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Photographed and Edited By Samuel H. Lim


Original Name Saul (Changed to Paul in his 1st Missionary Journey) Born in 4 A.D, Tarsus / Died in 67 A.D, Rome Born as the Roman Citizen, Grown up in the Hebrew Culture A Jew – Pharisee, Educated under Rabbi Gamaliel Persecutor of Christianity

Evangelist of Christianity

3 times of Missionary Journey in Acts + 1 or 2 times Extra Journey Visited at least 42 cities & Traveled around 20,000 km Wrote 13 Epistles in the New Testament

A Great Church Planter, Missionary, Pastor and Theologian


He visited 42 Cities in Whole Roman World throughout his life according to the NT.


- Founded on the 660 BC as Byzantium, the city now known as Istanbul developed to become one of the most significant cities in history. - For nearly sixteen centuries following its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 AD, it served as the capital of four empires: - The Roman Empire (330–395), the Byzantine Empire (395–1204 and 1261– 1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). - It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the last caliphate. - Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey, constituting the country's economic, cultural, and historical heart. With a population of 13.9 million, the city is the 2nd largest city in the world by population within city limits.


- Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) is a former Greek Orthodox Patriarchal Basilica, later an imperial mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. - From the date of its construction in 537 until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox Cathedral and Seat of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. The building was a mosque from 1453 until 1931. It was then secularized and opened as a museum from 1935. - Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have "changed the history of architecture.“ - It remained the world's largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. - Even though it’s original beauty and majesty has been decreased because of transformation into Mosque, still it’s a great Heritage of Eastern Roman Empire.


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- The vast, airy basilica, with its technically complex system of vaults and semi-domes, culminates in a high central dome with a diameter of 31m and a height of 48.5m. - Its weight is carried by four great arches. But this structural system was prone to problems: the first dome collapsed in 558, to be rebuilt in 562 to a greater height. - Earthquakes and earth subsidence have also taken their toll on the building over the centuries, even though the surviving main structure is essentially that which was first built between 532 and 537. - The interior of Hagia Sophia was paneled with costly colored marbles and ornamental stone inlays. Initially, the upper part of the building was minimally decorated in gold with a huge cross in a medallion at the summit of the dome.


- The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is a historic mosque in Istanbul. The mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior. - It was built from 1609 to 1616, during the rule of Ahmed I. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is still popularly used as a mosque. - The design is the culmination of two centuries of both Ottoman mosque development. It incorporates some Byzantine elements of the neighboring Hagia Sophia with traditional Islamic architecture and is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period.


Acts 2:9, 1Peter 1:1 - Cappadocia was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains, to the east by the upper Euphrates and the Armenian Highland, to the north by Pontus, and to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia. - The name was traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history and is still widely used as a tourism concept to define a region of natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. - The history of Christianity in this region is originated from Acts 2. And also we can find a mention about the Christians of this region from the Epistle written by Peter. - St. Paul also visited this region on his 2nd missionary journey - The Cappadocia Fathers of the 4th century were integral to much of early Christian philosophy.


- Meaning : Deep Well

- 20 storied 60m depth underground city - Established before Roman Period - Numerous Christian Communities and churches

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1. Entrance of the city 2. Meeting Room

3. Wine Store 4. Cross-shaped Church


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1. Communal Space 2. Stone Gate to protect from invader 3. Underground passage 4. Kitchen and Stores


- Formed by Explosion of Volcano named Erzies & Hasan (60 million years before) - It registered as one of the Unesco World Nature Heritage. - There were more than 1,000 Cave Churches and Monasteries in the Byzantine Era.

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Landscape of Goereme

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Goereme Town

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Residences & Church

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Cave Churches


- In the early church era, frequent raids by attacking armies forced Christians to seek refuge in underground cities and practice their religion in camouflaged rock churches. As early as the first century, Christians may have sought refuge in the caves and tunnels carved in the volcanic rocks of Cappadocia. - The borderland atmosphere of Cappadocia meant that local Christianity developed in a secretive and militaristic manner. Secretiveness is reflected in the camouflaged construction of the rock churches. Traces of militarism can be observed in the subjects of the frescoes decorating the churches.

