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A Guide to English Punctuation

GUARDIAN SPECIAL


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Cumming, E., and W. Kaplan. 1991. The Arts and Crafts movement. World of Art. New York: Thames & Hudson. Kaplan, W. 2004. The Arts and Crafts move- ment in Europe and America: Design for the modern world, 1880–1920. New York: Thames & Hudson.

English authors of the Romantic age (Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792– 1822, and William Wordsworth, 1770–1850, for example) or even the belatedly Romantic philosopher and political economist, Karl Marx, 1818– 83, were already vehemently condemning this, yet it took another few decades for this dire state of affairs to be really understood and to be addressed. However, although many people analyzed the problem well and with the best of inten- tions, in retrospect— as is true of most initial, general reactions—their efforts to address the problems ended up either in- effectual or quixotic. Some of the figures active in England at this time were John Ruskin and William Morris, and later, although in a somewhat different manner, Charles Rennie Macintosh from Scotland. The philosopher and author John Ruskin was working on reproduc- ing an integrated culture and on a return to notions of high qual- ity and individual workmanship. William Morris—inspired by an 1836 British government report on design and industry and by the London World Expo in 1851—founded the firm Morris, Marshall and Faulkner.

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COMMA

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We can’t see the blue plaque, but thanks to Google Earth we’re able to see the house that lexicographer, missionary, and amateur astronomer Robert Hunter built for himself on Staples Road, Loughton, Essex in 1882 It faces Epping Forest, and the garden looks down the Roding valley.Epping Forest District Council’s conservation area report includes the following: ‘7 Forest Villa was built (as Forest Retreat) by George Beckett in 1882 to the specifications of Dr Robert Hunter who was a Scottish missionary and lexicographer. Hunter compiled most of his 14 volume Encyclopaedic Dictionary (1879–1897)1 and his Bible Dictionary (1893) in the house. The former being the biggest before the Oxford English Dictionary was released. Hunter used the house not only as his residence, but as a place of refuge for sick children from the Victoria Docks. He died in the house on 25th February 1897. There is now a blue plaque is visible on the house. ‘The appearance of the house is severe; being a Scottish-style detached house, twin double bayed, the bays splayed, with brick piers and stone dressings. The house is


1  Belch, G. E., and M. A. Belch. 2005. Intro- duction to advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications per- spective. 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; Chicago: Irwin.

For example: a luxury sports car’s added value may be to build male ego or afford the user particular status within a communi- ty; the purchase of certain brands of organic produce may come with the added value of promoting environmental (>) sustain- ability or animal rights protection; and wearing clothing from sweatshop-labor free fashion labels has the added value of sup- porting fair trade practices. It is particularly interesting to note how a product’s added value might appeal to a consumer’s per- sonal values, and inspire him or her to be more environmentally or socially responsible (> Ethics). Because added value not only promotes but encourages consumers bond.

2  Moeran, B. 1999. A Japanese advertising agency. Honolulu: Hawaiian Univ. Press. Mooij, M. K. de. 2005. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural para- doxes. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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SEMICOLON

Adorno, T. W. 1997. Aesthetic Theory. Trans. Robert Hullot-Kentor. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press. Hegel, G. W. F. 1975. Hegel’s Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art. Trans. T. M. Knox. Oxford and New York: Clarendon and Oxford.

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At the onset of the twenty-first century, an age bursting with new technologies and almost unlimited choice, products seek differ- entiation and so (>) branding has become an essential form of signage to connect the product more firmly with the consumer. The difference between products is no longer inherent in the product and its attributes, but in the benefits that accrue for the consumers when they purchase the group investigates and researches the market and develops a statistical and lifestyle profile of the potential target market, of the competition and the product’s “unique selling proposition” (> USP). This is then presented to the members of the creative team in the form of a creative platform. Typically, creative design fosters and maintains the connection between product and (>) brand, and advertisement and consumer. The goal is for the con- sumer to recall, immediately and in detail, the brand and its perceived attributes when presented with an advertisement. Members of the creative team, known in the industry as “crea- tives,” will use design methodologies such as (>) semiotics to convey meaning.


