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Adeiladu Treftadaeth yn Eryri Building Heritage in Snowdonia

Gwanwyn 2013 Spring

AM DDIM FREE

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Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society Magazine

Sefydlwyd Cymdeithas Eryri yn 1967 a’i nod yw sicrhau fod harddwch ac amrywiaeth tirwedd, bywyd gwyllt ac etifeddiaeth ddiwylliannol y Parc Cenedlaethol yn parhau er mwynhad cenedlaethau’r presennol a’r dyfodol. ~~~ The Snowdonia Society, established in 1967, works to ensure the beauty and diversity of the National Park’s landscape, wildlife and cultural heritage remain for present and future generations to enjoy.

Helpwch i lunio dyfodol Eryri! I’w ddarllen â theclyn darllen côd bar For use with a smartphone bar code scanner

Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society,

Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR 01286 685498

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk www.snowdonia-society.org.uk Elusen gof. rhif / Reg. charity no: 253231

Swyddogion ac Ymddiriedolwyr / Officers and Trustees Llywydd / President: Dr John Disley CBE Is-Lywyddion / Vice-Presidents: Sir John Houghton CBE FRS, Sir Simon Jenkins FSA, John Lloyd Jones OBE, David Firth, Morag McGrath. Cadeirydd / Chair: David Archer Is-gadeirydd / Vice-Chair: Katherine Himsworth Trysorydd anrh. / Acting Hon. Treasurer: Rhydd/Vacant Ysgrifennydd Anrh. / Hon. Secretary: Marc Thomas Aelodau’r pwyllgor / Committee members: Netti Collister, Bob Lowe, Bernard Owen, Gareth Roberts, Margaret Thomas, Elwyn Thomas, Peter Weston, Jacob Buis, Hazel Barclay. Os hoffech gysylltu ag unrhyw aelod o’r pwyllgor ffoniwch y swyddfa. If you would like to contact any of the committee members please phone the office. Staff Cyfarwyddwr / Director: Huw Jenkins Gweinyddwraig Swyddfa / Office Administrator: Frances Smith Rheolwr Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri/ Conservation Snowdonia Project Manager: Mary-Kate Jones Swyddog Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri/ Conservation Snowdonia Project Officer: Jenny Whitmore Cyfieithu / Translation: Gareth Jones Clawr / Cover: Tŷ Uncorn - view from gate, by Falcon Hildred © Hawlfraint y Goron: Comisiwn Brenhinol Henebion Cymru © Crown copyright: Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales.

Help shape Snowdonia's future!

Os ydych yn pryderu ynghylch dyfodol If you care about Snowdonia's future, why Eryri, beth am gynorthwyo i arwain a not help direct and manage our activities rheoli ein gweithgareddau trwy ddod yn by becoming a Trustee? The Snowdonia Ymddiriedolwr? Llywodraethir Cymdeithas Society is governed by a team of elected Eryri gan dîm o ymddiriedolwyr etholedig trustees who meet as a committee once a sy’n cyfarfod fel pwyllgor unwaith bob quarter. chwarter. For an informal chat contact Huw Jenkins: Am sgwrs anffurfiol cysylltwch â Huw Jenkins: 01286 685498 huw@snowdonia-society.org.uk

Ymwelwch â'n chwaer-wefannau • Visit our sister websites www.tyhyll.co.uk

www.14peaks.com

www.theuglyhouse.co.uk

Mae rhifynnau blaenorol Back copies of the magazine o'r cylchgrawn ar gael i'w darllen are available to read online at: ar-lein yn: issuu.com/cymdeithaseryri Cynnwys • Contents Golygyddol Blaenau Ffestiniog: Tirwedd wedi’i chreu â llaw Aelodaeth Fusnes Pe bai waliau'n gallu siarad Pwy sy'n rhannu eich tŷ? Drysau Cysegredig Gweddnewid Blaenau Ffestiniog A ddylem roi cotiau glaw i’n hadeiladau? Dyddio o gylchoedd coed a Thŷ Eryri Yr Ysgwrn Adolygiad llyfr Polisi ac ymgyrchoedd Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri Newyddion Tŷ Hyll Llythyrau

3 4-6 7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-21 22-23 23 24-27 28 29 30

Editorial Blaenau Ffestiniog: a hand-made landscape Business Membership If walls could talk Who shares your house? Sacred Doorways "All change" in Blaenau Ffestiniog Should we be giving our houses raincoats? Tree ring dating and the Snowdonia House

Yr Ysgwrn Book review Policy and campaigns Conservation Snowdonia Project Tŷ Hyll news Letters

Dyma gylchgrawn swyddogol Cymdeithas Eryri. Caiff ei gyhoeddi bob chwe mis a’i ddosbarthu i aelodau’r Gymdeithas yn rhad ac am ddim. Gofynnwch os hoffech chi gael unrhyw erthyglau mewn fformat print bras. This is the official magazine of the Snowdonia Society, distributed free to its members twice a year. Please ask if you would like the text of any articles in a larger print format.

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Golygyddol

Editorial

Wrth deithio i gyfeiriad gogleddol neu orllewinol i Eryri, gwelir mynyddoedd creigiog yn lle bryniau, waliau cerrig yn lle gwrychoedd a lympiau talpiog o graig yn lle brics. Wrth gyrraedd, nid oes amheuaeth eich bod mewn lle arbennig.

Travelling north or west to Snowdonia the hills give way to craggy mountains, hedgerows to stone walls and bricks to chunky lumps of rock. On arrival there is no doubting you are in a special place. Our own home is 450 years old but that is a million times younger than the rocks from which it is built. Tough, unyielding stuff, that seems to last forever. So too the beams of oak which defy the dentures of woodworm. Some call it the built environment. I prefer building heritage, not just something in the past and not just something happening around us but something we can treasure and develop from.

Mae ein cartref ni’n 450 mlwydd oed, ond mae hynny filiwn gwaith yn iau na’r creigiau a ddefnyddiwyd i’w adeiladu. Deunydd gwydn a di-ildio sydd fel pe bai’n para am byth. Felly hefyd y trawstiau derw sy’n herio dannedd y pryfed pren. Yr amgylchedd adeiledig yw hyn, yn ôl rhai. Mae'n well gen i ddweud treftadaeth adeiladu, rhywbeth sydd nid yn unig yn y gorffennol ac yn digwydd o'n cwmpas, ond gallwn ei drysori a datblygu ohono hefyd.

The words of Clough Williams-Ellis come to mind... Cherish the past, adorn the present, construct for the future. There are examples of all three ‘commandments’ in this edition of our magazine, not least the restoration and repurposing of Tŷ Hyll or the redevelopment of Blaenau Ffestiniog town centre. But for me the gable end of Ysgol y Garreg in Llanfrothen embodies them all. Ann Smith, who lives next door to the school, asked if she could use a classroom for an art group and in agreeing, the Head suggested she might teach the children to make a mosaic. Many months later Ann and the children unveiled their enormous masterpiece: cherishing the nearby works of Sir Clough; adorning an otherwise blank wall overlooking the playground; constructing or shaping the minds of the next generation.

Cofiaf eiriau Clough Williams-Ellis... Coleddu'r gorffennol, harddu'r presennol, adeiladu ar gyfer y dyfodol. Mae enghreifftiau o bob un o’r tri ‘gorchymyn’ yn y rhifyn hwn o’n cylchgrawn, nid y lleiaf y gwaith o adnewyddu a newid defnydd Tŷ Hyll, neu ailddatblygu canol tref Blaenau Ffestiniog. Ond i mi, mae talcen Ysgol y Garreg yn Llanfrothen yn ymgorffori pob un ohonynt. Gofynnodd Ann Smith, sy’n byw drws nesaf i’r ysgol, a gâi ddefnyddio dosbarth i gynnal grŵp celf, ac wrth gytuno, awgrymodd y Pennaeth y gallai addysgu’r plant i wneud mosaig. Rai misoedd wedyn, dadorchuddiodd Ann a'r plant eu camwaith enfawr sy’n coleddu gweithiau cyfagos Sir Clough; yn harddu wal sy'n wynebu’r maes chwarae oedd cyn hynny'n blaen; ac yn adeiladu neu’n llunio meddyliau'r genhedlaeth nesaf. Wrth son am y genhedlaeth nesaf... Llongyfarchiadau i Sarah Medcalf ar enedigaeth Eben Jack. Tra bydd Sarah yn absennol dros gyfnod mamolaeth, fe wnaf fy ngorau glas i lenwi'r bwlch fel Cyfarwyddwr Dros Dro. Huw Jenkins

Speaking of the next generation... Congratulations to Sarah Medcalf on the birth of Eben Jack. While Sarah is away on maternity leave I will be doing my best to fill the gap as Interim Director. Mosaig Ysgol y Garreg mosaic

Cynhyrchwyd y cylchgrawn hwn gan dîm golygyddol yn cynnwys Rob Collister, Frances Smith a Sarah Medcalf. Rydym yn hynod ddiolchgar i’r holl awduron a ffotograffwyr sydd wedi cyfrannu at y rhifyn hwn. Cofiwch mai safbwyntiau personol yr awduron sy’n cael mynegi ganddynt, ac nid ydynt o reidrwydd yn adlewyrchu polisi Cymdeithas Eryri.

Huw Jenkins

The magazine is produced by an editorial panel of Rob Collister, Frances Smith and Sarah Medcalf. We are extremely grateful to all the authors and photographers who have contributed to this issue. The views expressed by the authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect Snowdonia Society policy.

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Blaenau Ffestiniog Tirwedd wedi’i chreu â llaw Falcon Hildred Wedi hanner can mlynedd o gofnodi diwydiant y 19eg ganrif, rwyf wedi fy argyhoeddi mai Blaenau Ffestiniog yw’r dirwedd ddiwydiannol fwyaf cyflawn sydd wedi goroesi ym Mhrydain. Fel bwlch yng nghanol Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri, mae’n dirwedd ddramatig wedi’i chreu gan ddyn, hyd yn oed wedi'i chreu â llaw, cofeb i’r sawl a lafuriodd i gyflenwi un o anghenion mwyaf sylfaenol y ddynoliaeth: to dros ein pen. Mae cysylltiad Blaenau â llechi fel cysylltiad y Rhondda â glo a Merthyr Tudful â haearn ac felly, mae mor bwysig yn hanesyddol â thref gaerog ganoloesol. Cydnabuwyd hyn yn 1998 gan Cadw, a bellach mae’n Dirwedd o Ddiddordeb Hanesyddol Eithriadol, ac fe’i lleolir hefyd yng nghanol ardal o harddwch naturiol eithriadol. Yn ogystal â pharhau i fod bron iawn yn gyflawn â’i diwylliant Cymraeg a’i hiaith, tai teras ei gweithwyr, capeli, traphont

rheilffordd, Rheilffordd fyd-enwog Ffestiniog ac adfeilion dramatig a llethrau esgynnol tua ugain o chwareli, mae hefyd yn le sydd fwy neu lai heb ei ddifetha gan gynnydd. Yn wahanol i sawl tref hanesyddol arall, nid yw wedi'i hamgylchynu gan gylch trwchus o gyffredinedd modern, sy'n golygu mai'r peth cyntaf a welwch fydd hen dŷ carreg go iawn neu chwarel, o ba bynnag gyfeiriad y teithiwch yno. Ond nid cofnodi yw fy unig waith. Fel cynllunydd diwydiannol, mae’n weledigaeth hefyd*. Rwyf yn wastad wedi ymgyrchu am well gwerthfawrogiad o’n treftadaeth ddiwydiannol. Yn ystod fy neugain mlynedd ym Mlaenau, rwyf wedi cynhyrchu posteri, ysgrifennu erthyglau, rhoi sgyrsiau, cynnal arddangosfeydd, achub pedwar adeilad hanesyddol y mae tri ohonynt bellach yn rhestredig, a llunio dau gynllun i wella canol y dref. Mae fy lluniau o wrthrychau o bob rhan

o Brydain, ac maent yn cynnwys popeth o gwt sinc i dref gyfan. Ond fy astudiaeth o Flaenau yw’r mwyaf manwl. Fe'i comisiynwyd gan Gymdeithas Eryri, â grant bychan gan Cadw, a chafwyd arian cyfatebol gan bobl o Flaenau ac ymhell tu hwnt, ac rwy’n ddiolchgar i bob un ohonynt. ____________

*Nid wyf erioed wedi hyrwyddo Blaenau fel lle i ymwelwyr, ond er ei lles ei hun ac er lles Cymru, fel rwyf wedi'i wneud â fy melin.

Ganwyd Falcon Hildred yn Grimsby yn 1935, a bellach mae’n byw ac yn gweithio mewn melin sy’n edrych i lawr ar Flaenau Ffestiniog. Mae’n ddylunydd diwydiannol wrth ei alwedigaeth, ac mae wedi treulio’r rhan fwyaf o’i fywyd yn cofnodi archeoleg ddiwydiannol.

Darluniau gan Falcon Hildred, Hawlfraint y Goron: Comisiwn Brenhinol Henebion Cymru Drawings by Falcon Hildred, Crown copyright: Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Drum-house to Rhiw-bach quarry, 1981

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Blaenau Ffestiniog A hand-made landscape Falcon Hildred

Overhanging rock, High Street, 1987

Bryn Tirion, Blaenau Ffestiniog, 1987

After fifty years of recording 19C industry, I am convinced that Blaenau Ffestiniog is the most complete surviving industrial landscape in Britain. Forming the hole in the middle of the Snowdonia National Park, it is a dramatic man-made, even hand-made landscape, a monument to those who laboured to provide that most basic of human needs: a roof over our heads.

Blaenau is to slate what the Rhondda was to coal and Merthyr Tydfil to iron, and so is as important now historically as a medieval walled town. This was recognised in 1998 by Cadw, with the result that it is now a Landscape of Outstanding Historic Interest, with the added distinction of course of being set within the heart of an area of outstanding natural beauty. Not only is it still mostly intact with its

Gellir gweld gwaith Falcon Hildred yn:

Welsh culture and language, its workers’ terraced houses, chapels, railway viaduct, world famous Ffestiniog Railway and the dramatic ruins and soaring inclines of around twenty quarries, but it is also virtually unspoilt by progress. Unlike many other historic towns, it is not surrounded by a fat ring of modern mediocrity, which means that however you approach, the first thing you’ll come to is a genuine old stone house or a quarry.

