STUDIO AIR 2017, SEMESTER 1, MANUEL MUEHLBAUER CHEUK YI LAI (690091)
Iâ€™m Cynthia Lai, a third year architecture student at the University of Melbourne. Having spent my whole life in Hong Kong, I decided to study architecture in Australia in order to learn about the built environment in a different cultural context and gain new perspectives on what architecture could be. My interest in building design has begun since childhood. This interest has been growing as I am exposed to more and more new ideas and technologies in the university environment. To me, architecture is the crystallisation of human civilisation. It is the multi-disciplinary collaboration between technology, culture, sustainability and so on, which brings together the brightest minds from all over the world. There is no limit in architecture and that is why I find it so thrilling. Outside architecture, I enjoy food, music and nature. I also love to read books and watch movies, because I like to imagine how is it like to live in another place or time. Truly hoping this can contribute to my architectural narration skills :P
A.1 Design Futuring
A.2 Design Computation
A.5 Learning outcomes
A.6 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches
Case Study 1 Plug-In City Archigram, 1966 The Plug-in city experiments with the idea of disposability, motion and prefabrication, featuring megastructures that house moveable units and a circulation network of tubes, roads and escalators. Designing for the future It is a radical project of what Archigram proposed; they imagine how future cities would be and what role does design play in shaping the future. In contrast to some of the prevailing ideas at the time, such as, the Brutalists and Team 10’s idea of static and hierarchical plans for cities, the Plug-in city suggests a dynamic and ever-changing urban fabric that embraces new technologies . More importantly, it examines an alternative role of the architects, to design only for the overall structure and allow people to customise their own living units. Although it might fall into the category of ‘design democracy’ argued against by Tony Fry in ‘Design Futuring’ , I see the value in individual’s involvement in shaping the collective environment. What is a ‘good’ design? Fig.1: Plug-In City Capsule
Fig.2: Plug-In City
Fig.3: Plug-In City
Despite being a paper architecture, the Plug-in Despite being paper architecture, the Plug-in city has been very influential to, for example, the Metabolists in Japan and the design of Centre Pompidou in Paris . This suggests that good design does not necessarily be buildable, but inspires the others with its concepts and place valuable insights to the future. In fact, Plug-in city was being insightful by foreseeing the adoption of prefabrication, the commodity culture and the rapid changes that are taking place in cities nowadays. Of course, one can argue that ‘disposability’ and ‘rapid changes’ only accelerates ‘de-futuring’ instead of promoting sustainability. I would say that ‘good design’ depends heavily on the context; it is important for us to identify the current issues and generate designs to address them.
To sum up, the Plug-in city is a radical and insightful architectural project that is future oriented. Not all of its concepts are applicable in the 21st century context, but we can certainly learn from its innovative concepts on architecture design and production, and its forward-looking gesture is what we need for designing our future. It leads us to think about the alternative, what role does design play in shaping our future, and importantly, what role does everyone play in building our future.
1. Peter Cook (1963). ‘Editorial’ from Archigram 3. 2. Tony Fry (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 6 3. William Curtis (2013). Modern Architecture since 1900 (London: Phaidon Press), pp. 538, 600.
Fig.4: Plug-In City
Case Study 2 Amager Bakke Bjarke Ingels Group, 2016 Copenhagen Completed in 2016, the Amager Bakke is a wasteto-energy plant in Copenhagen. Looking like a hill, it features a sloping roof for skiing and a chimneystack that vents a smoke ring of every ton of carbon dioxide exhausted from burning waste . To me, this is an example of a future-oriented design that celebrates both environmental and social sustainability.
Fig.5: 3 slopes for skiing
Hedonistic Sustainability Sustainability is a keyword for building designs nowadays due to the environmental crisis we are all facing. However, what kind of sustainable designs are we searching for? Here, the architect is making a strong statement that sustainability can be playful and enjoyable, by integrating clean energy production and entertainment.
Fig.6: Areas of green wall
This creative combination made them won the design competition and the building commission, it also gives us a clue of what kind of future design are we looking forward to. Having such radical example being built is an encouragement to all designers and students to experiment with the unconventional and the unexpected.
Fig.7: Facade logic
Fig.8 amager bakke Perspective view
Fig.9: View from afar
Fig.10: Ski path
Technology is another key to future building designs. This building, for example, adopts the idea of an ecosystem and an energy cycle. It aims to collect water and daylight for internal use, while exporting the heat generated from burning waste to the city of Copenhagen. Employment of the green wall minimises noise and vibration from the plant, in the meanwhile filters sunlight into the interior spaces .
Architecture as Place-making Moreover, the location of the building is the outskirts of Copenhagen, it is recently developed as a sports area. By setting up a landmark to be viewed from afar, and an attraction of ski resort, it brings people to the place, helps revitilising the place and adds social and economic values to it . Ultimately, it is ‘place-making’ that the design proposal is aiming for.
The Role of Architecture As designers we often question what role does design play? Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby argue that design can raise ‘awareness of the consequences of our actions as citizen-consumers’ . The Amager Bakke is just an example — its interaction with the public showcase its function of turning waste into energy. Even from far away, its chimneystack reminds people of the amount of CO2 results from the waste they produce. Its engagement with the people and the surrounding proves the social and educational value of architecture.
4. Cassy Mathewson & Ann Videriksen (2011). A5 Copenhagen: Architecture, Interiors, Lifestyle (Novato: ORO Editions), pp. 27 5. Ibid 6. Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby (2013). Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 33 7. Mathewson and Videriksen, pp. 27
Fig.11: Sustainability diagram
The transition from computerisation to computation brings news opportunities and innovation to designs, in aspects such as form-finding, environmental performance and materiality. I argue that design computation is way to go for designing more sustainable buildings, for examples, buildings that employ less materials and buildings that respond to its surroundings. Design computation allows architects to develop algorithms that examine the relationships between elements of a building . For exmaple, environmental performance is one element that can be optimized by running performance analysis and tests and manipulating the parameters in an algorithm. Materiality is another one. More and more often, materiality becomes an integral part of the design process instead of later add-ons . Below I will discuss two design precedents that begin with examining the physical properties of specific materials and design accordingly using computation methods. Their resulting designs are environmentally responsive, which have strong implications on zerocarbon design. Furthermore, building form is no longer bounded by difficulties in documentation and fabrication. We now see more and more intricate and irregular forms because they are achievable using digital fabrication methods. This pushes the boundaries of building forms, in which unconventional and seemingly unbuildable designs are made possible.
Fig.12 Hygroscope suspended in a glass box CONCEPTUALISATION
Case Study1 Hygroscope Achim Menges & Steffen Reichert, 2012 Paris This installation that explores the climatic responsive quality of architecture based on a combination of materiality and computation. Suspended inside a sealed glass case, the structure opens and closes in response to the humidity inside the glass case, which is made to resemble the relative humidity in Paris. It requires no mechanical control—it relies simply on the slight fluctuation in the timber itself . The system designed is based on extensive research on the properties of timber. The shape of each timber piece is generates in the computer, determined by parameters such as fibre directionality, and humidity control. Finally, over 4000 elements of varying shapes and sizes are digitally fabricated . Itshowcases the possibilities to design for simple but effective systems that is responsive to the envronment. While plenty of sustainable buildings rely on advanced technology, design computation allows for alternative ‘primitive’ solutions by looking into materiality and natural systems. Here, computation also allows possibility for public engagement. By ‘visualising’ the humidity level using a ‘simple but complex’ mechanism, it provides a virtual link between people inside Centre Pompidou to the outside, and to nature. 8. Institute of Computational Design and Construction, ‘HygroScope: Meteorosensitive Morphology’, <http://icd.unistuttgart.de/?p=7291> [12 March, 2017] 9. Brady Peters. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 10.Institute of Computational Design and Construction, ‘HygroScope: Meteorosensitive Morphology’, <http://icd.unistuttgart.de/?p=7291> [12 March, 2017] 11. Ibid
Fig.13 Hygroscope opens
Fig.14 Hygroscope closes CONCEPTUALISATION
Fig.15 Bloom by dosu architect
Case Study 2 Bloom Dosu Architect Nov 2011 to Aug 2012 Los Angelos Bloom is an installation that responds to temperature and sunlight. It is has a dynamic and curvy form made up of 14,000 smart thermobimetal tiles, which are metal laminates composing of two layers. When there is a rise in temperature, the tiles curl due to different expansion coefficient of the two layers. By curling, it opens up for ventilation in specific areas . Computation is incorporated into every stage of the design process. The shell-like structure, which is a self-supporting aluminium frame holding up
thermobimetal tiles, can hardly be generated without the aid of computation. Computer tests were conduted to determine the size, orientation and shape of the tiles in order for the responsive system to work . Then, 14000 geometrically unique metal pieces are digitally fabricated , otherwise is extremely difficult to be built. This installation is an exploration of new materials, structural innovation, and sustainable design. Similar to Hygroscope, it looks into materiality and uses computation methods to create zero-energy responsive mechanisms. Computation allows design to start off with the exploration in materiality, when the traditional design process often starts with the search of form. Awarded the 2012 R+D Awards Honorable Mention , Bloom inspires us to explore the possibilities of new composite materials, design computation, and digital fabrication.