COLON

Which is why it is still very normal in Italy that those who be- came famous in the design context, such as Sottsass, Mendini, Marco Piva and Branzi, all developed architecture practices alongside large-scale (>) product design. Several questions arise from the historical and empirical con- nections between design and architecture. First, can (>) design competence be found in architecture at all? Does an inherent relationship between architecture and design truly exist? And even: if an architect had been dabbling in design, is this imme- diately recognizable? This has led to discussions about scale, and questions about whether objects are not really in effect min- iature examples of architecture and whether buildings, in their turn, are enlarged objects—which would in fact point to an inherent connection between the two. This has been debated in many publications, including Alessan- dro Mendini’s “Alessi,” which for example has initiated projects in which architects were invited to design coffee sets and these designs clearly betray an architectural influence. The question became even more interesting

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yet all of these discussions about architectural design quickly become redundant when contemplating design’s true complex- ity (with components like service, communication, corporate, engineering, or interface design, as well as design research). It still remains an issue because the borders between the two dis- ciplines do occasionally blur, or practitioners of one stray into the other’s territory, and the outlook from that standpoint often presumes affinity. In this respect, an end to the discussion is not Nevertheless, the Arts & Crafts movement became very popular and created a markedly increased awareness in England of prod- uct and communication design. It also influenced the (>) Art Nouveau, (>) Deutscher Werkbund, and even (>) Bauhaus movements.

Eschmann, K. 1991. Jugendstil: Ursprünge, Parallelen, Folgen. Gçttingen: Muster- Schmidt. Greenhalgh, P. 2000. Art Nouveau, 1890– 1914.

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HYPHENS

English authors of the Romantic age (Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792– 1822, and William Wordsworth, 1770–1850, for example) or even the belatedly Romantic philosopher and political economist, Karl Marx, 1818– 83, were already vehemently condemning this, yet it took another few decades for this dire state of affairs to be really understood and to be addressed. However, although many people analyzed the problem well and with the best of inten- tions, in retrospect— as is true of most initial, general reactions—their efforts to address the problems ended up either in- effectual or quixotic. Some of the figures active in England at this time were John Ruskin and William Morris, and later, although in a somewhat different manner, Charles Rennie Macintosh from Scotland. The philosopher and author John Ruskin was working on reproduc- ing an integrated culture and on a return to notions of high qual- ity and individual workmanship. William Morris—inspired by an 1836 British government report on design and industry and by the London World Expo in 1851—founded the firm Morris, Marshall and Faulkner,

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Morris, W. 2003. News from nowhere. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford Univ. Press. (Orig. pub. 1890.) Naylor, G. 1980. The Arts and Crafts move- ment: A study of its sources, ideals, and influence on design theory.

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John Ruskin did the same by condemning, among other cities, Manchester and Liverpool, both enormously successful centers of industry, and praising the countryside and the very traditional country house style, even when this was already sentimentally nostalgic (> Nostalgia). This definitely found supporters, for ex- ample in early work of the Italian Futurist architect Sant’Elia or in the Garden City Movement. William Morris explained his program in his novel News from Nowhere (1890), a mixture of absurdly simplified socialist concepts (advocating the abolition of money, the partial dissolution of the family and the end of the division of labor) with a jubilant abolition of any and all industrialization, and a complete return to medieval ideals of craftsmanship and the simple life. The practical effect of this was that the Arts & Crafts move- ment returned to individual production but in truth, could only serve the nouveau-riche middleclass who had the means to afford its products. This prompted renowned German phi- losopher Ernst Bloch to describe the followers of the Arts & Crafts movement as petit-bourgeois.


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Cumming, E., and W. Kaplan. 1991. The Arts and Crafts movement. World of Art. New York: Thames & Hudson. Kaplan, W. 2004. The Arts and Crafts move- ment in Europe and America: Design for the modern world, 1880–1920. New York: Thames & Hudson.

