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WATT DRIVES CHINA?

A research based on the sustainable and technological innovations in China and efficiency within the Chinese culture.


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Published by IRPdelft Mekelweg 2 Room 8a.1.4 2628 CD Delft The Netherlands Contact pilgrims2010@irpdelft.nl Logo-design IRPdelft, info@irpdelft.nl Copyright Š 2010 All rights reserved. This report, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the publisher. Disclaimer All observations were made in Shanghai. Therefore the reader should keep in mind that any conclusion drawn about China ERH 'LMRIWI MW QIVIP] E VIžIGXMSR SJ XLIWI SFWIVZEXMSRW


“IT IS AS IF YOU ARE INVESTIGATING AN ELEPHANT BLINDFOLDED. IF YOU TOUCH THE BELLY, YOU THINK OF A WALL; IF YOU TOUCH THE FEET, YOU THINK OF A TRUNK; IF TOUCH ITS EAR, YOU MIGHT THINK IT IS SOME CLOTH.” BING YU, COMMENTING ON OUR RESEARCH.


Delft, 22 September 2010 This report discusses the current state regarding energy saving methods in Shanghai, China. The research conducted was commissioned by Pilgrims ConWYPX-XLEWFIIRGEVVMIHSYXF]EKVSYTSJJSYVWXYHIRXWSJ-64HIPJX-64HIPJXMWEWXYHIRXJSYRHEXMSREJ½PMEXIHXSXLI89(IPJXXLEXGSRHYGXWGSQQIVGMEP research projects for companies in an international context. This project would have been impossible without the help of the many people that assisted us preparing the project and during our stay in Shanghai. First of all we would like to thank Nico Blaauw and Mark Blaisse of Pilgrims Consult for providing the opportunity to carry out such an amazing project. Our gratitude goes out to Lianne Sleebos for supporting us throughout the entire project. Furthermore we thank all employees of Pilgrims Consult who assisted in the realization of this report. Our thanks also go out to Kelly and Din who were our guides and of great help during our stay in Shanghai. We

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PREFACE

also received great help from Dirk Jan Boudeling, Ming Eikelenboom and the other staff members of the Dutch Consulate and a big thank-you goes out to them. Special thanks go out to Frank Zuidweg of Nikon, Netherlands for supplying a camera for the pictures in this report. Finally we would like to thank all the people that helped us with this project and were willing to meet with us during our stay in Shanghai. Sadly we cannot mention everybody but all the help was much needed and appreciated! Roeland van Elsas Dafni Evangelou Tobias Gutleb Sebastiaan Lemmens

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INDEX Observations Mind-map Transport Public Space Culture Recycling Work Quality Architecture Personal Comfort

7 8 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18

Business Interests

21

Conclusions

25

Appendices

29

Interviews Visits Daily 4 Contacts

31 65 95 109


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OBSERVATIONS

Observation is of great importance in research. By experiencing the surroundings and learning from cultural differences, increased insight and improved results can be acquired. Looking further and thinking without boundaries is elementary in reaching the goals.With these observations the reader is invited to think along and encouraged to look further than the text and images.

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Personal

Transport

Goods Pedestrian

Gifts

Public

Repair

Trac

Garbage

Language

Safety

Copying

Maintenance

Business Politics Chastity Money Image

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Culture

Quality

Recycling

CHI


INA

EXPO

Architecture

Work

Eco-Cities

Cheap Labor

Design

Hierarchy

Energy

Heat

Time

Heat

Energy

Eciency

Nature

Food

Public Space

Behavior Energy

Housing Hygiene Money

Personal Comfort

Weather Security Health

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Personal

Transport

Goods Pedestrian Public Trac

L

iving in cities of plenty creates a certain chaos in the way transport is perceived as normal. Thousands of electric motorbikes; taxi drivers seem not to take the pedestrians into account and cyclist try to avoid an accident by keeping a constant pace, making their trajectory predictable JSVXLISXLIVTEVXMGMTERXWSJXVEJ½G

Personal 5YMGOERHIJ½GMIRXXVERWTSVX[MPPFVMRKTVSWTIVMX]XSXLISRIWXLEXLEZIEGGIWWXSXLMW Having a motorbike (electric) provides this means. They are fast, clean and use little energy. Goods Having a private transporting system like the motorbike, allows transporting any personal belongings. Stacking up a whole pile of boxes on a bike, tying bottles of waters to it and strapping gas tanks on the motorbike is a common way of getting things from one place to the other. Public Transport & Pedestrians As far as Shanghai is concerned, public transport is excellent. Subways and busses are plenty, cheap and thus widely used.The drawback of the system is that it cannot cope with the growing numbers of passengers. During rush-hour the subway stations are clogged [MXLTISTPI+S[MXLXLI¾S[MWXLISRP]STXMSR8LIMRHMZMHYEPMWRSXMQTSVXERXEGXMRKEW one massive creature is the fastest way to get around. They do not bother bumping into IEGLSXLIVERHWXERHMRKVMKLXMR]SYV±TIVWSREPWTEGI²MWYWYEP-XWIIQWPMOIXLI]EVIXLI ¾YMHERH[IEVIXLIWSPMHTEVXMGPIWMREQEWWMZI¾S[ Still, it is quite easy to get around as a pedestrian. Bridges connect one side of the highway with the other, allowing easy crossing. Escalators are omnipresent, giving a moment of rest in the hectic street life. It is not about being lazy; it is about minimizing effort and thus maximizing comfort.