Fig.16 research on tileâ€™s orientation relative to sun position
Fig.17 details of the smart thermobimetal tile CONCEPTUALISATION
In conclusion, design computation, with its power to carry out complex calculations and real-life simulations, bring new innovation to the architecture designs. For example, Hygroscope developed a zero-energy responsive mechanism while Bloom utilised a brand-new smart composite material. It re-establishes the relationship between materiality and design and creates opportunities to play with complex and highly individualistic forms, just as the two design precedents materiality did. Hence, I believe that design computation is needed for us to come up with more creative design solutions to tackle the environmental crisis we are facing today.
12. Dosu Architecture, ‘Bloom’(2012), <http://dosu-arch.com/ bloom.html>[12 March, 2017] 13. Architizer, ‘BLOOM: Making Building Skins Responsive with Thermally Smart Materials’, <http://architizer.com/projects/ bloom-making-building-skins-responsive-with-thermally-smartmaterials/> [17 March, 2017] 14. Alison Furuto, ‘Bloom / DO|SU Studio Architecture’, Archdaily (2012), <http://www.archdaily.com/215280/bloomdosu-studio-architecture>[12 March, 2017] 15. Wanda Lau & Katie Gerfen, ‘2012 R+D Awards Honorable Mention: Bloom’, Architect Magazine (2012), <http://www. architectmagazine.com/awards/r-d-awards/2012-r-d-awardshonorable-mention-bloom_o > [12 March, 2017]
Fig.18 Bloom by dosu architect
Fig.19 Computational model
There are significant advantages of using the generative design approach, for example, designer can better understand the process of designing and the relationships between different elements od a building. This leads to more cohesive design solutions concerning all aspects of a building, which I argue is need nowadays in this challenging environment. Moreover, the generative approach liberates us from all the rules about symmetry, geometry, ratio and modularity or even style. It also pushes our innovation because a computer can generate unlimited solutions, including ones that seem a bit too absurd. We are encouraged to try out different possibilities because we are no longer confined by ourselves. I believe, as architecture program become more complex, the need of utilizing generative design is increasing. We need more radical design solutions, to encounter a series of factors ranging from environmental crisis to user experience. Below are two design precedents employing the compositional or generative approach to support my argument.
Fig.20 Physical Model
Case Study 1 Jyvaskyla Music and Arts Center Ocean North, 2004-05 Jyvaskyla This is an extremely complex design that take into account various aspects of the building using a bottom-up iterative growth process in the computer. The design intention is to create a space to accommodate both the Music and Art festivals in summer and a variety of other social activities in the cold seasons. Hence, fractured interior spaces were adopted to make space for different modes of activities. The design team worked with computational morphogenesis to have the structure of the building growing in a three-tier lattice system based on simple rules on functional requirements of the building, such as structural integrity and light and acoustic performance, and the density, orientation and location of strut members within the system .
Fig.21 Computational Model
This generative design approach allows the design team to search for a building form that fits within the greater sphere of building performance, including structural integrity, visual intensity, circulation systems and materiality. For example, the material vastness and visual intensive view from the outside can be manipulated by the reflectivity of the glass envelope (determined by the number of layers, orientation and direction of the glass). Also, the acoustic systems can be manipulated simply by modifying the orientation and position of the mesh.
16. Ocean Design Research Association, â€˜Jyvaskyla Music and Arts Centerâ€™, <http://www.ocean-designresearch.net/ index.php/design-mainmenu-39/architecture-mainmenu-40/ jyvylainmenu-68> [15 March, 2017]
Fig.22 21ST CENTURY MUSEUM OF COMTEMPORARY ART
Casr Study 2 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art SANAA, 2004 Kanazwa An example of generative design is perhaps the art museum in Kanazawa by SANAA. Designed in a form of a perfect circle, the museum space is punctured by square and rectangular boxes in a seemingly arbitrary manner. The boxes are the exhibition space, while the free space within the large circle allows visitors to navigate freely. A sense of lightness and transparency is given by the heavily used material: glass, and here the architects are playing with the inside/outside and public/private relationships by allowing people on both sides to see each other . At first glance, the different between the OCEAN’s and SANAA’s design is the building form—the
former using simple geometries and the latter using complex mesh surface. It does not merely shows computation’s ability to generate complex forms; it imposes a different design process involved. With a top-down process, SANAA decided on perfect circle early on (with the intention to invite people from all directions to the museum ) and other functionalities of the building follows the ‘designated form’. In comparison, The Jyvaskyla Music and Arts Center generates its form based on a set of parameters, in which different aspects of the design form an integral part of the ‘final form’. Similarly in materiality, SANAA employed glass in search of transparency, while OCEAN programed the reflectivity of the envelope and the acoustic performance a number of other aspects into the material. This allows for designers to simulate and evaluate the user experience during the design process.
Fig.23 PLAN OF THE 21ST CENTURY MUSEUM OF COMTEMPORARY ART
In conclusion, by comparing one example each of compositional and generative design, we see the quality of the generative approach to deliver a cohesive design, which takes into account different aspects of a building from the very beginning stage of the design process. Whereas, a traditional compositional approach imposes a strict relationship of ‘form and function’ and is often superior to some other aspects of a building. There is a fundamental change from compositional design to generative design, i.e. from a top-down to bottom-up approach, and I find it important to shift to generative design because it is key to developing complex architecture to address emerging environmental issue. 17. Havard GSD, ‘Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, “Architecture is Environment”’, <https://www.youtube.com> 18. Ibid.medddddddwatch?v=dtTo9qNrQB8&list=PLHkdVvBTfd wmV9nU4B311cm9WVkpYuYr1&index=9&t=1168s> [15 March, 2017] CONCEPTUALISATION
In Part A, I explored the fields of design computation and generative design and have understood the revolutionary change they can bring to the way we design. I intend to adopt the generative design approach, which would allow me to take a more holistic understanding building design. I believe in the pressing need to address not only aesthetic and functional concern of architecture, but also the environmental and social aspects, for example the Amager Bakke by BIG. Design computation allows for deeper analysis and evaluation of designs, taking and integrating information in structure, material, environmental factors and more into the design process from early stages. This is important for the architecture discourse, because designs capable of addressing a variety of issues can provide more habibable spaces for users, linkage to the community, positive effects on the environment etc. More importantly, they are designed to inspire and aspire, to encourage more designs of the same kind as well as to raise awareness of the â€˜defuturingâ€™ situation we are in right now. I believe in the role designs play in shaping a more sustainable future for our Earth. As design students, we are to adopt a new mode of design approach to solve problems of the time and set wild our innovation.