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Presco Goereme Town Residences & Church Cave Churches

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- The development of Christianity in Cappadocia favored the communal existence of monks in monasteries rather than the individual pursuit of spiritual enlightenment in secluded hermitages. - The oldest churches which can be seen today in Cappadocia were probably built during the 6th century. Several churches were built during the iconoclastic period. The churches are decorated with attractive frescoes.

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1. Snake Church 2. Painting in Buckle Church 3. Fresco Painting in Snake Church 4. Unknown Monasteries in Caves


St. Gregory of Nyssa

St. Basil the Great (Basileus of Caesarea)

Gregory of Naziazus


- Zelve Monastery Complex - It’s called ‘Fairy Chimneys’ - Christians moved here during Persian’s and Arab Invasions to keep their faith.

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1. Fairy Chimneys 2. There are so many rooms, passages and Monasteries. 3. Monastery and Seminary 4. Direkli Church


(Acts 13:51, 14:6, 11) (1)(2)(3) (1)(2)(3) (1)(2)(3)


- Current Name : Konya - Home Town of Timothy

Paul and Barnabas visited the city on Paul's first missionary journey. Here they preached in the synagogue and then the city.

After about three months, the opposition became so great that they had to flee for their lives to Lystra and Derbe. Paul revisited the city on his second (Acts 16:2) and probably third journeys.


Acts 13:14-52

St. Paul visited here 3 times - Current Name : Yalvac - Paul preached at Synagogue two times

- Many of the Jews and devout converts to Judaism followed Paul and Barnabas. - It was the center of the Asia Minor to spread Gospel to the other regions.


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Shops on the Main Street Main Street of Pisidia Antioch Ruins of Augustus Temple Ruins of the Amphi-Theater


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1. The Stone-paved Road 2. Traces of Horse-Carriages 3. Governor’s Residence(?) 4. It seems Temple for a Gentile God.


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Ruins of St. Paul Church Original Shape of St. Paul Church The Altar of the Church

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A Stone Coffin of a Christian


Col 2:1, 4:13~16, Rev 3:14-22

- Current Name : Alashehir - Capital of Phyrgia in Roman Period - Located near by Colossae and Hierapolis. - According to Colossians, there was a church at Nympha’s House. - Church in Raodicea was rebuked in Revelation Chapter 3.


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1. Main Street of Laodicea

2. Huge Temple for Apollo 3. Residential Area in Laodicea 4. Tap Water Pipe


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1. House Church in Laodicea (Presumed as the Nympha’s house) 2. On the Restoration of the Church 3. Laodicea has two big theatres 4. View of Hierapolis from Laodicea


Colossian 4:13

- Current Name : Pamukkale & Denizli - 6.5km from Laodicea. - A Resort town since Roman Period - Hot springs has been used since the 2nd century B.C. - Theatre, Necropolis, Temple of Apollo Nymphaeum, Library, Gymnasium, Ancient Pool, Cleopatras Pool, etc.

- St. Philip, a disciple of Jesus, came to this city and sacrificed his life to protect the church from Gentile religions. At last he was stoned and crucified in Hierapolis in 54 A.D.


Colossian 4:13


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1. Residential Area

2. Well-survived Theatre 3. The Stage of the Theatre 4. One of the Gate of Hierapolis


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1. The Tomb of St. Philip 2. Healing Ritual Pools 3. Memorial Church which was symbolized 8 Beatitudes in the Sermon on the Mountain. 4. A Gate and the attached Room.


- Meaning : ‘Cotton Castle’. - Hot Springs & Travertine, Terraces of Carbonate Minerals left by the flowing water. - Hot water flowed to Laodicea through the waterways.


Revelation 3:7 - 13 - Current Name : Alashehir - 45km Southeast of Sardis - Famous for producing high quality of Wine Since Roman Period. - Osman Turk and the other Muslim rulers destroyed most of Christian Monuments. Only the Ruin of St. John Church has been exist till now. - The Philadelphia Church was one of the Seven Churches in the Book of Revelation. - The Philadelphian Christians were suffering persecution at the hands of the local Jews, called as "the synagogue of Satan“ in Revelation. - The Church of Philadelphia was not rebuked from the Lord with the Church of Smyrna.