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TODAY WE SAW A BIKE WITH *3964)340)32-8 8,)=97)):)6=4377-&0)1)%27 OF TRANSPORTATION AND THEY OVERLOAD THEIR BIKES WITH ALMOST EVERYTHING.

CHINA

%88,))<438,)=97) 71%00)0)'868-'%0&97)7 FOR TRANSPORTATION WITHIN THE EXPO.

 '%67&)'%97) 2%;-8,*0=-2+ ,' RK EVANS MA 8) ,% ( ±-;390 92² '/3988,)7 -8;390(&03

):)6=4377-&0)1-298) -797)(836)78328,) ESCALATOR, IN THE METRO AND WHEN IT RAINS

;,)2)28)6-2+%&9736% METRO PEOPLE DON’T WAIT FOR 38,)6783)<-88,)=497,83 ENTER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. SOME PEOPLE REALLY MANAGE TO TRANSPORT ANYTHING, NO MATTER HOW BIG, ON THEIR BIKE.

%*09-( 4%68-'0)7-2 ,86%**-'0-/)ROELAND VAN ELSAS

39+ '%6770-()8,6


P

ublic Space in Shanghai used to function as a meeting place for young an old. Since the city wants to be a world leading metropolis it pursues a modern and Western future. The old traditional restful public spaces are turning into open/big motionless spaces limited with great skyscrapers. Methods for energy saving and heat regulation can be seen throughout the city, as well as the integration with nature and behavioral regulations.

IN A LOCAL PARK THERE WAS %,9+)+)883+)8,)63* ELDERLY DOING ALL KINDS OF SPORTS, AND THEY WERE REALLY FIT, LIKE THEY WERE 25!

WATER VAPORIZERS PROVIDE A 0-880)&-83*'330-2+(96 -2+8,)794)6,38:-7-8838,) EXPO.

Energy The newly designed public space have some interesting energy solutions. The lights of the famous Pudong skyline are for instance turned off after 23:30 and there are many street lights and road signs using solar cells. Electricity transportation is accomplished with all the cables and even the transformers elevated above the sidewalk. Heat In many public spaces sprinkler systems can be found to cool down waiting visitors. In shops airconditioning is turned on to such an extend that there blows a cold wind outside of the shop. Although this must be extremely expensive everything is done to provide a nice temperature for the clients of the shops. Nature Shanghai is a very green city, with a lot of small parks situated all around the city. Those parks are not only used for shading but also as resting places for workers, exercise for elderly and playing for the children.

TREES ARE LIGHTED GREEN FROM BELOW AND ELEVATED STREETS %6)-0091-2%8)(-2&09)

Behavior Proposed codes of conduct can be found on many locations within the public space. Digital screens and signs can be found everywhere with videos of appropriate behavior in the subway and at the EXPO (how to show directions to people, where and how to throw away your garbage, etc.).

IN THE EXPO THERE WERE WATER REFRESHENING SYSTEMS IN EVERY OPEN AREA AND MOSTLY AT THE PLACES WERE PEOPLE HAD TO ;%-8-28,)59)9)

TO TRANSPORT CARDBOARD FIRST THEY SPRAY THE CARDBOARD WITH ;%8)6738,):3091) DECREASES.

CHINA AT THE EXPO IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO TAKE A 0-+,8)6;-8,=39-2 STEAD THERE ARE DEVICES ;)6)=39'%20-+,8 =396'-+%6)88)

Heat

Nature

±=39´6)-28 ,)