Fig.24 Elytra Filament Pavilion / ICD-ITKE University ofCONCEPTUALISATION Stuttgart, 2017
I have highly expanded my knowledge in design computation, about it principles, applications and its power to shape a better future. The readings and lectures have challenged my preconceptions of design, and made me aware of the transition from a traditional to a evolutionary/ generative approach, which has great potentials to create radical and effective design. On the technical side, I have been building up my scripting knowledge through learning grasshopper, and realized how quickly the program can generate variations in form by applying simple rules and manipulating the values of the inputs. Given the skills and knowledge I now possess, I can go back to my previous designs and try to improve them. For example, I can use the Kangaroo plug-in to test the structural performance of my projects, or I can use algorithm to further manipulate my building form, in order to search for a more effective outcome.
Fig.25 ICD Aggregate Pavilion ,2015 CONCEPTUALISATION
BIBLIOGRAPHY Architect Magazine (2012), <http://www.architectmagazine.com/awards/r-d-awards/2012-r-d-awardshonorable-mention-bloom_o > [12 March, 2017] Architizer, ‘BLOOM: Making Building Skins Responsive with Thermally Smart Materials’, <http://architizer.com/ projects/bloom-making-building-skins-responsive-with-thermally-smart-materials/> [17 March, 2017] Cook, Peter (1963). ‘Editorial’ from Archigram 3. Curtis, William (2013). Modern Architecture since 1900 (London: Phaidon Press) Dosu Architecture, ‘Bloom’(2012), <http://dosu-arch.com/bloom.html>[12 March, 2017] Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013). Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg) Furuto, Alison, ‘Bloom / DO|SU Studio Architecture’, Archdaily (2012), <http://www.archdaily.com/215280/ bloom-dosu-studio-architecture>[12 March, 2017] Havard GSD, ‘Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, “Architecture is Environment”’, <https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=dtTo9qNrQB8&list=PLHkdVvBTfdwmV9nU4B311cm9WVkpYuYr1&index=9&t=1168s> [15 March, 2017] Institute of Computational Design and Construction, ‘HygroScope: Meteorosensitive Morphology’, <http://icd. uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7291> [12 March, 2017]
Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) Lau, Wanda & Gerfen, Katie, ‘2012 R+D Awards Honorable Mention: Bloom’ Mathewson and Videriksen (2011). A5 Copenhagen: architecture, interiors, lifestyle (Novato: ORO Editions) Ocean Design Research Association, ‘Jyvaskyla Music and Arts Center’, <http://www.ocean-designresearch. net/index.php/design-mainmenu-39/architecture-mainmenu-40/jyvylainmenu-68> [15 March, 2017] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge) Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge)
LIST OF IMAGES Fig.1: The Plug-in City Capsules. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-citypeter-cook-archigram Fig.2 & 3: The Plug-in City. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-city-petercook-archigram Fig.4: The Plug-in City. Retrived from http://www.archdaily.com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-city-petercook-archigram/ Fig.5: 3 slopes for skiing. Retrived from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/35/cb/f5/35cbf5c9f5aa0fd f9a9749408af8a5cd.jpg Fig.6: Areas of green wall. Retrived from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/70/54/1b/70541bd01d00 eeb204b69310a7537cc7.jpg Fig.7: Facade logic. Retrived from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/e2/19/11/ e21911fb87fcc9531117f5716863676a.jpg Fig.8: Amager Bakke Perspective View. Retrived from http://100architects.com/endorsed/amager-resourcecenter/ Fig.9: Amager Bakke View from Afar. Retrived fromhttp://100architects.com/endorsed/amager-resourcecenter/ Fig.10: Amager Bakke Ski Path. Retrived from http://100architects.com/endorsed/amager-resource-center/ Fig.11: Sustainability Diagram. Retrived from http://buildipedia.com/aec-pros/featured-architecture/bjarkeingels-groups-bigs-fun-factory Fig.12: Hygroscope Suspended in a Glass Box. Retrieved from http://jeromeabel.net/files/ressources/arts-etmachines/images/large/4.arts/2012-HygroScope.jpg Fig.13: Hygroscope Opens. Retrieved from http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7291 Fig.14: Hygroscope Closes. Retrieved from http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7291
Fig.15: Bloom by Dosu Architect. Retrieved from http://www.evolo.us/architecture/bloom-by-dosu-isenvironmentally-responsive-installation/ Fig.16: research on tileâ€™s orientation relative to sun position. Retrieved from http://architizer.com/projects/ bloom-making-building-skins-responsive-with-thermally-smart-materials/ Fig.17: Details of the Smart Thermobimetal Tiles. Retrieved from http://www.evolo.us/architecture/bloom-bydosu-is-environmentally-responsive-installation/ Fig.18: Bloom by Dosu Architect. Retrieved from http://acdn.architizer.com/thumbnails-PRODUCTION/08/9e/08 9e2262ec0aee17929cc3eb31605023.jpg Fig.19: Computational Model. Retrieved From: http://www.ocean-designresearch.net/index.php/designmainmenu-39/architecture-mainmenu-40/jyvylainmenu-68 Fig.20: Physical Model. Retrieved From http://www.ocean-designresearch.net/index.php/designmainmenu-39/architecture-mainmenu-40/jyvylainmenu-68 Fig.21: Computational Model. Retrieved From http://www.ocean-designresearch.net/index.php/designmainmenu-39/architecture-mainmenu-40/jyvylainmenu-68 Fig.22: 21st Century Museum Of Contemporary Art. Retrieved From https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/485825878529531972/ Fig.23: Plan Of The 21st Century Museum Of Contemporary Art. Retrieved From: https://s-media-cache-ak0. pinimg.com/originals/33/c6/d2/33c6d215bcdfd3d524f4b5b3344c50e4.jpg Fig.24: Elytra Filament Pavilion / ICD-ITKE University Of Stuttgart, 2017. Retrieved From http://www.archdaily. com/806242/elytra-filament-pavilion-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart/58b4cc7ae58ece30b1000039-elytrafilament-pavilion-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart-photo Fig.25: ICD Aggregate Pavilion ,2015. Retrieved From http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/58b4/cd65/ e58e/ce30/b100/003b/slideshow/Com_Vitra_VitraCampus_Air_Project_C-JulienLanoo_2017021120552_copy. jpg?1488244058
B CRITERIA DESIGN
B.1. Research Field
B.2. Case Study 1.0
B.3. Case Study 2.0
B.4. Technique: Development
B.5. Technique: Prototypes
B.6. Technique: Proposal
B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes
Appendix: Algorithmix Sketches
A pattern is made up of repetition. It can be viewed as a system that consists of identical or similar elements. Patterns exist in all parts of the world and in everything we do. In fact, information architect Richard Saul Wurman once said, ‘I see the world as visual patterns of connectivity... I see everything as patterns.’  In the architecture discourse, patterning has been traditionally associated with symbolism and ornamentation. It has been used for centuries, for example in Gothic and Islamic architecture, and is somewhat related to religion and culture. Although its decorative quality was not favoured by the Modernism movement, it is later ‘revived’ by the Post-modernist and demonstrates its power in addressing the ‘now more problematic spaces of social and everyday life’ in the increasingly ‘fragmented’, ‘chaotic’ world.  In modern days, patterning has become a more cohesive and integrative system that brings
Fig.26. Millard House ‘textile block’ wall
together the functions and aesthetics of a building. It benefits from the parametric design tools, which can generate complex patterns by manipulating different parameters and map patterns onto a NURBS surface. Patterning can be an ideal technique for creating a monolithic yet dynamic system by integrating the building envelope with the structure and environmental performances. For example, many buildings integrate solar panels with patterns on their facades. On top of that, tessellation, the tilling of geometric patterns on a surface, can rationalise complex forms into easily fabricated and assembled parts. This speeds up the fabrication process, reduces costs and materials. In short, parametric patterning has great potentials in optimising the aesthetics, functions and assemblage of architectural designs.
