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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR SEMESTER 2 - 2012 THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE NGUYEN HOANG DAI DUONG


CONTENT A- CASE FOR INNOVATION WEEK 1: ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE WEEK 2: COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE WEEK 3: PARAMETRIC MODELLING

B- CUT CASE STUDY WEEK 4: CUT CASE STUDY 1 WEEK 5: CUT CASE STUDY 2 WEEK 6: CUT CASE STUDY 2 WEEK 7: CUT CASE STUDY 2 WEEK 8: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST MID SEMESTER BREAK: FEEDBACK & SELF REFLECTION

C - FINAL PROJECT WEEK 9: THE GATEWAY PROJECT WEEK 10: THE GATEWAY PROJECT WEEK 11: FINAL PRESENTATION WEEK 12: FINAL PRESENTATION WEEK 13: FINAL ANALYSIS


A - CASE FOR INNOVATION


WEEK 1 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE


Hi, my name is Nguyen Hoang Dai Duong. I’m in my third year, major in Architecture. I had learned a bit of Rhino in Visual Communication subject last year but I haven’t got to use it since (mainly because I’m used to Google Sketchup) So hopefully I will have a chance to get more in depth knowledge of Rhino this time and able to use it for my future project. Though very much interested in digitally design projects (through eVolo skyscraper competition), I’m totally new to this whole concept of graphic algorithm of Grasshopper. Having to see first year student exhibited their physical models using Rhino and grasshopper really amazed me as I remember how bad my models were when I took Virtual Environment subject in my 1st year (we only got to learn Google Sketchup back then). So I am kind of happy now that I also have a chance to learn these software to be more “up to date”


MY PREVIOUS PROJECT This my project in ADS1, created using Google sketchup and rendered by Vray. The project’s brief was to design a Discovery Centre and place for Cultural exchange on Herring Island. The building comprise four discovery spaces, together with supporting administrative and services space. The roofscape was designed as a green continuum of the surrounding landscape and served as outdoor recreational space and stadium for the amphitheatre (at the central space). I also tried to incorporate clerestory windows into the roof area to maximise the amount skylight into the building. The building opens up on the North East side to maximise solar heat gain in winter.


WATER TEMPLE One of Taoda Ando masterpiece – the design of Water Temple had been greatly influenced by the spiritual depth of Japanese building culture and the study tours that Ando made during the second half of the century. What I love about this temple is how reinforced concrete was used in replace of traditional building materials for the design of Water Temple. It breaks the rule of using wood to build temple. The exterior freestanding walls and the exterior walls of the main halls are in plain concrete, no decorations. The plain and simple concrete leaves the visitors a sense of purity and serenity. In addtion, the tranquillity of the eclipse water pond with lotuses really brings the visitor calm I think this unique temple represents a remarkable departure from Japanese classical architecture. http://sop3dvn.cgsociety.org/gallery/


WALKING FLOWING A SELF-SUSTAINABLE HOUSE IN ALGRAVE, PORTUGAL The house is organized in two main blocks articulated by the entrance hall, one is related to the lake at ground level (social areas) and another which is elevated in order to maximise the amazing sea view for private areas. What I love about this project is how the house was sculpted by the wind, water, sun and earth resulting in a total merging with the surrounding landscape. The house is self-sustained by using natural resources such as solar energy, wind and water (lake). Solar thermal energy is used as a means of hot water generation and photovoltaics to generate electricity. Summery east winds is chanelled for natural ventilation in summer. The roof merges with the landscape giving access to the green roof area allowing organic agriculture, also providing added insulation, reducing heat loses and air purification. www.worldarchitecture.org/world-buildings/world-buildings-detail.asp?no=5855


WEEK 2 COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE Reference: Kalay - Architectures New Media (2004), pg 2 Kolarevic - Architecture in the Digital Age, pg 24-26 www.american-architects.com/en/projects/


2.1 WHAT ARE THE BENIFITS OF USING COMPUTERS IN THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS ? Computer aided design changed many design orientated professions such as the automotive and aeronautical industries as far back as the 1980’s when they were first properly developed. Compare this to architecture where production and design still use techniques, theory and knowledge developed during the industrial revolution. Although the majority, if not all architects do use some form of computer aided design techniques the boundaries can still be pushed further. Processes such as BIM (building information modelling) are starting to become a real force in architectural design in places such as the USA.

