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Bioamrywiaeth ac Eryri ~ Biodiversity and Snowdonia Adolygiad y Flwyddyn 2010/11 ~ Review of the Year 2010/11

Gaeaf - 2011 - Winter


Lychnis flos-cuculi (Carpiog y Gors / Ragged robin)© John Farrar

Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society Magazine

I’w ddarllen gyda theclyn darllen côd bar For use with a smartphone bar code scanner Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, LL55 3NR ffôn / telephone: 01286 685498 ebost / email: info@snowdonia-society.org.uk gwefan: www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk web: www.snowdonia-society.org.uk elusen gof. rhif / reg. charity no.: 253231

Sefydlwyd Cymdeithas Eryri yn 1967 a’i nod yw sicrhau bod harddwch ac amrywiaeth tirwedd, bywyd gwyllt ac etifeddiaeth ddiwylliannol y Parc Cenedlaethol yn parhau er mwynhad cenedlaethau’r presennol a’r dyfodol.

Helpwch ni a’r amgylchedd! Am resymau amgylcheddol - ac ariannol! - dymunem gynnig fersiwn electroneg o’n cylchgrawn i chi. Os hoffech gael e-rifynnau un hytrach na’r fersiwn papur, cysylltwch â ni.

The Snowdonia Society, established in 1967, works to ensure the beauty and diversity of the National Park’s landscape, wildlife and cultural heritage remain for present and future generations to enjoy.

Help us and help the environment! In an effort to reduce our environmental impact - and our costs! - we want to encourage members who have Internet access to opt to receive an electronic version of our magazine and events information in future. If you would be happy to do so, let us know!

Swddogion ac Ymddiriedolwyr Officers and Trustees Llywydd / President: John Disley CBE Is-lywyddion / Vice-Presidents: Sir John Houghton CBE, FRS, Sir Simon Jenkins FSA, John Lloyd Jones OBE Cadeirydd / Chair: Dr David Lewis Is-gadeirydd / Vice-Chair: David Archer Trysorydd anrh. / Hon. Treasurer: Helen Dale Ysgrifennydd anrh. / Hon. Secretary: Marc Thomas Swyddog datblygu / Development Officer: Ar agor / Vacant Aelodau’r pwyllgor / Committee members: Netti Collister, Rob Collister, David Firth, Katherine Himsworth, Bob Lowe, Morag McGrath, Bernard Owen, Gareth Roberts, Ned Schärer, Margaret Thomas, Peter Weston, Richard Williams-Ellis Os hoffech gysylltu ag unrhyw aelod o’r pwyllgor ffoniwch y swyddfa. If you would like to contact any of the committee members please phone the office. Staff Cyfarwyddwr Gweithredol / Acting Director: Sarah Medcalf Gweinyddydd Swyddfa / Office Administrator: Frances Smith Rheolwr Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri / Conservation Snowdonia Project Manager: Bea Kelsall Swyddog Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri / Conservation Snowdonia Project Officer: Jenny Whitmore Cyfieithu / Translation: Gareth Jones Lluniau / Photos: John Farrar - fragileland.co.uk Rob Collister, Pierino Algieri, Bea Kelsall Clawr / Cover: Pabi Cymreig / Welsh poppy © John Farrar

Hysbysiad CCB Cynhelir CCB y Gymdeithas ar ddydd Sadwrn, 22 Hydref 2011 yng Nghanolfan Gadwraeth Pensychnant ym Mwlch Pensychnant ger Conwy. Bydd ein siaradwr, Llŷr Huws Gruffydd AC, yn trafod y Parciau Cenedlaethol a dyfodol Cymru wledig. AGM notification The Society’s AGM will be held on Saturday 22 October 2011 at Pensychnant Conservation Centre on the Sychnant Pass near Conwy. Our speaker Llyr Huws Gruffydd AM will speak on National Parks and the future for rural Wales.

Cynnwys / Contents 1: 2-4: 5: 6-7: 8-9:

Golygyddol Gwerth natur BioBlitz Bioamrywiaeth yn Eryri Anna Williams - Jamie Oliver gerddi ysgolion

10-12: Dychweliad coed cynhenid i Eryri 13: Trigain mlynedd o Eryri 14-15: Bardd bioamrywiaeth 16-17: Asideiddio a’i effeithiau ar fioamrywiaeth forol 18-19: Trysor botanegol 20: Adolygiad 21: Byd gwaith Eryri 22-25: Adolygiad o’r flwyddyn 2010/11 26: Uchafbwyntiau’r flwyddyn 27: Adroddiad ariannol 28: Crynodeb ariannol

Editorial The value of nature BioBlitz Biodiversity in Snowdonia Anna Williams - the Jamie Oliver of school gardens The return of the native to Snowdonia Sixty years of Snowdonia Biodiversity’s bard Acidification and its effects on marine biodiversity A botanical treasure Review People at work in Eryri Review of the year 2010/11 Highlights of the year Financial report Financial summary

Dyma gylchgrawn swyddogol CESS. Mae’n cael ei gyhoeddi bob chwe mis a’i ddosbarthu i aelodau’r gymdeithas yn rhad ac am ddim. Gofynnwch os hoffech chi gael unwhyw erthyglau mewn fformat print bras. This is the official magazine of Cymdeithas Eryri-Snowdonia Society, distributed free to its members twice a year. Please ask if you would like the text of any articles in a larger print format.


Golygyddol ∞ Editorial Wrth i Barc Cenedlaethol Eryri ddathlu ei ben-blwydd yn chwe deg eleni, mae’r rhifyn hwn o’n cylchgrawn yn canolbwyntio ar fioamrywiaeth. Mae’r gair bioamrywiaeth yn disgrifio’r amrywiaeth o fywyd ar y ddaear, ond mae’n cyfeirio hefyd at y we gymhleth a deinamig sy’n dod â’r holl fywyd hwnnw ynghyd fel ecosystemau. Fel popeth arall ym myd natur, yr ydym yn rhan o ecosystemau, ond fel yr ydym yn darganfod, gall ein gweithredoedd eu niweidio’n hawdd iawn, a daw canlyniadau annisgwyl yn aml.

As Snowdonia National Park celebrates its sixtieth year, this issue of our magazine focuses on biodiversity. The word biodiversity describes not just the variety of life on earth, but also the complex and dynamic web that links all those life forms together as ecosystems. Like everything else in nature, we are a part of these ecosystems, but, as we are discovering, they are easily damaged by our actions, often with unforeseen consequences.