&%0033223 ;©² MIHELA HLAD

IN

Public Space

Behavior Energy !"#1&+2% 2010 !$%&'$(%)*$(+,"&-&('./,#'*0&.%-

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T

LI[E]'LMRIWILERHPIXLIMVHE]XSHE]PMJIMWWXVSRKP]MR¾YIRGIHF]XLIMVGYPXYVIMI the way of doing business, politics, habits and copying behavior.Therefore understanding XLIHMJJIVIRXIPIQIRXWSJXLIMVGYPXYVI[LMGLMR¾YIRGIWHIGMWMSRQEOMRKERHFILEZMSVSJ Chinese, is essential for doing business in China. Business, Politics, Money and Gifts 8LI'LMRIWIFYWMRIWWGYPXYVIMWWXVSRKP]MR¾YIRGIHF]XLITSPMXMGEPW]WXIQ(YIXSWXVSRK governmental control the focus of companies is heavily determined and can be quickly changed by government decree. It is all done with a strict top-down approach. Money is the driving force in all this process. Chinese are capitalists and see business opportunities in everything. Respect and status is very important in Chinese business.You only get to speak to the person that matches your own status and it takes multiple meetings to get acquainted and a contract signed. Business cards are essential to get the appreciation of the business partner or interlocutor. Again Western companies have a high status, but they are often obliged to work together with a Chinese partner on the Chinese market. Gifts are appreciated and should be given and received with two hands a sign of the dedication to achieve successful business with the potential partner. The same is true for money and business cards. Image and Chastity Chinese value their image and it is important not to lose face. Therefore friends will rather ignore than correct your mistake in public. The importance of keeping face can be seen in many situations, like asking directions where any answer is better than no answer for example. Not knowing the answer to question will be resolved by either not answering or KMZMRKEX[MWXIHVITP]XLEXWIIQWPSKMGEPEX½VWXFYXEJXIVEWIGSRHXLSYKLHSIWRSXQEOI sense at all. Western culture is still considered superior and anything English is cool. Therefore you see many examples of bad English spelling and it can be easy to get things done as a Western person. One has to consider their appearance in public to be decent. However strolling around in your silk pajamas is a symbol of wealth: “Look at me, I don’t need to work, I’m VMGL²8LI'LMRIWIEVITVYHIERHRYHMX]MWEFMKXEFSS[LMGLMWIZIRRSXEGGITXIHMRJEWLMSR Though, the women still dress up, wearing short skirts, high heels and tight shirts. Copying Due to the political system, the long history and strong tradition the Chinese have much trouble with creative thinking. Copying is still heavily integrated in the Chinese culture, as GERFIWIIREQSRKXLIEZIVEKI'LMRIWI8LI[E]SJXLMROMRKMWWXMPPZIV]GSR½RIHXSGIVXEMR

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patterns and traditions. The educational system seems to encourage copying culture and suppress creative thinking. However, the government is changing its policies. It will try to change its heading from being the world’s production facility to being the world’s frontrunner in high-tech, wind and solar power and electric transport industries. With the governQIRXGLERKMRKXLIMVTSPMG]E½VWXWXITMWQEHILS[IZIVQYGLWXMPPRIIHWXSGLERKIMRXLI EXXMXYHI SJ XLI EZIVEKI 'LMRIWI ERH XLI GSRWIVZEXMZI IHYGEXMSREP W]WXIQ8LI HMJ½GYPX] therein, lies in the fact that the fear of losing face, makes them less individually active, less creative and more conservative in that sense.

Gifts Language Copying Business Politics Chastity Money Image

Culture


THE CHINESE DIFFER IN PERCEPTION FROM A WESTERN VIEW OF WHAT IS ENTERTAINING/ ART ETC., E.G. THE SIGHTSEEING 8922)0%88,)&92(-7.978% SLOW CAR-ON-RAIL RIDE WITH SOME FANCY LIGHTS IN THE 8922)0:)6=36(-2%6=%2( FAKE.

MANY PEOPLE ALWAYS CARRY A 891&0)6;-8,8)%)74)'-%00= TAXI DRIVERS. GREEN TEA FOR MORE ENERGY, THEY SAY. IN THE OLD TOWN MANY LOCALS WERE PLAYING A BOARD GAME CALLED: XIANGQI, ALSO KNOWN AS CHINESE CHESS.

8,)=97)91&6)00%783463 (9')%&-83*7,%() CHINESE LIKE FLASHY FACADES FILLED WITH LIGHTS AND DECORATIONS.

,-2',-2%²

-8´7&38

±=)7%2(23

&-

%0)<'%1469

8,)86%(-8-32%0',-2)7)'90 896);%7()7863=)(&=8,) '90896%06):3098-32 WHEN GIVING OR RECEIVING A +-*836%'%6(=39,%:)83 DO IT WITH BOTH HANDS.

;,)2%'')48-2+%&97-2)77 '%6(=39,%:)836)%():)6= THING ON THE CARD AND SEEM TO BE VERY INTERESTED.

Architec 83(3&97-2)77-2',-2%*-678 =39,%:)837)880)%2('6) ATE CONNECTIONS OTHERWISE 4)340);32´886978=39%2( ;-00%:3-((3-2+&97-2)77 ;-8,=39

TO COOL DOWN, CHINESE MEN 4988,)-67,-687.978&)03; THEIR NIPPLES WHEN THEY’RE 3987-().

8,)=;)%61398,'%4783 PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM THE SMOG.

THEY TAKE NAPS TO REST IN THE METRO.

CHINA

WE SEEM TO BE VERY INTERESTING TO THEM, THEY OFTEN ;%28838%/)%4-'896);-8, 97%2():)2%7/)(*36%983 GRAPHS.

±;)(3238, %:)%*368-)8, *0336&)'%97) 8,%8-7&%(09  '/-2',-2%² JANICE WANG



83',)'/© )78)6270-/) ALBERT WONG 83'0%-1; /) 0² ) %8 )7 , -2 , )8 -/ ±' 0 ´8 2 3 ( ) ,-2)7 %2(8,)= '

TO PRESENT ASAMPLE OF A MEAL THEY CREATE A NORMAL EATABLE DISH AND THEN PLASTIFY IT AND PLACE IT IN THE WINDOW AS A SAMPLE.