http://www.scia-online.com/eNews/Images/bim.jpg

BIM is a process where the architect does not simply draw a line as with traditional drawing techniques or with programs such as AutoCAD (which to an extent, is simply a digital version of a traditional drawing) but instead when an architect draws a line, he draws a wall, with the possibility to combine this information with a limitless selection of properties be their size, cost, structural or how they relate to other members in a design...


... Computers are superb analytical engines. But while they can follow instructions precisely and faultlessly, computers are lack of creative abilities and intuition. While human memories are vast enough to store the experiences of a lifetime, our ability to recall these memories at will is limited. This is precisely where computers excel. If we could find a way to take advantage of the abilities of computers where ours fall short, and use our own abilities where computers’ fall short, we would create a very powerful symbiotic design system: computers will contribute their superb rational and search abilities, and we humans will contribute all the creativity and intuition needed to solve design problem. Computers could list and keep track of all the goals and constraints the design solution must accomplish. They could group them into related issues, search for precedents and even propose possible alternative standard solutions. Furthermore, computers could help fabricate and construct the resulting buildings


2.2 COMPUTATION ROLE IN FABRICATION & SUSTAINABILITY MASONIC AMPHITHEATER CLIFTON FORGE, VIRGINIA Digital fabrication played a substantial role in the sustainability of this project by maximizing structural efficiency and minimizing waste. The structure of band shell walls are comprised of prefabricated wood trusses. The geometry of the trusses was determined by cutting the 3D model every two feet on center. The trusses were then machine fabricated offsite by a conventional wood truss manufacturer. This mass customization helped to limit both human error and time spent building. american-architects.com/en/projects/project-review-detail/37265_masonic_amphitheatre_ projectmasonic_amphitheatre_project


... Additionally, the Alpolic Metal Composite panels used to clad the inside of the band shell were digitally fabricated. Due to the irregular curvature of the building, the size and shape of each panel was a unique, complex geometry. In order to facilitate the process, each panel’s size and shape was determined using a 3D model which when flattened could drive a 3-axis CNC router.

american-architects.com/en/projects/project-review-detail/37265_masonic_amphitheatre_ projectmasonic_amphitheatre_project


2.3 PERFOMATIVE ARCHITECTURE As said earlier, I’m very much interested in sustanable architecture hence I found perfomative architecture and the idea of “ the house as a machine for living in” rather amusing. Performative architecture uses building performance as a guiding design principle. It utilizes the digital technologies of quantitative and qualitative performance –based simulation to provide a comprehensive approach to the design of the built environment. Performance architecture spans multiples realms from financial, spatial, social and cultural to purely technical (structural, thermal, acoustic).


EXAMPLE 1: THE GREATER LONDON AUTHORITY BUILDING A successful ‘green’ or sustainably designed building is thought of and conceived as a total system incorporating all feasible methods of efficiency, responsibility, and coherence to a set of well designed principles pertaining to an environmental conscience. The Greater London Authority building, located on the south bank of the River Thames in London, England, designed by Foster and Partners embodies these principles and is successful as a result of a fully incorporated system of sustainable initiatives and activities... Image source: www.fosterandpartners.com


...The shape is a derivative of a sphere, geometrically modified to allow for the greatest amount of usable volume with the least surface area, and when compared to a cube of the same volume, has 25% less surface area. The combination of shaded and unshaded glazing throughout the envelope of this building is the result of a highly engineered model, which minimizes heat transfer across the building membrane and defines an intricate strategy of maintaining daylight while reducing solar gain Image source: www.fosterandpartners.com


ASTANA NATIONAL LIBRARY KAZAKHSTAN BJARKE INGELS GROUP The thermal exposure on the building envelope is calculated using state of the art technology and simulation capacity. Due to the warping and twisting geometry the thermal imprint on the faรงade is continually varying in intensity. The thermal map ranging from blue to red reveals which zones do and do not need shading. By translating the climatic information into a faรงade pattern of varying openness B.I.G create a form of ecological ornament that regulates the solar impact according to thermal requirements. Image source: http://www.big.dk/#projects


