perform Succeed,' Principal John Goh and the school community have questioned "What is the way we want our kids to learn?" and "What can kids do in school that they can't do out of school?". The school has a strong environmental focus: powered by 64 solar panels, the students learn about sustainability through outdoor learning spaces, vertical gardens, a chicken hutch and a vegetable garden which is maintained by the parent community. The interconnecting walls of traditional 1960's classrooms have been removed to create one large space, often with an outdoor verandah co-located. Team teaching is typical and furniture styles are varied and arranged by the students in the space - for example years 5 & 6 have a space shared by 88 students and 3 teachers, with WiFi and furniture that encourages collaboration, project based learning, and learning by presentation.
Chicken Hutch and vegetable gardens at Merrylands East Public School, Photo by GAO
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Ravenswood School for Girls, Gordon Ravenswood’s Mabel Fidler Building, designed by BVN Architects, is the hub of the school. It accommodates state of the art learning environments, a cafeteria, student common areas and extensive undercover gathering spaces.
Learning can take place any time and anywhere...” Vicki Steer
Principal, Vicki Steer observes that much thought and consultation with students and other users occurred in the planning process from which clear design principles emerged. Learning is at the heart of the school’s activities and should be visible as you enter the school. Recognising that learning can take place any time and anywhere, all spaces should enable learning activities. Generous sized learning spaces connect to outdoor breakout areas with incidental seating as well as undercover open air “classrooms”. The Learning Resources Centre, as per student preference, is light with some colour and absolutely no bricks! The library design emphasises flexibility in student groupings and learning modes allowing for a large gathering in the tiered ‘grandstand’ area to smaller retreats for individual reading. Internal walls are made up of translucent write on glass walls adding to transparency while providing extensive collaborative surfaces. The building has significantly clarified circulation routes around the school and the inclusion of the café alongside the tuckshop enables incidental connections between staff and staff and students that promotes effective interaction.
Flexibility of furniture in Ravenswood’s Learning Resources Centre. Photo by GAO
Breakout spaces allow for teamwork and collaboration, and are tech-enabled with a variety of writable surfaces. Photo by GAO
Amphitheatre acts as a presentation space, social gathering hub and circulation, Ravenswood. Designed by BVN Architects. Photo by GAO.
Colour can be used to differentiate zones. Photo by NSW GAO.
Sociopetal furniture encourages collaboration while sociofugal furniture allows for individual reflection. Photo by NSW GAO.
Sacred Heart Primary School, Mosman
A number of learning zones provide for a variety of learning styles and modes. Photo by GAO.
Sacred Heart Primary School is a Catholic school that sits on a small corner site on Military Road, Mosman. The school was opened in 2000. Designed by Eeles Trelease Architects in association with Flower Samios, site limitations have resulted in the school being constructed over three levels on pilotis. Covered outdoor areas are integrated within the building levels. The building creates a central courtyard which is the main outdoor play area. The school received BER funding for a new hall and library which was opened in 2011. The design of these new facilities was customised to meet the specific school requirements and best fit to the existing buildings. The recent upgrade of several classrooms reflects new pedagogical approaches and is clearly focused on 21C learning modes. A variety of finishes and furniture allow for individual and small group work to occur simultaneously. A range of furniture styles allows for a variety of learning scenarios, including learning by presentation and teamwork and collaboration.
A variety of furniture and finishes provide zones for students to retreat or work individually or collaboratively. Photo by GAO.
Modular furniture allows for adaptability within the learning space layout catering for various group scenarios. Photo by GAO.
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workshops The second phase of the NSW team’s process centred on active research involving group discussions, workshops, observation through site visits and surveys. We appealed to educators, parents, students and architects to communicate what 21st Century Learning means to them.
The term ‘21st Century Learning’ is a catchphrase often thrown around, yet many people, architects and some involved in educational environments, do not know or do not agree on what it means. People are familiar with the traditional, ‘chalk and talk’ style classroom. One that is not naturally conducive to new styles of learning and pedagogy. The connotations of the phrase 21st Century Learning seem positive in contrast to the traditional model, but what does it really mean? Is it as simple as breaking away from the stringent rows of desks and chairs? What are the spatial implications and consequences? Having explored the benefit of a strong pedagogical vision in the creation of the architectural brief, the NSW team set out to explore the complexities of 21st Century Learning and ideas on implementing such a style of learning and teaching, particularly within existing learning environments. Each team member took part in discussions with architects, educators and parents to explore what can be done to engage all schools, both public and private in built solutions to support 21st Century Learning?