Work

Cheap Labour Hierarchy Time Eciency

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B

eing with many makes resources scarce and the necessity of recycling inevitable. Wasting is not in their blood. The waste of someone is the job of another. The huge contrast between rich and poor provides the basis for recycling of garbage and goods. The rich man will throw away his garbage regardless of the consequences for the environment. Though he might know that his lack of conscience provides an opportunity for the poor man that lives of recycling the wealth of another. Garbage The poorer wander along the streets collecting PET bottles, paper, aluminum and other valuable garbage. Huge bundles of garbage are towed around the city on their bikes and are collected at central places were traders buy the collected goods. Many make a living on what some may regard as invaluable. On the other hand, the government also seems to make an effort to keep the city clean. Garbage cans on the street are plenty (especially in the EXPO region) and all of them have a separate basket for recyclable, non-recyclable garbage, cigarettes and batteries.

POOR PEOPLE SEARCH IN THE GARBAGE FOR RECYCLABLE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND EARN 8,)-61328,0=7%0%6=398 OF IT.

“PEOPLE HERE ARE LIKE MA 328,)-61-2(-7132)=

GARBAGE BINS WITH SEPARATE CONTAINERS FOR RECYCLABLE AND NON RECYCLABLE GOODS AND EVEN FOR BATTERIES.

±1=138,)68%9+,81

)832):)68,63;%; %=%2=8,-2+² DIN CHENG

Another smart solution to decrease the amount of plastic bottles is the following. Since GPIER [EXIV MW VIPEXMZIP] I\TIRWMZI VI½PP WXEXMSRW JSV LYKI FSXXPIW  PMXIVW  EVI WTVIEH across the city. This decreases the cost of the water and the price nature pays for keeping the citizens alive. Repair %PXLSYKLUYEPMX]WXERHEVHWEVIVEXLIVPS[[EWXMRKMWRSXERSTXMSR8LI][MPPXV]XS½\IZ IV]XLMRKXLI]GER6SSJWEVI½\IH[MXLVERHSQTMIGIWSJ[SSHWGSSXIVWEVI½\IH[MXLHYGX tape, cars are strapped together with tie-wraps and broken electricity cables are simply put together with a bit of tape. Moreover, electrical devices are reused. For example an old fan [MXLEWXVMRKMWYWIHXSOIITXLI¾MIWE[E]JVSQXLIJVIWLQIEX8LSYKLMXQYWXFIQIRXMSRIH that most electrical devices have such a low quality that they only last a year or two, leaving no time for reuse, only recycling.

Repair Garbage

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Recycling

COLLECTION OF RECYCLABLE MATERIALS HAPPENS IN THE POORER NEIGHBORHOODS WHERE THERE ARE BIG HEAPS OF PAPER, PLASTIC BOTTLES ETC. IS IT PRIVATE OR GOVERNMENTAL RECYCLING? -28,)30(83;28,)97)30( AND BROKEN VENTILATORS TO FIGHT OFF FLIES.

8,)=97)):)6=4377-&0) MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND THEY OVERLOAD THEIR BIKES WITH ALMOST EVERYTHING.

CHINA

%=3* TO TRANSPORT CARD+-7.978%; '90896)7%:-2 &-2+=9 7) 2) ,0' 2% BOARD FIRST THEY SPRAY -28,)86%(-8-3 +7978%-2%&0) 9)78-323*&)-2 THE CARDBOARD WITH WA0-:-2+238%5 8)6738,%88,):3091) DECREASES.


ACHINES, THE ONLY WORD ROGER DA =²

Cheap Labor

LABOR IS SO CHEAP THAT PEOPLE CAN BE PAID TO DO ALMOST ANY KIND OF JOB. EVEN CLEANING THE STAIRS OF SHOP4-2+1%007(96-2+34)2-2+ ,3967

Hierarchy

Work

CHINA

A LOT OF PEOPLE OPERATE 71%007,347.9787-88-2+32 THE STREET.

M

any hands make light work; is certainly an applicable saying that describes the Chinese working mentality. Work force is abundant.

RECYCLING IS NOT DONE &=78%8)'314%2-)7&98 INSTEAD BY PRIVATE EN86)46)2)967%2(71%00 COMPANIES. IN A SMALL MARKETPLACE IN THE WORKING DISTRICT =39'390(&9=0-:-2+ ±-2',-2%8,)+ 3:)621)28-78,)(6 -:-2+*36')² ',-'/)2(9'/7%2( DIN CHENG DOVES. ',-2)7)*92'8-32:)6=;)00 ACCORDING TO COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR, E.G. FORMING LINES WITH 20 SPOTS MARKED FOR PEOPLE TO STAND IN LINE, IN THE POOR NEIGHBORHOODS, 13&-0)/-8',)27;)6)97)( TO COOK ON.THEY LOOKED LIKE BIG WHEELBARROWS AND WORKED ON COALS.