...The result is a contemporary interpretation of the traditional patterns and fabrics from the yurt. Both sustainable and beautiful. The building façade is designed with the ability to breathe when the climate outside is amenable Any areas requiring close control can be maintained within an inner ‘box’ Using knowledge of the annual sunpath the façade is optimised to provide the maximum ambient light while still protecting from direct solar radiation

Image source: http://www.big.dk/#projects


WEEK 3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING Reference: Patrik Schumacher on ‘Parametricism let the style war begin’ www.dezeen.com www.designtoproduction.ch


3.1 MY BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURE After attending lecture 3, I started to understand a bit more about parametric architecture and the processes behind it. From what I understand, unlike the conventional holistic approach, parametric modelling is a bottom up approach where the architects have to look closely at the individual components and the relationships between them. After establishing these parameters they then can build up bigger parts and eventually produce a whole form. Parametric modelling is much like an inverted pyramid where the bottom is the small scale part and works up toward the whole structure. On the other hand, holistic approach, look at the overall design at the very start then move into smaller parts and details.


One huge advantage that parametric modelling has over the conventional one is that it could be very easily modified to adapt to new requirements. It also could instantly produce numerous design outputs to provide the customer many design options to choose from. Its flexible ability to change and adapt to new design requirement is due to the fact that every individual components are connected together through mathematical relationships so when one component is changed other components would also ‘behave’ accordingly to the change.


Other advantage of parametric modelling is that it not restrained to the fundamental rigid geometrical figures like rectangles, cubes and cylinders..etc. But it is free to explore more complex and organic shapes (by using splines, nurbs and subdivs) like 2 ways curve which classical methods also struggle to achieve. However like everything else, parametric approach has its weakness. While changing the whole structure is not an issue for parametric modelling, changing the individual components could be challenging as one would also have to break or reestablish the relationships between those components and the others that connect to them. In conventional approach, we on the other hand can easily change or manipulate individual components without worrying that it would affect other part of the building


One can also combine both parametric and holistic approach in their design to produce the best solution (making the best of both worlds). In real world large scale projects, it is unlikely that parametric modelling would be used solely when it comes to produce a final design outcome. More often, parametric approach is incorporated or applied parallel with the conventional method. Such example could be found in Zaha Hadid and Frank Gehry’s works. Their design process begins with the overall form then design ideas would be derive from this form by using analogue means. Parametric techniques would then be used to refine these idea or to explore materiality of the building.


3.2 EXAMPLE BUILDINGS MERCEDES BENZ MUSEUM, UN STUDIO STUGART 2005 I find this design interesting not because its obvious parametric appearance but for the way in which parametric modelling combined with BIM was used in the construction and design of what can only be seen as a truly revolutionary building. The success of a museum depends upon the inventiveness of its internal arrangement, spaces created and its ability to exhibit artefacts within these spaces in a relevant way. The Mercedes Benz museum has, through advanced construction techniques combined with the use of parametric modelling is able to convey the main forces applied to the building to a structural core through floor slabs rather than perimeter, therefore fully liberating the facade and plan of the building... http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8298/7829824064_6752945645_b.jpg


...The intertwining forms of the Mercedes Benz Museum meant that the forms could barely be described using standard plans and sections, yet contractors needed working plans, sections and details to construct the building. From the basic geometry of 2D parametric modelling, the edges were transformed in to constantly rising 3D forms by layering levels; ultimately the 3D volumes of the structure began to rise from the layering of plans. The parametric model for the Mercedes Benz Museum was not only part of the design but key to the construction. It linked the participating trades in the building in a harmonic whole with the architect acting once again as the master craftsman at the helm, overseeing the construction as a whole. http://www.e-architect.co.uk/images/jpgs/stuttgart/mercedes_benz_museum_