Mae erthygl Bioamrywiaeth yn Eryri Rob Gritten yn egluro sut mae bioamrywiaeth wedi lleihau yn y Parc Cenedlaethol dros y chwe deg mlynedd diwethaf, diolch i orbori a cholli coetiroedd cynhenid. Yn ôl Morgan Parry, gall datblygu economaidd, hamdden a gwella bioamrywiaeth fynd law yn llaw, ac mae’n amlygu Prosiect Gweilch Dyfi fel enghraifft flaenllaw. Yn y cyfamser, mae Jim Perrin, â’i sgeptigaeth iach nodweddiadol, yn pwysleisio fod y term bioamrywiaeth yn ddiystyr heb ddeall ei arwyddocâd a’r hyn y mae’n ei gwmpasu. Mae gwirfoddolwyr Cymdeithas Eryri yn parhau i frwydro rhywogaethau estron ymwthiol sy’n bygwth bioamrywiaeth mewn rhannau helaeth o’r Parc Cenedlaethol, a chaiff eu hymdrechion a gweithgareddau eraill y Gymdeithas eu dathlu yn ein hadolygiad blynyddol, yn ail ran y rhifyn hwn. Darllenwch sut y gallwch gyfrannu at ddiogelu eich Parc trwy ein apêl gwirfoddolwyr ar dudalen 20. Cynhaliwyd digwyddiad BioBlitz arbennig i wirfoddolwyr yn hafan bywyd gwyllt Cymdeithas Eryri yn y Tŷ Hyll ym Mai 2011, pan dreuliodd arbenigwyr ac aelodau’r cyhoedd 24 awr yn arolygu holl fywyd gwyllt y safle. Mae’n destun un o adroddiadau’r rhifyn hwn.

Rod Gritten’s Biodiversity in Snowdonia explains how biodiversity in the National Park has actually been reduced over the last sixty years as a result of over-grazing and the loss of native woodland. Morgan Parry notes that economic development, recreation and biodiversity improvement can work hand in hand and heralds the Dyfi Osprey Project as a leading example. Meanwhile, Jim Perrin, with characteristic and healthy scepticism, points out that the term biodiversity is meaningless without an understanding of its significance and what it encompasses.

Mae elusennau a chyrff statudol yn rhan allweddol o’r gwaith o arafu colledion bioamrywiaeth, ond ni ddylid anghofio’r unigolion sy’n gwneud gwahaniaeth go iawn hefyd. Mae Anna Williams yn gweithio i Ymddiriedolaeth Bywyd Gwyllt Gogledd Cymru yn cyflwyno garddio bywyd gwyllt mewn ysgolion lleol, yn ogystal â rhedeg grŵp WATCH arobryn sy’n ysbrydoli edmygwyr bywyd gwyllt a chadwraethwyr y dyfodol. Mae proffil difyr gan Huw Jenkins ar dudalen 8.

While charities and statutory bodies will play a vital part in halting biodiversity loss, we must not forget the individuals who make a real difference, too. Anna Williams works for the North Wales Wildlife Trust introducing wildlife gardening to local schools, as well as running an award-winning WATCH group which inspires the wildlife-lovers and conservationists of the future. Huw Jenkins’ insightful profile can be found on page 8.

Yr ydym yn ddiolchgar iawn i’r holl awduron a ffotograffwyr am eu cyfraniadau, yn enwedig John Farrar am ei ddelweddau syfrdanol o fywyd gwyllt a thirwedd Eryri. Cofiwch mai safbwyntiau personol yr awduron sy’n cael eu mynegi ganddynt, ac nid ydynt o reidrwydd yn adlewyrchu polisi Cymdeithas Eryri.

Our grateful thanks to all authors and photographers for their contributions, especially John Farrar for his stunning images of the wildlife and landscape of Snowdonia. Please remember that the views expressed by authors are their own personal views and do not necessarily reflect Snowdonia Society policy.

Sarah Medcalf a Rob Collister yw aelodau’r panel golygyddol sy’n gyfrifol am gynhyrchu’r cylchgrawn hwn.

The magazine is produced by an editorial panel of Sarah Medcalf and Rob Collister.

Caltha palustris (Gold y gors / Marsh marigold), Cwm Idwal © John Farrar

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Snowdonia Society volunteers continue to tackle invasive alien species that threaten biodiversity in swathes of the National Park, and their efforts are celebrated alongside other Society activities in our Annual Review which forms the second part of this issue. Find out how you can get involved in protecting your Park through our volunteer appeal on page 20. The Snowdonia Society’s own wildlife haven at Tŷ Hyll was the focus of a special BioBlitz event for volunteers in May 2011, when experts and members of the public spent 24 hours surveying all the wildlife on the site, also the focus of a report in this issue.

Magazine editors Rob Collister & Sarah Medcalf © Snowdonia Society


Gwerth natur gan Morgan Parry, Cadeirydd Cyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru Un prynhawn braf yng nghanol Mehefin eleni, euthum i foryd Afon Dyfi ym mhen mwyaf deheuol Eryri. Yr oeddwn yno i weld â’m llygaid fy hun un o lwyddiannau mwyaf ein bywyd gwyllt dros yr ychydig flynyddoedd diwethaf dychweliad gweilch i Gymru. Yr oedd gwylio’r cywion yn cael eu bwydo â physgod ffres, trwy gyfrwng cyswllt gwe-gam byw, a gweld yr iâr yn amddiffyn ei nyth rhag tresbaswyr gwryw annisgwyl, yn brofiad a gododd fy ysbryd. Wedi hanner canrif o ddirywiad mewn amrywiaeth a niferoedd rhywogaethau gwyllt, yr oedd yn dda gweld y duedd yn cael ei gwyrdroi mewn cornel fechan o Gymru. Cyrhaeddai ymwelwyr yn eu cannoedd i’r safle, sy’n eiddo i Ymddiriedolaeth Bywyd Gwyllt Sir Drefaldwyn, gan adael cyfraniadau i gefnogi’r prosiect. Fel safle gweilch yr RSPB ar foryd Glaslyn i’r gogledd, mae’r safle hwn wedi elwa’n fawr ar gymorth a brwdfrydedd cannoedd o wirfoddolwyr lleol. Yr oedd y Gweinidog newydd dros yr Amgylchedd, John Griffiths, yno hefyd, a chafodd ei ysbrydoli gan yr hyn a welodd. Defnyddiodd yr achlysur i ddisgrifio’r ffordd newydd o feddwl y mae’r Llywodraeth yn ei datblygu, â phwyslais ar systemau ecolegol a’r gwerth y mae cymdeithas yn ei roi ar yr amgylchedd. Ar y ffordd adref, sylweddolais fod Gweilch Dyfi yn enghraifft wych o bwysigrwydd parhaus bywyd gwyllt mewn byd sy’n newid mor gyflym. Porai gwartheg ar y safle ar ôl ei adfer o’r môr