Falcon Hildred's work can be seen at:

Coalbrookdale Gallery, Ironbridge tan 30 Ebrill Llyfrygell Genedlaethol Cymru, Aberystwyth, 14 Medi - 14 Rhagfyr, 2013 Arddangosfa parhaol yn ei dŷ melin, Blaenau Ffestiniog, mis Mai i fis Hydref drwy apwyntiad (01766 830540). Gweler www.falconhildred.co.uk 1 Mai - Taith gerdded dywys Cymdeithas Eryri o gwmpas Blaenau, ac ymweliad â stiwdio Falcon Hildred. Worktown: The Drawings of Falcon Hildred - llyfr yn cynnwys 200 o luniau lliw, £16.95 (ISBN 978-1-871184-47-1) Cedwir pob darlun yng Nghofnod Henebion Cenedlaethol Cymru, Aberystwyth.

The Coalbrookdale Gallery, Ironbridge until 30 April National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, 14 September - 14 December, 2013 A permanent exhibition at his mill house, Blaenau Ffestiniog, May to October, by appointment (01766 830540). See www.falconhildred.co.uk 1 May - a Snowdonia Society guided walk round Blaenau , with a visit to Falcon Hildred's studio. Worktown: The Drawings of Falcon Hildred - a book comprising 200 colour illustrations, £16.95 (ISBN 978-1-871184-47-1) All drawings are held at National Monuments Record of Wales, Aberystwyth.

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But not all my work is about recording. As an industrial designer it is a vision too*. I have always campaigned for a better appreciation of our industrial heritage. During my forty years in Blaenau, I have produced posters, written articles, given talks, held exhibitions, saved four historic buildings, three of which are now listed, and have produced two designs for improving the town centre. My drawings are of subjects from all over Britain, and cover anything from a tin

shed, to a whole town. But my Blaenau study has been the most detailed. This was commissioned by the Snowdonia Society, with a small grant from Cadw, match funded by people from Blaenau and well beyond, to all of whom I am most grateful. ____________

*I have never promoted Blaenau as a tourist spot, but for its own sake and for Wales, as I have with my mill.

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Falcon Hildred was born in Grimsby in 1935 and now lives and works in a mill overlooking Blaenau Ffestiniog. An industrial designer by profession, he has spent most of his life recording industrial archaeology.

Overhanging rock, Blaenau Ffestiniog, 1987


Aelodaeth Fusnes • Business Membership Mae'n bleser gennym lansio ein pecyn Aelodaeth Fusnes.

We are pleased to launch our Snowdonia Society Business Membership package.

Mae Aelodaeth Fusnes Cymdeithas Eryri yn cynnig cyfle i ni wella ymwybyddiaeth staff busnesau o'r cyfleoedd sydd ar gael ym Mharc Cenedlaethol Eryri, yn ogystal â'r heriau mae'r Parc yn eu hwynebu. Gallwn hefyd annog ymddygiad mwy cyfrifol, gan dynnu sylw at sut all ein gweithgareddau (hamdden, bywyd a gwaith) amharu ar rinweddau arbennig y Parc.

Business Membership gives us the opportunity to raise awareness amongst business employees of the opportunities that Snowdonia National Park offers, along with some of the challenges it faces. We can also promote more responsible behaviour in the Park, drawing attention to the impact our activities, whether leisure, life or work, can have on the Park's special qualities.

Mae dyfodol Eryri yn dibynnu ar fod â sector busnes bywiog sy'n cynnig amrywiaeth eang o gyfleoedd gwaith i’w thrigolion. Rydym yn gobeithio denu aelodau newydd o bob sector busnes o fewn y Parc ac yn edrych ymlaen at gydweithio â nhw.

The future of Snowdonia depends on having a vibrant business sector offering a wide range of employment opportunities for its residents. We hope to attract new members from all business sectors within the Park and look forward to working with them.

Meddai Kate Worthington o RAW Adventures, sydd yn rhedeg gweithgareddau mynydd yn Eryri a thu hwnt, "Edrychwn ymlaen at barhau i gefnogi a hyrwyddo'r gwaith eithriadol a wneir gan y Gymdeithas. Fel aelodau unigol ers nifer o flynyddoedd rydym wedi mwynhau diwrnodau ardderchog megis y digwyddiad casglu sbwriel ar yr Wyddfa. Credwn fod aelodaeth fusnes yn gyfle gwych i roi rhywbeth yn ôl i ardal sy'n annwyl iawn i ni."

Kate Worthington of RAW Adventures, who run mountain activities in Snowdonia and beyond, says, "We are looking forward to continuing to support and promote the outstanding work that the Society does. As individual members for a number of years we have enjoyed some great days on events such as the Snowdon litter pick. Being Business Members is a great opportunity to give something back to an area that is very dear to our hearts."

Trigonos

Trigonos in Nantlle is a not-for-profit residential centre for educational and training events, workshops and retreats. "The qualities of the Snowdonia National Park are an important factor drawing people towards Trigonos. By supporting the Society and the Park in general we can help maintain its character and help maintain and increase long-term employment for local people."

Mae Trigonos, Nantlle, yn ganolfan breswyl dielw ar gyfer digwyddiadau addysg a hyfforddiant, gweithdai ac encilion. "Mae rhinweddau Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri yn ffactor pwysig wrth ddenu pobl i Trigonos. Trwy gefnogi’r Gymdeithas a’r Parc yn gyffredinol, rydym hefyd yn cynorthwyo i gynnal a chynyddu cyflogaeth tymor hir i bobl leol." Meddai Sykes Cottages, asiantaeth annibynnol rhentu bythynnod â bythynnod ledled Cymru ac Eryri: "Fel cwmni, rydym yn awyddus i ddiogelu a chynnal harddwch Eryri i’r dyfodol ac er budd y gymuned leol a'n cwsmeriaid sydd wrth eu bodd yn treulio'u gwyliau yng ngogledd Cymru."

Sykes Cottages, an independent cottage rental agency with cottages throughout Wales and Snowdonia say, "As a company we are keen to protect and preserve Snowdonia’s beauty for the future and for the benefit of the local community and our customers who love holidaying in north Wales."

Mae Aelodau Busnes newydd eraill yn cynnwys:

Other new Business Members include:

Gwesty'r Royal Oak, Betws y Coed

Royal Oak Hotel, Betws y Coed

Bryn Afon Guest House, Betws y Coed

Bryn Afon Guest House, Betws y Coed

Gweler y clawr cefn am fanylion pellach yr hyn mae Aelodaeth Fusnes Cymdeithas Eryri yn ei gynnig.

See the back cover for more details of what Business Membership of the Snowdonia Society offers.

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Pe bai waliau yn gallu siarad Dafydd Whiteside Thomas “Wel,” meddai Wil wrth y wal. Dd’wedodd y wal ddim byd wrth Wil; ond mae pob bachgen ysgol yn gwybod beth oedd ateb y wal!

cyfarfod – ar wahan i un darn bach o dir, a ‘anghofiwyd’ yn ôl traddodiad, ac sy’n dal i gael ei adnabod hyd heddiw fel Nunlle: y tir sy’n perthyn i neb!

Dychmygwch pe bai waliau yn gallu siarad. Byddai hanes ucheldiroedd Eryri yn hynod ddiddorol o wrando atgofion waliau am y cyfnodau pryd cawsant eu codi – a’u trwsio. Ac mae rhai ohonynt yn dyddio’n ôl i gyfnod cynnar iawn.

Pan hawliodd teulu’r Faenol fynydd-dir Llanddeiniolen adeg Cau’r Tiroedd Comin, bu’n rhaid anfon y milisia yno a darllen y 'Riot Act', ond helynt diweddarach a fu’n gyfrifol am adeiladu wal gerrig sy’n ymestyn o lethrau Moel-y-ci ar draws y gweundir ac i fyny i gyfeiriad Llyn Marchlyn, gan wahanu llethrau’r Elidir yn Llanddeiniolen oddi wrth lethrau’r Fronllwyd a Charnedd y Filiast ym mhlwyf Llandegai. Arferai’r dŵr yn afon Marchlyn gael ei rannu rhwng y ddau blwyf, â charreg ar siap hetar wedi'i gosod yn yr afon i hollti’r ffrwd yn ddwy. Yn dilyn ffrae rhwng y plwyfolion ynglyn â hawl i’r dŵr, aeth yn fater cyfreithiol rhwng stad y Penrhyn (plwyf Llandegai) a stad y Faenol (plwyf Llanddeiniolen). Y Penrhyn a orfu, ac o ganlyniad, aeth plwyfolion Llandegai ati i godi wal gerrig i fyny’r llethrau at Lyn Marchlyn. Mae’r wal yno o hyd er gwaethaf yr holl waith a fu yn yr ardal yn sgil adeiladu Cynllun Trydan Dinorwig. Yn anffodus, peidiodd y plwyfolion ag adeiladu wal o amgylch Llyn Marchlyn, ac aeth yn ffrae gyfreithiol arall mewn blynyddoedd – ond stori arall yw honno!

Dichon fod rhai yn dyddio o’r cyfnod Neolithig, ond mae’n debyg mai waliau Oes yr Efydd yw’r enghreifftiau cynharaf sy’n dal i sefyll. Perthyn eraill i Oes yr Haearn. Maent i gyd wedi eu hatgyweirio neu eu gadael i ddadfeilio dros y canrifoedd. Cymysgedd o bridd a cherrig yw rhai o’r waliau sy’n dyddio o’r Oesoedd Canol cynnar, ac mae nifer o’r rhain i’w gweld o hyd. Mae’n debyg mai cloddiau terfyn rhwng tiroedd y mynachlogydd oedd rhai ohonynt: eraill yn dangos ffiniau plwyfi. Mae’n debyg fod y rhan fwyaf o’r milltiroedd o waliau cerrig a welwn heddiw yn dyddio o’r ddeunawfed a’r bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg; cynnyrch llafur y werin dlawd i gau allan y mynydddir, y gweundiroedd a’r rhosydd a hawliwyd gan eu meistri tir yn sgil Deddfau’r Cau Tiroedd Comin. Erys llawer o’r rhain hyd heddiw; rhai heb eu cyffwrdd ers cyfnod eu hadeiladu; eraill wedi eu hatgyweirio, ac eraill yn dadfeilio, a ffensys wedi eu gosod i gau’r bylchau ynddynt.

Dwy wal: dwy stori. Un hynafol, a’r llall yn weddol ddiweddar. Tybed sawl wal arall ar ucheldiroedd Eryri sy’n cadw eu cyfrinachau?

Bodlonaf ar sôn am ddwy wal yn unig.

Brodor o Lanrug, ac yn dal i fyw yno, mae Dafydd Whiteside Thomas yn gyn athro Daearyddiaeth yn Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen, Caernarfon. Yna, gweithiodd fel ymchwilydd a chatalogydd yn Archifdy Gwynedd a Chynorthwywr yn Llyfrgell Caernarfon. Hanes lleol a rhedeg mynydd yw ei brif ddiddordebau. Mae o ar ei ail dymor fel Golygydd y papur bro 'Eco'r Wyddfa'.

Pan oedd Castell Dolbadarn yn ganolfan i’r tywysogion Cymreig, roedd gwartheg yn cael eu magu ar yr ucheldir a’r gweunydd uwchlaw. Enwir y ‘ffermydd’ gwartheg hyn yn Maesgwm, Cwm Brwynog, Yr Aelgerth, a Chwm Dwythwch. Ar lethrau’r Bryn Mawr a Moel Eilio gellir gweld hyd heddiw, olion hen glawdd pridd a oedd o bosibl yn dangos terfyn ‘fferm’ Cwm Dwythwch. Yn yr un ardal roedd terfynau plwyfi Llanberis, Llanrug a Llanbeblig yn

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Delweddau/Photos © Peter Ogwen Jones

If walls could talk Dafydd Whiteside Thomas A native of Llanrug and still living there, Dafydd Whiteside Thomas taught geography at Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen, Caernarfon, and then worked as a researcher and cataloguer at Gwynedd Archives. His interests include local history and fell running. He is currently Editor of the local Welsh paper Eco’r Wyddfa.

“Well,” said Wil to the wall. The wall did not reply. Imagine if walls could talk. The history of the Snowdonia uplands would be very interesting if one could listen to the reminiscences of walls from the time they were built – or repaired. And some of them date from a very early time. It is possible that some walls date from the Neolithic period but walls from the Bronze Age are probably the ones still standing today. Others belong to the Iron Age. Most have either been repaired or left to fall to ruin over the centuries. The walls from the early Middle Ages are a mixture of stone and earth, and many of these can still be traced. It is possible that some of them were boundary walls between monastic lands; others marked parish boundaries.

today as Nunlle (Nowhere); the land that belonged to no one! When the Vaynol family claimed the mountain-land of Llanddeiniolen parish as a result of the Enclosure Acts, it was necessary to send the militia there and to read the Riot Act. A later dispute was the reason for building a stone wall that extends from Moel-y-ci across the moorland and up towards Llyn Marchlyn, separating the slopes of Elidir in Llanddeiniolen from Y Fronllwyd and Carnedd y Filiast in Llandegai parish. The water from Afon Marchlyn was divided between the two parishes, and a large stone shaped like an iron placed in the river to split the river into two streams. Following a wrangle between the parishioners regarding the right to water the matter escalated into a legal dispute between the Penrhyn estate (Llandegai parish) and the Vaynol estate (Llanddeiniolen parish). The Penrhyn estate won the legal battle, and the Llandegai parishioners went about building a stone wall up the slopes towards Llyn Marchlyn. The wall remains although many changes have occurred as a result of the Dinorwig Electricity Scheme. Unfortunately, the Llandegai parishioners failed to complete the wall around Llyn Marchlyn, and it became the subject of another legal dispute in later years – but that is another story!

Most of the miles of stone walls seen today date from the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries: the product of poor peasant labour used to enclose the mountain-land, heath and moor claimed by the landowners as a result of the Enclosure Acts. Many of them remain today; some untouched since being built; others repaired, and yet others left to ruin, with fencing placed in the gaps. Two walls in particular are worth mentioning. When Dolbadarn Castle was a centre for the Welsh princes, cattle were reared on the uplands and moors above the valley. These cattle ‘farms’ were named Maesgwm, Cwm Brwynog, Yr Aelgerth and Cwm Dwythwch. On the slopes of Bryn Mawr and Moel Eilio can still be seen today the remains of an old earthen bank that possibly marked the boundary of the Cwm Dwythwch cattle ‘farm’. In the same area, the boundaries of the old parishes of Llanberis, Llanrug and Llanbeblig met – except for one small piece of land that was, according to legend, ‘forgotten’. It is still known

Two walls: two tales. One ancient: the other fairly recent. How many more walls on the Snowdonia uplands hold on to their secrets?