CHANEL MOBILE ART PAVILION ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS–FRANCIA “The complexity and technological advances in digital imaging software and construction techniques have made the architecture of the Mobile Art Pavilion possible” said Zaha Hadid. It is an architectural language of fluidity and nature, driven by new digital design and manufacturing processes which have enabled us to create the Pavilion’s totally organic forms. Individual elements such as massing, skin, core, void, and structure are modulated individually and in concert. These elements could have potentialy been used as parameters. simbiosisgroup.net/20401/chanel-mobile-art-pavilion-zaha-hadid-architects-francia


WEEK 4 CUT CASE STUDY 1.0


4.1 PERSONAL REFLECTION Four weeks into the course, I now started to appreciate parametric architecture more. Eventhough, I still have some struggles keeping up with the course’s pace, I have begun to understand and like grasshopper a bit more everyday. Though I personal would still prefer to work in a more conventional ways (may be because I have not got used to grasshopper yet) , I think the combination of the parametric and holistric strategies would be ideal for modern and future architecture.


4.2 THE AREA OF PARAMETRIC DESIGN THAT OUR GROUP IS INTERESTED IN We are interested in the use of dynamic and responsive parametric architecture to create dynamic visual effect as well as to harness environmental energy. Through this dynamic movement, the ever-changing forms that the structure can take will create a constantly changing experience for it’s consumers. This will allow greater appreciation for the project as an art piece over its lifetime. Environmentally responsive parametric architecture is an ideal approach to the the Wyndham city project as the ideas that can be generated through this design process are exceptionally dynamic and respond greatly to varying weather conditions. This rapid change is symbolic of the social growth in the city itself.


4.3 CASE STUDY 1.0: THE MCCORMICK TRIBUTE CAMPUS CENTER

Trial 1 Nothing fancy really, I started out by simply referencing the points at grid corner of the the RecGrid component and use the image output to manipulate the radius of individual circles

Trial 2 Again rather straight forward step, I replaced the circle by a sphere to give a depth to the flat surface


Trial 3 I now used the cylinder as refererenced object. The 2 parameter of a cylinder are the base radius and its height. So again, I used the image

Trial 4 ‘Move’ component was used to move the sphere vertically. The displacement of the spheres are adjusted by the image output


WEEK 5 CUT CASE STUDY 2.0


5.1 THE ARTICULATED CLOUD NED KAHN Articulated Cloud’ by Ned Kahn is an Art work represented in the facade skin of the Pittsburg Children’s Museum. In many ways this facade takes a tangent on predictable and still architecture and pushes it to be dynamic, changing and unpredictable. Kahn commits to questioning nature and approaches is designs as a scientific experiment. This facade is a larger scale materialisation of many smaller works and works with creating an interesting visual experience and makes people question about complexity and the intricacy of nature. It also experiments with taking wind currents - an invisible force of nature, and express it in a constant complex visual experience. It produces a emergent affect creating waves, vertices, sound and colour. “Architects play alot with transparency, translucency and reflectivity but here is something that does all the same things, but it’s the atmostphere that make the decision” Ned Kahn

Reference: nedkahn.com/wind.html


PARAMETRIC DIAGRAM The above diagram is our understanding of the way the Articulated Cloud was produced using parametric tools


5.2 RE-ENGINEER THE ARTICULATED CLOUD USING RIHNO & GRASSHOPPER

STEP 1 This is our first step in attempting to recreate the Articulated cloud which is quite straight foward. We created a surface then divide it into a grid of points


STEP 2 We then create a panel by using the ‘Box’ component and orient it to the created grid of points on the suface


STEP 3 This is when we started struggling to rotate the panels. We finally used vectors to control the rotation of the panels.


STEP 4 We then tried to create a structural frame behind the panels. After many failures we came to this solution of shifting the points and orient the panels


STEP 5 And finally we attempted to create some surface pattern by manipulating the rotation angle of the panels. We tried image mapping and math function as our association techniques. It turned out the maths function works better in creating surface pattern.