- This church was built in Byzantine Era, approximately 600 A.D. - Presently the three pillars are remained.

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1. One of the Pillar of the Basilica. We can image the majesty of the Basilica through this Pillar. 2. A Fragment of the church building engraved with a cross and Bible verses. 3. A piece of a monumental inscription.


Revelation 3:1 - 6

- Current Name : Sart - The Capital of the Ancient Kingdom of Lydia - The metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman And Byzantine times

- The Church of Sardis was one of the Seven Churches appeared in the Book of Revelation - This church was known as the sleeping church, dead in it's works


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1. Temple of Artemis. On the Mountain behind of this temple, there was the Fort of Sardis 2. A Part of the Huge Pillar of the Temple. It was fourth largest temple in the world. (built in 300 BC by ancient Greeks and renovated in 2nd Century AD) 3. Church of Sardis is located behind of the Artemis Temple. 4. Inside of the Church. It was built in 5th Century AD.


Acts 16:14, Rev. 2:18-24 - Current Name : Akhisar, Thyrateira - Meaning : Hill Graveyard - Thyatira stood on the border between Lydia and Mysia. It was famous for its dyeing and was a center of the Indigo trade. (Hometown of St. Lydia) - The Apostle Paul and Silas might have visited Thyatira during Paul's second or third journey.

- The Church of Thyatira, one of the Seven Churches, was rebuked because she allowed a woman named Jezebel taught and seduced the Christians of Thyatira to commit sexual immorality and to eat things sacrificed to idols.


- Sadly in Thyatira today there are no believers. There are ruins of a church was built hundreds of years after the prophecy of Revelation. - Their Faith was very perverse and corrupted, not centered on love, faith and good deeds that Jesus had affirmed them for. They did not survive. - The judgment of God fell on this group of believers.


More than 20 times appeared in the NT - Current Name : Selchuk in Izmir Province

- 2nd Biggest City in the Roman Empire - Flourished in Commerce and Trade because of well-developed Harbor. - Declined because of the Earthquake in 614 AD and the Harbor was shifted slowly more than 10km in front of Ephesus. - Famous of the Artemis Temple, one of the Seven Wonderers in Ancient World. - One of the Seven Churches of Asia in the Book of Revelation (2:1-7) - Gospel of John was written here. - Paul, Luke, John, Priscila & Aquila, Timothy etc. served in Ephesus. - Mary, Mother of Jesus, was lived in Ephesus with St. John until she finished her life. - Three times of Ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431, 449, 475 AD)


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Temple of Domitian Gate of Heracles Nike, The Goddess of Victory Varius Baths Artemis, the Protector of Ephesus


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The Fountain of Trajan Temple of Hadrian Terraced Houses Latrines (Public Toilets)


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1. Colorful Tile Decoration 2. Inscription of Asclepius (Symbol of Hospital) 3. Symbol of Medication 4. The Place of the Church 5. Licensed Prostitute Quarters


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1. Celsius Library and the Gate of Mazeus and Mythridates 2. Celsius Library, the 2nd Biggest Library in Roman Empire.

3. Agora and the Temple of Serapis 4. Mazeus-Mithridates Gate


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1. Marble Road 2. Measure your foot to enter here! 3. House of pleasure

4. The Great Theatre


- This church was the site of the Third Ecumenical Council, convened by Emperor Theodosius II at Ephesus in 431 A.D. - 250 bishops joined the Council and took part in a debate over the divine nature of Jesus at Birth. In the end, the Council concluded that Jesus was God and Mary was called ‘Mother of God’. (Theotokos) - Nestorius was denounced and excommunicated from the Church for his heresy. - It’s from this place that today Some Christians pray, “Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners.”


St. John had spent his last years in the region around Ephesus and buried in the southern slope of Ayosolug Hill. Three hundred years after the death of St. John, a small chapel was constructed over the grave in the 4th century. The church of St John was changed into a marvelous basilica during the region of Emperor Justinian(527-565 AD).