Fig.27. Millar House ‘textile block’ detail
I can see patterns when I understand things. I see the world as visual patterns of connectivity. I think pattern recognition is a fundamental part of a creative mind...I see everything as patterns Richard Saul Wurman
19. RS Wurmanm ‘Seeing the World as Visual Patterns of Connectivity’, in G Schuller (ed), Designing Universal Knowledge, Lards Muller (Basel), 2009, pp 105 20. Mark Garcia (2009). Patterns of architecture (London: John Wiley), pp 9 CRITERIA DESIGN 41
CASE STUDY 1.0
The Spanish Pavilion was designed by FOA for the 2005 Work Expo of Aichi, Japan. The design aims to represent the history and future vision of Spain . The design reflects the cultural diversity in Spanish cultures, namely the Islamic and Judeo-Christian communities. It features a lattice envelope, which is a reinterpretation of a traditional Spanish element. It consists of a non-repeating hexagonal grid coded in different coloursâ€”colours that associate with the Spanish national flag.  The design of the facade is based on a module of six regular hexagons. The hexagonal geometry is distorted within a parameter (1), resulting in a module of six unique tiles. The module is then mirrored and rotated to get four orientations (2), forming the pattern of the facade. The combination of solid and perforated tiles and adjacent colours obscure the original module and creates a differentiated effect (3). 
21. Rexford Newcomb, Moudlng assembling designing: ceramics in Architecture (Beaver Falls, Penn. : Associated Tile Manufacturers, 1924), pp 114 22. Farshid Moussavi and Michael Kubo, the function of ornament (Barcelona: Actar, Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 2006), pp 106 42
(3) Fig.28. Spanish pavilion parametric design process Fig.29. Spanish pavilion (Right)
Spanish Pavilion Foreign Office Architects Aichi, 2005
Species 2 — type of grid Rectanglular grid Triangular grid
Discontinuity Retrieve points on the grid
Replace original points with moved points
Polyline Compose new grid
Create points in the same arrangement as the grid
In In U-direction V-direction
Create mesh with polylines
Wb components Mesh variations
Interpolate curve or
Species 4 — Surface & line patterning
Species 1 — Original
extrude curve in Z-direction
move curve in Z-direction
Species 3 — Extruison
Species 5 — Projection Surface
Reference a surface in rhino
project curves onto a curved surface
Species 1 â€” Original
Species 2 â€” Changing the type of grid
5. Offset distance = -4
1. Traingular grid
5. Offset distance + point attraction
2. Multiple offset
6. Changing array spacing expression
2. Changing array spacing expression
6. Offset distance = -1
3. Changin sampled image
7. Cull pattern
3. Offset distant + point attraction
7. Cull pattern
4. Offset distant + point attraction
8. Piping radius = 0.5
4. Square grid
8. Changing smapled Image
Species 3 â€” Extrusion
1. Offest + move in Z-direction + loft
5. Extrusion height = attraction
2. Offset + point attraction
6. Extrusion height jitter
3. Offset + point attraction
7. offset + rotate + loft
4. Cull + multiple offset + loft
7. cull + loft + boundary surface
Species 4 — Surface & line pattern
1. WbSplitQuads (Lv.1)
Species 5 — Curved surface projection
1. Project on curved surface
6. Extrusion Z-direction
2. WbInnerPolygons (Lv.1)
2. Extrusion (surface normal)
3. WbWindow (distance=20)
4. WB mesh + height = point attraction
8. Projection + loft
4. Interpolate curve
5. Extruding cylinder from surface
Successful Species Selection Criteria Aesthetics
Does it look good
How can different materials be applied to it
How constructable is it
How can it adapt to different usage & situations
Species 1 / Iteration 4 Point attraction differs the offset distance of the hexagonal cells, creating a dynamic effect whilst keeping the original design language. Can be easily fabricated and assembled and be incorperated into the envelope of a building. Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability
Species 2 / Iteration 3 This outcome is based on a triangular grid instead and combined with the point attraction effect. This creates an interesting and dynamic pattern that could be developed into a user-interactive design. How to connect those triangle pieces could be an issue, but it would not be a problem if they are painted on or pierced through a surface.
Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability 48
Species 3 / Iteration 2
Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability
Lofting base grid and offset grid, which is moved upwards in the Z-direction, gives thickness to the grid. Variation is achieved by a point attractor, which controls the offset distance. Highly constructale, but connections of members should be caresully designed.
Species 4 / Iteration 5 Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability
Circles are drawn from the cell centre points and extruded. It creates an elegant effect but is not highly constructable as the cylinders are not connected to each other. CRITERIA DESIGN
CASE STUDY 2.0
Aqua Tower is a mixed-use residential tower in downtown Chicago. It features a sculpted facade achieved by layers of undulating floor plates. It gives an ever-changing, illusory vertical landscape of dunes and lakes. In plan, the curvy slab cantilever out from the face and forms individual balconies. The balconies, unique in size, are social platforms that perform multiple tasks, such as shading and minimize wind shear . The design begins with studying the views from the building, which is a primary focus of the design. Then the city topography is mapped into two-dimensional diagrams, or contours. Four unique elevational maps are generated, each representing a different orientation: north, east, south and west. Next, the topographic elevations are translated to a threedimensional model in slices. It results in unique floor plates with undulating outlines. These plates stack
Fig.30. Aqua Tower design parameters (Left) Fig.31. Digital model (Right top) Fig.32. Plan view (Right bottom) 50
up to create a three-dimensional sculpture. The distinct contour of each floor slab, 82 in total, poses challenges during the construction process. It is resolved by using a civil engineering and surveying software program to input the coordinates of each slab to a robotic station onsite .
23. Gang, Jeanne, Reveal : Studio Gang Architects (New York: rinceton Architectural Press, 2011), pp 158 24. Chicago Architecture Foundation, Aqua, retrieved from http://www.architecture.org/architecture-chicago/buildings-ofchicago/building/aqua/
Aqua Tower Gang Architects Chicago, 2010
Fig.33. Aqua Tower persepctive view
Divide Surface Image Sampler
Move Multiplication X4
Interpolate curves Slider
Combine the box and extruded plates
Species 1 — Original Rectangle
Species 7 — Grid
Exploring potentials of a rectangular grid form
Wb Mesh tools
Species 2 — Mesh variations Loft
Species 4 — Strips Curve
Species 3 — Surface mapping Curve
Species 6 — Box morph Surface box
Polygon Move Loft
Species 5 — Strips variations
Species 8 — Panelling + Point attraction
Species 9 — Gradient
Mix and match geometries and technique to create design variations
Use point attraction to vary the height of panels
Use gradient loop or field to generate curves on a surface
Species 1 â€” Original
Species 2 â€” Mesh variations
1. Altering graph mapper
5. Altering graph mapper
1. Delaunay mesh
2. Altering graph mapper
6. Changin sampled image
3. Altering graph mapper
7. Altering graph mapper
3. WbSierpinski (Lv.2)
4. Altering graph mapper
8. Altering graph mapper
Species 2 â€” WB mesh
Species 3 â€” Surface mapping
17. Decompose mesh + Spheres
21. Decompose mesh + traingles
18. Circles + boundary surface
22. Decompose mesh + hexagons
7. Wb Mesh Edges + piping
19. Spheres + point attraction
23. 18. Decompose mesh + circles
20. Spheres + line attraction
24. Decompose mesh + rhombus
Species 4 — Strips
Species 5 — Strip variation
Species 6 — Box morph
1. Interpolate curve in U direction
1. Columns supporting strips
5. Morph + pipe
2. Interpolate curve in V direction
2. Move distance = 1
6. Morph + pipe
3. Move interpolate curve + loft
3. traingulate stips
7. Morph + pipe
4. Move interpolate curve + loft
4. pipe + stips
8. Morph + pipe
Species 6 — Box morph
Species 7 — Grid
1. Delaunay edge
5. Interpolate curves + piping
2. Morph + pipe
2. Space frame
6. Strips in U & V directions
3. Space frame + piping
7. Supporting columns
4. Triangular frame + cull + offset
Species 8 — Panelling + Attraction
1. 1 point charge
2. 2 point charges
Species 9 — Loops
1. 10 Spin forces
5. Gradient loop + project on plane + loft
2. 2 Spin forces
6. Gradient loop + move + loft
3. 2 Spin forces
7. Gradient loop + piping
4. Gradient loop
Species 6 / Iteration 33 Combines box morph and piping to create a shading system. Can potentially be a roofing system for a curved or irregular structure. Materials can be fabric and steel or timber.
Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability
Species 2 / Iteration 12 A simple Weaverbird mesh. Tessellation of a curved surface allows for various possibilities in userinteractive designs. Can be easily fabricated.
Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability 60
Species 5 / Iteration 28 Combines piping and lofting in perpendicular directions to create a weaving effect. Can be adopted on a building facade. However, in this iteration, a weaving pattern is not generated. Further investigation can be done in regards to this.
Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability
Species 9 / Iteration 52 An experiment using gradient loop. It has a very beautiful pattern that follows the curvature of the surface. However, It is not constructable because they are merely unjoined lines.
Materiality Aesthetics Constructability Adaptability CRITERIA DESIGN
Based on species 1 Materials: - 0.3mm white polypropylene - 3mm MDF - glue Method: Laser cut each piece and interlock them at the notches Aim: To test material and light effect Outcome / comments: 1. I made a mistake with the material thickness, making the notches on the polypropylene pieces larger than it should be. As a result, the pieces do not fit together tightly, and they need to be glued at the connections. This shows the importance of correctness of material sizes. 2. Since the MDF pieces are not flat at the base, they cannot stabalise on the table, causing difficulties in connecting the pieces together. Further propotype can have those MDF pieces aligned on a flat surface for ease of assemblage. 3. The material combination is successful: MDF pieces provide strength and rigidity, while the polypropylene pieces are highly adaptive and flexible. Also, the polypropylene pieces can created beautiful shadows as show in fig 1. One shortfall is the burnt marks on the edge.
Based on species 6 Materials: - 0.3mm white polypropylene - 3mm MDF - glue - metal wire Method: Laser cut all pieces, construct the MDF frame, then attacted the polypropylene pieces to the frame Aim: To test light effect and types of connections Outcome / comments: 1. The MDF pieces do not connect to each other very well on the 4 outer edges. Hence, they have to be glued together in order to stay in shape. Special joints should be re-designed in further prototyping. 2. Using metal wires to connect the polypropylene pieces is a simple yet effective method. The only shortcoming is that they look a bit bulky, when there are more than one connections. Further investigation can look at how to resolve this. 3. The light effect is successful. This prototype has great potential for shading systems and light installations. Further investigations can look at how light can create a pattern by varying, for example, the shape of the triangles.
Based on species 2 Materials: - 3mm MDF - glue Method: Laser cut all pieces, then connect the triangular pieces with connectors Aim: To test connections
Outcome / comments: This propotype is considered as not successful because is fails to achieve the effect as intended (fig. 1). This happens for a number of reasons: 1. One connector per edge is insufficient. The panels are free to rotated even after glue was applied. 2. The connectors are too big, which destroy the overall form
Potential improvements: 1. Use two connector per edge 2. Use smaller connectors 3. Try a different type of connector (eg. hinge joints) 4. Try a different material that can be folded (hence does not require connectors)
Panels are free to rotate
nels are curved for known reasons
nction is not neat
onnector is too big
About the site The chosen site is the Bigbang Studio, which stands on a site overlooking the Merri Creek. The Bigbang studio is established by Erin Veronica Ender and Henrik Ender in 2007. It is an artist’s hub that encourages the experimentation in photography, architecture, film, craft, design, styling and more. It aims to create a collaborative environment for artists and the public, and to invest in social and environmental sustainability. The studio is a renovation of an industrial warehouse, which retains much of its industrial aesthetics. Meanwhile, it incorporates environmental sustainable ideas, such as hydronic heating and replanting the backyard. The photography studio can be hired by anyone for performances, exhibitions, workshops and more; everyone is invited to explore the different possibilities in creativity .
Merri Creek Road Walking trail Vegetation
25. Bigbang studio, ‘About Bigbang studio’, http:// bigbangstudio.com.au/about/ [20 April 2017]
13.4 m 3.6 m
3.9M high roller door
c lo cy
Accessibility = The studio can be reached by car; 30 minute walk to the tram stop; 10 minute walk to the bus stop
15 .7 m
studio 134 mÂ˛
a m ra
m ra diu s
Site activity & users = The studio can be hired by artists, photographers and performers for phototaking, performances, exhibitions etc. and public audience can be invited to those events
5. 5m he
White concrete floor Black concrete floor
Interior = The triangular shaped studio features a 6m invisible wall, perfect for photography shooting and illusory backdrop. It is accessible from four entrances, one of which is a roller shutter that allows cars in. The studio space is well equipped with mirrors, cherry-pickers, and ceiling lighting and a number of rooms â€”bathrooms, pantry and greenroom.
SW L 75KG
SW L 75KG
SW L 75KG
SW L 75KG
L3 CABLE TRAY L1
Others = The ceiling of the studio has a structural steel beam that can take load (indicated orange in plan), which gives possibilities for a hanging installation.
SW L 75KG
STEEL BEAM SW L 250KG
Design brief = To design a performacne pavilion
CONCEPT OF AIR
DESIGN PROPOSAL Structural beam above may provide support
Incorporate lighting at ceiling level
Maximise views on the sides
Continuation of the invisible wall
The design is aimed to express the porousity of air through creating interesting light and shadows. This can be achieved by materiality and patterning, which are the foci of my previous algorithmic explorations and prototyping exercise. For example, in prototype 1 & 2, I explored the use of translucent material and frame systems. I would like to apply them into my design for the performance pavilion. I envision a shell structure that acts as a backdrop for shows, such as singing and dance performances. With 3-dimensional patterns on the surface, it will create different shadows on the ground when applied different lighting (by manipulating the intensity, colour or direction of light). This will create an ‘atmospheric’ Fig.34-41. Perspective view of the studio interior & possible activities
Maximise views on the sides
or ‘airy’ experience that enhances the effects of the performances. Inspirations also come from the site conditions. I am very excited about the 6m invisible wall. It is a unique feature of the studio, and I would like my design to be a continuation of it. I also notice the abundant lighting equipment at the site, which can be utilized with my design to create special light effects during a performance. The shape of the design is a response to the triangular shape of the site. I would like to maximise the views from the sides, so that more people can view the performances without obstruction. CRITERIA DESIGN
Cull pattern List item
Surface Reference a surfae in Rhino
Wb mesh edges
Springs from lines
Length Multiplication Slider
Unit Z Slider
In Grasshopper, I used the Kangaroo plug-in to refine the shape of the shell. Then I used the Weaverbird Stellate component to create the triangulate panels of the shell. As in my prototypes 1 & 2, the triangular panels will be made of translucent materials, while the frame that holds up the panels will be made of timber. At this intial design stage, I still have a lot more to think about. For example, the potential of developing an interactive design: can pavilion be moved or rotated? Can the triangular panel change in form? The Grasshopper tools allow me to start exploring these possibilities by adding on to the existing script I developed.
One interactive approach I am proposing, is to move the lights at ceiling level to create different shadow patterns on the ground. One possibility is to change the materials (and hence the level of transparency of the panels) so different light effects can be achived when light is shone from different directions. The next step, also, would be thinking about how to construct the pavilion. Although I have done some explorations in the prototype making exercise, the construction of a real-size structure would be very different. It is important to start thinking about the connections of elements, the loads and fabrication.
15 .7 m
(1) Plan view: the shape of the pavilion response to the shape of the traingular site and follows the natural flow of circulation (2) Front elevation: The pavilion will serve as a perfect backdrop for performances, like dancing. However, since it is not very large in size, small groups of performances are ideal (3)Section: The construction logic is to have timber frames holding up the triangular panels (4) Perspective view: Different light effects can be achieved by changing the positions of spotlights from behind or above
Objective 1 The brief is to design a performance pavilion in the interior of the Bigband studio in Northcote. After meeting with the client, I gained deeper understanding in the story, usage and specific requirements of the site. I began to consider more thoroughly ‘what kind of performance can my design accommodate?’, ‘how can my design facilitate the performance?’, ‘how to best respond to the brief and the site?’, ‘what kind of effects do I want to achieve?’. Furthermore, for the first time using Grasshopper as the primary design tool, I can freely explore the fabrication, the possibilities of interactive designs and the everchanging/ adaptive quality of my design.