HOW DOES OUR RE-ENGINEER MODEL COMPARE WITH THE ORIGINAL ONE? In this attempt to re-engineer the Articulated Cloud, we managed to replicate the way in which the panels are attached to the structural frame (which is top hanged) as well as creating some interesting surface pattern causing by differential rotation of individual panels. However our structural frame that supports the panels is different from that of the Articulated Cloud. Also the panels in our digital model are free to rotate 360 degree while in the Articulated Cloud, the panel’s rotation are restrained within a certain angle (most likely less than 180 degrees) If we were not constrained by the original form of the Articulated cloud, we would definitely want to tried something of a more organic geometry. And the panel shape and size could be further explored to create varieties of visual effects.


WEEK 6 CUT CASE STUDY 2.0


DA VINCI TOWER - DAVID FISHER Our group’s idea when came across this project was that we could not only use wind force to produce dynamic visual patterns (like Articulated Cloud) but also convert in into something more usefull functionally. The Da Vinci Tower is a good example of a self-sustaining, dynamic and environmentally responsive structure. It was designed to harness the kinetic force of the wind to allow each individual floor to rotate at approximately 0.01RPM, resulting in the constantly changing shape of the tower.

http://ooiguanyi.blogspot.com.au


The matrix shows our exploration of several panel and frame forms. The three that are highlighted were of particular interest as the first, being a two dimensional skin can be applied to any structural surface, however it is limited to only one planar direction of oncoming wind-force. We also tried different ways of arranging panels. The second highlighted is the result of panels being horizontally attached to the frame and it reacts differently to the wind. The third highlighted has a more drastic form factor one that will heavily influence the final form. It is designed to be most efficient in harnessing wind force in a 360 degree spectrum.


WEEK 7 CUT CASE STUDY 2.0


MODEL MAKING PROCESS We started off creating small prototypes to test out how different forms behave under wind force. Then we moved on to create a bigger study model with the design and technique that had been derived earlier from our matrix. Our sole purpose when making this study model was to apply the techniques used in both Articulated Cloud and the Da vinci Tower into one design to see if they works well together. And whether or not the individual panels can swing to create visual patterns and the whole structure could at the same time rotate. In other words, this study model serves purely on testing the functional aspect of the whole concept. Rectangular panel (made of paper) are top hanged on strings attaching to the facade of each level. We used hair dryer as our wind source, as the hair dryer move closer to the model, the panels started to dance around and the individual levels also rotate independently of one another.


MODEL MAKING PROCESS One drawback however is that since we do not have a uniform surface shape ( like the Articulated Cloud) but a rather fragmented surface that divided into levels. This could essentially reduce the overall dynamic visuall effect as the levels start to rotate. Therefore, our group decided that if we were to go with this concept, we have to somehow keep the external facade of the structure uniform and having that facade of panels wrapping around the rotating wind turbins.


WEEK 8 EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


We are interested in the use of dynamic and responsive parametric architecture to create dynamic visual effect as well as to harness environmental energy.

Through this dynamic movement, the ever-changing forms that the structure can take will create a constantly changing experience for it’s consumers. This will allow greater appreciation for the project as an art piece over its lifetime. Environmentally responsive parametric architecture is an ideal approach to the the Wyndham city project as the ideas that can be generated through this design process are exceptionally dynamic and respond greatly to varying weather conditions. This rapid change is symbolic of the social growth in the city itself.


The design intent of the “Articulated cloud” was to suggest that the building has been enveloped by a digitized cloud. The sculpture’s appearance changes dramatically with variations in light conditions, weather and time of the day. Its prime driving factor is wind. Ned Kahn used the invisible force to create ‘moving’ facades through the use of smaller dynamic units in a repetitive nature.


PARAMETRIC DIAGRAM The above diagram demonstrates how we think the Articulated Cloud was produced using parametric tools


The Da Vinci Tower by David Fisher is a prime example of a self-sustaining, dynamic and environmentally responsive structure. It was designed to harness the kinetic force of the wind to allow each individual floor to rotate at approximately 0.01RPM, resulting in the constantly changing shape of the tower.


The matrix shows our exploration of several panel and frame forms. The three that are highlighted were of particular interest. The first, being a two dimensional skin can be applied to any structural surface, however it is limited to only one planar direction of oncoming wind-force. We also tried different ways of arranging panels. The second highlighted is the result of panels being horizontally attached to the 3D (windscoop shape) frame and it reacts differently to the wind. The third highlighted has a more drastic form factor one that will heavily influence the final form. It is designed to be most efficient in harnessing wind force in a 360 degree spectrum.