Revelation 2:8-11

- Current Name : Izmir - An ancient city located at a strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. - One of the Seven Churches of Asia in the Book of Revelation (2:8-11) - The church at Smyrna was a suffering church (Rev. 2:8). It was warned about an impending persecution and that some of its members would experience martyrdom (2:10). - The church at Smyrna would receive the “crown of life� (2:10). - Polycarp, the Great Martyr, was the Bishop of Smyrna


Revelation 2:12-17 - Current Name : Bergama - Pergamum was briefly the capital of the Roman province of Asia, before the capital was transferred to Ephesus. - An early seat of Christianity and was granted a bishopric by the second century. - The Church at Pergamum, one of the Seven Churches of Asia, was mentioned as a dwelling place of Satan and a location of his throne, and that an early bishop named Antipas was martyred there.


Acts 16:8,11, 20:5,6, 2Tim 4:13 - Region about ancient Troy, on the northwest coast of Asia Minor. - Troas was the scene of the events of the Iliad and was an ancient center of Aegean civilization. - The Spirit of Jesus and a vision from a man in Macedonia directed Paul to take the Gospel across the Aegean Sea to Europe. - Paul passed through Troas on the return voyage of his third missionary journey. - Paul mentioned his visits to Troas in his Epistle to Corinthians and to Timothy.


Cross the Strait of Dardanelles!


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Acts 16:11 - Current Name : Kavala - Meaning : New City - The Nearest Harbor from Troa - The Starting Point of Europe Mission of St. Paul. He stepped at this harbor with Silas, Luke and Timothy via Samothrace. - It was built as the gate city of Philippi.


Acts 16:12, 20:6, Phil 1:1, 4:15 1Thess 2:2 - Established by Philip II in 356 BC. - It was a Roman colony and the leading city of that district of Macedonia. - St. Paul visited Philippi in AD 49 and preached for the first time on European soil in this city. And he visited here on two other occasions, in AD 56 and 57. - Paul baptized Lydia, a Purple dye merchant, in a river to the west of the city. - Because exorcism of a demon from a slave girl Paul and Silas arrested and prisoned after public beating. An earthquake caused their prison to be opened. - When the jailer awoke, he prepared to kill himself, but Paul stopped him, indicating that all the prisoners were in fact still there. The jailer then became one of the first Christians in Europe


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1. Neapolis Gate 2. Gate of the Theatre 3. Still being used the Theatre 4. Gate to the Main City


- The first “church building� built in Philippi destroyed by an earthquake shortly after its completion. - The earliest large basilica at Philippi (5th century AD) was known as Basilica A, spread over an area almost as large as the Roman forum. - The two-storied basilica featured elegant frescoes in its various chambers, a long, broad nave. - Excavations have revealed another basilica N of the Egnatia, to the W of and below Basilica A, which was carefully built and richly appointed with fine marble materials.


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1. Outer Scenery of the Jail 2. Inside of the Jail Paul Prisoned

3. In front of the Jail 4. Picture of the Situation what was happened to Paul & Silas


- An ambitious attempt to build a church building with a dome; the structure was top-heavy and collapsed before it was dedicated. - An even more grandiose church building (the so-called Basilica B) was begun South of the forum adjacent to the Palaestra. - It was to have been crowned by an enormous freestanding dome which collapsed prior to completion of the church. It was 47m wide and 62m high, known as bigger than the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. But it was destroyed by the Bulgarian Invaders in 9th Century. - Three more ancient church buildings have been found in Philippi.


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1. Beautifully decorated Aisle 2. Fine and Slender designed Floor 3. This Basilica of Paul, identified by this Mosaic inscription, is dated around 343 AD from a mention by the bishop Porphyrios, who was present at the Council of Serdica that year.

4. Baptism Hall of the Basilica


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1. The Landscape of the Forum. It was 46m wide, 100 long marblecovered square made by Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Emperor. 2. Shops surrounded the Forum. 3. Egnatia Odos; Main Roman road, from the Adriatic Sea along the northern shore of the Aegean Sea through Thrace to Byzantium.