LEFT: Questionnaires handed out to groups of educators and architects at CEFPI’s ReLearn Conference in 2013. Photo by Peter Dodrell
4 Research began with team members questioning and collaborating with colleagues, friends and family. This quickly branched out to discussions with clients and visits to schools that were implementing 21st Century models.
ABOVE: Interactive workshop with architects at NBRS+PARTNERS exploring the crux of 21st Century Learning, its strengths and weaknesses. Photo by James Harden.
The focus was to explore peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s understanding of 21st Century Learning. Often the discussion turned to exploring what the best ways might be to broaden a dialogue and understanding among those shaping our built environment. By starting to question what they knew, participants attained insight into 21st Century Learning models.
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ABOVE: Each Mayfield team presented an update on their team’s process at the CEFPI ReLearn Conference in November 2013. The NSW team seized the opportunity to talk to professionals on the challenge of engaging people with 21st Century Learning. Photo by Peter Dodrell. BELOW: A prompt used at the ReLearn Conference as part of the workshop.
After gauging the workshop participants’ understanding of 21st Century Learning, the discussions moved to examining its strengths and weaknesses and methods of implementation. To gain an understanding of the factors around the adoption of 21C Learning approaches, architects, educators and parents were engaged in discussion using the following prompts:
Authentic Experiences Community Participation Student-led Curriculum Real World Challenges Social Collaborative Learning Learning Outside School Inquiry Based Learning Versatile Group Sizes Interdisciplinary Projects Team Teaching Learning How to Learn Just-in-Time Support Student Choice Extended Timetable Sessions Personalised Learning Stage Not Age Progression Multiple Intelligences Online Collaboration Blended Learning Net Generation Resources
What does 21st Century Learning mean to you?
1 What is your understanding of 21C Learning? 2 What are the obstacles or impediments that make it hard to embrace a 21C Learning paradigm?
3 What are some solutions and methods to begin to overcome the obstacles?
CEFPI’s ReLEARN conference in November, 2013 provided the chance to reap rich information and understanding from educators and architects who have been involved in creating and/or using 21st Century Learning environments. Those in attendance had Stephen Heppell’s words fresh in their minds, having participated in his interactive workshop that unpacked ideas about designing new spaces and transforming existing spaces.
The research reveals that engaging people to embrace 21st Century Learning occurs on a variety of levels: school management/client an individual teacher
Our research recognised that architects need to establish a common 21st Century vocabulary to liase with their clients.”
a group of teachers Any of these groups may be interested in implementing a 21st Century Learning approach and transforming their teaching space. Our research also recognises that architects need to establish a common 21st Century vocabulary to liase with their clients. Our mentors helped us focus our research and discussions towards a usable, more practical outcome such as putting tools in the hands of teachers to support and inspire “bottom-up” change. It was this approach that resonated with the Mayfield NSW team as we felt this perspective was under-represented.
BELOW: Change can be introduced at a variety of management levels. The NSW Mayfield team recognised the immediacy of possibilities by approaching implementation of 21st Century Learning at a ‘grass-roots’ level, a student-centric approach. This approach sees decisions made as a consensus between stakeholders rather than being purely directive from management.
Traditional Approach Versus 21C Approach
resources parents curriculum
curriculum parents teaching staff
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the data Following completion of the active research phase, the team went on to analyse responses to our interviews, workshops and questionnaires, and identify a common vocabulary, themes and strategies for supporting and promoting 21st Century Learning.
Sharing & Presenting
Life-Long Industry Partnerships
Collaboration + Teamwork
Project Based Learning Learning by Doing Crossdisciplinary Problem based learning
Constructivist Frameworks of Learning
Inquiry Non-linear Guide / decide
Student Centred Learning
Personalised + Differentiated
Support for Teachers Tech-Enabled Environment Accessible
ABOVE: Breaking down the meaning of 21st Century Learning from survey and discussion feedback
The team identified significant congruence amongst workshop participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; understanding of 21st Century Learning. The non-linear nature of the research responses and the subject matter lent itself to documentation in the form of mind maps (see left). 21st Century Learning was clearly associated with constructivist pedagogies and social approaches to acquiring and generating new knowledge through collaborative activities, self-guided study, and the use of new learning technologies. Student centred approaches and personalised learning were emphasised. These were associated with student choice and building studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; capacity for life long learning. Many of our subjects identified institutional obstacles to implementing new approaches. A range of approaches were identified to engage and inspire learning community stakeholders, for example, by publicising examples of success, raising theoretical awareness amongst parents, and sharing resources to improve equity of access.