Aberdyfi © Pierino Algieri

gan mlynedd yn ôl. Yr oedd gwerth economaidd y tir at y diben hwn wedi dirywio, ac fe’i cynigwyd i’r Ymddiriedolaeth fel gwarchodfa natur. Trwy waith caled staff, contractwyr a gwirfoddolwyr, cliriwyd coed, caewyd ffosydd, rhoddwyd byfflos i bori yno, ac anogwyd y cyhoedd i ymweld â’r safle. Ond yr oedd dyfodiad y gweilch yn syndod llwyr. Mae planhigion ac anifeiliaid eraill wedi ffynnu ar y safle hefyd, wrth gwrs. Mae miloedd lawer o ymwelwyr wedi’u hysbrydoli a’u haddysgu gan eu profiad. Mae’n debyg fod y gors sydd newydd gael ei hadfer yn lleihau’r perygl o lifogydd i dref gyfagos Machynlleth a seilwaith lleol, megis y rheilffordd. Ond mae’r holl sylw wedi’i ganolbwyntio ar y gweilch fel rhywogaeth “eiconaidd” sy’n denu sylw ac yn creu manteision economaidd pendant. Mewn sawl ffordd, mae Cors Dyfi yn brosiect hen ffasiwn, dan arweiniad corff gwirfoddol â chymorth asiantaethau’r Llywodraeth a phartneriaid lleol. Yn arwyddocaol yn yr achos hwn, fe wnaeth y cwmni sy’n gyfrifol am y rhwydwaith rheilffordd yn yr ardal, Network Rail, wneud cyfraniad amhrisiadwy at y gwaith trwy redeg ceblau trydan at y camerâu ger y nyth. Heb y cymorth hwnnw, ni fyddai ymwelwyr yn cael cymaint o fwynhad o’r safle, a byddai gwaith y wardeniaid yn llawer llai effeithiol. Ond mae hefyd yn darlunio llawer o feddylfryd newydd ein Llywodraeth ni a sawl un arall ar draws y byd, a’r gwahanol ffyrdd o roi’r meddylfryd hwn ar waith. Yng Nghymru, mae’r Llywodraeth wedi ymgynghori ynghylch

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fframwaith “Cymru Fyw” a bydd yn cyhoeddi polisïau a strategaethau newydd yn ystod y flwyddyn sy’n dod. Mae dulliau cyferbyniol a sylfaenol wahanol yn bodoli, wedi’u cynnig gan bobl sydd â byd-olwg gwahanol iawn. Yn y bôn, mae’n fater o foeseg ac economeg. Ers canol y ganrif ddiwethaf, yr ydym wedi ymddiried yn y wladwriaeth i ddiogelu’r amgylchedd er lles pawb. Mae dinasyddion wedi cyfranogi trwy’r broses gynllunio, ac yn ystod blynyddoedd diweddar, yr ydym oll wedi cychwyn datblygu cynlluniau gofodol fel y gall pob un (mewn egwyddor) ddweud ei ddweud ynglŷn â “ble aiff beth”. Dylai hyn weddu i’r traddodiad o arweiniad gan y gymuned sy’n gyffredin mewn sawl rhan o Gymru. Fodd bynnag, mewn byd datblygedig sy’n dal i ddod yn fwy rhyddfrydig yn economaidd, cawn ei harwain i gredu mai’r farchnad sy’n gwybod orau am osod prisiau adnoddau, a dylai cwmnïau preifat gael penderfynu pryd a lle y datblygir yr adnoddau hynny. Yn gynyddol, daw natur yn destun rheolau’r farchnad, yn yr un modd â’n hadnoddau eraill. Gan fod natur ar gael i ni ymelwa arni, mae ei chadwraeth yn fater o ddadansoddiad cost a budd. O fynd â’r meddylfryd hwn i’r eithaf, a ddylid diogelu gweilch Dyfi (â’u cefnogi ag arian cyhoeddus) dim ond os bydd yr incwm gan ymwelwyr a’r gwelliannau atal llifogydd yn sgil rheoli’r safle yn fwy na gwerth unrhyw ddefnydd tir posibl arall? Cymharwch hynny â Bolifia, ble pasiwyd


Gwerth Natur ∞ The value of nature Deddf y Fam Ddaear yn ddiweddar, sy’n rhoi’r un hawliau â phobl i bob agwedd o fyd natur. Disgwylir y bydd hyn yn arwain at gadwraeth radicalaidd newydd a mesurau cymdeithasol, wedi’u dylanwadu’n drwm gan fyd-olwg ysbrydol cynhenid atgyfodedig yr Andes, sy’n dyrchafu’r amgylchedd a duwies y ddaear yn ganolbwynt popeth byw. A wnai’r Bolifiaid ddadansoddiad cost a budd o’r gweilch? Efallai mai cyfuniad o’r syniadau hyn fyddai orau, sef cynnwys dinasyddion yn y penderfyniadau a fydd yn effeithio arnynt, annog parch moesegol tuag a natur er ei mwyn ei hun, a defnyddio dulliau economaidd i arwain ein penderfyniadau. Nid oes dwywaith y daw rôl y sector busnes yn bwysicach yn y dyfodol, fel y byddwn yn byw ein bywydau fwyfwy yn y maes preifat. Wrth gael cipolwg sydyn ar wefan Network Rail, ni ellir gweld unrhyw gyfeiriad at ei gefnogaeth i brosiect Gweilch Dyfi - ond dylai ymfalchïo yn hynny. Mae’n symbolaidd iawn, ac efallai’n nodweddiadol o’n cymdeithas fodern, mai “Ospreys” yw enw cerbydau cynnal a chadw’r cwmni, oherwydd yr ydym yn defnyddio natur mewn ffyrdd sy’n ymestyn yn ddwfn i’n bodolaeth ddiwylliannol. Tybed a yw’r cwmni wedi gweld y cyfle marchnata? Mae rhai dyledion i’w talu hefyd - efallai y gwnaeth y datblygiadau a ddaeth yn sgil y rheilffyrdd i foryd Afon Dyfi yn y 19eg ganrif gyfrannu at ddiflaniad y Gweilch, er mae’n ymddangos fod yr adar yn goddef trenau Arfordir

The value of nature

y Cambrian heddiw. Ond mae cyfraniad cwmni sy’n werth biliynau o bunnoedd at ei adferiad yn gydnabyddiaeth deilwng o gyd-ddibyniaeth yr economi â grymoedd natur. Mae cyfraniad llywodraeth leol yn allweddol hefyd. Gallai hyn fod yn fater o bwys i Awdurdodau Parciau Cenedlaethol fel y bydd eu swyddogaethau cynllunio yn cael eu harchwilio a swyddogaeth yr Aelodau apwyntiedig - â’u rôl draddodiadol yn amddiffyn dibenion statudol y Parciau - yn cael ei gwestiynu. A fyddai troi at bwyllgorau etholedig yn symud y pwyslais tuag at ystyriaethau economaidd tymor byr ac oddi wrth weld gwerth mewn asedau cenedlaethol dros gyfnodau hwy? Mae llu o gyfleoedd “Gweilch Dyfi” i’w cael ym Mharc Cenedlaethol Eryri: pa strwythurau rheoli sydd orau i’w gwireddu?