4. All main cities of Roman world were connected this Egnatia Odos.


Acts 16:14, 40, Phil 4:2

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1. The River where Paul preached to the women and met Lydia. It was quite big River at that time, but now became a small stream. 2. Sunday Worship remembering with Lydia. 3. Lydia Memorial Church on her House. 4. Scene of Baptism to the Family of Lydia (Paul, Silas, Luke and Timothy)


Acts 17:1

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- Amphipolis is located 60km south-west from Philippi, overlooking the east bank of the river Strymonas. Now it became a small village. - Appolonia is 48km far from Amphipolis on the way to Thessalonica. 1. Lion of Amphipolis. It was the symbol of Macedonia and built by Laomedon, a General of Alexander. 2. Bridge over Strymonas River near Amphipolis. 3. A Rock in Appolonia where Paul made a speech on the way to Thessalonica. 4. Explanation of the Rock


Acts 17:1-13, 20:4, Phil 4:16 etc. - The Second-largest city in Greece and the Capital of the region of Macedonia. - Paul visited the town with Silas and Timothy, on his 2nd missionary journey. He found a synagogue of the Jews, in which for 3 successive Sabbaths he preached the gospel, basing upon the prophecies of the OT.

- Some of the Jews became converts and a considerable number of proselytes and Greeks, together with many women of high social standing. - The Thessalonian church was a strong and flourishing one, composed of Gentiles rather than of the Jews(Thess. 1:3-6). - For centuries the city remained one of the strongholds of Christianity, and it won for the title of the Orthodox City, not only by the tenacity and vigor of its resistance to the successive attacks of the barbarous races, but also by being largely responsible for their conversion to Christianity.


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1. New town has been built over the old city which was destroyed by Earthquake. 2. The White Tower, a monument and museum on the waterfront of the city of Thessalonica and a symbol of Greek Sovereignty over Macedonia. 3. The Church of St. Demetrius 4. The Statue of King Philip II 5. Alexander the Great Conqueror


Acts 17:11-13, 20:4 - Paul and Silas were sent to Berea after fleeing from Thessalonica in Acts 17. - They immediately went to the synagogue to preach and the Bereans were very accepting. Almost all of them believed. - But when the Thessalonian nonbelievers heard about this, they came to Berea, stirring up crowds, starting riots, and generally hampering Paul, Silas and Timothy. - Then the believers sent Paul to the coast while Timothy and Silas stayed behind. Then Paul was sent to Athens and word was given to Timothy and Silas to join him as soon as possible. - Berea was one of two capitals when Diocletian ruled Roman empire. Ancient custom says that Saint Onesimus was the first bishop of Berea.


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3 1. St. Paul who is preaching the Gospel to Bereans. 2. The Shrine, sanctified where St. Paul preached Gospel at the synagogue. The Bronze Statue of St. Paul was dedicated by the Russian Orthodox Church in 2012. 3. St. Paul is preaching Gospel to the people of Berea basing upon the Prophecies of the Old Testaments.


- The Meteora is one of the largest and most important complexes of Eastern Orthodox Monasteries in Greece, second only to Mount Athos. - The Six Monasteries are built on natural sandstone rock pillars, at the north-western edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Pineios River and Pindos Mountains, in central Greece. - The Meteora is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List under Criteria I, II, IV, V and VII.


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Acts 17:15-34, 1Thess 3:1 - The Capital and largest city of Greece. One of the World’s Oldest Cities, with its recorded history spanning around 3,400 years. - A Centre for the Arts, Learning and Philosophy, home of Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’s Lyceum. - It’s widely referred to as the Cradle of Western Civilization and the Birthplace of Democracy. - St. Paul visited here in his 2nd Missionary Journey and preached the Gospel on the Areopagus to the people of Athens including a group of Epicurean and Stoic Philosophers. - Dionysius, one of them who was a member of Areopagus, believed in Jesus and became the first Bishop of Athens.


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1. The Hill of Acropolis. It’s located on a rocky promontory 156m above the valley of Ilissos. From the 2nd millennium BC it was a Fortress, protecting places of Worship and Royal Palaces. 2. The Erechtheion Temple, Temple of Athena Nike. On the south, There is the famous "Porch of the Maidens", with six draped female figures as supporting columns. 3. The Parthenon. It was dedicated to the Goddess Athena in 438 BC. 4. The Parthenon. View from the North.