English authors of the Romantic age (Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792– 1822, and William Wordsworth, 1770–1850, for example) or even the belatedly Romantic philosopher and political economist, Karl Marx, 1818– 83, were already vehemently condemning this, yet it took another few decades for this dire state of affairs to be really understood and to be addressed. However, although many people analyzed the problem well and with the best of inten- tions, in retrospect— as is true of most initial, general reactions—their efforts to address the problems ended up either in- effectual or quixotic. Some of the figures active in England at this time were John Ruskin and William Morris, and later, although in a somewhat different manner, Charles Rennie Macintosh from Scotland. The philosopher and author John Ruskin was working on reproduc- ing an integrated culture and on a return to notions of high qual- ity and individual workmanship. William Morris—inspired by an 1836 British government report on design and industry and by the London World Expo in 1851—founded the firm Morris, Marshall and Faulkner.

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Moeran, B. 2005. The business of ethnogra- phy: Strategic exchanges, people and orga- nizations. Oxford, United Kingdom: Berg Publishers. Weiner, A. 1992. Inalienable possessions: The paradox of keeping-whilegiving. Berke- ley: Univ. of California Press.

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Certainly some of what should be considered and written about beauty in the context of design is already formulated in the category of (>) aesthetics. Nevertheless, it is worth at least re- calling the possibility of reflecting on beauty in and of itself. It is all the more important to do so given that design necessarily moves within a network of ideas that use appeals to rationality to bolster its legitimacy, and thus risks sacrificing its unique identity. More than that, one should perhaps consider whether beauty will represent a key category for the future observation and understanding of design. After all, the idea of beauty demands so many questions about thinking and action and judging that it opens up very complex territory to be explored by design practitioners and theorists. This becomes even clearer if not only beauty but also “the beautiful� are to be defined and described. The brand, thus as a social force reflective of permanence and change, brings together actors from the corporate, design, and consumer sides, in the contin- uous negotiation of its meaning.


EN-DASH

he Arts and Crafts movement in Europe and America: Design for the modern world, 1880–1920. New York: Thames & Hudson.

The Internet and related technology devices have created new modes of expression, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, instantane- ous communication, and the ability to create an unlimited number of perfect copies, all of which challenge the monopoly structure of copyright. To stem unauthorized copies, content providers of music and movies developed copyright protection technology embedded directly onto a CD or DVD. Hackers re- sponded with software programs to crack the encryption code and distributed the programs on the Internet. Industry cried foul, and most legislatures worldwide passed laws to criminalize the dissemination of technology or computer programs created to allow users to circumvent copyright protection methods em- bedded in a CD or DVD. The US version, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) passed in 1998. Most European countries have amended national laws to implement the 2001 European Directive on copyright, which conforms to a 1996 World Intellec- tual Property Organization (WIPO) treaty that addresses the same issues as the DMCA.

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Venturi, R. 1966. Complexity and contradic- tion in architecture. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

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Design as a process is akin to other activities that have often been conceptualized as isolated practices but in reality require collaborative and dialogic contexts (as argued by multiple social scientists and theorists). For instance, design is collaborative in the same sense that the tennis player’s ace depends not only of the tennis player’s own efforts, but also on the opponent’s not returning it— or in the sense that in conversation, a speaker shifts and molds her utterances based on her partner’s ongoing mm-hm’s and what’s. Whenever a designer changes a (>) prototype based on a client or user’s real or even anticipated feedback, a form of collab- orative design has taken place. Therefore, even in situations where there is a single credited designer, there are multiple collaborators involved, whether imagined (the product’s eventual users) or real (the client or consumers who provide iterative feedback at various points in the design process). Whenever a designer changes a (>) prototype based on a client or user’s real or even anticipated feedback, a form of collaborative design has taken place.