Objective 2 In case study 1.0 and 2.0, I have explored a variety of design outcomes with a base form, by manipulating different parameters and using different components in Grasshopper plug-ins. For example, I used the Weaverbird components to achieve different effects of a mesh surface, and used point-attraction methods to create dynamic patterns. Lack of experience and confidence in algorithmic design at the beginning of the course has not discouraged me to stop trying out different forms and patterns. My skills and understanding have enhances through the iteration and reverse engineering exercises.
Objective 5 In the past few weeks, I have gone through the process of studying existing projects, developing iterations, making prototypes and then generate my own design proposal. It is a rational process in which every decision is fully justified. During the interim presentation, I can communicate my design intent and development to client. Their suggestions are very constructive and encourage me to expand on several aspects, such as the interactive potentials and construction details.
Objective 6 I analysed two architecture projects that made use of computation methods. I understood their design intent and how this informs the design development and outcome. For example, the Spanish Pavilion is aimed to exhibit the diversity of Spanish culture, hence the use of irregular hexagons patterns in combination of colour coding is fully justified. I have understood its algorithmic design process, and on this basis, developed my own iterations. Similarly, I analysed the algorithmic design of Aqua Tower, reverse engineered it, and generated a variety of design outcomes by manipulating different parameters and introducing different components.
Objective 3 My skills in using Grasshopper have significantly improved. I gained the ability to think three dimensionally and algorithmically to achieve the effects I have in mind. For example, when working with mesh objects and designing he connections between mesh faces. Being able to communicate my computation method is equally important. I have gained this ability when diagramming my Grasshopper definitions and when communicating with my the tutor and my peers in class.
Objective 3 One of the driving ideas of my design proposal is the porosity of air. I have examined the effects of light and shadow through patterning. For example, I have intentionally tested the effect of lighting in my prototypes, by using light-porous materials. Successful prototypes have been taken further to develop my design proposal. Some ‘qualities’ of air are fluidity, porosity, light, floating, my proposed design is aimed to embody these qualities using the surface tessellation techniques generated through previous case studies and prototypes.
Objective 7 My understanding of computational design has improved significantly throughout part B. Initially I struggled with data structures, because it was a relatively new and intricate concept for me. Later, through ‘practice makes perfect’ and learning from the Grasshopper forum, I have gained better understanding in this matter. I also gained more experience in working with mesh, which I seldom work with previously, by trying out Weaverbird components.
Objective 8 After having a few weeks of experience in Grasshopper, I begin to identity more frequently used components or methods. I effectively group and label components for specific performance and use them recurrently. This speeds up my computation design process and gives me more time to discover and experiment with new methods. Also, I often look up other people’s scripts on the forum and transform useful scripts into my language for further use.
Wb Stellate + Piping
Increseing no. of quads of mesh
Changing cull pattern
Modifying base geometry
seing no. of quads of mesh
Adding WbWindow component
Increseing no. of quads of mesh
Using WbSierpinski instead
Adding WbWindow component
Using WbFrame instead
Chaging base geometry
Chaging base geometry
Chaging base geometry
Starfish + voronoi
Changing no. of lines & curve param.
Changing no. of lines & curve param.
Triangular grid + rotating & moving opening
Millipede tiling attraction
Chaging attraction geometry
Millipede Curved structurefrane
Changing to hexagonal grid
Changing no. of lines & curve param.
Changing no. of lines & curve param.
Hexagonal grid + rotating & moving opening
Chaging attraction geometry
Chaging attraction geometry
Lowering pattern density
Using mesh geometry
Increasing inflation level
Increasing inflation level
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bigbang studio, ‘About Bigbang studio’, <http://bigbangstudio.com.au/about/> [20 April 2017] Chicago Architecture Foundation, ‘Aqua’, <http://www.architecture.org/architecture-chicago/buildings-ofchicago/building/aqua/> [20 April, 2017] Gang, Jeanne, Reveal : Studio Gang Architects (New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2011), pp158 Garcia, Mark (2009). Patterns of architecture (London: John Wiley), pp 9 Moussavi, Farshid and Kubo, Michael, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar, Harvard University, Graduate, p 106 Newcomb, Rexford, Moudlng Assembling Designing: Ceramics in Architecture (Beaver Falls, Penn. : Associated Tile Manufacturers, 1924), pp114 Wurmanm RS ‘Seeing the World as Visual Patterns of Connectivity’, in G Schuller (ed), Designing Universal Knowledge, Lards Muller (Basel), 2009, pp 105
LIST OF IMAGES Fig.26. Millard House ‘textile block’ wall. Retrieved from The Function of Ornament, pp 74 Fig.27. Millar House ‘textile block’ detail. Retrieved from The Function of Ornament, pp 76 Fig.28. Spanish pavilion parametric design process. Retrieved from The Function of Ornament, pp 106 Fig.29. Spanish pavilion. Retrieved from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/8e/12/d4/8e12d43bc a477c1c7e0489b675a9653f.jpg Fig.30. Aqua Tower design parameters. Retrieved from http://studiogang.com/img/VUJqVVNpUVNYMWZ4ZFFl OFBZNWIyQT09/0425-aqua-image-008.png Fig.31. Digital model. Retrieved from http://www.fubiz.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Aqua-Tower2.jpg Fig.32. Plan view. Retrieved from http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5012/0065/28ba/0d55/8100/00e7/ large_jpg/stringio.jpg?1361274805 Fig.33. Aqua Tower persepctive view. Retrieved from http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5012/0065/28ba /0d55/8100/00e7/large_jpg/stringio.jpg?1361274805 Fig.34-41. Perspective view of the studio interior. Retrieved from bigbangstudio.com.au/specs-features/ Fig.37. Perspective view of the studio interior. Courtesy of Bigbang Studio
C DETAILED DESIGN
C.1. Design Concept
C.2. Tectonic Elements & Prototypes
C.3. Final Detail Model
C.4. Learning Objectives and Outcomes
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT
Interim feedback The interim feedback provides valuable insights in terms of the design argument, fabrication process and other possible design ideas. Design argument could be more concise and thoughtfully developed. At the moment, my concept is a bit loose and not sufficiently supported by the reasoning or decisions making process. More investigation should be done regarding the constructability of my design. Although I have tried out different types of connections in my prototypes, they are in a very small scale. When the scale is blown up, careful attention should be paid in designing a workable system of such. I was encouraged to look at other possibilities, for example having movable parts and inserting interactive mechanisms. However, these involve more extensive designs and experiements with workability. Also, the audience may not actually interact with the design the way as the designer intended.
From Part B to Part C The scientific investigation from B.2 to B.4 should be carried on in part C. I should do a thorough study on different of pattern designs, evaluate different 4000 requirements, such as the brief, the budget and constructibility, and select the must suitable design. Develop a persuasive design argument. Construct a compelling narrative for the design based on interim 5000 feedbacks.
Develop user-interactive designs based on site conditions, as examined in B.6. Consider the circulation flow, space requirements and lighting effects.
New in Part C Working in group of 6 is so much different to work by myself. It induces a completely different workflow, as each of us will focus on one part of the design whilst working closely to develop a coherent design.
Consider the cost and actual fabrication of the design. Aside from being creative, the design should be realistic and achiveable. These should be embedded from early on into the design process. 13.4 m
15 .7 m
Design Brief A performance pavilion that is exciting, inspiring and creative. Use parametric tools and conduct extensive reseasrch to come up with a scientifically-developed and complex design.
SITE ANALYSIS RECAP
Merri Creek Road Walking trail Vegetation
Our site is located at the Bigbang Studio, next to the Merri Creek. It is an artistâ€™s hub that facilitates the experimentation in all forms of arts and nurtures a collaborative environment for both artists and the public. The photography studio can hold for performances, exhibitions, workshops and so on. It is accessible by car and is near public transportation (30 minute walk to tram stop, 10 minute walk to bus stop).