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- It is north-west of the Acropolis in Athens. In classical times, it functioned as the High Court of Appeal for criminal and civil cases. - Paul begins his address by emphasizing the need to know God, rather than worshiping the unknown. Then he explained concepts such as Resurrection and Salvation. After the sermon, a number of people became followers of Paul. These included a woman named Damaris, and Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus. 1. Engraved plaque containing Apostle Paul's sermon, at the Areopagus. 2. The View of Areopagus from the Acropolis. 3. The View of Acropolis from Areopagus.


Acts 18:1-17, Tim 4:20, 1 & 2 Corinthians - Corinth was a City-State (Polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. - Ancient Corinth has a long history. Under the Romans, It was rebuilt as a major city in Southern Greece or Achaia. It had a large mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. - In 1858, the old city of Corinth was totally destroyed by an earthquake. - When St. Paul 1st visited the city (51 Or 52 AD), Gallio was Proconsul. Paul resided here for 18 months. He became acquainted with Priscilla and with whom he worked and travelled. - Paul wrote at least Two Epistles to the Christian community, the 1st Corinthians (written from Ephesus) and the 2nd Corinthians (written from Macedonia).


- The Corinth Canal, with a length of 6km and a width of 23m was built in 1882. It saves ships a trip of 290km. - But the ancient Greeks had another way of getting boats between the two gulfs. - In the sixth century, they constructed a paved road and ships where loaded onto wagons and pulled across from one side to the other.


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1. View of Acrocorinth from Old Corinth Ruins. The highest peak on the site was a Temple to Aphrodite which was Christianized as a church, and then became a Mosque. In the Temple, more than 1,000 Prostitutes who selected from the girls in Corinth served for the Religious Prostitution in the Roman Period.

2. The Temple dedicated for Octavianus, the Roman Emperor. 3. The Doric Temple of Apollo, built in 550 BC. 4. Shops in the Western Area. They could buy and sell their Sex without any disturbance.


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1. Market Place and Residential Area. They sold the meat after sacrificing it to the Gentile gods. 2. Fountain of Peirene. It had a beautiful Garden surrounded with 6 Water tanks and could supply 11000 litter of water per hour. It had been used till 19th century. 3. Lechaion Road. This main road ran from the city to the northern port of Lechaion. 4. This Lechaion Road was connected to Cenchrea, the harbor where St. Paul had his hair cut off because of a vow he had taken.


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1. Bema. the city's Place of Judgment. Apostle Paul was standing here before Gallio, the Proconsul of Achaia. It was because the Jews of the city charged him with breaking the law and brought him. After 5th century, this place had been used for the St. Paul Memorial Church. 2. A Broken Part of the Memorial Church. 3. Upper site of Bema. 4. Erastus Inscription. In 1929 this inscription was found mentioning Erastus as the one who paid for the paving of the street in return for his appointment as a city officer. This is the same Erastus mentioned by Paul as sending greetings to the church at Rome (Rom 16:23).

If so, Paul's influence apparently extended to wealthy and influential Roman citizens of Corinth.


Apostle Andrew is said to have been martyred by X-shaped Crucifixion at the city of Patras in Achaia. UL – St. Andrew’s Cathedral Church UR – Inside of the Cathedral

LL – Landscape of Patra city LR – St. Andrew’s Martyrdom carved at the front side of his tomb.


- The city of Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania. - Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6m of ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.

- Its population was probably 20,000, with a complex water system, an Amphitheatre, gymnasium and a port. - The site was lost for about 1500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years later by Spanish engineer R. J. de. Alcubierre in 1748 AD. - The objects that lay beneath the city have been well preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and moisture. - These artifacts provide an detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana.


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1 The Gladiator’s Complex They practiced and exercised here for the real competition in the Amphitheatre. 2. Rooms for the Gladiators 3. Shops on the Main Street. 4. The Main Street of Pompeii


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1. It’s like a rural village todays. 2. Whole city areas are connected by wellmade paved road. A carriage could reach to every house of the city. 3. Luminous Stones for Night time. 4. Carriages cannot enter from here.