Here we further developed the association technique and integrated the dynamic panel movement from the Articulated Cloud with the energy-generating function of the Da Vinci Tower.


Our group use a hair dryer to generate wind force and test out how the levels would react to one directional force. Here is the link to the recorded video clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYBdJbNr6t8&feature=plcp The outcome is that the model did somewhat react to the wind similarly with both Articulated Cloud and the a rotating tower. One draw back however is that since we do not have a uniform surface shape ( like the Articulated Cloud) but a rather fragmented surface that divided into levels. This could essentially reduce the overall dynamic visuall effect as the levels start to rotate. Therefore, our group decided that if we were to go with this concept, we have to somehow keep the external facade of the structure uniform and having that facade of panels wrapping around the rotating wind turbins.


MID SEMESTER BREAK FEEDBACK AND REFLECTION


PRESENTATION FEEDBACKS & REFLECTION Our group found the feedbacks were very honest and helpfull in guilding us toward a better concept technique and we agreed with some of the comment that our concept technique is too literal and the parametric tool had not been used to its full potential. Hence, we started to do more researchs on responsive wind art / sculpture to hopeful improve our concept technique.


FURTHER RESEARCH STRANDBEEST Called ‘Strandbeest’ (beach animals), these kinetic sculptures of Theo Jansen actually walk, using the power of the wind. Eventhough our group are not sure if this idea would be heplful to our concept technique at the moment, we was greatly inspired by his genious inventions. These ‘Strand beest’ can walk seemingly without any source of energy across roads, deserts and beaches. Under their own power these creatures are at once monstrously and extremely delicate in appearance. http://www.scia-online.com/eNews/Images/bim.jpg


WIND SCULPTURES We also looked at various fairly small scale wind sculpture. The left image is a rooster rings. Rooster Rings is just one of many wind sculptures in the world but certainly at the more elegant and sizable end of the spectrum. It rotates gently in virtually any breeze but does not over-rotate under severe wind conditions. Comparing with the ‘ Strandbeest’, this wind sculpture would probably closer relate with our initial concept technique.

http://farm1.staticflickr.com/68/196149795_c5629843b8_b.jpg


...MY EXPERIENCE SO FAR WHILE CREATING A PARAMETRIC TECHNIQUE My journey so far is much tougher than what I had expected earlier. There have been ups and downs but in overall, I think that these newly learnt knownledge about parametric modelling had improve my ability to critical analysis the building design holisticly and parametricly. And strangely enough, I found this studio subject very helpful for my Water studio subject. As I applied some of the parametric methodology to my ongoing Water project, I manage to produce a quick and better outcome.

My design for a Boathouse in Studio Water

Now I that I learnt grasshopper and know how hard it is (for me at least), other studio subject does not seem to be that scary anymore. And all I hope for at the end of this course is that I would have a basic but solid understanding of grasshopper technique.


WEEK 9 THE GATEWAY PROJECT


SELF-REFLECT ON OUR TECHNIQUE As mentioned before our group attempted several configurations with variations in panel shapes, frame shapes and connections to frames.

The diagram shows our initial attemp to re-engineer the Articulate cloud

However we realized that as people who look at this sculpture would not be standing still and watching it (like in the Articulated Cloud) but rather moving at a 100km/h. Therefore if we want to create a more engaging experience with the drivers , we have to start considering the


... And we thought the best way to integrate a moving component similar to that of Kahn’s Articulated cloud would be to create a framework that was far more engaging and one that created a direct experience for motorists. This lead us to create a suspended panelized component that would face motorists, and be suspended from above. The diagram shows our experiments on different frames, shapes of panel and how the panels are attached to the


ORGANIC STRUCTURE The decision to create a structure that would allow panels to be suspended over motorists lead us to seek further inspiration for the sculpture’s form. We wanted to design something that followed curvatures seen in nature and created the illusion that our project grew out of the earth. (in order to further emphasize the growth within Wyndham itself)...