Lack of evidence of the benefits
Cultural change is required
Current curriculum and Board of Studies testing methods appear to be misaligned
Facility & Design Standards
Current & next generation of educators will require ongoing professional development
STRATEGIES Engage with the profession & showcase successful examples
Involve students & start with small interventions
Include community consultation & parent involvement in learning process
Advocacy & open conversation
Opening after hours to allow public to use and see facilities available
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Readers will be able to identify approaches relevant to both major projects and small-scale dayto-day interventions in public and private sector schools.â&#x20AC;? Mayfield NSW Team
We continued our analysis by considering the main pedagogical approaches raised during the active research phase and relating them to specific educational activities and 21st Century Learning environments suited to support them. We have continued to use a structure of mind maps to set out and explore alternative approaches. The adjacent images illustrate settings, furniture and equipment which can be adopted to differentiate zones, support personalisation and respond to the varying needs of individual learners. Examples include: partitions, glazed screens, curtains and other light-weight structures which can subdivide spaces; furniture for formal and informal activities; sociopetal furniture designs arranged so that learners see and interact with each other; and the use of technology, equipment, colour and finishes to differentiate zones and activities. The photographs we have used combine examples of international best practice with local precedents so that CEFPI members can investigate and potentially visit the sites. Many examples have been recognised in recent CEFPI awards. We have deliberately shown precedents of varying scale and budget in the hope that readers will be able to identify approaches relevant to both major projects and small-scale day-to-day interventions in public and private sector schools.
RIGHT: Precedents supporting personalisation of spaces, responding to the various needs of individual learners.
Coatesville Primary School, Clarke Hopkins Clarke Architects, photo by Nicole England.
Differentiation through spatial volume and colour.
Ravenswood School, BVN. Photo by John Gollings.
Muse Bassline at Macquarie University, NBRS+PARTNERS Architects. Photo by Simon Wood.
Collaborative and social learning is encouraged through an amphitheatre that doubles as circulation.
Differentiation through colour and definition of space through variety of volumes and furniture.
Student Centred Learning Harbour Family and Childrens Centre, Melbourne, Hassell. Photo by Andrew Lloyd.
Dandenong High School, Hayball Architects. Photo courtesy of CEFPI Awards 2010.
Learning is fluid and exploratory, occuring beyond the classroom and in social contexts.
Differentiation through technology, equipment and variety of spatial volumes.
Scotch Oakburn College, Fielding Nair International.
Australian Technical College, Sunshine, Victoria, Spowers Architects, photo courtesy of CEFPI Awards, 2010.
Adaptable and responsive learning environments cater for a range of styles, activities and modes and allow for interaction with the outside world. Camberwell High School, Victoria, Hayball Architects, Photo by Dianna Snape
The team’s desire was to connect the work of educators and designers to create something tangible and useful in a variety of contexts: a framework of spatial considerations that could address the question, ‘what could 21st Century Learning’ look like in my learning and teaching space/class/school/community?
Our tool kit aims to put a set of spatial tools that complement contemporary pedagogical approaches and engaged learning, in the hands of teachers. A range of architectural design possibilities and scenarios have been illustrated which are by no means the only possibilities. The idea is that the toolkit provides users with the design vocabulary and a set of spatial vignettes with which they could extend and build upon scenarios and possible solutions to bring their own 21C learning environments to life.
The team have identified four focal points of 21st Century Learning to illustrate in detail for presentation at the CEFPI 2014 conference; teamwork and collaboration, project-based learning, learning by presentation and personalised learning. We hope that this toolkit will allow those with a vision to improve learning environments to bring it into reality. The following ‘toolkit teaser’ provides a glimpse into the final product.