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Pwy sy’n rhannu ^ eich ty? Kate Gibbs

deryn du, neu’n llai cyffredin, nyth gwybedog mannog. Bydd pobl fel arfer yn gwybod am adar sy’n nythu ar neu yn eu heiddo, a byddant yn mwynhau gweld nyth yn cael ei hadeiladu neu gywion yn cael eu bwydo, ac yn gobeithio y gwnânt fagu plu'n llwyddiannus.

Tylluan wen • Barn owl © Ron Evans

Gall ystod eang o anifeiliaid ymgartrefu yn eich cartref, a gall preswylwyr dynol groesawu a mwynhau nifer ohonynt. Wrth gwrs, mae pryfed lludw a all gropian o dan y drws cefn, pryfed arian, ac ambell wyfyn dillad yn llechu mewn corneli, ond yma, adar ac ystlumod sydd dan sylw yn bennaf. Gellir canfod y rhain yn y stadau tai maestrefol mwyaf modern, mewn tai hŷn, plastai ac adeiladau adfeiliedig. Bydd adar yn ceisio lle diogel i nythu neu glwydo, a rhai rhywogaethau ystlumod yn clwydo, bridio a gaeafgysgu mewn adeiladau.

Mae ystlumod yn llai amlwg, nes bydd angen gwneud gwaith ar do neu mewn llofft, ac yna fe’u hystyrir yn broblem gan amlaf. Yng Nghymru, gellir canfod naw rhywogaeth ystlum mewn adeiladau, yn bennaf corystlumod, ystlumod clustiog ac ystlumod trwyn pedol. Bydd ecolegwyr y Parc yn treulio llawer o amser yn delio ag ystlumod mewn adeiladau, yn ystod camau cynllunio ac adnewyddu. Yn Eryri, mae gennym gyfrifoldeb penodol am ystlumod trwyn pedol, oherwydd maent mewn perygl ar draws y DU, ac mae poblogaeth sylweddol ohonynt ym Mharc Cenedlaethol Eryri. Mae Gwarchodfa Ymddiriedolaeth Natur Gogledd Cymru yng Ngwaith Powdwr, ychydig y tu allan i’r Parc, yn enghraifft. Pan ddigomisiynid y ffatri ffrwydron cyn ei throsglwyddo i’r Ymddiriedolaeth, dymchwelwyd mwyafrif yr adeiladau, ond gadawyd y rhai a ddefnyddid gan ystlumod (a thylluan wen).

Bydd gwenoliaid duon yn nythu yng ngwagle toeau, bydd gwenoliaid y bondo yn nythu dan y bondo, a gwenoliaid mewn cytiau neu ysguboriau. Mewn gwirionedd, mae’r rhywogaethau hyn bron iawn yn gwbl ddibynnol ar adeiladau am fannau nythu heddiw. Mae problem benodol â gwenoliaid duon, sydd fel arfer yn nythu mewn tai a adeiladwyd cyn y rhyfel neu mewn adeiladau mwy. Caiff eu mynediad i wagleoedd toeau ei rwystro’n gynyddol gan fondoeau plastig a thoeau modern, er y gellir darparu blychau arbennig.

Dylai perchnogion tai a datblygwyr fod yn ymwybodol o'r amddiffyniad cyfreithiol sydd gan fywyd gwyllt (Deddf Bywyd Gwyllt a Chefn Gwlad 1981). Os na wnewch geisio’u bwrw allan, ac os gallwch oddef pentyrrau bychan o'u baw yn ystod yr haf, dylai eich lletywyr roi llawer o bleser i chi.

Fel y titw Tomos las a’r titw mawr, gall tylluanod bychan ganfod tyllau mewn gwaith brics neu waith cerrig. Os byddwch yn ddigon ffodus, efallai y gwelwch dingoch neu wybedog brith yn ymgartrefu ac yn adeiladu nyth mewn hollt. Roedd Geoff a minnau wrth ein bod yn darganfod gwybedog brith yn nythu ar wal un o adeiladau allanol Hostel Ieuenctid Kings y llynedd.

Daeth Kate i ogledd Cymru yn 1967 i weithio ar arolwg o Barc Cenedlaethol Eryri ar ran Comisiwn y Parciau Cenedlaethol. Yna, hyfforddodd yn athrawes, a gweithiodd dramor ac yn Essex cyn dychwelyd i Gymru yn 2001. Hi yw Cadeirydd presennol Ymddiriedolaeth Natur Gogledd Cymru.

Yn aml iawn, bydd tylluanod gwynion yn ymsefydlu mewn simnai bwthyn adfeiliedig. Mae angen iddynt fod yn ymyl glaswelltir garw ble gallant hela llygod pengrwn, ymhell o ffyrdd prysur. Gall melin ddŵr ddenu bronwennod y dŵr, ychydig uwch ben lefel y dŵr, neu siglennod brith neu lwyd. Gall planhigion fel rhosynnau, eiddew neu farf yr hen ŵr ar waliau gynnig cysgod i’r robin goch, y

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Who shares your house? Kate Gibbs horseshoe bats, because they are endangered across the UK and there is a good population in the Snowdonia National Park. North Wales Wildlife Trust’s reserve at Gwaith Powdwr, just outside the Park, is a case in point. When the explosives factory was decommissioned before being handed over to NWWT, most buildings were demolished but those used by bats (and a barn owl) were left intact.

A wide range of animals may find a home in yours and many can be welcomed and enjoyed by the human occupants. Of course there are woodlice that creep under the back door, silverfish, the odd clothes moth lurking in corners, but here we are considering mainly birds and bats. These can be found in the most modern suburban estates, older houses, stately homes and ruined buildings. The birds are seeking safe nest or roost sites, while some bat species roost, breed and hibernate in buildings.

Householders and developers should be aware of the legal protection afforded to wildlife (Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981). If you don’t try to eject them, and you can tolerate small piles of droppings in the summer, you should get great pleasure from yo u r lodgers! your lodgers!

Swifts nest in roof spaces, house martins make nests under the eaves, and swallows in a shed or barn. In fact these species are almost completely reliant on buildings for nesting today. There is a particular problem with swifts, which usually nest in pre-war housing or larger buildings. Their access into the roof space is increasingly being excluded by plastic soffits and modern roofs, though special boxes can be provided. Little owls find holes in brick or stone work as do blue and great tits. If you are very lucky you may find a redstart or pied flycatcher taking up residence and building a nest in a crevice. Geoff and I were delighted to find a pied flycatcher nesting in an outhouse wall at Kings Youth Hostel last year. Barn owls more often move into the chimney of a ruined cottage. They need to be near rough grassland where they can hunt for voles, away from busy roads. A watermill may attract a dipper, just above the water level, or a pied or grey wagtail. Climbing plants such as roses, ivy or clematis on walls provide shelter to a robin, blackbird or more rarely a spotted flycatcher nest; sadly, these last are becoming very scarce. People usually know about the birds nesting on or in their property, and enjoy watching the progress of nest building, feeding of chicks and hope that the young fledge successfully. Bats are less noticeable until some work needs to be carried out on a roof or in a loft and then they are usually seen as a problem. In Wales nine species may be found in buildings, most commonly pipistrelle, long-eared and lesser horseshoe bats. Park ecologists spend much time dealing with bats in buildings, both at the planning stage and in renovations. In Snowdonia, we have a particular responsibility for lesser

Gwennol ddu • Swift © Ron Evans

Taith Ystlumod • Bat Walk, Llanberis, 15 Ebrill/April Kate came to north Wales in 1967 to work on a survey of the Snowdonia National Park for the National Parks Commission. She later trained as a teacher, worked abroad and in Essex before returning to Wales in 2001. She is currently Chair of the North Wales Wildlife Trust.

Ymunwch â ni ar Daith Ystlumod yn Llanberis a gweld creaduriaid dirgelaidd y nos hyn i chi eich hun. Join us on a Bat Walk in Llanberis and see these intriguing night creatures for yourself. info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

01286 685498

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Drysau Cysegredig Eryri Mae unrhyw un sydd wedi cerdded, beicio neu yrru’n araf yn Nyffryn Conwy yn ystod y ddwy neu dair blynedd ddiwethaf wedi sylwi ar arwyddion coch bychain yn nodi llwybrau at eglwysi hanesyddol. Maent yn rhan o brosiect a sefydlwyd dan Gynllun Datblygu Gwledig Conwy, â chyllid gan Lywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru a'r Undeb Ewropeaidd. Mae pob eglwys sy’n rhan o’r cynllun (mae cyfanswm o ddeunaw o Langelynnin yn y gogledd i Gerrigydrudion yn y de) wedi cael paneli dehongli gwrthdywydd ar fframiau metel na ellir eu difrodi na’u symud yn rhwydd, a thaflenni yn Gymraeg a Saesneg ynghylch adeiladwaith pob un ohonynt, ar werth am 25c.

yn gylchdeithiau y buasai angen diwrnod cyfan bron i'w cerdded, er nad ydynt yn ymddangos yn hir iawn.

Mae lle am amrywiaeth unigol. Er enghraifft, mae gan eglwys Sant Pedr yn Llanbedr y Cennin gerdyn arbennig ar gyfer gwylio adar yng nghyffiniau’r eglwys (â llun o ylfinbraff, aderyn anghyffredin a welir weithiau yng Nghaerhun).

I raddau, mae Drysau Cysegredig yn ddiweddariad llai ysgolheigaidd o’r gwaith hwn, â'r fantais ychwanegol fod gwirfoddolwyr lleol yn agor y rhan fwyaf o'r eglwysi yn ddyddiol, felly nid oes rhaid i ymwelwyr chwilio am ddeiliad yr allwedd.

Mae llawer o’r eglwysi’n dyddio o’r 12fed ganrif a'r 13eg ganrif, ac mae’r safleoedd yn fannau addoli ers cyn hynny, hyd yn oed. Mae eraill, ym Metws y Coed a Phenmachno, a chapel Seion yn Rowen, yn dyddio o’r 19eg ganrif. Maent oll o ddiddordeb pensaernïol a hanesyddol.

Yn anffodus, ni ddarparwyd cyllid tymor hir i ailargraffu'r llenyddiaeth yn rheolaidd. Yn y tymor byr, mae'n newyddion da fod cyllid ar gael i ehangu’r prosiect i Siroedd Dinbych a Fflint y flwyddyn nesaf, ac ailgyhoeddir y llyfryn i gynnwys y deunydd ychwanegol.

Mae llyfryn dwyieithog sy’n costio £1 yn awgrymu dulliau o gysylltu’r Drysau Cysegredig â Llwybrau Cysegredig. Er mai dychmygol yw’r syniad, aiff y llwybrau a restrir trwy gefn gwlad fendigedig, a gellir cysylltu nifer ohonynt â rheilffordd Dyffryn Conwy. Darperir pedwar map llwybr gwahanol yn nodi’r llwybrau y gellir eu dilyn ar droed, ar feic neu mewn car. Mae tri ohonynt

Er waethaf tueddiad i ddefnyddio iaith papur newydd (“ taith o ddarganfod.... yn nhirwedd syfrdanol cefn gwlad Conwy”, er enghraifft), datblygwyd y prosiect yn ofalus ac mae’r holl ddeunydd wedi'i gynllunio a'i gyflwyno'n ddeniadol. Prosiect clodwiw y mae gobaith iddo ysbrydoli trigolion lleol ac ymwelwyr fel ei gilydd i ddarganfod rhai o agweddau mwy cuddiedig treftadaeth Eryri.

Mae gan Gymdeithas Eryri gysylltiad hir â llawer o’r eglwysi hyn. Yn 1984, cyhoeddodd y Gymdeithas adargraffiad cyfyngedig o gyfrol 'The Old Churches of Snowdonia' gan Harold Hughes a Herbert Luck North, dau bensaer lleol adnabyddus, a gyhoeddwyd yn gyntaf yn 1924. Ysbrydolwyd yr adargraffiad gan John ac Elisabeth Holman a Harvey Lloyd, aelodau gweithgar o’r Gymdeithas ar y pryd, a wnaeth hefyd ddarparu cyflwyniad ac atodiadau yn trafod cyflwr presennol pob eglwys a manylion mynediad.

Eglwys St Julitta's Church © Rob Collister

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Snowdonia's Sacred Doorways

Eglwys Llangelynin Church © Rob Collister

Anyone walking, cycling or driving slowly in the Conwy Valley over the last two or three years will have noticed small red signs indicating routes to historic churches. They are part of a project instigated under the Conwy Rural Development Plan with funding from the Welsh Assembly Government and the European Union. Each church in the scheme (and there are eighteen altogether from Llangelynin in the north to Cerrigydrudion in the south), has been provided with weatherproof interpretation panels on metal frames that cannot easily be damaged or removed, along with leaflets about the fabric of each church in English and Welsh, on sale for 25p.

church and details on access.

There is scope for individual variation. St Peter's at Llanbedr y Cennin, for instance, has a special card for bird sightings in the church precincts (with a picture of a hawfinch, an uncommon bird sometimes also seen at Caerhun).

Despite a tendency towards journalese (“a journey of discovery ... in the breathtaking landscape of rural Conwy”, for instance), the project has been well thought out and the material is all attractively designed and presented. A most commendable project which will hopefully inspire locals and visitors alike to discover some of the more hidden joys of Snowdonia’s heritage.

In some ways, Sacred Doorways is a less scholarly update of this work with the additional bonus that most of the churches are now opened on a daily basis by local volunteers, so visitors do not have to hunt for a key-holder. Unfortunately, funding has not been made available for long-term maintenance or regular reprinting of the literature. In the shortterm, the good news is that funding is available for an expansion of the project next year into Denbighshire and Flintshire with the booklet being reissued to include the additional material.

Many of the churches go back to the 12th and 13th centuries and the sites have been places of worship even longer. Others, in Betws y Coed and Penmachno, are 19th century as is the chapel of Zion in Rowen. All are of interest architecturally and historically. A bilingual booklet costing £1 suggests ways in which the Sacred Doorways can be linked by Sacred Trails. Although the notion is fanciful, the routes offered take one through some delightful country and can often be linked to the Conwy Valley railway line. Four separate trail maps are provided indicating routes that can be taken on foot or by cycle or car. Three of them are circular walks which would take the best part of a day to complete even though the mileage does not appear great.