ORGANIC STRUCTURE

Cell size

...We looked at several biological systems including the cell cycle and the graphs of cellular mitosis and size regulation in yeast.

Time Cell Growth and Size Regulation in Yeast

The graph that represents this process of cellular growth revealed a promising base shape for our project’s structural form


Linear

Sine

Cosine

Exponetial

Logarithm

MATRIX The grass-hopper matrix shows experimentations of curvatures using different mathematic functions. Frequency

Curvature

The selected curvature of the graph was explored and abstracted along side a second grasshoppergenerated curve to create a perfect structural form that could be repeated along an appropriate length of the site.


Curve from growth graph

Curve chosen form grasshopper matrix

the

cell

The two curves were combined to create a series of fins that varied in size but each had a long enough base to be grounded to the earth adjacent to the road. It also has a section that could hang over the road allowing the panels to ripple while facing the motorists.


PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE In this first study model, we wanted to test our theory of having the panels facing the driver to create a more engaging exprience. We also wanted to test out the organic frame that we had developed earlier from grasshopper Our first impression was that the whole design now seems to look much better in term of expressing the dynamic effect of the wind through the movement of the panels. The drivers now no longer need to turn their head as they drive by the sculpture to appreciate its beauty (which could be very distracting and dangerous) but rather they could simply drive through it enjoyfully.


WEEK 10 THE GATEWAY PROJECT


PARAMETRIC DIAGRAM This diagram shows the parametric modeling process used to achieve a final


... And this is the outcome of that grasshopper definition. The variations in fin’s size also allowed us to create dramatic yet consistent changes in volumes of space.


IMPACT OF COLOUR ON EXTERIOR ARCHITECTURE We started to explore further into the use of colour in our design. Colour is understood to be a highly influential element in almost all facets of design, with various colors gaining equally varying responses. Winner of the 2007 laureate of the Pritzker Architecture Prize - Richard Rogers said: “Both colours and architecture are expressions...Colours are components of our buildings, which help to divide functions and bring enjoyment.”

Youth Center and Sports Complex Saint-Cloud www.architect.com

Through the incorporation of considered colour choice, true design expression can be achieved, which leaves an impression on – and creates an experience for – those who visit the structure


Project: Parking canopy by Garth Britzman Recycled bottles are filled with coloured water to create a stunning topographical shade canopy for a vehicle. An intriguing environment is created where one can explore the surface qualities of the bottles at eye level. We found this project very inspiring as it effectly use colour to transform something simple and plain in appearance to a lively and attractive design

www.designrulz.com


After doing some research on colour and its impact. We decided to incoporate it into our sculpture. Since the panel is the main focus of our design, we decided to integrate a spectrum of colour into the design of our panels. The idea is to give an illusion as if our sculpture is refracting white sunlight into a spectrum of colour


PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE 2 In our second attempt at the physical model, we were hoping to test out the effect of the addition element - colour. And as drivers would be moving at really fast speed, the change in colour should be very subtle (so that drivers would not feel dizzy and distracted). One valuable feedback we got from our tutors was that, in this model the frame seems to take over the whole design rather than the panels (which should be the focus of this sculpture). And the panels did not stand out quite like what we need them to, mainly because they were being hidden partialy behind the fins...


...So we decided to reduce the width of the fins and increase the size of the panels. Another feedback that we took in to consideration was that as vehicles go through our sculpture, they would experience changes in volume of spaces (determine by the changes in fins size). And these changes should not be too abrupt or too unnoticable, but rather smooth and gentle much like the changes in the colour spectrum => as this would stimulate an interesting yet calming visual effect on the drivers


WEEK 11 THE GATEWAY PROJECT: FINAL PRESENTATION


SITE ANALYSIS The site is relatively flat and has several highways passing through it. The only major considerations which could influence our design were the directions of traffic to and from Wyndham as well as the strong North/South prevailing winds We thought Site B was best fit for the project as it allowed motorists to Wyndham to directly experience the sculpture.