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The motto in Pompeii, which could be found on the erotic art and walls, drinking vessels, as well as plaques, read “Enjoy life while you can for tomorrow is uncertain". Sex ranked as a great way to enjoy oneself and others, and while the stereotypical Roman orgies were most likely not part of daily life, certainly sex was acceptable, practiced, and celebrated.

1. The Wine Bar on the Street. Behind of this bar was a house for prostitution. 2, 3. Erotic Wall Paintings of Pompeii 4. A Symbol Mark of the house owner. 5. Bronze 'flying phallus' amulet (1st Century BC)


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1. Agora. The Main Square of the City 2. Temple for Jupiter. 3. Temple for Apollo. 4. Basilica. The Court and Official Meeting Place


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There were a lot of private baths and three public bath. The thermal bath buildings were divided into two sections: one reserved for women and one reserved for men. Each of these contained a series of rooms with different functions: 1) Changing room 2) Cold bath room 3) Tepid bath room 4) Hot bath room.

1. The Stabian Thermal Bath 2. The Wall Sculpture of the Central Bath. 3. Inside of the Bath Hall. 4. This Fountain was dedicated by a noble who was a candidate for a election.


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1. A Plaster Casts of a Corpse in Pompeii 2. What was he doing at the moment? 3. A Dying Dog with Suffering

4. Plaster Casts of Corpses in the Garden of the Fugitives


Acts 28:14-31, 2Tim 1:16-17 Romans 1-16 etc. Rome was not built in a day! - In the ancient world it was successively

the capital city of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and is regarded as one of the birthplaces of Western Civilization. - Since the 1st century AD, Rome has been considered the seat of the Papacy and in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal, which lasted until 1870. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. - St. Paul visited Rome as a prisoner after his 3rd missionary Journey in February, 61 AD. - He stayed in Rome for two years, then he released from custody. After that he visited Ephesus, Macedonia, Troas, Crete, Nicopolis to preach the Gospel. - Finally, he had prisoned again in Rome and was beheaded in 67 AD.


- Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotalmonarchical state, ruled by Bishop of Rome – The Pope. - The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See(Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace. - In the city are cultural sites such as St. Peter’s Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the world’s most famous paintings and sculptures.

- The politics of Vatican City takes place in an absolute elective monarchy, in which the head of the Roman Catholic Church takes power. The Pope exercises principal legislative, executive, and judicial power over the State of Vatican City. - Present Pope Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was elected on 13 March 2013. According to the Roman Catholic Tradition, he is the 266th Pope Since St. Peter, the 1st. - In general historical view, the Papal System is originated from St. Gregorius I (Patriarch of Rome, 590-604 AD). But in actual history, it was given to Bonifatius Ⅲ in

607 by Flavius Phocas, the Byzantine Emperor.


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3 1. The Basilica of St. Peter 2. Landscape of the St. Peter’s Square 3. The Corridor of the St. Peter’s Square


2 1 3 1. The Altar and Dome of the Basilica 2. The Statue of Pope Gregorio XIII who lead the Counter Reformation of the Roman Catholic Church. 3. The people who are praying in front of the Tomb of the late Pope John Paul II.


2 1 3 1. Splendor of the Basilica. 2. The Dome of the Basilica designed by Michelangelo 3. The Priests who are praying at the altar of the Basilica.


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1. Majesty of the Basilica. Is this real church Jesus wanted? 2. The Dome was designed of the image of the Heavenly Kingdom. 3. Golden-covered gates and wonderful ornaments.


These amazing paintings were created by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Michelangelo painted nine stories from the Book of Genesis on the ceil of Sistine Chapel. The painted area is about 40m long by 13m wide. It means that Michelangelo painted wall over 5,000 square feet(460m2 ) of frescoes by only himself.


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Pantheon was commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus as a Temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD. It is one of the best-preserved of all Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs“ 1. Landscape of the Pantheon. 2. The Altar of the Church 3. The Tomb of Raphael. 4. The Dome of Pantheon. It’s amazing Roman Concrete Architecture which became a prototype of the subsequent Dome Construction.


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1. The Statue of St. Paul 2. The Statue of St. Peter. 3. Basilica of St. John the Baptist. It was used for the Office before current the Basilica of St. Peter.