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The Snowdonia Society has a long association with many of these churches. In 1984, the Society published a limited edition reprint of 'The Old Churches of Snowdonia' by Harold Hughes and Herbert Luck North, two well known local architects, which had first appeared in 1924. The inspiration for the reprint came from John and Elisabeth Holman and Harvey Lloyd, all active members of the Society at the time, who also provided an introduction and appendices covering the current state of each

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Gweddnewid Blaenau Ffestiniog Rory Francis Howard Bowcott, gweddnewidiad gwerth £200,000 i'r siopau lleol, a phalmentydd carreg deniadol newydd yn ymgorffori dywediadau, barddoniaeth a dyfyniadau lleol. Eglurir y rhain mewn llyfryn rhad ac am ddim y gellir ei lwytho i lawr o www. blaenauffestiniog.org/barddoniaeth

Mae Blaenau Ffestiniog yn wastad wedi bod yn eithriad, lle ar wahân; yr unig glofan wedi’i amgylchynu’n llwyr gan un o Barciau Cenedlaethol y Deyrnas Unedig, ond wedi’i eithrio ohono. Disgrifir Blaenau gan Wyddoniadur Cymru ar-lein fel dref ble mae “Pawb o’u cof a neb yn ddiflas”. Fel mae'r hanesydd John Davies wedi ysgrifennu, mae'n anodd meddwl am ddisgrifiad mwy deniadol.

Mae’r cynllun yn ymgorffori pedwar piler wedi’u gorchuddio â llechi amryliw. Fel dywedodd rhywun ar Facebook pan roddwyd y rhain yn eu lle, “Mae mwy na 50 arlliw o lwyd yma ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog”.

Ond mae Blaenau Ffestiniog hefyd yn wynebu heriau enfawr: poblogaeth sy’n heneiddio, prinder swyddi da a nifer helaeth o ieuenctid yn gadael i chwilio am waith. Efallai fod y dref wedi’i hamgylchynu gan olygfeydd trawiadol o hardd, ond prin yw’r elw economaidd a gaiff yn eu sgil. Canfu arolwg yn 2002 fod ymwelwyr yn gwario £18 ar gyfartaledd ym Metws y Coed; 22c oedd yr un ffigwr yn achos Blaenau. Beth ellir ei wneud am hyn? Ystyriwch Bob Cole, un o gyngadeiryddion Cymdeithas Eryri a phreswylydd lleol ers yr 1980au cynnar, sydd eisoes wedi sefydlu dau fusnes yn y dref. Roedd Bob eisoes yn rhan o grŵp adfywio lleol oedd yn cynnwys Falcon Hildred, arlunydd a hanesydd diwydiannol adnabyddus, ond daeth y trobwynt pan berswadiwyd Cynghorwyr y Dref i deithio ar y trên o Dany-bwlch i Flaenau. “Roedd arnom eisiau eu hargraffiadau cyntaf,” meddai Bob. “Y peth cyntaf a welsant wrth yr orsaf oedd maes parcio â wal fawr y tu ôl iddo, a thomennydd llechi y tu ôl i'r wal. Roedd llawer o’r siopau ar gau a rhai mewn cyflwr gwael.”

Datblygiad arall yw'r platfform gwylio gorchuddiedig sy'n edrych i lawr o'r orsaf, ble gellir gwerthfawrogi godidowgrwydd mynyddoedd y Moelwyn yn llawn. Yn gryno, er mai bwriad y cynlluniau yw gwneud i Flaenau edrych yn newydd, deniadol a gwahanol, mae pob elfen yn elwa ar dreftadaeth unigryw'r dref. Un o elfennau allweddol y cynllun yw sicrhau y gwnaiff Blaenau elwa rhagor ar ei hamgylchoedd godidog. I’r diben hwnnw, sefydlwyd Antur ’Stiniog i ddatblygu llwybrau beicio mynydd i lawr allt yn Llechwedd, a ddilynir yn fuan, gyda gobaith, gan wifrau sip hiraf Ewrop.

Carwyn Jones a Howard Bowcott yn dadorchuddio yr arysgrifau palmant

Yn y cyfamser, bydd tua 150,000 o ymwelwyr yn cyrraedd y dref yn flynyddol ar Reilffordd hanesyddol Ffestiniog, a bydd llawer ohonynt yn disgwyl i’r trên droi’n ôl a dychwelyd yn syth. Os gellid perswadio cyfran sylweddol ohonynt i aros a chrwydro’r dref, gallai’r potensial fod yn enfawr.

Carwyn Jones and Howard Bowcott unveiling the pavement inscriptions Cyfeiriwyd at y ffaith fod aliniad uniongyrchol o hen Inclein Foty trwy faes parcio Yn 2009, cytunodd Cyngor Diffwys i’r orsaf, un o’r llwybrau a ddefnyddiasid i gludo llechi’r Tref Ffestiniog mewn egwyddor i ofyn i Lywodraeth Cymru dref i farchnadoedd byd-eang. Trwy anogaeth Pryder Ap Rhisiart, ymgorffori Blaenau Ffestiniog yn y Parc Cenedlaethol, gan ddwyn Swyddog Adfywio Cyngor Gwynedd, cafodd y grŵp y syniad o sylw at werth treftadaeth llechi unigryw'r gymuned. Pa un ai a gynllun gwella canol tref yn defnyddio'r aliniad hwn ac yn dathlu ddigwyddith hyn neu beidio, mae’n werth ymweld â'r dref. treftadaeth ddiwydiannol a Chymraeg y dref. Y tro nesaf byddwch yn yr ardal, beth am ddod draw i weld Datblygodd y grŵp adfywio lleol yn gorff o’r enw Blaenau Ymlaen, drosoch eich hun? grŵp ymbarél a ddaeth â phrif fudd-ddeiliaid y dref ynghyd, yn cynnwys y Siambr Fasnach a'r Cyngor Tref.

Maes o law, cafodd Blaenau Ymlaen nawdd o £4.4 i’w gynllun gan Gronfa Datblygu Ewrop, Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru a Chyngor Gwynedd. Roedd y gwelliannau’n cynnwys gweithiau celf cyhoeddus trawiadol, yn cynnwys un darn a gyfrannwyd gan David Nash, cerflunydd sy'n byw yn y Blaenau, a darnau eraill gan

Roedd Rory Francis yn Gyfarwyddwr Cymdeithas Eryri o 1994 i 2000. Mae bellach yn gweithio i Goed Cadw ac mae’n Gadeirydd Cyngor Tref Ffestiniog.

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"All change" in Blaenau Ffestiniog Rory Francis The scheme incorporates four pillars faced with slates of many different hues. As someone posted on Facebook when these were first installed, “We have more than 50 shades of grey in Blaenau Ffestiniog”.

Blaenau Ffestiniog has always been an exception, a place apart; the only enclave entirely surrounded by a UK National Park, but excluded from it. The web-based Encyclopaedia of Wales describes the town as a place where “Everyone is bonkers and no one is boring”. As the historian John Davies has written, it is difficult to think of a more appealing description.

Also included is an undercover viewing platform overlooking the station, from where the splendour of the Moelwyn mountains can be appreciated to the full. In short, though the plans are intended to make Blaenau look new, attractive and different, each element draws on the town’s unique heritage.

But Blaenau Ffestiniog also faces huge challenges: an aging population, little quality employment and huge numbers of young people leaving in search of work. The town may be surrounded by strikingly beautiful scenery, but it gains little economic benefit from it. A 2002 survey found the average visitor spend in Betws y Coed to be £18; the comparable figure for Blaenau was just 22p.

A key element of the scheme is to see Blaenau gain more benefit from its magnificent surroundings. To that end, Antur 'Stiniog was established, developing the new downhill mountain bike trails at Llechwedd, soon to be followed, it is hoped, by the longest zipwires in Europe.

Y pileri llechi â'u 50 arlliw o lwyd • The slate pillars with their 50 shades of grey What can be done about this? Enter Bob Cole, a former Chair of the Meanwhile, every year Snowdonia Society and a local resident since the early 1980s, around 150,000 visitors reach the town on the historic Ffestiniog who has already established two businesses in the town. Bob was Railway, many simply wait for the train to turn round and head already involved in a local regeneration group which included straight back. If a significant proportion could be inspired to stick Falcon Hildred, a well-known artist and industrial historian, around and explore, the potential would be huge. but the breakthrough came when the Town Councillors were persuaded to take a train ride from Tan-y-Bwlch to Blaenau. “We Back in 2009 the Ffestiniog Town Council agreed in principle to ask wanted their first impressions,” says Bob. “The first thing they the Welsh Government to incorporate Blaenau Ffestiniog into the saw at the station was a car park with a big wall behind it and National Park, drawing attention to the value of the community’s behind that, slate tips. Many of the shops were shut and some unique slate heritage. Whether or not this ever happens, the were in a tatty condition.” town is well worth a visit.

It was pointed out that there was a direct alignment from the old Foty Incline through the Diffwys car park to the station, one of the routes that had been used to take the town’s slate out to markets across the world. With the encouragement of Pryderi ap Rhisiart, Gwynedd Council’s Regeneration Officer, the group hit on the idea of a town centre improvement scheme making use of this alignment and celebrating the town’s rich industrial and Welsh language heritage.

When you are next in the area, why not come and take a look yourself?

Rory Francis was Director of the Snowdonia Society from 1994 to 2000. He now works for the Woodland Trust and is Chairman of the Ffestiniog Town Council.

The local regeneration group grew into Blaenau Ymlaen (Forward Blaenau), an umbrella group bringing together key stakeholders in the town, including the Chamber of Trade and the Town Council.

Cewch weld gweddnewidiad Blaenau ar Daith Gerdded Dywys gyda Kevin Hall, ar 4 Mai (i'w cadarnhau). Mae'r daith yn cynnwys cyfle i ymweld â melin Falcon Hildred i weld ei waith celf.

In time, Blaenau Ymlaen secured £4.4m funding for its scheme from the European Development Fund, Welsh Assembly Government and Gwynedd Council. The improvements include some impressive public art, one large piece donated by Blaenaubased sculptor David Nash and other pieces by Howard Bowcott, a £200,000 face-lift for local shops and attractive new stone pavements incorporating local sayings, poetry and quotations. All these are explained in a free booklet downloadable from www. blaenauffestiniog.org/poetry.

Come and see the transformation for yourself on our Blaenau Guided Walk with Kevin Hall on 4th May (tbc). The walk includes a visit to Falcon Hildred's mill to see his drawings. info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

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01286 685498


A ddylem roi cotiau glaw am ein hadeiladau? Ned Schärer Mae’r rhai ohonom sy’n byw yma ym Mharc Cenedlaethol Eryri, yn enwedig dros y pump neu'r chwe blynedd diwethaf, wedi gorfod byw gyda’r glaw. Mae proffwydi’r tywydd yn cytuno fod y patrwm hwn o dywydd gwlyb a mwyn yma i aros, a gall ddod hyd yn oed yn wlypach! Yn Eryri, codwyd y rhan fwyaf o'n tai cyn y rhyfel, adeiladau â waliau solet heb eu hinswleiddio, ac mae tlodi tanwydd yn uwch na'r cyfartaledd. Pan fydd hi’n wlyb y tu allan, bydd hi’n wlyb ac yn oer y tu mewn yn aml iawn, a’r unig ffordd i fod yn gynnes a chlyd yw gwario mwy nag y gallwn ni (neu’r blaned) ei fforddio ar wresogi.

Plas Tirion

Mae’n bryd wynebu’r ffaith fod rhaid i ni ganfod ffyrdd o wneud i’n cartrefi berfformio’n well, ac wrth wneud hynny, derbyn rhai newidiadau gweledol i olwg ein hadeiladau. Rhaid gofyn pa fath o newidiadau sy’n dderbyniol o ran gweddu â'n tirwedd unigryw? Llawn mor bwysig â hynny, pa ddulliau o wella sy’n addas i’n hadeiladau waliau cerrig solet traddodiadol? Rydym mor gyfarwydd â waliau cerrig llwyd, mae rhai bellach yn eu hystyried fel ein traddodiad naturiol. Mewn gwirionedd, ar un adeg, câi llawer o’n hadeiladu cerrig eu bywiogi â gwyngalch meddal a chalchog. Cynorthwyai’r gorchudd aberthol hwn - fe’i ‘aberthir’ i’r elfennau i ddiogelu’r cerrig a'r mortar oddi tano - i ddiogelu’r waliau cerrig mandyllog rhag glaw, ac roedd yn ddeunydd fforddiadwy ac adnewyddadwy, a byddid yn ail-wyngalchu’r waliau pan oedd angen hynny fel rhan o gylch cynnal a chadw. Buasai waliau oedd yn neilltuol o agored i’r elfennau wedi’u rendro â chalch, fel gwell amddiffyniad rhag y tywydd. Mae llawer o adeiladau deniadol ledled y parc yn cuddio dan haen o ro chwipio anniddorol, a châi llawer ohonynt eu rendro â chalch ar un adeg. Mae’r haen o sment yn atal y gwlybaniaeth i ryw raddau... nes bydd yn cracio, sy’n anochel. Ond mae hefyd yn trapio’r lleithder a gynhyrchir trwy goginio, golchi a hyd yn oed anadlu, gan greu amgylchedd mewnol tamp a chrynhoad cyfarwydd o lwydni. Cyfeirir yn aml at y gallu i anadlu wrth drafod y deunydd a ddefnyddiwn i atgyweirio neu wneud gwelliannau thermol i adeiladau hŷn. Dylai ein waliau fod yn ‘anwedd agored’ neu’n fandyllog i ganiatáu i leithder basio trwyddynt o’r tu mewn i’r tu allan. Gan ddefnyddio deunyddiau cydnaws a goddefol megis plastrau calch, pilenni anadlu deallus a deunydd inswleiddio ffibr naturiol, bydd hyn yn bosibl.

yn ddyddiol. Mae'n annheg disgwyl i’ch tŷ berfformio os caiff dŵr ei sianelu i mewn iddo oherwydd cynnal a chadw gwael. Yma ym Mhlas Tirion, rydym wedi cael gwared ar y gro chwipio caled oedd yn trapio lleithder ac yn achosi problemau mewnol. Yna, fe wnaethom ei ail-bwyntio â mortar calch hydrolig, gorchuddio’r waliau sy'n agored i'r elfennau â chymysgedd o slyri calch, a gwyngalchu dros hwnnw. Mae waliau oedd yn wlyb socian ar un adeg bellach yn sychu, hyd yn oed yn ystod y gaeaf gwlyb hwn, ac mae’r lleithder mewnol wedi'i leihau’n sylweddol. Mae’r tŷ hefyd wedi’i weddnewid yn weledol, o fod yn dŷ llwydaidd a thywyll yr olwg i’w gymeriad ceinach blaenorol.