Cefnogir Prosiect Gweilch Dyfi gan brosiect Cymunedau a Natur, prosiect strategol sy’n cael ei arwain a’i reoli gan Gyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru a’i ariannu’n rhannol gan Gronfa Datblygu Rhanbarthau Ewrop trwy Lywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru.

Beth am gyfraniad tystiolaeth wyddonol sy’n arwain at ddealltwriaeth go iawn o sut y mae systemau naturiol yn gweithio? Mae canolbwyntio’n unig ar enillion tymor byr natur yn gamgymeriad. Credaf yn gryf, ar sail tystiolaeth Prosiect Gweilch Dyfi, mai dealltwriaeth o swyddogaeth yr ecosystem yw’r ystyriaeth bwysicaf, ac mae gan y Parc Cenedlaethol hanes da yn hyn o beth. Os llwyddwn i wneud hynny, daw manteision economaidd cynaliadwy. O ystyried pwysau twf y boblogaeth fyd-eang a’n chwant anniwall am adnoddau, mae angen i ni wneud yn fawr o’n tir a’r môr. Ond ambell waith, fe ddaw’r manteision pennaf trwy ganiatáu i ddarn bychan o gynefin corsiog moryd ddychwelyd i gyflwr mwy naturiol.

by Morgan Parry, Chair of the Countryside Council for Wales and former Director of WWF Cymru

the environment. On the way home, I realised what a great example the Dyfi Ospreys are of the continuing importance of wildlife in our rapidly changing world.

On a bright afternoon in mid June this year, I went to the estuary of Afon Dyfi at the southernmost tip of Snowdonia. I was there to see for myself one of the big wildlife success stories of the last few years – the return of ospreys to Wales. Watching the chicks being fed with fresh fish, via a live webcam link, and seeing the female defending her nest from unexpected male intruders, was an uplifting experience.

The site had been grazed by cattle after being reclaimed from the estuary a hundred years ago, and had later produced timber when planted with Sitka spruce. The economic value of the land for these uses declined, and it was offered to the Trust as a nature reserve. Through the hard work of staff, contractors and volunteers, trees were cleared, ditches blocked, grazing with buffalo introduced and public access encouraged. But the arrival of the ospreys was a complete surprise.

After half a century of decline in the diversity and numbers of wild species, it was good to see the trend reversed in one small corner of Wales. Visitors to the site, owned by the Montgomeryshire Wildlife Trust, were arriving in their hundreds, and leaving donations to support the project. Like the RSPB-managed osprey site on the Glaslyn estuary to the north, it has benefited greatly from the help and enthusiasm of hundreds of local volunteers.

Other plants and animals have thrived on the site of course. Many thousands of visitors have been inspired and educated by their experience. Probably, the newly reclaimed bog is reducing the risk of flooding to the nearby town of Machynlleth and the local infrastructure such as the railway line. But the attention is focused on the osprey as Since the middle of the last century, we’ve an “iconic” species which attracts attention and trusted the state to protect the environment for the sake of everyone. Citizens have been produces tangible economic rewards. involved through the planning process and in In many ways, Cors Dyfi is an old-fashioned con- recent years we have begun to develop spatial servation project, led by a voluntary organisa- plans so that everyone (in theory) has a say in tion with help of Government agencies and local “what goes where”. This should suit the compartners. Significantly in this case, the company munity-led tradition that is common in much that operates the rail infrastructure in the area, of Wales. Network Rail, provided an invaluable in-kind contribution by running power cables to the nest-site But increasingly in this economically liberContinued overleaf

The new Environment Minister John Griffiths was also there, and was inspired by what he saw. He used the occasion to describe the new way of thinking that’s being developed by the Government, with its emphasis on ecological systems and the value that society places on

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Afon Porth Llwyd © John Farrar cameras. Without that help, the enjoyment of visitors to the site and the effectiveness of the wardening effort would be greatly reduced. But it also illustrates much of the new thinking that our Government, and many others around the world, are currently engaged in, and the many different ways we can put the thinking into practice. In Wales, the Government has consulted on “A Living Wales” and will publish new policies and strategies in the year ahead. There are conflicting and fundamentally different approaches, proposed by people with very different worldviews. At its heart, it’s a matter of ethics and economics.


The value of nature by Morgan Parry, continued alised developed world, we are being led to believe that the market is best at fixing the price of resources, and that private companies should determine where and when those resources are exploited. Increasingly, nature is subject to the rules of the market, in the same way as our other resources. Since nature is there for our exploitation, its conservation is a matter of cost-benefit analysis. Taking this thinking to its extreme, should we protect the Dyfi ospreys (and support them with public money) only if the income generated from visitors and the flood-defence gains from site management exceed the value of any other possible land use? Compare that with Bolivia, where a Law of Mother Earth has recently been passed, granting all nature equal rights to humans. This is expected to result in radical new conservation and social measures, heavily influenced by a resurgent indigenous Andean spiritual world view which places the environment and the earth deity at the centre of all life. Would the Bolivians do a cost-benefit analysis of the osprey? A combination of all these ideas might be best, whereby we involve citizens in decisions that affect them, encourage an ethical respect for nature for its own sake, and use economic

tools to guide our decisions. There’s no doubt the role of the business sector will be more important in future, as we live more and more of our lives in the private sphere. A quick search of Network Rail’s website reveals no mention yet of their support for the Dyfi Osprey project – but it’s an association they should be proud of. But it’s highly symbolic, and perhaps symptomatic of our modern society, that the company’s fleet of new maintenance vehicles are called “Ospreys”, because we appropriate nature in ways which reach deep into our cultural existence. I wonder if the company has seen the marketing opportunity?

the Parks’ statutory purposes – is questioned. Would moving towards all-elected Committees tip the balance towards short-term economic considerations and away from valuing national assets over a longer period of time? There are many “Dyfi Osprey” opportunities in Snowdonia National Park: what governance structures are best designed to make them happen?

There are also debts to be repaid - the development that followed the coming of the railways to the Dyfi estuary in the 19th century may have contributed to the disappearance of the Osprey, although the birds seem to tolerate the Cambrian Coast trains today. But for a multi-billion pound company to be supporting its restoration to the area is a fitting recognition of the inter-dependence of the economy with the forces of nature.

And what about the role of scientific evidence that leads to a proper understanding of how natural systems work? Focussing only on the short-term financial return from nature is a mistake. It is my strong belief, supported by the evidence of the Dyfi Osprey Project, that an understanding of ecosystem function is the most important consideration, and the National Park has a good track record in this regard. If we get that right, sustainable economic benefit will follow. Given the pressures of global population growth and our insatiable appetite for resources, we need to get the most out of our land and sea. But sometimes, returning that little bit of marshy estuary habitat into a more natural condition gives us the greatest benefit overall.