Direction To Wyndham

Direction Of Prevailing Winds

The sculpture is 150m in length and spans about 8 metres over the the road. The smallest fin is 7 metres tall and the biggest one is 17 metres. The panels are at 45 degrees to the North-South prevailing winds which in theory should create a similar ripple effect as seen in Ned Kahn’s Articulated cloud


South Elevation

East Elevation

The length of the whole sculpture was determined by the velocity of vehicles (roughly 100km/h) and the amount of time we want people to experience the full colour spectrum (we decided 5 seconds is pretty adequate). Through simple mathematic formular, we calculate the required the length of the sculpture would be roughly 150m

West Elevation


Structural system option 1: Steel frame

Structural system option 2: Reinforced concrete

CONSTRUCTION DRAWING The only structural systems (for the fins) we could think of were the steel frame system and the reinforced concrete. This is where our group’s members started to have 2 different opinions. One prefered the reinforced concrete due to its fairly cheap cost and easy to install (so we assumed). The other thought that the steel frame system is better as it would create a lightness to the sculpture (rather than the heavy mass of concrete) which in turn fits in harmoniously with the delicate look of the panels. The fins would be grounded into an mass concrete footing which transfers the dead and live (wind) loads to the ground and preventing the whole sculpture falling over.


REINFORCED CONCRETE FINS

STEEL FRAMES THAT SUPPORT THE PANELS

Detail drawing of joint between steel frame (that support the panels) and the structural load bearing fins

Detail drawing of the panel

DETAIL DRAWINGS We then started to think about how the panels are attaching to the steel frame, and the steel frame connect with the fins. Our only concern was how to reduce the friction in the joint between panels and the steel frame. As our panels are pretty big hence more weight would create more friction which would reduce the rotation of the panels. The above right drawing is our attempt at solving this issue. The rolling end of the panels will have number of small metal sphere to minimize friction induced by rotation of the panels


WEEK 12 THE GATEWAY PROJECT: FINAL PRESENTATION


The panels are positioned so that the motorists would be facing them throughout the journey to fully appreciate the gradual change of colour. The panels are at 45 degrees to the North / South prevailing winds which in theory should create a similar ripple effect as seen in Ned Kahn’s Articulated cloud


The ever-changing forms that the structure can take will create a constantly changing experience for it’s consumers. This will allow greater appreciation for the project as an art piece in its lifetime.


The movement of components due to wind, combined with an organic structural form, creates the illusion of marriage between natural and manmade elements. The aim is to bring them together to create an experience for motorists that conveys the rapidly changing populous that is Wyndham, through the use of dramatic yet consistent changes in color and volumes of space.


This image shows the shaddows created by the panels and the fins which we thought were another interesting aspect of the design.


At night, the whole sculpture would be lit up, creating a different experience for commuters returning to Wyndham after work


FINAL MODEL Unable to animate the panel’s motion in our digital animation, we decided to make a 1:100 scale model with rotable panels to stimulate the ‘wave’ effect of the panels as the wind blows by (hairdryer)


WEEK 13 FINAL ANALYSIS


After the the final presentation, there are a few things which we think could have been improved or done differently: + The structural fins should be made out of steel frame system instead of reinforced concrete. Our design is about expressing the lightness yet dynamic characteristic of the wind throught the movement of panels but the heavyness of the concrete would somewhat contradict to these qualities. The lightweight steel frame hence would be a much better system in creating a more harmonically cohesive sculpture. + The vector linework should be thicker to improve graphic quality of the presentation + We should look deeper into the construction detail of the sculpture as well as the installation process. + If we had more time, we would also want to explore further into the materiality of the structural frame and panels


My experience with digital and parametric tools has become increasingly challenging yet exciting over the semester. The challenge is I think not so much about learning grasshopper but rather applying and using it to its full potential. Our group had a tough time coming up with a relevant and unique concept technique and we was so relieved that our technique got approved just 2 weeks before the final presentation after many attempts. What had been a real challenge for me was the process of establishing the right parameters for the our design. In other design studio, we would be given the parameters or for our design while here we have to establish our own and justify that these parameters are relevant to the project. All in all, I am very grateful that our tutors have been patiently guiding us through out the semester as well as listening to our problems and frustrations.


final journal air studio