Sicrhau bod eich waliau’n sych yw’r unig ffordd o gael waliau cynnes. Felly, mae’n hanfodol, uwchlaw popeth arall, atal y glaw rhag dod i mewn i’ch tŷ yn y lle cyntaf. Efallai fod hyn yn swnio’n amlwg, ond caf fy synnu’n rheolaidd gan nifer y simneiau a thoeau sy’n gollwng a chwterydd a pheipiau dŵr wedi’u blocio a welwn

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Should we be giving our buildings raincoats? Ned Schärer

n - Cyn ac ar ôl ei adnewyddu • Before and after restoration

For those of us living here in the Snowdonia National Park, especially over the past five or six years, we have all had to live with the rain. The consensus amongst forecasters is that this wet and mild weather pattern is here to stay, and it may even get wetter! In Snowdonia most of our housing stock is pre-war, solid walled buildings that are uninsulated, and fuel poverty is higher than average. When it is wet outside, it is often cold and damp inside, and the only way to be warm and comfortable is to spend more than we, or the planet, can afford on heating. It is time to face up to the fact that we must find ways to make our homes perform better, and in doing so, accept some visual changes to the appearance of our buildings. The question is what sort of change is acceptable in terms of fitting into our unique landscape? And just as importantly, which methods of improvement suit our traditional solid stone walled buildings? We have become so used to seeing grey stone walls, that some now consider this to be our natural vernacular. In truth, many of our stone buildings would once have been enlivened with a soft chalky coat of limewash. This sacrificial coat - it is 'sacrificed' to the elements while protecting the stone and mortar beneath - helped protect the porous stone walls from incoming rain, and was an affordable, renewable material, reapplied when needed as part of a cycle of maintenance. Particularly exposed elevations would have been lime rendered, offering greater protection from the weather. Across the park there are many attractive buildings hiding under a dull coat of pebbledash that may once have been lime-rendered. This cement layer keeps the wet out to a certain extent... until it inevitably cracks. But it also traps in the moisture that cooking, washing even breathing generates, causing a damp internal environment and a familiar build up of mould and mildew. The word breathability is often used when talking about materials that are used when repairing or thermally improving older buildings. Our walls should be ‘vapour open’ or porous allowing moisture to pass through the wall from the inside out. By using compatible and sympathetic materials such as lime plasters, intelligent breather membranes and natural fibre insulation, this is possible.

Sefydlwyd y Ganolfan Adeiladu Naturiol, yn ymyl Llanrwst, gan Ned a Sophie Schärer yn 2010. Os hoffech wybod rhagor am hanes adnewyddu Plas Tirion, neu wybodaeth bellach am drin hen adeiladau, gweler eu gwefan. The Natural Building Centre at Plas Tirion, near Llanrwst, was set up by Ned and Sophie Schärer in 2010. If you would like more information on the restoration of Plas Tirion or information about dealing with older properties please see their website: www.thenaturalbuildingcentre.co.uk

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Only through having dry walls will you achieve warm walls. It is therefore necessary, above all else, to stop the rain getting into your house in the first place. This may sound obvious, but it never ceases to amaze me how many leaky chimneys, leaky roofs, blocked gutters and downpipes we come across every day. It is unfair to expect your house to perform, if because of poor maintenance, water is being channelled into it. Here at Plas Tirion, we have removed the hard pebbledash which was trapping moisture and causing problems inside. We then repointed in a hydraulic lime mortar, sheltercoated all the exposed elevations with a lime slurry mix and limewashed over that. Walls that were once sodden are now drying out, even during this wet winter, and the internal humidity has been greatly reduced. The house has also been transformed visually, from a grey gloomy looking house to its more elegant former self.


Dyddio o gylchoedd coed

a ‘Thy^ Eryri'

Huw Jenkins

yn llawer iau, felly roedd yn dda cael man cychwyn dibynadwy i'r hanes.

1402 yw’r flwyddyn pryd y dyddir codi tŷ hynaf Cymru, sef Hafod y Garreg ger Llanfair ym Muallt. Pan sathrwyd ar wrthryfel Owain Glyndŵr (1400-1410), dinistriwyd bob tŷ o unrhyw bwys, neu bu’n rhaid eu hailadeiladu'n llwyr.

Roedd y tŷ a’r tir o’i gwmpas yn eiddo i’r teulu Lloyd am bron iawn 300 mlynedd. Yn 1684, bu farw Hugh Lloyd, a briododd â Catherine o Blas Tan y Bwlch, ac mae profeb ei ewyllys yn cynnwys rhestr o'i eiddo gwerth £167 14sh 0d. O’r ddogfen hon, gallwn weld faint yn union o fustych, gwartheg godro, myllt, defaid a cheffylau oedd ganddo, yn cynnwys 59 gafr, cyndeidiau'r criw sy'n dal i grwydro'r Moelwynion, heb os nac oni bai. Yn ei ewyllys, cyfeiriodd yn benodol at ei bedwar ‘gwely wensgot’. Diolch i gymorth Sain Ffagan, gwelir mai hyn oedd dull y teulu Lloyd o gadw’n gynnes yn ystod nosweithiau oer y gaeaf. Maent yn debyg i welyau pedwar postyn ond mae tair ochr wedi’u hamgáu â llenni ac mae drws llithro ar y bedwaredd ochr.

Mae dendrocronoleg, sef dyddio cylchoedd coed, yn cynnig 1402 yn drachywir i ni. Mae’r dechneg hon yn golygu tynnu darn trwchus siâp pensil o'r trawstiau gwreiddiol a chymharu twf cylchoedd y goeden honno â normau twf hysbys. Mae'r cylchoedd yn denau iawn yn ystod blwyddyn oer, ac yn fwy trwchus yn ystod blwyddyn gynhesach, pan fu cyflenwad da o law. Mae angen llawer iawn o sgiliau i dynnu a dehongli sampl. Er enghraifft, mewn trawst 500 mlwyddyn oed, gall y croen allanol, neu’r gwynnin, gael ei falurio a datgyfannu. Os digwydd hyn, ystod o ddyddiadau nid blwyddyn benodol yw’r canlyniad gorau y gellir ei gael.

Mae’r defnydd o’r dechnoleg hon wedi tyfu’n sylweddol ers yr 1980au, ac mae tua 250 o dai yng Nghymru bellach wedi’u dyddio. Bu tua un rhan o dair Gwely gyda drws llithro • Wainscot bed with sliding door ohonynt yn rhan o Brosiect Dyddio Hen Dai Cymru dan arweiniad Margaret Dunn. Mae’r prosiect hwn wedi newid ein dealltwriaeth o bensaernïaeth leol yn sylweddol, ac yn enwedig ein dealltwriaeth o ‘Dŷ Eryri’.

Cyn y prosiect hwn, wyddwn i ddim am ymchwilio hanes tŷ, ond, diolch i gymorth ac arweiniad y cyfarfodydd misol, daeth y cyfan yn eglur. Eglurwyd cofnodion treth aelwydydd, cytundebau priodas, cofnodion plwyfi, mapiau’r degwm a chofnodion cyfrifiadau, ac roedd staff archifdai Dolgellau a Chaernarfon yn

Samplau coed ar gyfer ei ddyddio • Core samples for dating

Wedi cyfnod Glyndŵr, y tai pwysig cyntaf i’w hadeiladu oedd ‘tai neuadd’, adeiladau eithaf mawreddog o statws uchel i bobl rymus a chyfoeth. Mae enghreifftiau yn cynnwys Fferm Abaty (1441) ger Abaty Cymer, yn ymyl Dolgellau, a Phlas Uchaf (1435) ger Corwen. O 1450 i 1500, cyfeirid at fwyafrif yr adeiladau sydd wedi goroesi fel ‘neuaddau’r bonedd’ a gelwir y rhan fwyaf o’r adeiladau o 1500 i 1550 yn ‘neuaddau gwerinwyr’, sydd â’r un cynllun sylfaenol ond yn llawer llai. Yna daeth ‘Tŷ Eryri’ a adeiladid ar ddau lawr, ag ysgol fel mynediad yn gyntaf ond yn ddiweddarach â grisiau tro sylweddol o gerrig. Credid mai un tŷ o'r fath, â'r dyddiad 1585 wedi'i arysgrifio arno, oedd yr enghraifft gynharaf o'r math hwn o adeilad. Fodd bynnag, mae tystiolaeth newydd wedi codi amheuon sylweddol. Credir bellach fod arddull Tŷ Eryri wedi cychwyn ymddangos mor gynnar ag 1515, gan gyrraedd ei lawn dwf erbyn 1557.

barod iawn eu cymorth. Yn un cyfarfod, eglurodd arbenigwr sut i ddehongli hen ewyllysiau; mae hyn yn ddifyrrach i mi na chyfuniad o groeseiriau cêl, Scrabble a Sudoku. Gwyddwn ragor am hanes ein tŷ erbyn hyn, ond yn bwysicach, mae Prosiect Dyddio Hen Dai Cymru wedi dangos fod gogleddorllewin Cymru yn ardal o arloesedd pensaernïol, nid lle a ddilynai’r ffasiwn drachefn yn unig. Ceir gwybodaeth bellach am y prosiect uchod yn www.datingoldwelshhouses.co.uk Huw Jenkins yw Cyfarwyddwr dros dro Cymdeithas Eryri yn ystod cyfnod mamolaeth Sarah Medcalf. Mae’n gweithio hefyd i'r cylchgrawn Natur Cymru: www.naturcymru.org.uk

Un enghraifft yw ein cartref ni, Plas y Dduallt, y torrwyd y coed i’w adeiladu rhwng 1559 a 1565. Credai’r preswylwyr blaenorol ei fod yn llawer hŷn, tra ystyriai arbenigwyr pensaernïol ei fod

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Tree ring dating and the ‘Snowdonia House' Huw Jenkins

Plas y Dduallt

residents thought it much older, whereas architectural experts had considered it much younger, so it was good to get a reliable starting point for the story.

1402 is the year given the oldest house in Wales to be dated, and that’s Hafod y Garreg, near Builth Wells. During the crushing of Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion (1400 to 1410) every other house of any significance was destroyed, or had to be totally rebuilt.

The house and surrounding land belonged to the Lloyd family for almost 300 years. Hugh Lloyd, who had married Catherine from Plas Tan y Bwlch, died in 1684 and the probate of his will includes an inventory of his possessions totalling £167 14sh 0d. From this we can tell exactly how many oxen, milking cattle, wethers, ewes and horses he owned, including 59 goats which are undoubtedly the ancestors of the gang that still roams the Moelwynion. In his will he made special mention of four ‘wainscot bedsteads’. With the help of St Fagan’s, it becomes clear that this was how the Lloyds kept warm on cold winter nights. They are like four poster beds but enclosed on three sides with a curtain or sliding door on the fourth.

Tree ring dating, or dendrochronology, gives us the scientific precision of 1402. This technique involves taking a fat, pencilshaped core out of original beams and then comparing the growth rings of that tree with known growth norms. In a cold year the rings are very thin, whereas in a warm year, with a good supply of rain, they are thicker. There is a lot of skill involved in both taking a sample and interpreting it. For example, in a 500 year old beam, the outer skin, or sapwood, can crumble and disintegrate. If this happens a date range as opposed to a specific year is the best that can be achieved. The use of this technology has grown significantly since the 1980s with about 250 houses in Wales now dated. Around a third of these have been part of the Dating Old Welsh Houses Project led by Margaret Dunn. This project has radically changed our understanding of local architecture and, in particular, of the ‘Snowdonia House’.

Before this project I knew nothing about researching the history of a house but, with advice and guidance at monthly meetings, it all became clear. Hearth tax records, marriage settlements, parish records, tithe maps and census records were all explained, with staff at the archives in Dolgellau and Caernarfon particularly helpful. At one meeting an expert explained how to decipher old wills; I find this more satisfying than cryptic crosswords, Scrabble and Sudoku combined.

After Glyndŵr, the first significant houses to be built were ‘hall houses’, quite grand, high status buildings for people with power and wealth. Examples include Abbey Farm (1441) by Cymer Abbey, near Dolgellau, and Plas Uchaf (1435) near Corwen. From 1450 to 1500 most surviving buildings are referred to as ‘gentry halls’ whereas most buildings from 1500 to 1550 are known as ‘peasant halls', with the same basic design but much smaller. Then came the ‘Snowdonia House’, built on two floors, first with ladder access but later with a substantial spiral stone staircase. One such house, with an inscription of 1585, was believed to be the earliest example of this type of building. However, the new evidence has blown this wide open. We now think the Snowdonia House style started to appear as early as 1515 and was fully mature by 1557.

We now know more about the story of our house but, more importantly, the Dating Old Welsh Houses Project has shown that northwest Wales was an area of architectural innovation, not just a belated follower of fashion. More information about the project can be found at www.datingoldwelshhouses.co.uk Huw Jenkins is Director of the Snowdonia Society during Sarah Medcalf’s maternity leave. He also works for Natur Cymru, a magazine about the wildlife and nature of Wales: www.naturcymru.org.uk

One example is our own home at Plas y Dduallt, for which the trees were chopped down between 1559 and 1565. Previous

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Yr Ysgwrn 100 mlynedd yn ôl

Rhan o gymuned amaethyddol ddiwylliedig Twm Elias

cyfran o’u gwlân, wedi ei drin yn y felin wlân lai na milltir i ffwrdd, yn dod yn ôl gartref fel edafedd i wau neu frethyn i wneud dilledyn.

Mae tŷ ac adeiladau Yr Ysgwrn yn engraifft o’r math o fferm fynyddig deuluol oedd mor gyffredin yng Nghymru ganrif yn ôl ac a barhaodd yn weddol ddigyfnewid hyd ddyfodiad y tractor a thrydan yn yr 1950au. Collwyd llawer ohonynt yn y 1970au a'r 1980au pryd yr unwyd y tiroedd ag unedau mwy a llawer o’r ffermdai yn mynd yn dai haf. Tybed ai dyna fyddai tynged Yr Ysgwrn heb ymrwymiad Gerald ac Ellis Williams, dau nai Hedd Wyn, i gadw’r Ysgwrn fel ag yr oedd i goffáu y bardd a gollwyd mor ddiangen yn y Rhyfel Mawr?