The role of local government is critical, too. For National Park Authorities this could be a big issue as their planning functions come under scrutiny and the role of the appointed Member – with their traditional role of defending

The Dyfi Osprey Project is supported by Communities and Nature, which is a strategic project led and managed by Countryside Council for Wales and part funded by the European Regional Development Fund through the Welsh Government.

Traeth Dinlle © John Farrar

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BioBlitz

gan Sarah Medcalf, Cyfarwyddwr Gweithredol Cymdeithas Eryri

wogaethau i’w gweld ar wefan Cofnod- cafwyd cyfanswm o 483 cofnod, yn cynnwys 447 rhywogaeth. Mae 10 rhywogaeth y gwnaethom eu canfod wedi’u cynnwys yng Nghynllun Gweithredu Bioamrywiaeth Lleol Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri, sy’n nodi blaenoriaethau lleol ar gyfer cadwraeth. Cofnodwyd un math o bryf cop - Sabacon viscayanum ramblaianum - am y tro cyntaf erioed yng ngogledd Cymru, a dyma’r cofnod mwyaf gogleddol ohono yn y Deyrnas Unedig!

Adar, chwilod, gwenyn a glöynnod byw BioBlitz Tŷ Hyll Nod BioBlitz yw ennyn diddordeb nifer fawr o bobl mewn bioamrywiaeth, a’u gwahodd i arolygu a monitro bywyd gwyllt a chynefinoedd. Daw gwirfoddolwyr, gwyddonwyr, edmygwyr bywyd gwyllt, ysgolion, myfyrwyr a’r cyhoedd ynghyd i adnabod cymaint ag y bo modd o rywogaethau mewn lle penodol – a hynny yn erbyn y cloc!

Yr oedd ein BioBlitz yn ddull anffurfiol a hwyliog o greu ciplun o’r amrywiaeth o fywyd sydd i’w gael yn y Tŷ Hyll. Fe wnaeth dros dri deg o bobl gymryd rhan, gan rannu eu brwdfrydedd dros fyd natur a chyfranogi mewn arolwg gwyddonol defnyddiol ar yr un pryd. Ein nod oedd annog ymwelwyr i werthfawrogi’r fioamrywiaeth sydd ar ein carreg drws yma yn Eryri, arddangos pwysigrwydd cofnodi biolegol ar gyfer cadwraeth effeithiol a defnyddio’r data a gawsom fel sail i with cadwraeth ar ein tir ein tir yn y dyfodol. Yr ydym yn gobeithio cynnal BioBlitz arall yn y Tŷ Hyll yn 2012 ac yn edrych ymlaen at groesawu mwy o wirfoddolwyr llygaid barcud i ymuno â’r helfa, a gyda gobaith, canfod hyd yn oed mwy o rywogaethau nac yn 2011.

Fe wnaethom drefnu ein BioBlitz yn y Tŷ Hyll, sydd â gardd bwthyn hyfryd a phum erw o goetir cymysg lled-naturiol, a gaiff eu rheoli gan wirfoddolwyr i annog bywyd gwyllt. Cynhaliwyd y BioBlitz dros 24 awr ar 20 a 21 Mai 2011. Fe wnaeth naturiaethwyr medrus lleol arwain grwpiau o gofnodwyr bywyd gwyllt i chwilio am ystlumod, rhedyn, cennau, deugredyn a mwsoglau, gwyfynod, amffibiaid, coed a phlanhigion blodeuol, yn ogystal ag adar, gwenyn, chwilod a gloÿnnod byw. Rhoddwyd yr holl gofnodion ar gronfa ddata ar-lein Cofnod, Gwasanaeth Gwybodaeth Amgylcheddol Gogledd Cymru, sy’n sicrhau y bydd gan y data bwrpas gwyddonol gwirioneddol a gall unrhyw un sydd â diddordeb eu defnyddio. Mae’r rhestr gyflawn o rySpecies by species group

BioBlitz mis Mai oedd y cyntaf yn Eryri, ond nid yr olaf, gobeithio. Nid oes angen llawer o dir i gynnal y digwyddiadau hyn – gellir cynnal BioBlitz bach i edrych ar y bywyd gwyllt mewn cylchyn hwla wedi’i osod ar y ddaear! Lle bynnag y bo’r lleoliad, bydd cyfranogwyr yn sicr o gael eu synnu gan amrywiaeth y bywyd gwyllt a ddarganfyddir ganddynt. Dim ond trwy ymwybyddiaeth o’r fath y gallwn werthfawrogi cymhlethdod yr ecosystemau yr ydym yn dibynnu arnynt am ein hadnoddau a’n gwasanaethau, a chydnabod pwysigrwydd diogelu’r amrywiaeth hwn i’r dyfodol.

Plants (183)

Other invertebrates (103) Fungli, lichen and slime moulds (70) Mammals (3) Butterflies and moths (65) Birds (16) Bees, wasps, ants and sawflies (4) Reptiles and amphibians (3)

by Sarah Medcalf, Acting Director of the Snowdonia Society Birds, bugs, bees and butterflies at Tŷ Hyll BioBlitz A BioBlitz engages large numbers of people with biodiversity, inviting them to get involved in surveying and monitoring wildlife and habitats. It’s about volunteers, scientists, wildlife enthusiasts, schools, students and members of the public all working together to identify as many different species as possible within a specific area – all against the clock. We organised our BioBlitz at Tŷ Hyll (the Ugly House), which boasts a lovely cottage garden and five acres of semi-natural mixed woodland, both managed by volunteers to encourage wildlife. The BioBlitz took place over 24 hours on 20 and 21 May 2011. As well as covering birds, bees, bugs and butterflies, expert local naturalists led groups of wildlife recorders in the search for bats, ferns, lichen, liverworts and mosses, moths, amphibians, trees and flowering plants. All records were entered onto an online database by staff from Cofnod, the North Wales Environmental Information Service, which ensures that the data collected will be available for use by other interested parties and have some genuine scientific purpose. The full species list can be viewed on the Cofnod website – in total we collected 483 records, covering 447 different species. 10 of the species found are on the Snowdonia National Park Local Biodiversity Action Plan, which identifies local priorities for conservation. One species of spider we discovered - Sabacon viscayanum ramblaianum – is the first ever recorded in north Wales and the most northerly record in the UK!

strate the importance of biological recording for effective conservation and use the data we obtained as a basis for future conservation efforts on our own land. We hope to hold another BioBlitz at Tŷ Hyll in 2012 and look forward to welcoming more eagle-eyed volunteers to join the search, and hopefully identify even more species than in 2011. The May BioBlitz was Acronicta rumicis (Bidog tafol / Knot the first to be held in grass moth) © John Farrar Snowdonia, but we hope it will not be the last. These events don’t need a lot of land – a mini BioBlitz can even look at the wildlife found inside a hula hoop placed on the ground! Whatever the location, participants are sure to be surprised at the diversity of life they discover. It’s only through such awareness that we can appreciate the complexity of the ecosystems that we rely on for our resources and services, and recognise the importance of protecting this diversity for the future.