How can I encourage collaboration in my learning space?
teamwork + collaboration 3
apply knowledge and skills to real life problems
project based learning
learning by presentation
I want my students to be able to choose a medium through which they are best able to show off their learning achievement.
personalised learning 13
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glossary We recognised the importance of a glossary exploring educational and architectural terms attached to 21st Century Learning. There are a number of reasons it is necessary for architects and educators to share a common vocabulary. One is that confusion exists around the many buzz words surrounding 21st Century Learning and that various people understand the terms differently. Even within our team, we discovered our architects defined certain educational terms very differently to our teachers. The glossary has been split into Educational Concepts and Spatial Concepts.
Educational concepts Age-appropriate Learning Learning activities based on an understanding of a student’s stage of cognitive, physical and socio-emotional development. Authentic Learning Exploring real world problems and issues through activities which are meaningful in relation to a student’s everyday experience. Blended Learning Education integrating on-line with face-to-face activities so that technology not only supplements but also transforms students’ learning. Collaborative Learning Approaches involving shared intellectual effort by two or more learners engaged in a common task, so that all students can maximise their learning through interaction, shared understanding and creation,. Constructivist Pedagogies Teaching practices that acknowledge how students construct knowledge and meaning through their experience, and how the role of the educator is to develop students’ learning skills through experimentation and collaboration. Pioneers of constructivist pedagogies include Piaget, Dewey, Vygotsky, and Freire amongst others. Deep vs. Surface Learning Deep-holistic immersive learning through an understanding of issues in the round, as opposed to the superficial reproduction of information. Engaged Schools Schools developing a diverse range of programs to make schools more engaging places to learn through activities such as inter-disciplinary project-based learning, learning outside the four walls of the classrooms, acknowledging students’ extended learning relationships, and encouraging parents and local employers as active partners in education. Experiential Learning Learning acquired through reflection on direct experience. David Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model emphasises a four stage cycle of learning: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation.
Inquiry-Based Learning Approach grounded in the writings of John Dewey where knowledge is built up from experience and process. Students engage in self-directed activities to identify what they need to learn and find resources to increase their understanding. Common approaches include fieldwork, case studies, and individual or group research, often using on-line resources. Learning Modalities How students use their senses in learning. Educators commonly refer to four modalities: visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile. Learning Styles Recognition that individual students differ in how they learn and their preferences for different modes of learning, for example David Kolb’s “Experiential Learning Model” and Howard Gardner’s “Multiple Intelligences”. Lifelong Learning Acknowledgement that learning does not just occur prior to entering the workforce but should sustain an individual throughout their life and career. The approach is associated both with promotion of vocational learning amongst older students, and the need to reinforce long-term versatile learning skills and a love of learning, rather than a specific curriculum. Multiple Intelligences Theory developed by Howard Gardner which acknowledges how students learn following differing cognitive abilities: musical–rhythmic and harmonic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily– kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential. Pedagogy The method and practice of teaching. Personalised Learning Differentiating the pace, approach or setting to suit the individual needs of each learner, often affording a degree of choice regarding what, when and how a subject is learned. Practice-Based Learning Learning through practical activities modelled on professional, work-place or other real world scenarios and fieldwork. Problem-Based Learning Learning about a subject through problem solving, generally in groups. Students identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information to resolve the problem. The role of the instructor is as a facilitator, supporting, guiding, and monitoring the learning process. Project-Based Learning Active and engaged learning where students explore real-world problems and challenges to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subjects studied. Reflective Practice Systematic self-improvement through educators studying their own teaching methods to determine which practices work best for students. JOINED UP -mayfield project 2014
School within School / Small Learning Community Creation of small learning communities within a larger school, each with separate educational programs, to achieve a greater sense of intimacy, improve communication, social commitment, and better meet the need of specific student cohorts. Stage not Age Progression based on each student’s personal stage of development and attainment, rather than age-based cohorts. Team Teaching Group of teachers, often representing different areas of educational approach or subject knowledge, working together to plan, conduct, and evaluate learning activities for the same group of students.