Ond ni allai economi gymysg o’r fath lwyddo heb gydweithrediad parod cymdogion da. Sut, fel arall, y gellid hel defaid o’r mynydd, cneifio, dyrnu, a chael cymorth mewn argyfwng? Roedd yn gymdeithas hynod glòs, fywiog, gydweithredol a diwylliedig â’r Capel a chyfarfodydd diwyllianol yn fodd nid yn unig i ddifyrru ac addysgu ond i greu a chadw cysylltiadau fyddai o werth ymarferol yn ogystal â chymdeithasol.

Ganrif yn ôl byddai fferm gymysg fel Yr Ysgwrn yn eitha hunangynhaliol: tyfid tatws a llysiau i’r tŷ; cedwid moch a ieir ar gyfer cig a wyau a byddid yn corddi i wneud menyn. Rhoddai’r gwyddau blu i lenwi clustogau, adenydd i llnau llwch yn y tŷ a saim gwerthfawr i iro esgidiau a gêr lledr y ceffylau. Byddai cyfran o’r ŷd a dyfid yn mynd i’r felin flawd yn Nhrawsfynydd i wneud blawd at bobi bara a blawd ceirch, fyddai’n sylfaen i rai o fwydydd beunyddiol y teulu.

Mae’r Ysgwrn heddiw yn engraifft brin sy’n dangos amodau byw ganrif yn ôl ac yn gyfrwng hefyd inni werthfawrogi’r math o economi a chymdeithas fu’n feithrinfa i un o feirdd mwyaf eiconig ein cenedl. Mae Twm Elias yn ddarlithydd a threfnydd cyrsiau ym Mhlas Tan y Bwlch, Canolfan Astudio Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri.

Tyfid gwair ac ŷd yn borthiant gaeaf i’r gwartheg ac i’r ceffyl a dynnai’r drol a’r arad. Byw ar eu dannedd wnai’r defaid a byddai Yr Ysgwrn © APCE • SNPA

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Hedd Wyn

Yr Ysgwrn 100 years ago

Part of a cultured agricultural community Twm Elias

The house and builidings of Yr Ysgwrn are an example of the kind of family mountain farm that was so common in Wales a century ago that continued relatively unchanged until the arrival of the tractor and electricity in the 1950s. Many of them were lost during the 1970s and 1980s when the land was merged with larger holdings and many of the farmhouses turned into holiday homes. Would that have been the fate of Yr Ysgwrn, I wonder, without the determination of Gerald and Ellis Williams, two of Hedd Wyn’s nephews, to keep Yr Ysgwrn as it was as a tribute to the poet lost so needlessly in the Great War?

Mae’r Ysgwrn yn ffermdy Cymreig traddodiadol yn dyddio o’r 1830au. Hwn oedd cartref y bardd Hedd Wyn (Ellis Humphrey Evans), a laddwyd ar faes y gad yn 1917, wythnosau’n unig cyn y dyfarnwyd Cadair Eisteddfod Genedlaethol 1917 iddo, sef y wobr bennaf y gellir ei dyfarnu i feirdd Cymraeg. Yn ystod y seremoni cadeirio, gorchuddiwyd y gadair â llen du, ac ers hynny, mae'n adnabyddus fel ‘y gadair ddu’. Mae Hedd Wyn yn symboleiddio cenhedlaeth o Gymry ifanc a gollwyd yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Bu ei fywyd byr yn destun ffilm Gymraeg o’r un enw a enwebwyd am Oscar. Fe wnaeth Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri a'i bartneriaid brynu'r Ysgwrn i'r genedl ym Mawrth 2012, ac maent wrthi'n ei droi yn amgueddfa. Gellir ymweld â’r Ysgwrn drwy apwyntiad yn unig. Ffoniwch 01766 770274, neu ebostiwch yrysgwrn@ eryri-npa.gov.uk Mae canllaw i ymwelwyr am Yr Ysgwrn ar gael ar wefan Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri.

A century ago a mixed farm like Yr Ysgwrn would have been fairly self-sufficient: potatoes and vegetables were grown for the house; chickens and a pig were kept for eggs and meat, and milk churned to make butter. The geese gave feathers to fill pillows, wings for dusting and valuable fat for greasing shoes and the horses’ tack and harness. A proportion of the corn grown was sent to the mill in Trawsfynydd to make the flour that was a staple part of the family’s diet. Hay and corn were grown as winter feed for the cattle and for the horse that pulled the cart and the plough. The sheep had to survive on what grazing they could find, and a proportion of their wool, after being processed at the woollen mill less than a mile away, came back as yarn for knitting or cloth for making clothes. But a mixed economy like that couldn’t succeed without the willing cooperation of good neighbours. How, otherwise, could they bring the sheep down from the mountain? How could they shear them, thresh the corn and rely on help in an emergency? It was a remarkably close-knit, cooperative, lively and cultured community, with chapel and cultural meetings not just a means of amusement and education, but also for creating and maintaining useful connections that had a practical as well as a social purpose. Today Yr Ysgwrn is a rare example showing living conditions a century ago, and a way for us to appreciate the sort of economy and society that was a nursery to one of our nation’s most iconic poets. Twm Elias is a lecturer and course organiser at Plas Tan y Bwlch, the Snowdonia National Park Study Centre. Arddangosir 'Hedd Wyn' yn Theatr Clwyd, yr Wyddgrug ar 25 Ebrill (yn rhad ac am ddim). 'Hedd Wyn' is being screened free of charge at Theatre Clwyd, Mold on 25 April.

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A traditional Welsh farmhouse dating from the 1830s, Yr Ysgwrn was the home of the poet Hedd Wyn (Ellis Humphrey Evans), killed in action in 1917 just weeks before being awarded the 1917 National Eisteddfod Chair, the highest accolade awarded to Welsh language poets. At the chairing ceremony the chair was draped in a black cloth and has since been known as ‘the black chair’, representing a generation of Welsh youth lost in the First World War. His short life was the subject of an Oscar-nominated Welsh language film of the same name. Snowdonia National Park Authority and its partners purchased Yr Ysgwrn for the nation in March 2012, and are in the process of transforming it into a museum. Visits to Yr Ysgwrn are available by appointment only. Ring 01766 770 274 or email yrysgwrn@eryri-npa.gov.uk A visitor guide to Yr Ysgwrn is available on the Snowdonia National Park Authority website.


Snowdon: the Story of a Welsh Mountain gan/by Jim Perrin

Snowdon: The Story of a Welsh Mountain Dim ond / Only £11.99 (rrrp £14.99) i aelodau Cymdeithas Eryri sy'n archebu ar y ffôn. to Snowdonia Society members ordering by phone.

Gwasg Gomer Press: 01559 363092

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© Rob Collister


Adolygiad Llyfr

Book review

Rai blynyddoedd yn ôl, yn yr Observer, disgrifiwyd Jim Perrin gan Peter Beaumont fel “yr ysgrifennwr digyffelyb ynghylch tirwedd Prydain”; mae Jan Morris wedi’i alw’n “Ysgrifennwr nodedig ... math o Thoreau sach deithio”; dywedodd yr Athro M. Wynn Thomas yn y New Welsh Review unwaith, “Nid oes neb arall yn y Gymru gyfoes yn gallu ysgrifennu rhyddiaith o’r ansawdd eithriadol hwn...” Yn bersonol, pe cawn i fy ngadael ar ynys anghyfannedd â dim ond un llyfr ac eithrio’r Beibl a gweithiau Shakespeare, buasai’n anodd iawn i mi ddewis rhwng dau o lyfrau Jim, The Climbing Essays a Visions of Snowdonia, y dathliad gorau o'r ardal a ysgrifennwyd erioed yn fy marn i.

Some years ago, in the Observer, Peter Beaumont described Jim Perrin as “the pre-eminent writer on the British landscape”; Jan Morris has called him “A remarkable writer... a sort of rucksack Thoreau”; while in the New Welsh Review Professor M. Wynn Thomas once commented, “No one else in contemporary Wales is capable of writing prose of this exceptional quality...” For myself, if I was to be cast away on a desert island with only one book besides the Bible and Shakespeare, I would be hard put to choose between Jim's The Climbing Essays and his Visions of Snowdonia which, to my mind, is the finest celebration of the area yet written.

Wedi ennill Gwobr Boardman Tasker am lenyddiaeth mynydd ddwywaith ar ôl ysgrifennu bywgraffiadau craff a hynod ddarllenadwy, mae Jim bellach wedi canolbwyntio ar fynydd uchaf Cymru i ysgrifennu bywgraffiad o'r Wyddfa. Nid oes rhyfedd y bu disgwyl eiddgar amdano. Fodd bynnag, yn ei Ragair, mae R. Merfyn Williams yn rhybuddio’r darllenydd fod gan Jim “ddawn lenyddol goeth ac unigryw, yn gyforiog o heriau”. Amlygir yr hyn a awgrymir ganddo yn y dyfyniad am Gymru wedi oes y Rhufeiniaid, dyfyniad nad yw’n annodweddiadol o gwbl.

Having won the Boardman Tasker Prize for mountain literature twice for perceptive and highly readable biographies, Jim has now focused his attention on Wales' highest mountain to produce a biography of Snowdon. Small wonder that it has been eagerly awaited. However, in his foreword, R. Merfyn Williams warns the reader that Jim's is “an exquisite and unique literary talent, redolent with challenge”. What he is hinting at becomes clear in this by no means atypical extract about post-Roman Wales.

"This period has often been identified as the time of the towering mythico-syncretic figure of Arthur, whose long, diffuse and restless shadow, as we have seen, haunts so much of Snowdon's texture of story. His role in history - if indeed he had one, or existed at all, and we need to take close heed here of Marc Morris's statement quoted in the previous chapter - might have been as war leader, resister of Saxon incursion, and upholder of an idealised tradition (qualities desired and replicated in the mythos of any nation oppressed by a more powerful neighbour - the traits and even the adapted tales of Arthur were to be reinvested many centuries later in the figure of Owain Glyndwr. Perhaps even now the Welsh mythopoeic imagination is working the same alchemy with the equally shadowy leaders and anonymous footsoldiers in the late-twentieth-century campaign of the significantly-named Meibion Glyndwr, which was waged against English material appropriation in Y Fro Gymraeg, and its consequent attenuation of modern Welsh culture and community.)" Even in a work of scholarship, which this undoubtedly is, there is no need for the writing to be quite so abstruse. Recognition and success, it seems, have freed Jim from editorial constraint and it is not to the benefit of his readers. Space precludes more lengthy quotes, but alongside a reluctance to use full-stops, one has to ask how many readers will make anything of passing references to T. S. Eliot's “objective correlative” or to “the pervasively derivative nature of English culture's writing project...” Yet, accept the challenge posed by both language and syntax, and this is a hugely erudite cultural history of northern Wales, full of fascinating digressions in lengthy footnotes. Rather like George Borrow's Wild Wales, it is as much about the author as its ostensible subject. Along the way, Jim airs his hang-ups about class, privilege and English colonial attitudes, and takes a swipe at anything that smacks of received wisdom or the Establishment view, be it climate change, biodiversity or the culling of goats. It is all quite entertaining, if you share his views.

Hyd yn oed mewn gwaith ysgolheigaidd, ac mae hwn yn ddiamheuol yn un o'r rheini, nid oes angen ysgrifennu mor astrus. Mae cydnabyddiaeth a llwyddiant, mae'n debyg, wedi rhyddhau Jim o gyfyngiadau golygyddol, ac nid er lles ei ddarllenwyr. Mae diffyg lle yn atal cynnwys rhagor o ddyfyniadau maith, ond ynghyd ag amharodrwydd i ddefnyddio atalnodau llawn, rhaid holi sut bydd darllenwyr yn dehongli “objective correlative” T. S. Eliot neu “the pervasively derivative nature of English culture's writing project...” Serch hynny, o dderbyn heriau’r iaith a’r gystrawen, mae'n hanes diwylliannol hynod ddysgedig o ogledd Cymru, yn llawn sylwadau difyr mewn troednodiadau maith. Yn debyg iawn i Wild Wales George Borrow, mae'n ymwneud cymaint â'r awdur â'i bwnc ymddangosol. Ynddo, mae Jim yn mynegi ei obsesiynau ynghylch dosbarth, braint ac agweddau trefedigaethol y Saeson, ac mae'n ymosod unrhyw beth sy'n ymdebygu i ddoethineb confensiynol neu safbwynt y Sefydliad, boed hynny ynghylch bioamrywiaeth, y newid yn yr hinsawdd neu ddifa geifr. Mae’r cyfan yn ddifyr iawn, os ydych yn rhannu ei safbwyntiau.

But there is no doubting the sincerity and depth of his attachment to these hills and when, occasionally, he leaves history or polemic for personal experience, the writing comes to life electrifyingly (although it has to be said that at least one such passage has been lifted verbatim from earlier writing). Mostly, however, the book seems aimed at an academic readership with no concessions to the uninitiated whatsoever in the way of a map, an index or illustrations. What a pity.

Ond ni ellir gwadu ei ddidwylledd a dyfnder ei berthynas â’r bryniau hyn, a phan mae’n troi ei gefn ar hanes neu'n peidio bod yn ddadleuol yn achlysurol ac yn trafod ei brofiad personol yn lle hynny, daw’r gwaith yn drydanol o fyw (rhaid cydnabod serch hynny fod o leiaf un darn o’r fath wedi'i ddyfynnu air am air o waith blaenorol). Ar y cyfan, fodd bynnag, mae’r llyfr wedi'i anelu at ddarllenwyr academaidd, a heb unrhyw ystyriaeth i’r sawl sy’n anghyfarwydd â’r pwnc, nid oes map, mynegai na darluniau. Mae hynny’n drueni mawr.

Rob Collister

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Polisi ac ymgyrchoedd Ystyried safbwyntiau aelodau

trigolion lleol a sefydliadau eraill wrth alw am gladdu’r llwybr cyfan o'r Wylfa i ogledd-orllewin Lloegr dan y môr, gan ddileu'r angen am unrhyw beilonau ychwanegol. (Yn anffodus, nid oedd hwn yn un o’r dewisiadau a ffafriai’r Grid).