EM-DASH

Processes such as these determine system boundaries. The dif- ference of system/ environment, which results from the initially isolated operative act of observing, can be addressed linguisti- cally and reentered into the system (Spencer Brown 1969). This enables the system to describe itself as a unit (unlike the envi- ronment). It becomes capable of self-observation and, thus, of a productive handling of the “blind spot” problem. Von Foerster’s axiom, “We cannot see that we cannot see” presumes the “blind spot” as a condition of the possibility of seeing. Linguistic metalevels of world description can be constructed by observations of observations of observations. Knowledge, iden- tification, and science are based purely on the communicative produced stability of these levels, not on external, objective points of reference. Each level is afflicted with the blind spot of the differences it utilizes.

Copyright in historical perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. Thierer, A., and C. W. Crews Jr. 2003.

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INVERTED COMMAS

Litman, J. 2001. Digital copyright. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Patterson, L. 1968. Copyright in historical perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. Thierer, A., and C. W. Crews Jr. 2003. Copy fights: The future of intellectual property in the information age. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

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“We cannot see that we cannot see” presumes the “blind spot” as a condition of the possibility of seeing. Linguistic metalevels of world description can be constructed by observations of observations of observations. Knowledge, iden- tification, and science are based purely on the communicative produced stability of these levels, not on external, objective points of reference. Each level is afflicted with the blind spot of the differences it utilizes. Continuity describes the primarily timebased relationship be- tween self-developing processes. Continuity occurs when any tangible or analytical event appears as a linearly developing movement in time. Defining the category of “continuity” with regards to erratic or even chance historical developments is not only difficult historically and theoretically, but also particularly within the context of design. To begin with, design is always bound to something that exists and needs to be further developed, yet design also prom- ises new, innovative, or fashionable developments and a design- related reference to current social, economical, technical, and cultural conditions.


APOSTROPHE

Copyright in historical perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. Thierer, A., and C. W. Crews Jr. 2003.

This paradoxical relationship is also apparent in the seemingly contradictory activities of corporations, which seek to both increase profitability through the regular in- troduction of new products to the market, yet have an equally powerful interest in maintaining continuity in the realm of (>) brand recognition窶馬ot to mention costs and facilities. Conse- quently, the design process is deeply influenced by the continu- ity paradox. Corporate fashion is rooted in the production of garments for work. These have a long tradition in crafts, public service, and the service industry, where they fulfill a variety of functions that are now being taken up and further developed by corpo- rate fashion. Copyright laws adapt to cultural and technological changes. They have been continually expanded in duration and extended to protect works not originally protected, such as software pro- grams and databases. Today, however, copyright systems are threatened by the digital revolution. Some critics wonder if copy- right can adapt to the twenty-first century. Some critics wonder if copy- right can adapt to the twenty-first century.

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EXCLAMATION

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The needs and desires of clients and endusers for in- stance affect both the processes and products that designers cre- ate. At a very broad level, the consuming public’s embrace or disdain of a designer’s work is a large-scale collaboration with the designer, noticeably influencing what the designer does next. All design always has been and always will be collaborative in the sense that multiple parties commission, influence, and require iterative change in what any given designer does. Design as a process is akin to other activities that have often been conceptualized as isolated practices but in reality require collabo- rative and dialogic contexts (as argued by multiple social scientists and theorists). For instance, design is collaborative in the same sense that the tennis player’s ace depends not only of the tennis player’s own efforts, but also on the opponent’s not returning it— or in the sense that in conversation, a speaker shifts and molds her utterances based on her partner’s ongoing mm-hm’s and what’s. Whenever a designer changes a (>) prototype based on a client or user’s real or even anticipated feedback.


Corporate fashion is rooted in the production of garments for work. These have a long tradition in crafts, public service, and the service industry, where they fulfill a variety of functions that are now being taken up and further developed by corpo- rate fashion. Corporate fashion supports the recall factor of a (>) brand by helping customers associate an employee with a specific com- pany or corporation. It also facilitates customer access by giving transparency to various roles and functions, and differentiating service personnel from other employees. In addition to contri- buting to the development of a (>) corporate identity in the eyes of both customers and employees alike, corporate fashion also works on a smaller scale, by developing the employee’s role iden- tity. Literally and figuratively speaking, wearing a garment that reflects one’s professional identity adds a new, sometimes pro- tective layer or dimension to their personal identity. Not only does the garment help characterize the employee’s professional identity, it also—at best— works to support it. This is because, like any accessory, clothing helps model behavior.