Time Eciency

Cheap labor With the number of people looking for work and money being the major driving force, labor still is extremely cheap. People get paid to do any silly job; cleaning the stairs with a toothbrush, opening the door, carrying garbage from one place to another. Shops and restaurants are overloaded with personnel; they will do anything to earn their living. Hierarchy In the working environment the company hierarchy is never disputed. Everybody will obey their superior. Doubting the superior’s decisions openly is a disgrace, a loss of face and thus never done. Following orders is what they do best. Own initiative is not appreciated. Time -JXLI[SVOMWRSX½RMWLIHEXXLIIRHSJXLIHE]MXMWRSVQEPXSNYWXGSRXMRYI[SVOMRK-JXLI boss asks you to do so, the employee follows. Moreover, working at night, working for 14 hours straight and working in harsh and dangerous circumstances is accepted. )J½GMIRG] 8LIVIWIIQWXSFIEPEVKIHMJJIVIRGIFIX[IIR[LEX[IGSRGIMZIEWERIJ½GMIRX[E]SJ[SVO ing and what is custom to them. On one hand they work day and night, though on the other hand they seem to work at a more relaxed pace. Chatting constantly during work lowers the productivity though might make the long working days more bearable. 7TIGMEPM^IHIQTPS]IVWEVIGSRWMHIVIHFIRI½GMEP-RE[SVOMRKXIEQXLIVIEVIWIZIVEPHMJJIV IRXWTIGMEPMWXW8LMWVIKEVHPIWW[LIXLIVXLEXWTIGM½GXEWOMWEZEMPEFPIEXXLIQSQIRXGVIEXMRK TSXIRXMEPHMJ½GYPXMIWMRXLI[SVO¾S[XLVSYKLXLIXIEQMJSRIKIXWSZIVPSEHIH1YPXMXEWOMRK improvisation and independent thinking is not encouraged.

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C

hinese have a rather different understanding of quality as the one we are used to. In general you will be told that it is either very good quality or that you should accept the bad quality because it is very cheap. In general the Chinese will be glad if they achieve 80% of the original product and they will try to convince that the obvious fake iPhone is real.This also plays a major role in daily life, which can for instance be seen in the way buildings are built, safety regulations are obeyed and maintenance is done. Safety From all interviews and all the site visits it was clear that although strict regulations do exist for quality and safety standards, in general Chinese will try to save on everything, even safety as long at is not threatening to China as a country.Things as nuclear powerplants are treated with very low standards. Still Chinese are very liberal in applying safety standards. Street workers are in general working without any protection and sometimes even without shoes.

ELECTRICITY CABLES ABOVE THE +6392(

THERE ARE A LOT OF SMALL BIKE REPAIR SHOPS ALONG THE 786))87;,)6)=39'%2*-< =396&-/)367'336)683 GETHER WITH A LOCAL ±'378-7%: )6=-14368%286)% ±)2+-2))6²

Safety regulations in architecture are also more often neglected than obeyed. To give an example we visited nightclub The Shelter, a transformed bomb shelter, which only had one entrance and no emergency exits. Maintenance &YMPHMRKWEVIMRKIRIVEPFYMPXJSVSRP]EPMJIXMQISJ½JXIIR]IEVWEJXIV[LMGLXLI]EVIIMXLIV completely renovated or demolished to make room for something bigger. Maintenance during this lifetime is rarely done and buildings that are only a few years old therefore look as if they are much older. For a Chinese it is also not understandable that Europeans live in houses that are several decades old. For them ten years is already pretty old and it should be time to move on. Chinese also repair their belongings in such a way that the functionality is maintained, but MKRSVIXLIMQTSVXERGISJXLISVMKMREPUYEPMX]*SVI\EQTPIGEVWERHWGSSXIVWEVI½\IH[MXL XETIERHEPIEOMRXLIVSSJ[MPPFI½\IHF]ETPEXIXLEXGSZIVWYTXLILSPIRSXF]VITEMVMRK XLIVSSJMXWIPJ3RIGER½RHWIZIVEPWGSSXIVWMR7LERKLEMXLEXEVIPMXIVEPP]GSZIVIHMRXETIERH one has to ask himself what is left underneath all that tape.

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THEY REPAIR EVERYTHING ;-8,(9'88%4)):)2)28-6) SCOOTERS. THE KITCHENS IN THE OLD TOWN HAVE FANS WHICH ARE )<86)1)0=(-68=%2(*9003* OLD FAT.

“NOTHING IS IMPOSSIB LE IN CHINA. HOW STR ONG -7=396-1%+-2%8-32#² &-2+

Safety Maintenance

63*-8² %2(1%/)136)4 67837%:)'3787797 2) 36 8' 27 ):% '9 %2 83 ±8,)=%6)97)(

=9

Quality

WORKERS WORK WITH398,%2=4638)'8-32 AND SOMETIMES WITH BARE HANDS AND FEET. %08,39+,8,)49(32+ %6)%97)(83&)*%610%2( ONLY THIRTY YEARS AGO, THERE ARE STILL A LOT OF ,397)78,%8%06)%(=7))1 TO BE READY FOR RENOVA8-3236()7869'8-32

CHINA


Architecture

CHINA

',-2)7)&9-08,397)7320= *36%0-*)8-1)3*%6392(*-* TEEN YEARS, AFTER WHICH THEY ARE COMPLETELY STRIPPED AND REDECORATED. 4)340)´7759%6)79&;%=78% 8-32-7*9003*8-2=7836)7 238&-++)68,%2%'3940) 759%6)1)8)67

%732*36',337-2+%,3 .)66-;9

97)²

8,)=97)):)6=8,-2+8,)= CAN FIND TO FIX THEIR ,397)7633*7%6)*-<)( SEVERAL TIMES BY LAYING 7):)6%0'3669+%8)( SHEETS ON TOP OF EACH OTHER.