Our BioBlitz was an informal and fun way to create a snapshot of the variety of life that can be found at Tŷ Hyll. More than thirty people took part, sharing their enthusiasm for nature and at the same time participating in a useful scientific survey. Our aim was to encourage visitors to appreciate the biodiversity on our doorstep here in Snowdonia, demon-

Ever wondered about the diversity of nature found on your doorstep? Why not run a BioBlitz event for your local community or even just in your back garden? Anyone can hold an event in any green space - check out www.bnhc.org.uk for details.

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Bioamrywiaeth yn Eryri gan Dr Rod Gritten

Wedi treulio’r rhan fwyaf o fy oes weithio yn Ecolegydd yn Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri, pan ofynnwyd i mi ysgrifennu erthygl am fioamrywiaeth y Parc, cefais fy nhemtio i ysgrifennu am yr amrywiaeth rhyfeddol o blanhigion, anifeiliaid a chynefinoedd sydd yn y Parc. Ond wrth feddwl mwy am y pwnc, teimlais y byddai gwneud hynny yn golygu colli cyfle i fod yn wirioneddol onest am sefyllfa go iawn ein bywyd gwyllt. Rai blynyddoedd yn ôl, treuliais dri diwrnod diddorol allan o’r swyddfa yn tywys botanegwr amlwg o’r Weriniaeth Tsiec o amgylch rhai o ardaloedd planhigion gorau Eryri, yn fy nhyb i beth bynnag. Aethom â’n gwynt yn ein dwrn i fyny i Gwm Glas Mawr yr Wyddfa ar drywydd Tormaen yr Eira, sy’n brin iawn, a daethom ar ei draws trwy lwc yn fwy na dim, yn y niwl trwchus a’r glaw trwm. Pan ddangosais iddo’r cyfoeth o Redyn Persli a dyfai ar sgrïau danheddog yr Wyddfa, cynigasom lwncdestun i “ze success of ze expedition” â gwirod Bekerovska tanllyd, diod fileinig o gryf o’r Weriniaeth Siec a gariwyd yn arbennig at yr achlysur. Aethom dow-dow trwy isdyfiant grug trwchus y Migneint gan edmygu’r blodau ar wal gefn Cwm Cau ar Gader Idris. Ond daeth coron ar y cyfan pan ofynnodd i mi stopio’r car ar dop Bwlch Talyllyn, a dywedodd, ychydig yn ymddiheurol, y credai fod ein Parc Cenedlaethol yn anialwch. Mae degawdau os nad canrifoedd o bori dwys gan ddefaid fwy neu lai wedi dinistrio’r coed sy’n uchafbwynt llystyfiant, a fyddai ar un adeg wedi gorchuddio’r ardal gyfan hyd at o leiaf 600 medr uwch lefel y môr. Wrth gwrs, yr oedd fy nghyfaill o fotanegwr yn cymharu ein Parc Cenedlaethol ag Alpau Ffrainc a’r Swistir, Alpau Slofenia a’r Pyreneau. Mae’r masiffau hyn yn dal wedi’u gorchuddio â’r planhigion a’r coed a sefydlodd yno wedi ymgiliad y rhewlifiant diwethaf. Ond yma yn y Deyrnas Unedig, mae ein bryniau wedi cael eu pori’n foel, bron iawn. Mae Moel (a’i ffurf dreigledig Foel) yn enw cyffredin sy’n disgrifio llawer o’n bryniau a’n mynyddoedd yma yng Nghymru, ond mae’n disgrifio pen heb wallt yn y Gymraeg hefyd. Mae’n amlwg fod eni bryniau wedi’u moeli yn sgil blynyddoedd lawer o bori, ond ein bioamrywiaeth sydd wedi dioddef fwyaf. Wrth edrych ar y lleiniau caeedig yng Nghwm Idwal ac ar yr Wyddfa, gellir gweld sut y byddai’r llystyfiant yn edrych pe na bai unrhyw bori. Yn y ceunentydd cyfyng sy’n nodweddiadol o Feirionnydd, gellir gweld sut mae coed, rhedyn a phlanhigion blodeuol yn ffynnu yn yr hafnau peryglus hyn na ellir eu pori. Byddai’n wych pe câi rhannau sylweddol o iseldir Eryri ailddatblygu eu carped naturiol o goedwigoedd. Yn ddiweddar, euthum â grŵp o fyfyrwyr i Gwm Idwal i ddangos iddynt sut mae llystyfiant y rhostir yn dychwelyd i rannau o’r cwm, yn absenoldeb pori trwm. Mae hwn yn arbrawf ysbrydoledig a ddylai barau o leiaf hanner can mlynedd, gyda gobaith, a ddylai arddangos pa mor ffrwythlon a fyddai tirwedd heb unrhyw bori. Yn sgil lleihau neu wahardd pori yn llwyr, byddai tri-dimensiynoldeb y cynefin yn gwella

yn unol â hynny. Byddai hyn yn cynnig cilfachau â llawer iawn mwy o bryfed (a gwell amrywiaeth ohonynt) y gallai adar fwydo arnynt, yn ogystal â mamaliaid, ymlusgiaid ac amffibiaid - cynnydd enfawr mewn biomas. Byddai caniatáu i brosesau olyniaeth naturiol ddigwydd dros ardaloedd helaeth yn absenoldeb pori hefyd yn diogelu gwasanaethau’r ecosystem, yn cloi carbon hanfodol yn y priddoedd (ble na all ddianc i’r atmosffer a chyfrannu at yr effaith tŷ gwydr a’r Newid yn yr Hinsawdd) a chynyddu gallu’r pridd i ddal dŵr, gan leihau llifogydd yn ein hiseldiroedd.