Spatial concepts “Caves, Campfires and Watering Holes” Examples of archetypal learning spaces suited to different forms of interaction and popularised by school planners and designers including Prakash Nair and Randall Fielding, and the futurist David Thornburg. The concepts have been used to inform the design of both physical and virtual environments. Collaboration Spaces Environments suited to social, interactive activities, typically conducted in pairs or small groups. Students engaged in collaborative learning benefit from each other’s differing resources, abilities and prior knowledge. Spaces need to be versatile to suit asymmetrical roles and learning styles. Differentiated Environments Spaces arranged to suit the differing needs of individual learners. Environments may be differentiated to accommodate personalised curriculum content, to suit individual learning styles, to accommodate hands-on support, or variations in the length of time learners need to complete a task. Flexible, Versatile, Agile and Adaptable Learning Spaces Spaces that can support a range of pedagogical approaches or learning styles. This can be achieved through the intrinsic versatility of a space, or elements that can be adapted to allow spaces to be used in different ways at different times. These types of spaces allow for change immediately and over time as external influences evolve. Indoor – Outdoor Connections Glazing and opening doors to allow students to move between indoor and outdoor settings to access fresh air, daylight, space to burn off pent up energy, and choose settings where they will learn best. Learning Clusters Clustering spaces to define small learning communities or curriculum areas, often around social / collaborative hubs. Transparency and connectivity between areas within the cluster can help reinforce social learning opportunities and support student choice regarding where and how to learn. Learning Commons Informal learning areas suited to independent or group study, project work and differentiated instruction, often thought of as the evolution of library environments. Learning Commons are frequently resource and IT-rich, with versatile, adaptable furnishings to support online education, collaboration, content creation and display, meetings, and independent study. Learning Studios Versatile learning areas suited to a range of different and potentially concurrent activities. Learning studios are often associated with L-shaped or irregular layouts defining distinct activity zones and breakout spaces, and equipment for practical activities. Outdoor Classroom Outdoor learning setting presenting opportunities for critical reflection, sensory stimulation and experiential education where the natural world is both the setting and subject of study.
The idea is that the toolkit provides users with the design vocabulary and a set of spatial vignettes.”
Sociopetal Space Use of environments to promote social interaction, for example seating or table arrangements that allow students to face each other and discuss a topic. Sociofugal Space Use of environments to discourage social interaction, for example the arrangement of furniture to face a single speaker, or to support private study without distraction or interruption by others. Technology Enabled Active Learning Space (TEAL) An IT-rich large group environment merging lectures, simulations, and hands-on experiments to create a rich collaborative learning experience. Students work in small groups with laptops networked for the display of visualisations and simulations on overhead screens. “The Third Teacher” Concept derived from Reggio Emilia where the instructive power of the environment is used as a “third teacher” to communicate the values of the “hidden curriculum”, or present aspects of the formal curriculum though display. Traditional Classroom Early twentieth century setting for teacher-led instruction, generally comprising an enclosed rectangular space sized for a fixed number of students. Traditional classrooms are best suited to activities where all students learn the same content at the same time, from the same person, following a pre-defined timetable. Transparency Creation of visual connections between formal and informal learning areas, allowing students to gain a passive awareness of the learning taking place around them, help them direct their learning, and navigate the curriculum.
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references Endnotes: 1. “14 Things that are Obsolete in 21st Century Schools,” last modified February 26, 2014, http://ingvihrannar.com/14things-that-are-obsolete-in-21st-century-schools/ 2. CEFPI Conference Programme, Inside Out, Upside Down, 2014. 3. “How Do You Define 21st-Century Learning?,” last modified October 11, 2010, http://www.edweek.org/tsb/ articles/2010/10/12/01panel.h04.html 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. David Price et al. Learning Futures: A Vision for Engaging Schools (London:Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 2012), last modified April 3, 2012, http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Learning%20_Futures_Engaging_Schools.pdf 7. David Price et al. The Engaging School: A Handbook for School Leaders. (London: Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 2012), last modified May 4, 2012. http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Engaging%20School%20Handbook_0.pdf 8. Jane Seymour et al. School Works Tool Kit (London: School Works Ltd, 2001), last modified January 7, 2014, http:// www.school-works.org/docs/toolkit_online.pdf. 9. Government of South Australia, Department of Education and Children’s Services. South Australian Teaching for Effective Learning Framework Guide: a resource for developing quality teaching and learning in South Australia / Dept. of Education and Children’s Services (South Australia: Government of South Australia, 2010), last modified March 11, 2014, http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/tfel/files/links/DECS_SA_TfEL_Framework_gu_3.pdf. 10. Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Melbourne Declaration on Education Goals for Young Australians. (Melbourne: Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, 2008), http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdfs
Bibliography: CEFPI, Learning Furniture: A ‘Don’t Just Stuff It’ Guide, Council of Educational Facility Planners International (Australasia Region), 2010. Education Week-Teacher. “How Do You Define 21st-Century Learning?” Last modified October 11, 2010. http://www. edweek.org/tsb/articles/2010/10/12/01panel.h04.html Government of South Australia, Department of Education and Children’s Services. South Australian Teaching for Effective Learning Framework Guide: a resource for developing quality teaching and learning in South Australia / Dept. of Education and Children’s Services. South Australia: Government of South Australia, 2010. Last modified March 11, 2014. http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/tfel/files/links/DECS_SA_TfEL_Framework_gu_3.pdf. ISTE, “Open the Windows; Design New Spaces for Learning,” Learning and Leading with Technology 38 (2010-11):10-15. Accessed March, 2014. http://www.learningandleading-digital.com/learning_leading/201012?pg=4#pg1 Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. Melbourne Declaration on Education Goals for Young Australians. Melbourne:2008. http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf OECD, Designing for Education: Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities 2011, OECD Publishing, 2011. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264112308-en
Omarsson, Ingvi H. “14 Things that are Obsolete in 21st Century Schools.” Last modified February 26, 2014. http://ingvihrannar.com/14-things-that-are-obsolete-in-21st-century-schools/ OECD, 21st Century Learning Environments. OECD Publishing:2006, doi: 10.1787/9789264006508-en Price, David, compiler. The Engaging School: A Handbook for School Leaders. London: 2012. Last modified May 4, 2012. http://www.innovationunit.org/sites/default/files/Engaging%20School%20Handbook_0.pdf Price, David, compiler. Learning Futures: A Vision for Engaging Schools. London:2012. Last modified April 3, 2012, http:// www.innovationunit.org/resources/learning-futures-vision-engaging-schools Rudd, Dr. Tim. Reimagining Outdoor Learning Spaces. FutureLab:2008. Last modified December, 2010. http://www. futurelab.org.uk/sites/default/files/Reimagining_Outdoor_Learning_Spaces_handbook.pdf Seymour, Jane et al. School Works Tool Kit. London: School Works Ltd, 2001. Last modified January 7, 2014. http://www. school-works.org/docs/toolkit_online.pdf Sims, Melanie, ed. Changing Classrooms: Exemplars of Well-Designed Learning and Teaching Spaces. The Lighthouse, Scotland’s Centre for Architecture and the City, The Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/ Doc/91982/0097914.pdf Patrick, Susan, Kathryn Kennedy and Allison Powell. Mean What You Say: Defining and Integrating Personalized, Blended and Competency Education. New York:iNACOL (International Association for K-12 online learning), 2013. Last modified October 2013. http://www.inacol.org/resources/publications/inacol-reports/
Toolkit Teaser Image References: 1. Weiz Centre for Innovation. Photo by Sara Rubinstein 2. Muse Bassline, Macquarie University, Sydney. Designed by NBRS+PARTNERS, photo by Simon Wood. 3. Lampton School, Hounslow, London. Image courtesy of http://rubble.heppell.net/places/shoeless/ 4. Coatesville Primary School, Bentleigh East, Victoria. Designed by ClarkeHopkinsClarke. Photo by Nicole England 5. Gungahlin College, Canberra. Designed by Munns Sly Moore Architects with Williams Boag Architects, Photo by Eddison Photographic Studio 6. Gary Comer Youth Centre, Chicago. Photo by Scott Shigley 7. St Luke’s Catholic Primary School, Revesby, Sydney. Photo by Steve Christo 8. Taka-Tuka-Land Kindergarten, Berlin. Designed by Baupiloten. Photo courtesy of archdaily.com/?p=519 9. Gungahlin College, Canberra. Designed by Munns Sly Moore Architects with Williams Boag Architects, Photo by Eddison Photographic Studio 10. Inaburra School, designed by NBRS+PARTNERS, photo by Barry Flack 11. Multitouch Wall, CeBIT 2012. Image by EIT, ICT Labs. 12. Anansi Playground Building, Utrecht, Netherlands. Designed by Mulders vandenBerk Architects. Photo by Wim Hanenberg 13. Wenona Woodstock Infants School, Sydney. Designed by Gardner Wetherill + Associates. Photo by GAO. 14. Gungahlin College, Canberra. Designed by Munns Sly Moore Architects with Williams Boag Architects, Photo by Eddison Photographic Studio 15. Dandenong Park Regional Playground, Victoria. Designed by ASPECT Studios. Photo by ASPECT Studios. JOINED UP -mayfield project 2014