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Lessig, L. 2004. Free culture: How big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity. New York: Penguin. Litman, J. 2001. Digital copyright. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Patterson, L. 1968. Copyright in historical perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press.

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Critics contend that these laws tilt the balance too far in favor of the copyright holder because they shift the traditional focus of copyright from protection toward criminalizing the creation and use of devices and software programs designed to circumvent copyright protection measures, whether or not the circum- vention technology was employed by anyone and whether or not the use of the copyrighted material made possible by the cir- cumvention would have been a copyright violation. For the first time, copyright violation isn’t the crime; creating technological tools that can violate copyright is the crime. These laws have no fair use or fair dealing provisions so there is no instance in which breaking encryption code is legal, even for research or education. Given the economic stakes, the debate surrounding copyright is impassioned. Proponents defend the need to create economic incentives to encourage artists and authors to continue creating and to protect copyright holders from rampant piracy made pos- sible by digital technology. Others believe that the idea of copy- right protection is fundamentally sound.lasts too long.


QUESTION MARK

Corporate fashion is rooted in the production of garments for work. These have a long tradition in crafts, public service, and the service industry, where they fulfill a variety of functions that are now being taken up and further developed by corpo- rate fashion. Corporate fashion supports the recall factor of a (>) brand by helping customers associate an employee with a specific com- pany or corporation. It also facilitates customer access by giving transparency to various roles and functions, and differentiating service personnel from other employees. In addition to contri- buting to the development of a (>) corporate identity in the eyes of both customers and employees alike, corporate fashion also works on a smaller scale, by developing the employee’s role iden- tity. Literally and figuratively speaking, wearing a garment that reflects one’s professional identity adds a new, sometimes pro- tective layer or dimension to their personal identity. Not only does the garment help characterize the employee’s professional identity, it also—at best—works to support it. This is because, like any accessory, clothing helps model its wearer’s behavior

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Lessig, L. 2004. Free culture: How big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity. New York: Penguin. Litman, J. 2001. Digital copyright. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Patterson, L. 1968. Copyright in historical perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press.

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While creativity is commonly used to describe the activity of ar- tists, novelists, performers, and so on, this can be narrow and misleading. Creativity is a quality that is in evidence in all as- pects of human endeavor. Scientific, engineering, agricultural, and entrepreneurial breakthroughs can all involve genuine crea- tivity. It is equally misleading to suggest that those in the crea- tive arts are operating in some kind of intellectual or methodo- logical vacuum relying only on “unteachable� intuitions, talent, and reflexes. Many of the greatest creative artists utilize highly analytic and systematic processes. Despite the fact that the nature and significance of corporate identity has been discussed at length over the past two decades, a definitive, universally accepted definition of the term is still wanting. This is because some consider the concept of corporate identity too young to be defined, while others have already de- clared it obsolete. Despite the fact that the nature and significance of corporate identity has been discussed at length over the past two decades, a definitive, universally accepted.


PARENTHESES BRACKETS

The process of corporate identity development is ultimately about translating a company’s core values into concrete procedures that describe the desired interaction between the com- pany and the consumer or general public. These procedures are ultimately intended to form a consistent chain of experience for the consumer. Once its core values have been established, the three main steps to creating and sustaining a successful corpo- rate identity can be broadly described as follows: •  Creative and strategic conveyance of core values through all text-based and visual materials and interactions. •   Deeper establishment of corporate identity in consumer con- sciousness through professional and consistent management. •  Regular evaluations and assessments to ensure consistency and identify weaknesses. In successful cases, this cycle of identity development can even- tually come to achieve a certain synergistic energy (> Synergy). Individual elements between separate fields intersect, individual activities optimize