S

ince the industrial revolution of China, the way of building changed drastically, from well-balanced housing to the modern, fast built, low quality apartments. Due to a very long and rich culture, the traditional Chinese house was a house full of wisdom

VIEHIJ½GMIRG] ERHGYPXYVI2S[EHE]WFYMPHMRKGSRHM tions are poor.The material quality is poor, the style is bad ERHTVS½XMWXLIQEMRHVMZIVIZIRXLSYKLXLIGSWXSJPMZMRK in Shanghai is high.

EXPO Eco-Cities Design Energy

EXPO The EXPO tries to show the dream of the future house, the dream of being sustainable. It puts the emphasis on the new way of living, teaching its visitors the necessary lessons about sustainability and energy savings. All of this is very far away from the actual situation.

A LOT OF PEOPLE,YET IT 7))170-/)0-880)8639&0)

WATER VAPORIZERS PROVIDE A 0-880)&-83*'330-2+(96-2+ 8,)794)6,38:-7-8838,) EXPO. ALL THE EXTERIOR FACADE 0-+,873*8,),-+,6-7)&9-0( -2+7%849(32+89623**%8 23:30.

2-8'31)7 -8=&98;,)ALB ERT WONG -27978%-2%&-0 )7 67 ,3 , -+ , -7):)6= %'/83>)63² 7& 3) + ±8,)',-2)7)6% 2+ ,28%8-32):)6=8 838,)-140)1)

Eco-cities The dreams displayed at the EXPO should be put into practice in the eco-cities projects popping up all over China. To show their commitment to sustainable development every local government wants to show off with an own project. However, many projects are called IGSGMXMIW[LMPISJXIRFIMRKJEVJVSQXLIHI½RMXMSRSJERIGSGMX] Design The creative process necessary to come-up with an interesting design is not one of China’s strongest points. Also copying is very common in architecture in China. European styles are mixed, misused and confused.They have little feeling for style and originality, though, they are smart.They attract Western designers, architects and engineers to provide the solutions that XLI]±FSVVS[²GST]ERHMQTPIQIRX Energy In contrast to the modern apartments, traditional houses have smart ways to minimize the energy consumption. Courtyards create micro climates, cooling the house in the summer and keeping it warm in the winter. Roof top windows provide natural ventilation and lighting, free of charge. Today low cost comes before low energy. Single glass windows and bad insulation add up to high energy consumption. The reduction of quality is only done to save QSRI]MRGVIEWMRKXLIQEVKMRERHXLIVIJSVIMRGVIEWMRKTVS½X

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AT THE EXPO ALL CHINESE CARRY FOLDABLE CHAIRS WITH THEM SO THEY CAN REST WHILE WAITING IN THE LINE.

THE MOTOR DRIVERS CARRY PONCHOS WITH THEM THAT COVER THEIR WHOLE BIKE FOR WHEN IT IS RAINING.

A LOT OF CARS PARKED HAVE PEOPLE SLEEPING IN THEM. WHY OR FOR WHO THEY ARE WAITING IS A MYSTERY.

731)3*8,),397)7-28,) OLD CENTER, WHERE A FAMILY 0-:)7%6)1%=&)92()68,) 20M2.

8,)=;%0/%6392(;-8, 8,)-687,-684900)(9483+)8 FRESH AIR.

1%2=4)340)97)91&6)00%´7 837,-)0(8,)792 ±)2)6+=7%:-2+-

7238%463(9'8&

731),397)7,%:)8,)-6 ;%8)679440=3987-()3*8,) &9-0(-2+-81-+,8238,%:) BEEN THERE BEFORE.

98%'3146),)27

-:)73098-32²

&-2+=9

ransport

THEY CLOSE THEIR EYES TO GET SOME REST WHENEVER POSSIBLE

1)863&9732%',%-6 

THEY TAKE NAPS TO REST IN THE METRO.

AT THE SIDE OF A SMALL 2)-+,&36,33(%&-+78%89) OF A HARD WORKING MAN, REMINDS THE INHABITANTS OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF THE '31192-78-'633878,39+, '%4-8%0-71*0396-7,)7

IN THE OLD TOWN THERE ARE 1%2=;%8)67-2/73987-() 8,),397)7 328,)786))87  AND PEOPLE CLEAN THEMSELVES, THEIR CLOTHES AND THEIR DISHES THERE.

Repair

Recycling

arbage

Quality !"#1&+2% 2010 !$%&'$(%)*$(+,"&-&('./,#'*0&.%-

CHINA

',-2)7)97);%7,-2+0-2)7 FASTENED BETWEEN TREES OR LANTERNS NEXT TO THE STREET.

*97² ,%2%003

6-)2(0=8

36))'3*

1 ±8,)=%6)

18

3*8)2-2,397)78)2*%1-0-)7 SHARE THE SAME KITCHEN.

LYNNETTE

CHAN

,397)7-28,)30(83;2 SEEMED LIKE STORAGE SPACE, WHEREAS ALL DAILY ACTIVITIES HAPPENED ON THE STREETS.