Yn dilyn adborth yn y cylchgrawn diwethaf ac yn y CCB, hoffwn i’n haelodau deimlo y gallant gysylltu â ni ynghylch materion polisi ac y caiff eu safbwyntiau eu hystyried, a hefyd i deimlo y gallant ofyn am gyngor ynghylch ymateb i geisiadau cynllunio ac ymgynghoriadau. Nid yw’n ymarferol i ni ymgynghori ag aelodau ynghylch pob ymateb a wnawn; nid yn lleiaf oherwydd costau afresymol anfon gohebiaeth (mae gennym bron i 1600 aelod ond nid oes gennym e-bost pawb). Fodd bynnag, buasem yn annog pobl i’n hysbysu ynghylch ceisiadau cynllunio neu faterion a gefnogir neu a wrthwynebir ganddynt, a chaiff y safbwyntiau hyn eu hystyried bob amser pan fydd yr Ymddiriedolwyr sydd ar yr is-bwyllgor yn gwneud penderfyniad. Meini prawf y Gymdeithas o ran ymateb i ymgynghoriadau a cheisiadau yw pa un ai a allai’r canlyniad niweidio rhinweddau arbennig y Parc Cenedlaethol, neu a fuasai’n gosod cynsail bwysig i’r dyfodol.

Canolfan ymwelwyr Castell Harlech ac ysbwriel ar Eryri Rydym yn disgwyl cais newydd gan Cadw ar ddechrau 2013 am ganolfan ymwelwyr newydd yng Nghastell Harlech a fydd yn gwella'r dehongliad o dreftadaeth ddiwylliannol yr ardal. O ystyried ei gynllun sensitif a’i botensial i ddenu rhagor o ymwelwyr a gwaith i’r dref, hyderwn y gallwn gefnogi’r cais hwn. Byddwn hefyd yn parhau i weithio gydag Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri a Rheilffordd yr Wyddfa ar ymgyrch i leihau ysbwriel ar yr Wyddfa ac annog pobl i beidio gadael unrhyw olion. Cychwynnwyd y gwaith hwn gan staff ein Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri wedi’r g we i t h ga re d d casglu sbwriel ar yr Wyddfa yn 2012.

Cynllun pwmpstorio Glyn Rhonwy Rydym yn ymwybodol nad yw’r broses gynllunio bob amser yn dryloyw, a gall fod yn anodd i’r cyhoedd gael yr holl wybodaeth berthnasol. Oherwydd hynny, yn dilyn cais ar ddiwedd 2012 am gynllun cynhyrchu trydan pwmpstorio yng Nglyn Rhonwy ger Llanberis, ar gyrion Eryri, fe wnaethom anfon e-gylchlythyr yn crynhoi’r ffeithiau perthnasol, gan bwysleisio ble gallai pobl gael rhagor o wybodaeth a'u hannog i gyflwyno'u hymateb eu hunain. Nid oedd y Gymdeithas yn gwrthwynebu'r egwyddorion oedd wrth wraidd y cynllun, yn enwedig oherwydd y posibilrwydd o greu swyddi, ond roeddem yn credu fod angen rhagor o wybodaeth gan yr ymgeisydd o ran mesurau lliniaru angenrheidiol i ddiogelu SSSI Llyn Padarn a chymeriad y dirwedd a welir o'r Wyddfa a safleoedd allweddol eraill. Yn bwysicach, fe wnaethom amlygu’r angen i ystyried y dewisiadau trawsyrru trydan wrth benderfynu a ddylid caniatáu’r cynllun neu beidio, oherwydd buasai peilonau yn difetha’r olygfa eiconig o'r Wyddfa i Lyn Padarn yn drychineb.

CNP Cymru Ar lefel genedlaethol, mae tair cymdeithas Parciau Cenedlaethol Cymru mewn sefyllfa well i ymateb i'r heriau sy'n wynebu'r sector amgylcheddol a thirweddau a ddiogelir yng Nghymru, yn sgil sefydlu CNP Cymru. Dyma gangen o Ymgyrch y Parciau Cenedlaethol, grŵp ymbarél hirsefydlog yn y Deyrnas Unedig sy’n cynrychioli pawb sydd â diddordeb yn y sector. Mae tair cymdeithas Parciau Cenedlaethol Cymru wedi sefydlu cynghrair gryfach, ac maent yn bwriadu cwrdd yn rheolaidd a chyflwyno ymatebion ar y cyd i faterion perthnasol.

Llinellau pŵer newydd Roedd ymgynghoriad arall ar ddiwedd 2012 yn ymwneud â Phrosiect Cysylltiad Gogledd Cymru'r Grid Cenedlaethol, llwybrau trawsyrru trydan o atomfa newydd Wylfa yn y dyfodol, ac o ffermydd gwynt mawr oddi ar arfordir Ynys Môn. Er ein bod yn falch nad oedd y dewisiadau a ffafriai’r Grid Cenedlaethol yn cynnwys unrhyw beilonau newydd yn y Parc a buasai’r llinellau sy’n croesi Aberglaslyn yn aros dan ddaear, roeddem yn siomedig na fuasai rhannau eraill o’r llwybr sy'n effeithio ar Eryri yn cael eu claddu, yn cynnwys yn Aber Dwyryd. Rydym wedi cefnogi

Os hoffech gyfranogi rhagor yn ein gwaith polisi ac ymgyrchoedd fel ymddiriedolwr neu wirfoddolwr, cysylltwch â Chadeirydd Cymdeithas Eryri, David Archer, trwy gyfrwng y swyddfa.

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Policy and campaigns Members views taken on board

on Snowdonia would not be underground, including the Dwyryd estuary. We have supported local individuals and other organisations in calling for the whole route from Wylfa to north west England to be under the sea, obviating the need for any more pylons. (Unfortunately, this did not feature as one of the Grid’s preferred options).

Following feedback in the last magazine and at the AGM, we would like our members to feel that they can contact us about policy issues and their views will be taken on board, and also to feel that they can ask for advice in responding to planning applications and consultations themselves. It is not practical for us to poll members with regard to every response we make; not least due to the prohibitive cost of mail outs (we do not have email addresses for many of our nearly 1600 members). However, we do encourage people to let us know about planning applications or issues they support or object to and these views will always be taken into account when the Trustees on the policy sub-committee come to a decision. The Society's criteria for responding to consultations and applications remains whether or not the outcome could have an adverse impact on the special qualities of the National Park, or if it would set an important precedent for the future.

Harlech Castle visitor centre and litter on Snowdon In early 2013 we expect an application for a new visitor centre at Harlech Castle submitted by Cadw which will improve the interpretation of the area's cultural heritage. Given its sensitive design and potential to bring more visitors and employment to the town, we hope to be able to support this. We will also be working further with the National Park Authority and Snowdon Mountain Railway on a campaign to reduce the amount of litter on Snowdon and to encourage a 'leave no trace' mentality. This work was initiated by our Conservation Snowdonia Project staff following our 2012 Snowdon litter pick.

Glyn Rhonwy pump storage scheme

CNP Cymru

We are aware that the planning process is not always transparent and that it can be difficult for members of the public to find all the relevant information. For this reason, following an application in late 2012 for a pump storage power generation scheme at Glyn Rhonwy, near Llanberis, on the edge of Snowdonia, we sent out an e-newsletter summarising the relevant facts, pointing out where people could find out more and encouraging them to submit their own response. The Society's stand was that while we did not object to the principles behind the scheme, in particular because of the potential for employment, we felt that more information was required from the applicant with regard to mitigation measures to be taken to protect Llyn Padarn SSSI and the character of the landscape as viewed from Snowdon and other key vantage points. Importantly, we highlighted the need to take into account the power transmission options when deciding whether to award planning consent, as it would be a disaster for pylons to blight the iconic view of Snowdon from Llyn Padarn.

On a national level, the three Welsh National Park societies are now better placed to respond to the challenges facing the environmental sector and protected landscapes in Wales, thanks to the establishment of CNP Cymru. This is a branch of the Campaign for National Parks, a longstanding UK umbrella group representing all those with an interest in the sector. The three Wales Park Societies have formed a closer alliance and intend to meet regularly and submit joint responses to relevant issues.

Š John Farr ar

If you would like to become more involved in our policy and campaigns work as a trustee or as a volunteer, please contact Snowdonia Society Chair, David Archer, via the office.

New power lines

Š John Farrar

A further late 2012 consultation related to the National Grid's North Wales Connection Project, the power transmission routes for the future from the new Wylfa power station and from large wind farms off the coast of Anglesey. While we were pleased that the National Grid's preferred options did not include any new pylons inside the Park and that the crossing of the Glaslyn estuary would remain underground, we were dismayed that other areas of the route impacting

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Cadw ein gwlypdiroedd yn wlyb Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri

carbon, ac maent yn cynorthwyo i reoli llifogydd. Mae lefel uchel y dŵr mewn cynefin gwlypdir yn arafu dadelfeniad deunydd planhigol. Mae’r mawn dilynol, sy’n cynnwys deunydd planhigol wedi dadelfennu’n rhannol, yn storio carbon a fuasai fel arall wedi’i ryddhau i’r atmosffer. Er mai ychydig iawn o arwynebedd y byd sy'n wlypdiroedd, amcangyfrifwyd eu bod yn storio tua 14.5% o garbon y byd. Os gadawn i wlypdiroedd sychu, fe wnaiff y mawn ryddhau’r carbon deuocsid hwn i’r atmosffer, a bydd oblygiadau difrifol iawn i’n brwydr yn erbyn y newid yn yr hinsawdd. Ni ddylid tanbrisio rôl gwlypdiroedd fel dalfeydd carbon, ac maent wedi dod yn gynefinoedd pwysig i’w hamddiffyn.

Gellir defnyddio’r gair adfer mewn sawl cyd-destun, o adeiladau i gynefinoedd. Mae Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri wedi bod yn ymwneud ag amrywiaeth o brosiectau adfer dros y flwyddyn ddiwethaf, ac mae pob un ohonynt yn llesol i bobl a bywyd gwyllt fel ei gilydd. Rwyf wedi dewis canolbwyntio yma ar bwnc sy’n agos at fy nghalon, adfer gwlypdiroedd. Mae gwlypdiroedd wedi bod yn rhai o’r cynefinoedd harddaf a mwyaf diddorol rwyf wedi bod yn ddigon ffodus i ymweld â hwy. Yn anffodus, mae eu tueddiad i gyfiawnhau eu henw a bod yn wlyb a chorsiog yn golygu nad ydynt yn apelio i'r rhan fwyaf o bobl fel lle i grwydro ar brynhawn Sul.

Mae gwlypdiroedd hefyd yn gweithredu fel sbyngau naturiol. Byddant yn amsugno symiau mawr o ddŵr yn gyflym a'u rhyddhau’n araf. Yn oes y tarmac lle mae fflachlifoedd yn broblem gynyddol, mae'n bwysicach byth gofalu am y gwlypdiroedd sy’n weddill.

Mae gwirfoddolwyr Cymdeithas Eryri wedi bod yn rhan o waith i adfer gwlypdir o’r enw Cors Bodgynydd ger Tŷ Hyll. Mae’r lle prydferth hwn yn Safle o Ddiddordeb Gwyddonol Arbennig a reolir gan Ymddiriedolaeth Natur Gogledd Cymru, ac mae ein gwirfoddolwyr wedi ymuno â gwirfoddolwyr yr Ymddiriedolaeth Natur i wneud gwahaniaeth sylweddol yno.

Mae coed yn defnyddio symiau enfawr o ddŵr a gallant sychu llecyn gwlypdirol, a buasai oblygiadau i'r rhywogaethau arbennig a ganfyddir yno, yn ogystal â'r gwasanaethau ecosystem a ddarperir gan wlypdiroedd. Dyna pam fod y gwaith a wneir yng Nghors Bodgynydd a gwlypdiroedd eraill mor bwysig.

Mae’r gwaith yn cynnwys diwreiddio a thorri glasbrennau sydd wedi ymledu i’r llecyn hwn. Efallai fod hyn yn ymddangos yn groes i rai o’n diwrnodau gwaith eraill sy’n canolbwyntio ar blannu coed. Fodd bynnag, mae atal coed rhag ymledu yn yr amgylchedd penodol hwn yn angenrheidiol ac yn bwysig. Mae ar goed angen symiau sylweddol o ddŵr, a buasai’n ymddangos mai gwlypdiroedd yw’r lle delfrydol iddynt gael hynny; yn ychwanegol, onid oes arnom angen rhagor o goed i amsugno carbon deuocsid? Nid yw’r ateb mor syml â hynny, wrth gwrs.

Mary-Kate Jones

Os hoffech gymryd rhan mewn gwaith ymarferol i ddiogelu a gwella tirweddau gwerthfawr Eryri, cysylltwch â ni fel y gallwn eich diweddaru am ein gweithgareddau.

Fel yr awgryma’r enw, mae gwlypdiroedd yn gynefinoedd a ddominyddir gan ddŵr. Fe'u nodweddir gan rywogaethau na cheir mewn unman arall; er enghraifft, mae Cors Bodgynydd yn gartref i rywogaeth brin o glwbfwsogl. Mae gwlypdiroedd hefyd yn darparu cynefinoedd i adar nythol, megis y gylfinir a’r gïach; mae Cors Bodgynydd yn safle bwydo pwysig i droellwyr mawr.

If you’d like to get involved in practical work to protect and improve the precious landscapes of Snowdonia, contact us so we can keep you up to date with all the latest activities. volunteer@snowdonia-society.org.uk

Mae gwlypdiroedd hefyd yn cynnig gwasanaethau i bobl. Maent yn cynorthwyo i frwydro’r newid yn yr hinsawdd trwy storio

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01286 685498


Keeping our wetlands wet Conservation Snowdonia Project The word restoration can be used in many contexts, from buildings to habitats. The Conservation Snowdonia Project has been involved in various different restoration tasks over the past year, all of which are of benefit to both people and wildlife. I have chosen here to focus on a topic close to my heart, wetland restoration.

species of club moss. Wetlands also provide important habitats for nesting birds, such as curlew and snipe; while Cors Bodgynydd is an important feeding site for nightjars. Wetlands also provide services to humans. They help combat climate change by locking up carbon and they help to control flooding. The high level of water in a wetland habitat slows down the decomposition of plant matter. The resulting peat, made up of semi-decomposed plant material, locks up the carbon which would otherwise have been released into the atmosphere. While a very small area of the planet is covered by wetlands, it has been estimated that they store 14.5% of the world’s carbon. If we let wetlands dry out, the peat will release this carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, with serious implications for our battle against climate change. The role of wetlands as carbon sinks should not be underestimated, and they have become important habitats to protect.

Some of the most interesting and beautiful habitats I’ve been fortunate enough to visit are wetlands. Unfortunately, their tendency to live up to their name and to be wet and boggy makes them unappealing to most people for a Sunday afternoon stroll. Snowdonia Society volunteers have been involved in work to restore an area of wetland called Cors Bodgynydd near Tŷ Hyll. This beautiful spot is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest managed by North Wales Wildlife Trust, and our volunteers have joined forces with Wildlife Trust volunteers to make a significant difference here.