Effaith pori / The effects of grazing © Rod Gritten

Ni fyddai coed yn tyfu’n uwch na thua 600 medr. Byddai’r llechweddau uchaf yn datblygu gorchudd rhostir naturiol a byddai porfa fynyddig yn gorchuddio’r copaon uchaf un. Byddai ein mynyddoedd unwaith eto yn ymdebygu i’w brodyr cyfandirol uwch, a byddai bioamrywiaeth yn ffynnu go iawn. Gwn fod hwn yn safbwynt dadleuol, ond nid wyf yn awgrymu y dylid gwahardd pori yn y Parc drwyddo draw. Mae’n debyg fod gan bori ei le yn nhrefn natur. Mae gwlypdiroedd, systemau twyni tywod a gweirgloddiau, er enghraifft, oll yn cyfrannu at fioamrywiaeth yr ardal, ac mae’n rhaid eu rheoli a’u pori, o leiaf yn rhannol, i’w hatal rhad troi’n dir prysg ac yn y pendraw, yn goetiroedd. Mae bioamrywiaeth hefyd yn golygu amrywiaeth o gynefinoedd, a gall pori wneud cyfraniad sylweddol at hyn. Derbyniaf fod hwn yn safbwynt Iwtopaidd, ond fel y daw ffermydd ar werth, oni ddylid annog yr Ymddiriedolaeth Genedlaethol, y Parc Cenedlaethol Moss and lichen of an upland a sefydliadau eraill megis Ymddir- heath© John Farrar iedolaeth John Muir i’w prynu a’u rheoli at ddibenion bioamrywiaeth yn hytrach na’r dull ransio o gadw Carneddau from Y Bera © John Farrar defaid sydd wedi dod mor gyffredin? Credaf y dylai rhannau sylweddol o Eryri gael dychwelyd i gyflwr mwy bioamrywiol. Wedi cwbl, mae llawer o holiaduron ar gyfer twristiaid yn y gorffennol wedi awgrymu y dônt yma i weld a phrofi bywyd gwyllt, nid tirwedd foel ble mae ffermio defaid yn flaenllaw. Yma yn y Deyrnas Unedig, fel yng ngweddill Ewrop, methwyd ag atal dirywiad bioamrywiaeth erbyn 2010, rhan o ddatganiad Gothenburg, fel y’i gelwir. I lwyddo i wneud hynny erbyn 2020, bydd angen i ni gymryd camau dramatig i leihau pori ar rannau helaeth o’n hucheldiroedd. Yr oedd Dr Rod Gritten yn Uwch Ecolegydd Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri am 25 mlynedd, a bellach mae’n rhedeg ei ymgynghoriaeth amgylcheddol ei hun. Mae’n un o gyn-ym-ddiriedolwyr Cymdeithas Eryri.

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Biodiversity in Snowdonia by Dr Rod Gritten

Heather and Bilberry on an upland heath © John Farrar

Having spent most of my working life as an ecologist with the Snowdonia National Park Authority, when asked to write an article about the Park’s biodiversity I was tempted to write about the wonderful and varied range of plants, animals and habitats that are found in the Park. But the more I thought about it, the more I felt I was missing an opportunity to be truly honest about the situation our wildlife is really in. A few years ago, I had a stimulating three days away from my desk showing a very eminent Czech botanist around what I thought of as the best plant areas of Snowdonia. We puffed our way up into Cwm Glas Mawr on Snowdon to search for the very rare Alpine Saxifrage, which we found more by luck than judgement in the thick swirling mist and driving rain. When I showed him the profusion of Parsley Fern growing on Snowdon’s jagged screes, we toasted “ze success of ze expedition” with fiery Bekerovska, a ferocious high octane Czech spirit especially carried up for the occasion. We plodded our way through the ankle-twisting heather undergrowth of the Migneint and drooled at the flowers on the back wall of Cwm Cau on Cader Idris. But the show-stopper was when he asked me to stop the car at the top of Talyllyn Pass and declared with some apology that he thought our National Park was a desert. Decades if not centuries of intense sheep grazing have all but destroyed the woods that are the climax vegetation that must have once clothed the whole area up to at least 600 metres above sea level. Admittedly my botanist friend was comparing our National Park with the Swiss/French Alps, the Slovenian Alps and the Pyrenees. These mountain massifs are still mostly covered in their original suite of plants and trees that became established after the retreat of the last glaciation. But here in the UK, our hills have been grazed almost bare. Moel (mutating to Foel), the common name that describes many of our hills and mountains, also means bald in Welsh. It has clearly taken many, many years of grazing for our hills to become bald, but the main cost has been to our biodiversity. You only have to look at the small grazing exclosures in Cwm Idwal and on Snowdon to see how the vegetation would Dr Rod Gritten was Senior Ecologist for the Snowdonia National Park Authority for 25 years and now runs his own environmental consultancy. Rod is a former Trustee of the Snowdonia Society.

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look in the absence of grazing. Scramble up the narrow river gorges (ceunant) that are such a feature of Meirionnydd and see how the trees, ferns and flowering plants thrive in these treacherous ungrazeable ravines. How wonderful it would be if large areas of lowland Snowdonia were allowed to redevelop their natural carpet of woodlands. I recently took a group of students into Cwm Idwal to show them how noticeably the heath vegetation is returning to parts of the cwm in the absence of heavy grazing. This is an inspired experiment, hopefully lasting at least fifty years, which should demonstrate how luxuriant a grazing-free landscape could become. Reduce or abandon grazing altogether and the three-dimensionality of the habitat would expand accordingly. This would provide niches for a much more diverse range and abundance of insects with birds to feed on them, and mammals, reptiles and amphibians, too - a dramatic increase in biomass. Allowing the natural succession processes to occur over large areas in the absence of grazing would also safeguard ecosystem services, lock vital carbon in our soils where it cannot escape into the atmosphere to contribute to the greenhouse effect and Climate Change and increase the soil’s capacity to retain water, thus reducing flooding in our lowlands. Trees would only grow up to about 600 metres. The upper mountain slopes would develop their natural heath cover and montane grassland would cover the very highest peaks. Our mountains would once again resemble their higher continental brothers and biodiversity would indeed flourish. I know this view is controversial but I am not suggesting that the whole Park is made grazing-free. I think grazing must have its place in the grand order of things. Wetlands, sand dune systems and hay meadows, for example, also contribute to the biodiversity of the area and must be, at least in part, managed and grazed to prevent them from succeeding to scrub and eventually woodland. Biodiversity is also about habitat diversity and grazing has a huge part to play in this. I accept that this is a somewhat Utopian view but, as farms come up for sale, surely the National Trust, the National Park and organisations such as the John Muir Trust should be encouraged to purchase these farms and manage them for their biodiversity rather than the ranch-style sheep farming which is becoming so prevalent? I strongly believe that large areas of Snowdonia should be returned to a more biodiverse state. After all, several past tourism questionnaires have shown that tourists come here to see and experience wildlife and not just a bald landscape dominated by sheep farming. We in the UK, as indeed in the rest of Europe, failed to halt the decline in biodiversity by 2010, part of the so-called Gothenburg declaration. If we are going to succeed in doing so by 2020, we need to take dramatic steps including reducing grazing over large areas of our uplands.