13.4 m 3.6 m
3.9M high roller door
c lo cy
15 .7 m
studio 134 mÂ˛
a m ra
m ra diu s 5.
Access White concrete floor Black concrete floor
Our design will be placed in a triangular shaped studio as shown above. The room has a 6m invisible wall and four access points. The traingular space is divided up by the colours of the floor; performances are usually held on the white area while the audiences take the black area. Our group is interested in casting interesting shadows onto the white cyclorama wall. We could also make use of the lighting and sound equipments that are available in the studio.
DETAILED DESIGN 91 Fig.42-45. Bigbang Studio
GROUP DESIGN CONCEPT
Light & Shadow
Fig.46. Lungs cells
Fig.47. The lungs
Fig.48. Lumen by Jenny Sabin
Our concept is breathing. We associate ‘Air’ with breathing or air intake. We take a biomimetic approach to the design by looking at the physiological or biological process of breathing. Lungs were the first thing to come in mind. We looked at the structure of lungs and the cells, and aimed to represent these in our design through the geometry, strucutre and patterning.
On the right is the diagram showing how we are going to work as a group. We have groupmates who focused on different research fields in Part B, so we divide up ourselves based on our research fields, and focus on our own tasks while working closely with others. The design begins with the biomimetic concept, then pass on to geometry, structure and lastly patterning.
Our design surrounds the idea of the breath, the human body and the rhythmic flow. We aimed to facilitate the audience to reflect upon their inner rhythm, their body and the meaning of time.
I will focus on the patterning technique, and the subsequent pages will be mainly focused on the development of pattern design, with reference to other groupmates’ works.
BIOMIMICRY The biomimicry team come up with the idea of ‘breathing’ Fig.49. The lungs
Fig.50. The heart
GEOMETRY The geometry team then come up a form that best demonstrates our idea
STRUCTURE The structure team then works on the structural aspect and constructability
PATTERNING The patterning team then generates a pattern design
PATTERNING.................... In part C, I focused on the patterning design. We adopt the idea of â€˜breathingâ€™ from the biomimicry team, and use the image on the right , an image of the lung cells, as an inspiration. We aim to design a pattern that resembles the human cells and one that has the qulity of porosity. On the next page, I experimented with different methods to create patterns. For example, the hexgonal grid, delaunay mesh and 2D voronoi. Patterns generated by a hexogonal grid is more rigid and less organic, while patterns generated by Delaunay mesh or Voronoi are more cell-like. Therefore, I decided to further experiment with Delaunay and Voronoi. In addition, the technique using WbWindow + WbCatmulclark achieves very desirable results. I would continue developing this technique
Fig.51. Lung cells under the microscope
Fig.52. Bronchiole diagram 94
Variations: WbWindow; WbWindow + WBStellate +WbCatmulclark; WbWindow +WbCatmulclark;
Hexagonal grid Voronoi
Variations: Multiple offset; Scale + point attraction
Variations: Scale + point attraction; Scale + Fillet; Voronoi cell size; Surface split
Next, I tried to apply the successful patterns (or techniques) onto a curved surface. This experiment aims to develop a pattern that can be directly applied to a curved geometry, which is what the geometry team is developing at the moment. By focusing on Delaunay and Voronoi, and using â€˜WbWindow + WbCatmulclarkâ€™, I generated satisfying results. The patterns are dynamic and very much resembles human cells. I also received positive feeback from our group. We decide that the voronoi pattern is more suitable, because the delaunay mesh generates a more tirangular pattern, which is less organic compared to the voronoi pattern. 96
Fig.53. Bronchiole diagram
These are examples of voronoi pattern applied to cluster of spheres, which closely resemble the bronchiolies in the lungs. The pattern is very flexible as well, by altering the number of points (in Populate Geometry) ans the scale factor (of each voronoi cell), a variety of effects can be achived.
Pop3D Sphere Solid Union PopGeo Voronoi 3D Brep/Brep Intersection
Mesh UV Wb Join Wb CatmulClarck
DESIGN PROGRESS OVERVIEW
Original idea from B6
Developed design We decided to go ahead with the voronoi pattern. We apply our pattern onto the geometry generated by the team. As shown in the diagram above, the design process has evolved from an angular form to a more gentle form. The evolution is driven by the work of the whole group and take into account various considerations. For example, we thought about the symbolism of the shape, we thought about adding columns for structural reasons, then we thought about rotating the form for height limit concerns. The initial design, taking the form of the lungs, 98
comprises of a frame structure and fabric with our voronoi pattern applied onto it. The pattern will be achived by cutting out from a piece of fabric, and the fabric will be tied to and hung onto the frame. One way of fabricating would be laser cut holes out of laser-cuttable fabric. The cut pieces can then be sewed to become one large piece. Strings can be tied through eyelets on the fabric to the timber/ aluminium frame. The developed design comprises of the same system, with a mere change in the shape. We believe dthat by applying spotlights to the pavilion, interesting light and shadow effect can be achieved to engage with tha audiences.
TO THE HEART... Our group then decided that changing from the lungs to the heart will be a better option.
WHY? -Symbolic meaning of the heart; audience can easily associate with the shape -Intricacy and complexity in the shape -Strong relationship to ‘breath’: the heartbeat, the breat; the circulation of oxygen through the body ABOUT THE HEART The heart works supports the lungs to provide oxygen to the entire body -- while the heart pumps the blood, and the lungs put oxygen into the blood. The heart is the main driver of the system, without the heart pumping blood, the body cannot survive. Also, the heart creates an electromagnetic field, which can be detected from several feet away from the body . We hope our design can communicate our ideas with the audience just as how the magnetic field of the heart’s magnetic field extends the surroundings. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT A 3D model of the human heart is simplified by removing blood vessels and trimming out the veins. This simplified form serves as the base mesh for further development. Mesh edges are extracted using the Weaverbird component ‘WBMeshEdges’. We find the triangular ‘web of lines’ very compelling, and has great potentials in terms of structure and patterning. The next part will focus on the development of the new pattern design. 26. Rollin McCraty, ‘The Heart Has Its Own ‘Brain’ and Consciousness’, http://in5d.com/the-heart-has-its-own-brainand-consciousness/ [2 May 2017] DETAILED DESIGN
THE HEART ...the breath, the human body and
...connect together to form a conti
The rhythm of the he The circulation of oxy
n that is the heart of the exhibition.
eartbeat, the rhythm of the breath. ygen through the body....
THE HEART DETAILED DESIGN
PATTERNING... I was very inspired by this image on the left, which depicts the human heart in different colours. The mesh-like pattern is almost a graphical way to represent the tissues, the cells and blodd vessels that make up the heart. In fact, the heart is surrounded by a large network of very thin-walled vessels . Theese vessels allow blood to carry oxygen throughout the body. I am interested in representing the blood vessel network through patterning. I am also inspired by the heart valves, as shown on the image below. They are valves that control the blood flow in and out of the heart. They are made up of traingular pieces, which can be easily symbolised by the use of traingulated mesh.
Fig.54. Diagram of the heart
Fig.55. Heart diagram
Fig.56. Heart section
27. Patient, â€˜The Heart and Blood Vesselsâ€™, https://patient.info/ health/the-heart-and-blood-vessels [2 May 2017]
Fig.57. Heart valves 102
On the above are experimentations with different ways of achieveing patterns. Our group wished to focus on a frame structure. Therefore, the pattern design will this principle. The design will be very structural orientated, hence, the patterning will be greatly influenced by the work of the structural team. In my experimentation, I created a mesh based on a curved surface referenced in Rhino. Three ways are tested, including the Exoskeleton component, Millepede and Cocoon plugins.
I concluded that, in order to achive a nice pattern, the ribs have to be quite dense to show a degree of intricacy and complexity. A triangulated pattern looks the most appealing to me. Also, variations in thickness of the ribs will achieve a more dynamic effect and can symbolise the structural rationality of the human heart. The thickness of the heart wall differs—thicker heart wall is located where blood pressure is high . This can be translated, if ribs are thicker where more structural support is needed. 26. PT Direct ‘The Human Heart’, http://www.ptdirect.com/ training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/the-heart [2 May 2017]
Next, I experimented with the heart shape using agian, exoskeleton, Millepede and Cocoon plugins. The same principles applies: dense, traingular pattern looks the best and thickness variations adds excitement to the design.