4. Inside of the Basilica. There are The Statues of the Twelve Apostles including St. Paul.


The Scala Sancta(English: Holy Stairs) are, according to the Catholic tradition, the steps that led up to the Praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem, which Jesus Christ stood on during his Passion on his way to trial. The stairs were, reputedly, brought to Rome by St. Helena in the 4th century. For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honor the Passion of Jesus. RL – St. Francis and his disciples. They visited Rome to meet the Pope.


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According to tradition, the Basilica was consecrated around 325 to house the Passion Relics brought to Rome from the Holy Land by St. Helena of Constantinople, mother of the Constantine I. At that time, the basilica floor was covered with soil from Jerusalem, thus acquiring the title in Jerusalem - it is not dedicated to the Holy Cross which is in Jerusalem, but the church itself is in Jerusalem. In the sense that a "piece" of Jerusalem was moved to Rome for its foundation. 1. Landscape of the Basilica 2. The Stained Glass – St. Helena with the Holy Cross and Constantine I. 3. The Cross including True Piece. 4. The Altar of the Basilica


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The name of the church is translated into Saint Mary of the Stairway to Heaven. The church belongs to the Trappist monastery San Paolo alle Tre Fontane. This church was established on the Site of the Apostle St. Paul’s Prison on the way to Three Fountains Church where St. Paul was beheaded. 1. Front side of the Church. 2. St. Paul prisoned here about in 66 AD. 3. The Scene of Worship Service at the Church. (brought from a website)


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St Paul at the Three Fountains is a church dedicated to St Paul the Apostle, at the presumed site of his Martyrdom in Rome. Legend relates that, when St Paul was decapitated, his head bounced three times and fountains miraculously sprang up at each place where it touched the ground. 1. Front Side of the Three Fountains Church. 2. The Spot where St. Paul beheaded. 3. There are 3 Altars where his head bounced.

4. Sculpture of St. Paul’s cut head. 5. The Wall Painting described St. Paul’s Martyrdom


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The Catacombs of Rome are underground burial places, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century. They were carved through tufo, a soft volcanic rock, outside the walls of the city, because Roman Law forbade burial places within city limits. Since most Christians belonged to the lower classes or were slaves, they usually lacked the resources to buy land for burial purposes. The Catacombs of Domitilla are among the most extensive in the area around Rome. They contain an Basilica and about 17km of galleries and corridors spread over four different levels, with almost 150,000 burials. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Underground Church in the Catacombs. It might have been a Family cemetery. Narrow Tunnel and Side burial spaces. A Group of Galleries in a room. Oil Lamps founded in the Catacombs.


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According to the tradition, this Basilica was built on the tomb of the Apostle St. Paul. 1. Night Scene of the Basilica of St. Paul. 2. Statue of St. Paul in the Garden. He holds the sword of the Holy Spirit, the Word of God to protect the Church. 3. Magnificence of the Basilica. 4. Daily Evening Service of the Basilica.


The Roman Forum is a rectangular Plaza surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. An important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate. It was for centuries the center of Roman public life: the site of Triumphal Processions and Elections; the Venue for Public Speeches, Criminal Trials, and Gladiatorial Matches; and the Nucleus of Commercial Affairs.


The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical Amphitheatre in the center of Rome. It was the largest Amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman Architecture and Engineering. It was used for Gladiatorial contests and Public Spectacles such as Mock Sea Battles, Animal Hunts, executions, reenactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical Mythology.


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1. The Capitoline Hill 2. The Trevi Fountain 3. Vittorio Emanuele II Monument Tomb of Unknown Soldier.

4. Trajan's Column


St. Paul’s First Missionary Journey (44 - 46 AD) Acts 13:1 – 14:28


St. Paul’s Second Missionary Journey (49 - 52 AD) Acts 15:36 – 18:22


St. Paul’s Third Missionary Journey (53 - 58 AD) Acts 18:23 – 21:16


St. Paul’s Fourth Missionary Journey (60 - 61 AD) Acts 21:17 – 28:31


Be a Good and Faithful Servant PLEASE! May God Bless You and Your Ministries!


Walking with st paul