6%(-8-32² -2%&0)-8´73968 <'%1469&-

77978% ±;)%6)%0;%=

%0)


P

ersonal comfort is extremely important to the Chinese people. It is all about minimizing the effort to achieve their daily goals. Here, personal comfort addresses the way they spend their day, the way they use their personal energy and the way that they use their resources, rather than it describes the luxurious live we Westerns pursue in the quest for personal comfort. Personal comfort in the form of materialized pleasures is not much seen. Their personal comfort is hidden in the small things: the delicate food, the small houses, the money they earn, the feeling of security against the awareness of the constant change and the way they manage their personal energy.

Heat Energy Food Housing Hygiene Money

Personal Comfort

Weather Security Health

Heat, Energy & Weather Chinese are very aware of their personal energy management. This can be seen at all instances during the day. When they get the chance, they take a short nap, in the subway, in the restaurant and at work, every scarce minute is used to rest. They manage their body temperature in such a way that their personal energy usage is minimized. By drinking warm liquids, by shading themselves from the sun or by adapting their clothing style to the temperatures (pulling up their t-shirt), they save what is not necessary to use. Food, Hygiene & Health Although the streets seem dirty, the air stinks and houses are messy, hygiene is a very important asset in the comfort that Chinese experience. They like to be proper; clean clothes, spotless hands and fresh sheets are preferred. Although the kitchens are sometimes very dirty, the restaurant guests will do anything to prevent their hands from becoming foul. Even a sandwich will be eaten with a fork.They wear masks to not inhale the dirty and polluted air. Hygiene comes hand in hand with health. Personal health is the major driver for being susXEMREFPIERHVIPEXIWXLI[IPPFIMRK[MXLXLITIVWSREPGSQJSVXMRXLIJSVQSJ½XRIWW LIEPXL] in body) and relaxation (healthy in mind). Sustainability means health and welfare for the JEQMP]-RSVHIVXSWXE]LIEPXL]ERH½XMXMWZIV]GSQQSRJSVIPHIVP]TISTPIXS[SVOSYXMR the park, while the youngsters learn to master kung fu. In general, sustainability is not related to the environment, but to personal well-being: health. Housing Despite the fact that China stretches a vast area of the globe, the capitalistic culture and industrialization pulls China’s inhabitants to its cities, making them overpopulated and forcing families to stay in tiny homes. This however is not a problem. They do not have a lot of possessions. A television, simple bed and a couch is enough. Cloths are hung outside to let them dry, the dishes are done on the sidewalk and kitchens are shared; increasing the space to actually live in. Money & Security Although China is considered a communistic country, its population is very capitalistic.Their wealth is expressed in money, small expensive belongings, status and power. Money gives opportunity; money provides security in the constantly changing, sometimes hostile, governmental policies.They secure their own and family’s future with money instead of possessions. Apart from this feeling of security, the government creates security and safety for the people by means of strict rules, heavy punishment, no mercy, camera surveillance and protected living quarters. Moreover the main subject in the news is the hunt on petty crime and criminals that disrupt the order and indisputable power of the government.The only thing the average Chinese should fear is his own government.

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OPPORTUNITIES

4IVWSREP ORS[PIHKI MW YWIH XS ½RH VIPEXMSRW FIX[IIR the obvious and unexpected. The different observations and background of the researchers can lead to new insights and future possibilities. Conclusions are not the end, merely a moment to stop, digest and recapitulate. They are no truth, rather an opinion. The conclusion of one should persuade the other to think different, agree and oppose.

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D

I½RMRK FYWMRIWW STTSVXYRMXMIW MR )YVSTI ERH 'LMRE [MXL XLI I\TIVMIRGI SFXEMRIH was a vast project. Therefore these opportunities were divided into three categories.

The House of the Future 8LMWTVSNIGX[LMGLIZIRXYEPP]GSYPHFIWIXYTMRGSPPEFSVEXMSR[MXLXLI(IPJX9RMZIVWMX]SJ Technology, was well received and several companies expressed strong interest in participating in the project. Many of the people that were interviewed believe that China would be the perfect place for a pilot project. Although initially this project was used to gain acGIWWXSGSQTERMIWERHXSWXVYGXYVIWTIGM½GUYIWXMSRWMXTVSZIHXSFIZIV]MRXIVIWXMRKERH several companies are possible partners. When selecting potential partners care should be taken, since all companies more or less claim to possess the leading technologies in certain ½IPHW China Experts Since the Chinese energy market is pretty much government controlled no business opTSVXYRMXMIW[LIVIJSYRHMRXLMWWTIGM½GMRHYWXV]8LIVIEVILS[IZIVSXLIVX]TIWSJMRHYW tries which could be interesting and in case one would like to enter the Chinese market the companies connected can provide valuable information and a vast network. Especially Susan Evans was very willing to cooperate in any business Pilgrims or E.On would like to conduct in China. Business Opportunities Although the energy sector is almost impenetrable for foreign companies, China remains a very interesting market if one is in the possession of high-tech products. China is the TIVJIGXTPEGIXSQEOIRI[XIGLRSPSKMIWJIEWMFPIERHGLIET)WTIGMEPP]6SKIV(ESJ)J½GWSJX is very willing to cooperate in anything even remotely technological.Though his motivation to do so is money driven and does not come from an idealistic background. The other companies that are of particular interest regarding sustainability and energy saving are: i-Sockets for its advanced electricity sockets which could be easily distributed to customers in Europe; Cisco for its knowledge of smart grids and innovative household energy management systems; Broad for its knowledge and understanding of quality insulaXMSRERHXLIKEW½VIHEMVGSRHMXMSRMRKERH½REPP]OTPYROJSVXLIMVPEVKIRIX[SVOSJTSWWMFPI TEVXRIVWMR'LMREERHFIGEYWISJXLIMV±YTKVEHITEGOEKIW²JSVI\MWXMRKLSYWILSPHW For a more elaborate description of the above mentioned companies, the worked-out interviews in can be found in the Appendix.