Alternative: WbCatmulClarck Another aspect of the pattern design is the light and shadow generated on the surroundings. The aim is to cast interesting shadow onto the infinity wall at the site (see page 90), to create almost like a electromagnetic field of the heart and bring everyone into the â€˜fieldâ€™. A comparison is made between three options, and found that the first scenario gives the best outcome. Scenario 3 is too dark, while scenario 2 is less interesting (with lower density). DETAILED DESIGN
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES
CONSTRUCTION DESIGN Our design adopts a holistic approach, combining structure, geometry and patterning into one monolithic object. Therefore, we also decide to 3D print the entire heart at once. On the technical level, it is very difficult to fabricate and assemble such large amount of component (over 2000 beams). On the symbolic level, printing our design as a coherent whole resembles the way our body is created, and
brings out the notion that the body will be totally different if you change mediums. We used Karamba to calculate the sizes of the beams (based on forces applied to it), and cocoon to rebuilt the mesh, then smooth the mesh with Wb Laplacian.The outcome is a self-supported, 1mx1mx1m sculpture.
Line to Beam
Endpoints Deconstruct Point
Remove Duplicate points
Z smaller than 0.05
Split list Support Material Properties 108
Optimise Cross Section
Wb Laplacia Cocoon Select Element
PROTOTYPING The aim is to test materiality and to have a vague idea about the time and cost to print. We also want to test the lighting effect with a physical model. We are making a small size and simplified version of our design. Here is the process of making:
The intial mesh contains to many components, which makes it impossible to print at a small scale. It will also be too expensive and to timely to print.
Reduce number of mesh faces
The printing at Officeoworks took 1 day and $60 to print.
Reduced mesh Split into half
We are printing with PLA, a plastic that is wet while printing. It requires the angle of the object to be smaller than 90 degrees to the horizon, which is not the case for our design. Therefore, we split the heart into half. 110
We found that even by simplifying the mesh, it is still to costly and timely to print (taking 50+ hours and $600 to print). So we removed the interior parts of the heart.
Remove interior Rescaled
Remove interior Interior removed
There is a minimum thickness to the beams. So we have to rescale the thickness in order for the print to be feasible.
Material: PLA Cost: $60 Lead time: 1 day DImensions: 40x50x60 mm
between the two halves is also quite obvious (less obvious in a darker environment as on the next page) , but again will not be a problem in the final model, as it will be printed entirely as one piece.
The prototype is successful in producing the triangulated web-like structure, but losses its shape after being simplified. This problem will not occur in the final print, as the scale is blown up. The gap
3D prininting is a relatively costly an time-consuming fabricating method. However, it has the ability to produce a highly complex model, which would be even more time consuming to be assmbled piece
by piece. It also allows the model to be printed in a single material. As discussed, this conveys the biomimimetic meaning of a coherent body. We conclude that 3D printing is the most suitable fabrication method. The making of the final model, will be very costly and highly time consuming. We were encourgaged to look for funding for making the final model.
Above image depicts the lighting effect. We put a fairy light inside the heart in a dark room. The effect is very close to what we expected (see page 105) and hence considered successful. The effect will be even stronger with a more complex heart (more beams), which will be the case of the final model. Further considerations would be the colour choice. Red or pink colour may be appropriate to connotate a â€˜livingâ€™ heart.
C.3 FINAL DESIGN MODEL
C.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOME
CRIT FEEDBACK The critics liked our design. They thought our design was well developed and coherent (across all four research fields). However, they found the sudden switch from the ‘lungs’ to the ‘heart’ not well discussed during the presentation. They suggested a clearly and more precise explanation about the change, and that is what I focused on in C.1. Also, they suggested us to have a deeper thought about the relationship between the design and the site. Questions to think about are: ‘how will the audience approach the sculpture?’ and ‘how do people circulate around the space?’. One more aspect to the design is the lighting and sound effect. The critics were impressed by the rendered images, but a more detailed lighting design should be thought about for the actual exhibition.
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT 1. Lighitng and sound effect: come up with a plan 2. Relation to the site: think about how to strategically place the ‘heart’
We formulated the design brief to be a performance pavilion that is exciting, inspiring and creative. With help of parametric tools, our group aimed to come up with a scientifically-developed and intracate design. Somewhere in the design process, we feel that our design is not exciting enough. We boldly changed our design, with the intention of meeting our design brief, and finally came up with a satisfying result.
As in part B, I carried out extensive experimentations in grasshopper to come up with the more successful patterning design. During the process, we compared and contrasted a variety of possible design solutions as a group. Such opportunities are given by parametric design tools, whcih greatly increases efficiency.
Part C has further enhanced my parametric modelling skills. I continued to expore the Exoskeleton, Weaverbird, Kangaroo and Millepede componenets to generate patterns to resembe the bodily structure. I have also learnt a lot in terms of optimising structure for our later design. It is also my first time 3d printing a design; the process was immensly rewarding.
Our design has a strong relationship to ‘air’. We explored this relationship from the biological point of view: the process of ‘breathing’ and air supply throughout the human body. We also put an emphasis on porousity, a quality of air, by looking into the light and shadow effects.
Our group has learnt to put together a persuasive narrative of our design. At the final presentation, we successfully did so by identifying key elements of our design and explaining some important design throughout the process. Documenting the design process in the journal has further pushed my ability to tell a coherent story of my design journey.
In twelve weeks I have looked at and learnt from many architectural examples. In part A I gained deeper understanding of how architects design with parametric tools; in Part B I generated iterations based on two case studies. These knowledge built up, allowing me to develop my own design in Part C.
The process of learning computation has been fruitful. I have learnt to generate complex geometries and meshes using tools like Weaverbird and Voronoi. Particularly in Part C, I was exposed to structural optimisation and its great potential in the course of design. I could not have done so without learning from my tutor and my peers.
In Part C, I focused on a number of tools for developing patterning designs. For example, Voronoi, Weaverbird and Exoskeleton, as a I found them very useful in generating natural forms, which are suitable for our design intent. Also, I often ‘borrow’ scripts that I developed or found when I was working on Part B. This sped up the design process a lot. DETAILED DESIGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY McCraty, Rollin. ‘The Heart Has Its Own ‘Brain’ and Consciousness’, http://in5d.com/the-heart-has-its-ownbrain-and-consciousness/ [2 May 2017] Patient, ‘The Heart and Blood Vessels’, https://patient.info/health/the-heart-and-blood-vessels [2 May 2017] PT Direct ‘The Human Heart’, http://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/the-heart [2 May 2017]
LIST OF IMAGES Fig.42-45. Bigbang Studio. Retrieved from Fig.46 & 51. Lungs cells. Retrieved from http://medcell.med.yale.edu/histology/respiratory_system_lab/ images/respiratory_bronchioles.jpg Fig.47 & 52. The lungs. Retrieved from https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/81/74/b6/8174b6483f32d7 36b4e6815adb4777e6.jpg Fig.48. Lumens by Jenny Sabin. Retrieved from http://www.evolo.us/architecture/knitting-a-building-mythread-pavilion-for-nike/ Fig.52. The heart. Retrieved from http://thegraphicsfairy.com/royalty-free-images-anatomical-heart-vintage/ Fig.53. Bronchiole diagram. Retrieved from https://www.78stepshealth.us/human-physiology/ images/3204_618_854-terminal-bronchioles.jpg Fig.54. Diagram of the heart. Retrieved from https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/jessicaz/medical_data/Heart_ Valve_new.htm Fig. 55. Heart diagram. Retrieved from https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/jessicaz/medical_data/Heart_ Valve_new.htm Fig.56. Heart section. Retrieved from https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/jessicaz/medical_data/Heart_Valve_ new.htm Fig.57. Heart valves. Retrieved from https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/jessicaz/medical_data/Heart_Valve_ new.htm