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Litman, J. 2001. Digital copyright. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Patterson, L. 1968. Copyright in historical perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. Thierer, A., and C. W. Crews Jr. 2003. Copy fights: The future of intellectual property in the information age. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

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each other, the process accelerates, and the company’s internal and external operations come into greater alignment. Initiating and maintaining an ambitious and com- plex identity program of this sort requires vision, courage, power, perseverance, as well as charisma, confidence and, above all, (>) creativity. It is precisely when people begin to lose faith, however, that the credibility of corporations and the products they produce gets called into question—and, simultaneously, that design can work to establish and sustain it. This is because design prom- ises—and guarantees, if necessary—to consistently provide the public with innovation, quality, safety, security, individuality. De- sign can also reinforce and communicate other measures of credibility such as promoting culture, sciences, and environ- mental strategies. This is because design prom- ises—and guarantees, if necessary—to consistently provide the public with innovation, quality, safety, security, individuality. De- sign can also reinforce and communicate other sciences, and environ- mental strategies.


ITALICS

Venturi, R. 1966. Complexity and contradic- tion in architecture. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

There is a reconciliation emerging between the attitudes within, and of, design in regard to creativity. It is now more properly seen as indispensable to design-based (>) innovation. Creativity when understood in this way is built on a deep knowledge of and thorough immersion in the issues and concerns being ad- dressed. It builds on analysis and objective reasoning rather than being an alternative process. The iPod would be the best example of this in the early twentyfirst century. The technology and the user behaviors that underpinned its development had existed for some time, as shown by the popularity of Walkmans and the growing ubiquity of memory sticks and other micro dig- ital-memory storage devices. The possibility of converging these technologies and human desires was exploited in a creative mo- ment in a design process in which these preexisting capacities and conditions were “cross-appropriated,” infused with highlevel design values, and the iPod was born. There is a growing business and social literature which evokes design as the critical “aha moment” that moves behaviors and practices into new social and cultural spaces.

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SQUARE BRACKETS

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We can’t see the blue plaque, but thanks to Google Earth we’re able to see the house that lexicographer, missionary, and amateur astronomer Robert Hunter built for himself on Staples Road, Loughton, Essex in 1882 It faces Epping Forest, and the garden looks down the Roding valley.Epping Forest District Council’s conservation area report includes the following: ‘7 Forest Villa was built (as Forest Retreat) by George Beckett in 1882 to the specifications of Dr Robert Hunter who was a Scottish missionary and lexicographer. Hunter compiled most of his 14 volume Encyclopaedic Dictionary (1879–1897)1 and his Bible Dictionary (1893) in the house. The former being the biggest before the Oxford English Dictionary was released. Hunter used the house not only as his residence, but as a place of refuge for sick children from the Victoria Docks. He died in the house on 25th February 1897. There is now a blue plaque is visible on the house. ‘The appearance of the house is severe; being a Scottish-style detached house, twin double bayed, the bays splayed, with brick piers and stone dressings. The house is


Belch, G. E., and M. A. Belch. 2005. Intro- duction to advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications per- spective. 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; Chicago: Irwin. Moeran, B. 1999. A Japanese advertising agency. Honolulu: Hawaiian Univ. Press. Mooij, M. K. de. 2005. Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural para- doxes. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

For example: a luxury sports car’s added value may be to build male ego or afford the user particular status within a communi- ty; the purchase of certain brands of organic produce may come with the added value of promoting environmental (>) sustain- ability or animal rights protection; and wearing clothing from sweatshop-labor free fashion labels has the added value of sup- porting fair trade practices. It is particularly interesting to note how a product’s added value might appeal to a consumer’s per- sonal values, and inspire him or her to be more environmentally or socially responsible (> Ethics). Because added value not only promotes but encourages consumers to At the onset of the twenty-first century, an age bursting with new technologies and almost unlimited choice, products seek differ- entiation and so (>) branding has become an essential form of signage to connect the product more firmly with the consumer. The difference between products is no longer inherent in the product and its attributes, but in the benefits that accrue for the consumers when they purchase the product.

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