22

!"#1&+2% 2010 !$%&'$(%)*$(+,"&-&('./,#'*0&.%-

HOUSE OF THE FUTURE

COMPANIES CONNECTED ARE INTERESTING PARTNERS FOR DESIGNING & BUILDING THE HOUSE OF THE FUTURE

CHINA EXPERTS

COMPANIES CONNECTED CAN PROVIDE VALUABLE AND MUCH NEEDED INFORMATION IN CASE OF CHINESE MARKET ENTRY

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES

COMPANIES CONNECTED ARE INTERESTING PARTNERS FOR SHORTTERM BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN EUROPE AND/OR CHINA


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24

!"#1&+2% 2010 !$%&'$(%)*$(+,"&-&('./,#'*0&.%-


CONCLUSIONS

Seeing opportunities is the beginning of progress, but these are not always clear. Seizing opportunities is the next step, where correct judgment and timing is of essence. With the aid of the knowledge gained from the SFWIVZEXMSRW XLI VIEHIV [MPP ½RH XLI STTSVXYRMXMIW Though words are limited, there are many possibilities apart from the ones written below.

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25


Capitalism Money is the driving force in China. Chinese try to make business out of anything. As there are no real possessions, money is the safest way to provide for the future. There is a huge gap between rich and poor and taking care of themWIPZIWERHJEQMP]MWXLI½VWXXLMRKXLI]HS

Individualism When looking closer at large groups of people passing on the streets, at the EXPO or in the subway, individuals can be discerned. Chinese are concerned about their individual health and wealth. Security for the individual is achieved through earning money. Sustainability is regarded from a perspective of personal wellbeing and not to care for the environment.

Short-term

26

!"#1&+2% 2010 !$%&'$(%)*$(+,"&-&('./,#'*0&.%-

Whether or not communism is to blame, is irrelevant. The consequences of the drastic change since the revolution become evident in the approach to life, the way they plan and the way they think about their future.They think only about the near future, short term. Quality is neglected. If it is cheap today, why waste money on durable products that might get lost? The future is uncertain, since the government can change its policies in whatever way suits them. In business this fact reveals itself in the way potential partners are approached. Getting to know them, building up a “business friendship²MWIWWIRXMEPXSGVI ate the necessary trust between both partners. Only this friendship can guarantee successful business; there is no solid jurisdictional backup. Apart from the government, moneyGSQIW½VWXXLERtime and last comes qualityQIERMRKXLEXXLI½VWXXLMRKXLI][MPPXV]XSWEZISRMWUYEPMX]8LMWLEWE dramatic consequence on what we conceive as sustainability. Every project is GSRHYGXIH[MXLXLIPIEWXEQSYRXSJQSRI] LMKLTVS½XW XLIPIEWXXMQIERHQMRM mal quality, leaving the environment and the sustainable awareness in oblivion.


Communism The Chinese political system is communistic, which can be seen in daily life and the attitude of the Chinese. The presence of the government is evident on various levels as government policy decides what happens next. Chinese citizens are very good in carrying out orders and creativity is limited by internet censorship and by discouraging individual initiative.

Collectivism Chinese think in groups, work in groups and live in groups. The collective can be seen all around, from the massive crowds in the subway to the behaviorMRXVEJ½G Thinking within usual boundaries and the value of tradition shows the structural behavior of the Chinese.

Long-term The only party that seems to care about the long-term future of China is The Party itself. Their existence depends on the good-will of the people. China has been and still is the producer of the world; however the government will now show its commitment to become the world leader in the high-tech and R&D industries. To achieve this goal, emphasis will also be on the creative industries. Creativity and out-of-the-box thinking is an important asset that is still missing in the Chinese culture. It is necessary for China to grow beyond its competitors Europe, .ETERERHXLI978LMW[MPPFISRISJXLIQENSVJSGEPTSMRXWSJXLI'LMRIWIKSZIVR ment in their upcoming½ZI]IEVTPER.

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27


rmation o f n i l a n erso been e Due to p v a h e endic copy. s i the app h t from d e v o m e r

30

IRPdelft 2010 International Research Projects


Created by:

Roeland van Elsas Dafni Evangelou Tobias Gutleb Sebastiaan Lemmens !"#1&+2% 2010 !$%&'$(%)*$(+,"&-&('./,#'*0&.%-

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WATT drives China?