Wetlands also act as natural sponges. They quickly absorb large quantities of water then release it slowly. In an age of tarmac where flash floods are an increasing problem, it is even more important to look after the wetland areas we have left.

The work involves uprooting and cutting down saplings which have invaded the area. This may seem to run counter to some of our other workdays which focus on tree planting. However, it is both necessary and important to prevent the spread of trees in this particular environment. Trees require huge amounts of water and it would appear that wetlands are an ideal place for them to acquire it; and, besides, don’t we need more trees to absorb carbon dioxide? The answer, of course, isn’t that straightforward.

Trees consume huge amounts of water and can dry out an area of wetland, with consequences for the special species found there as well as the ecosystem services which wetlands provide. This is what makes the work carried out at Cors Bodgynydd and other wetland areas so important.

Wetlands, as the name suggests, are habitats which are dominated by water. They are characterised by species which are not found anywhere else; for example, Cors Bodgynydd is home to a rare

Mary-Kate Jones

© Rob Booth

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Ymwelwyr yn heidio i Dy^ Hyll

Cyfeillion Tŷ Hyll Os ydych â diddordeb mewn dod yn Gyfaill cysylltwch â: info@snowdonia-society. org.uk 01286 685498

Fel gŵyr aelodau, wedi llawer iawn o waith caled gan ymddiriedolwyr, gwirfoddolwyr a staff yn y cyfnod cyn ei agor yn ystod haf 2012, mae Tŷ Hyll bellach yn ystafell de a chanolfan ymwelwyr sy’n canolbwyntio ar bwysigrwydd a diogelu gwenyn a phryfed peillio eraill. Gan adeiladu ar ymdrechion cyson gwirfoddolwyr dros y 24 mlynedd diwethaf i gynnal y coetir a’r ardd fel cynefin rhagorol i fywyd gwyllt, mae gennym bellach ein cychod gwenyn ein hunain ac mae’r ardd wedi’i phlannu â llu o blanhigion cyfeillgar i bryfed peillio sy’n blodeuo trwy gydol y flwyddyn. Mae nifer gynyddol o ymwelwyr yn cymryd rhan yn niwrnodau gwaith rheoli’r coetir a’r ardd. Cafwyd dros 22,000 o ymwelwyr yn ystod y 200 diwrnod cyntaf ar ôl agor yn 2012, ac mae adborth wedi bod yn hynod o bositif, â llawer o bobl yn canmol cynnyrch cartref yr ystafell de, yr ystafell gwenyn mêl a'r ardd bywyd gwyllt yn benodol. Yn sgil beirniadaeth adeiladol, rydym yn gwella proffil Cymdeithas Eryri trwy gynnig rhagor o wybodaeth i ymwelwyr yr ystafell de, ac yn gwella arddangosfa hanes y tŷ ac ymdrechion sylfaenydd y Gymdeithas, Esmé Kirby, i’w brynu i’r Gymdeithas. Erbyn gwanwyn 2013, arddangosir paneli

i defynyddio Ydych chi wed eich 0%* gostyngiad o 2 ot Mêl? yn ystafell de P

eth dilys cerdyn aeloda *Rhaid dangos i. yr Cymdeithas Er

Ymwelwch â www.tyhyll.co.uk i gael gwybodaeth am oriau agor, digwyddiadau, gwenyn mêl a garddio bywyd gwyllt.

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gwybodaeth allanol, yn cynnwys map hyfryd o’r coetir a darlun eglurhaol o’r pwll a'i gyffiniau, y ddau ohonynt gan yr arlunydd lleol Phillip Snow. Bydd rhaglen paru mamwenyn yn cychwyn cyn yr haf, wedi’i chydgysylltu gan yr Athro Pete Barrar o Ganolfan Genedlaethol Cadw Gwenyn Cymru. Mae Tŷ Hyll yn dal yn ddull gwerthfawr o recriwtio aelodau i Gymdeithas Eryri. Yn aml iawn, ysbrydolir ymwelwyr yr ystafell de a phobl eraill a gychwynnodd gyfranogi’n wirfoddol yn wreiddiol i gefnogi ein gwaith ehangach trwy ymuno â'r Gymdeithas. Defnyddir holl incwm rhent, cyfraniadau a gwerthiant nwyddau Tŷ Hyll i ariannu rhagor o welliannau a gwaith rheoli, yn ogystal ag atgyweiriadau hanfodol a chynnal a chadw. Mae hyn yn golygu fod holl danysgrifiadau a chyfraniadau aelodaeth y Gymdeithas bellach yn cyfrannu at amcanion elusennol ehangach y Gymdeithas, sef diogelu, gwella a dathlu Eryri. Yn olaf, beth am ddod yn ‘Gyfaill’ Tŷ Hyll? Sefydlwyd Cyfeillion Tŷ Hyll yn hydref 2012 i ddatblygu gweithgareddau’r dyfodol yn gysylltiedig â'r coetir a'r ardd, y gwenyn, digwyddiadau a gwirfoddoli. Er ein bod yn croesawu cyfraniadau gan Gyfeillion, ni chodir ffi – gofynnwn am frwdfrydedd a syniadau yn unig.


With over 22,000 visitors in the first 200 days of opening in 2012, feedback has been overwhelmingly positive, with many people commending the homemade tearoom produce, the honeybee room, and the wildlife garden in particular. As the result of constructive criticism we are increasing the profile of the Snowdonia Society by providing more information for tearoom visitors, and improving the display about the history of the house and its purchase for the Society through the efforts of Society founder, Esmé Kirby. By spring 2013 information panels will be displayed outside, including a beautiful map of the woodland and an illustration of the pond area, both by local artist Philip Snow. A queen bee mating

programme will begin before the summer, coordinated by Professor Pete Barrar of the National Beekeeping Centre for Wales. Tŷ Hyll continues to be a valuable recruitment tool for the Snowdonia Society. Tearoom visitors and other people who initially become involved as volunteers are often inspired to support our wider work by joining the Society. All Tŷ Hyll income from rent, donations and merchandise sales will go towards further improvements and management work at Tŷ Hyll, as well as essential repairs and maintenance. This means that all Society membership subscriptions and donations are now put towards the Society’s broader charitable objectives of protecting, enhancing and celebrating Snowdonia. Finally, why not become a ‘Friend’ of Tŷ Hyll? Friends of Tŷ Hyll was set up in autumn 2012 to develop future activities to do with the woodland and garden, the honeybees, events and volunteering. While we welcome donations from Friends, there is no fee – all we ask is enthusiasm and ideas.

Friends of Tŷ Hyll If you are interested in becoming a Friend please contact: info@snowdonia-society. org.uk 01286 685498 29

www.theuglyhouse.co.uk for information about tearoom opening hours, events, honeybees and wildlife gardening.

Rose

As members know, after a lot of hard work from trustees, volunteers and staff in the run up to its summer 2012 opening, Tŷ Hyll is now operating as a tearoom and honeybee visitor centre, focusing on the importance and protection of honeybees and other pollinators. Building on the sustained effort of volunteers over the past 24 years in maintaining the woodland and garden as an exemplary habitat for wildlife, we now have our own beehives and the garden has been planted with a host of pollinator-friendly plants flowering throughout the year. An increasing numbers of volunteers are taking part in woodland and garden management days.

Visit

© Jonathan

Visitors swarm to Ty^ Hyll

Have you used your 20% discount* in the Pot Mêl tearoom, yet? *Available to Snowdonia Society members on production of a valid Snowdonia Society membership card.


Llythyrau • Letters Argraffir llythyrau yn yr iaith y cawn hwy. Letters are printed in the language that we receive them.

None of us can ignore what is done with our money when we entrust it to others to use or invest in our name. Without a clear ethical policy being attached to investment there is a strong likelihood of those funds being placed with companies whose behaviour actively damages the environment and the communities that depend on it.

© Alan Carter

The countryside a "factory floor" Dear Editors, I much enjoyed the latest edition of your excellent magazine. I was particularly interested in the article by John LloydJones about the CRoW legislation from a farmer’s point of view. However, I must take issue with him when he says: “what unites all farmers is that the countryside is our factory floor.” It is a phrase, almost a mantra, which has been trotted out with depressing frequency over the last twenty years, yet I am surprised to hear it repeated by a spokesman as intelligent and influential as Mr Lloyd-Jones. What is implied is that the living earth, in all its beauty and diversity, is seen by farmers as no different to the concrete floor and metal machinery of a factory, their sheep and cattle seen not as sentient beings but items on a production line, their dogs mere tools of the trade. While I have seen farmers for whom this attitude appears to be true, I cannot believe it is true of all farmers and I urge Mr LloydJones to choose his words more carefully. J. Appleseed

Society investments a failure in ethical behaviour Dear Editors, The Autumn edition of the Society’s magazine includes a financial report that makes interesting reading. It states that the Society’s investments are managed by Barclay’s Wealth. This surprises me as Barclay’s Wealth do not seem to have a policy of investing in ethically screened equities and bonds. A quick search for “ethical investments” on their website gives no relevant results. The mission statement of the Society says that it “works to ensure the beauty and diversity of the National Park’s landscape, wildlife and cultural heritage remain for present and future generations to enjoy.” Such a stance surely requires the Society to always act in a way that helps maintain such values on the whole planet. If the Society’s actions in any way undermine the entitlement of other people and their landscapes to the same consideration as is given to Snowdonia, then there is a failure in ethical behaviour.

There are now many specialist firms engaged in ethical investment who could guide the Society in the development of a new policy. Resurgence magazine regularly has ads from well-established firms. Triodos Bank is always worth considering. Yours sincerely, Richard Grover Nodyn gan y Golygyddion: Mae’r Pwyllgor Gwaith wrthi’n ystyried a oes dulliau mwy egwyddorol o reoli buddsoddiadau’r Gymdeithas. Mae’r Pwyllgor Gwaith yn cydnabod fod nifer o faterion i’w hystyried, yn cynnwys dyletswydd yr Ymddiriedolwyr i weithredu er lles ariannol yr elusen a sicrhau ei hincwm i gynnal ei hyfywedd. Buasai’r ymddiriedolwyr yn croesawu safbwyntiau aelodau eraill ar y testun o fuddsoddi egwyddorol a sicrhau ffynonellau incwm ychwanegol. Editors' note: The Executive is actively considering whether there are ways of managing the Society’s investments more ethically. The Executive acknowledges that there are many issues at stake including the Trustees’ duty to act in the financial interests of the charity and secure its income to sustain its viability. Trustees welcome other members’ views on the topic of ethical investment and securing additional income sources.

Mae croeso i chi anfon ymatebion ynglŷn â'r rhifyn hwn, neu unrhyw agwedd arall o waith y Gymdeithas, i'r cyfeiriad isod. Please send your letters regarding articles in this issue of the magazine or any other aspect of the Society's activities to: Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon LL55 3NR info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

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Pleserau rhoi a derbyn Yn y swyddfa yn ddiweddar, cawsom brofiad hyfryd; fe wnaeth dau aelod o’r Gymdeithas guro ar y drws a chyflwyno siec hael. Nid oeddent yn gofyn am unrhyw gydnabyddiaeth - dim ond ein hannog i barhau â’r gwaith da: ‘gofalu am Eryri’. I’r sawl sydd wedi cyfrannu’n ddiweddar, diolch o galon, a daliwch ati i gyfrannu os gwelwch yn dda! Rydym yn byw mewn cyfnod anodd, ac nid yw’r apêl hon wedi’i hanelu at bawb, ond os allwch gyfrannu, fe wnaiff wahaniaeth mawr i ddyfodol Eryri. Gallwch gyfrannu’n rhwydd ar wefan Gymdeithas Eryri neu anfon siec i’r swyddfa.

The joys of giving and receiving

© Steve Lewis

Recently, in the office, we had a wonderful experience; two members of the society knocked on the door and handed over a generous cheque. They didn’t want any recognition, just urged us to keep up the good work: ‘to look after Snowdonia’. To all those who have donated recently, thank you, and please, please keep on giving! These are tough times, and this appeal is not aimed at everyone, but if you are in a position to donate, it will make a big difference to the future of Snowdonia. You can donate easily on the Snowdonia Society website or send a cheque to the office. Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR

01286 685498

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk • www.snowdonia-society.org.uk

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For all your outdoor clothing and equipment needs

20% discount*

To all members of Cymdeithas Eryri – Snowdonia Society Your local stores: Cotswold Outdoor Royal Oak Holyhead Road Betws-y-Coed, Conwy LL24 0AY Tel. 01690 710710 Betws-y-Coed - Rock Bottom Arfon House, Holyhead Road Betws-y-Coed, Conwy LL24 0AP Tel. 01690 710234

*Not to be used in conjunction with any other offers or discounts. Only valid on production of valid membership card, in store, or discount code online. For personal use only.

3320_snowdoniasociety_185x135_V3.indd 1

03/01/2013 17:13

Ymaelodwch! • Join us! Dewch yn Aelod Busnes o Gymdeithas Eryri a:

Become a Business Member of the Snowdonia Society and:

• Dangos i'ch cwsmeriaid eich bod yn gofalu am ddyfodol Eryri

• Show your customers that you care about Snowdonia's future

• Codi ymwybyddiaeth eich busnes ymhlith pobl eraill sy’n gofalu am yr amgylchedd

• Raise awareness of your business amongst other environmentally aware people

• Rhoi cyfleoedd i'ch staff i ddysgu sgiliau newydd ar ddiwrnodau gwaith cadwraeth

• Give your employees opportunities to learn new skills on conservation work days

• Helpu diogelu Eryri a'i nodweddau arbennig!

• Help keep Snowdonia a very special place!

Am ddim ond £50 y flwyddyn!

For only £50 a year!

Cysylltwch â ni am wybodaeth lawn.

Contact us for more information.

Mae’n rhaid i aelodau busnes o Gymdeithas Eryri gefnogi ein hamcanion elusennol (fel yr ysgrifenwyd yn ein Cyfansoddiad). Ein prif nodau yw diogelu, gwella a dathlu Eryri, ei bywyd gwyllt a threftadaeth, tra'n cefnogi gweithgaredd economaidd addas o fewn y Parc.

Business members of the Snowdonia Society must support our charitable objectives as written in our Constitution. Our key object is to protect, enhance and celebrate Snowdonia, its wildlife and heritage while supporting appropriate economic activity within the Park.

Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR 01286 685498 info@snowdonia-society.org.uk www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk • www.snowdonia-society.org.uk

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Snowdonia Society magazine spring 2013