Anna Williams – Jamie Oliver gerddi ysgolion gan Huw Jenkins

Anna with pupils of Ysgol Bontnewydd

Ar y ffordd i gartref Anna, fe stopiasom wrth ysgol Waunfawr fel y deuai egwyl brynhawn y plant i ben. Yr oedd yn llysiau yn y gwelyau uwch yn edrych yn barod i’w casglu. Yr oedd mafon yr hydref yn aeddfedu, yn barod i groesawu’r plant yn ôl ym mis Medi. Yr oedd y bin compost gwyrdd yn edrych fe pe bai rhywun wedi ceisio neidio drosto ac wedi methu. Gerllaw, yr oedd tŷ chwilod, ac yn goron ar y cyfan, twnnel a chromen o helyg byw. Ar brydiau, byddant yn llong ofod neu Dardis, neu ddim ond ffau efallai, ond fe’u defnyddir yn gyson. Mae byrddau picnic wedi’u gosod ym mhen cae chwarae’r ardd fel y gall y plant fwynhau’r ardd dros ginio. Mae rhes o goed uchel ar hyd ochr ddeheuol y cae, sy’n cynnig cysgod. Mae llain gul o dir diffaith rhwng yr adeiladau a’r wal wedi’i throi’n ardd berlysiau, â gardd gerrig a phwll bywyd gwyllt bychan. Mae’r delltwaith a godwyd gan y clwb ieuenctid yn cynnal gwyddfid. Mae blychau ac ymborthwyr adar wedi’u gosod fel y gellir eu gweld o’r ysgol, a bydd y plant yn cymryd rhan mewn arolygon. Yr oedd gwennol ddu yn nythu o dan astell bondo. Wrth i ni gerdded o amgylch y safle, sylwai Anna ar y tasgau cynnal a chadw y byddai angen iddi hi a’i chynorthwywyr ifanc eu gwneud yn ystod ei hymweliad nesaf.

ond mae ei gwreiddiau yn Lund, yn ne Sweden. Mae llawer o blant Sweden yn rhan o weithgarwch Friluftsfrämjandet (Cymdeithas Sweden er Hyrwyddo Bywyd yn yr Awyr Agored). Aiff babanod ar deithiau cerdded wythnosol, i weld byd natur a’r hyn sydd o’u cwmpas, cael picnic neu ddysgu sglefrio. Pan fyddant yn 10 oed, byddant yn gwneud gweithgareddau mwy cymhleth megis coedwriaeth, canŵio a theithiau cerdded â gwersyll dros nos a’r tân gwersyll hollbwysig. Daw aelodau’n ffrindiau agos yn y gwersylloedd hyn. Pan fyddant yn 14 oed, bydd yr aelodau’n mwynhau gweithgareddau hyd yn oed mwy cyffrous a bydd llai o oruchwyliaeth. Pan oedd hi’n 17 oed, daeth Anna yn arweinydd.

Mae 3 phlentyn Anna yn ddisgyblion yr ysgol, ac fel llywodraethwr, bydd hi’n gweithio’n agos ar y prosiectau hyn. Maent yn debyg iawn i’w gwaith hyrwyddo garddio mewn ysgolion ar draws rhan helaeth o Ogledd Cymru. ‘Os yw Jamie Oliver â’i fryd ar wella bwyd ysgolion, yr wyf innau â’m bryd ar hyrwyddo garddio mewn ysgolion. Mae’n ffordd wych o gysylltu pobl ifanc â hanfodion bywyd a’r byd natur sydd o’n cwmpas ym mhobman.’

Mae Friluftsfrämjandet is yn sefydliad gwirfoddol, anwleidyddol, di elw, anghrefyddol ac annibynnol, a sefydlwyd 1892, a’i nod ers hynny yw, “..Dylanwadu’n bositif ar iechyd cyhoeddus ac ansawdd bywyd trwy fyw yn yr awyr agored.” Mae 10,000 o arweinyddion a 400 o adrannau lleol ledled Sweden - tipyn o ymroddiad mewn gwlad sydd â llai na 10 miliwn o bobl.

Yn 2004, wedi egwyl gyrfa 5 mlynedd yn gofalu am ei phlant, cafodd swydd gyda’r Bartneriaeth Garddio Bywyd Gwyllt, oedd wedi’i leoli ym Mharc Cenedlaethol Eryri bryd hynny, i hyrwyddo garddio bywyd gwyllt mewn ysgolion a chymunedau. Mae cystadleuaeth garddio bywyd gwyllt wedi bod yn ddigwyddiad rheolaidd yn ystod blynyddoedd diweddar.

‘Mae ymgyrch fawr yma yng Nghymru a chyfleoedd i ysgolion gael grantiau i’w galluogi i sefydlu clybiau garddio neu glybiau eco, ond yn anffodus, mae llawer o’r athrawon wedi tyfu i fyny heb brofiad uniongyrchol. Mae’n debyg ein bod wedi hepgor cenhedlaeth neu ddwy wrth i ni gofleidio ffyrdd o fyw mwy soffistigedig a diymdrech. Gall pobl fel fi gynorthwyo i lenwi’r bwlch, ac yn ddiweddar, fe wnaethom gynnal cwrs i athrawon – maent yn wych yn eu maes, ond yn brentisiaid yn yr ardd.’

Yn 2007, symudodd ei swyddfa i Ymddiriedolaeth Bywyd Gwyllt Gogledd Cymru, ac mae’n dal i weithio i bartneriaeth sy’n cynnwys CCGC, Cynghorau Conwy a Gwynedd, Cymdeithas Eryri, Gerddi Botaneg Prifysgol Bangor, yr RSPB, Portmeirion , Antur Waunfawr, a’r Parc Cenedlaethol, yn cynnwys cynrychiolydd o Blas Tan y Bwlch. Mae codi arian yn rhan allweddol o’i disgrifiad swydd. Bob blwyddyn, bydd angen iddi ganfod arian i ariannu ei gwaith, ac mae hi wedi bod yn llwyddiannus iawn hyd yma. Yn 2009, cafwyd grant rheoli gan Amgylchedd Cymru, i ariannu cydgysylltydd elfen gymunedol y prosiect am bum mlynedd, sy’n galluogi Anna i ganolbwyntio ar ysgolion. Cafodd £49,000 o raglen Miliynau’r Bobl y Gronfa Loteri Fawr, oedd yn golygu ymddangos ar y teledu a phleidlais gyhoeddus. Mae hyn wedi galluogi’r prosiect i ariannu swydd arall ac ehangu’r gwaith i ogledd ddwyrain Cymru.

O weld ei gwaith, ei brwdfrydedd a’r ysbrydoliaeth a ddaw i’r swydd, mae’n drueni ei bod yn gorfod gwneud cymaint o waith codi arian. Y tu allan i’w gwaith, mae’n fam i dri o blant, a cherddodd y 14 pegwn mewn 15 awr gyda’i phlentyn hynaf yn ddiweddar, gan godi £500 i Ymddiriedolaeth Bywyd Gwyllt Gogledd Cymru.

Yn nhŷ Anna, ar odre’r bryniau uwchben Waunfawr, mae’r ardd yn adrodd cyfrolau am ei diddordeb. Mae yno ddigonedd o flodau a ffrwythau, a gardd lysiau ffrwythlon. Cefais fy nhywys o amgylch y weirglodd a’r pwll newydd, ble’r oedd madfall y dŵr wedi ymgartrefu. Dangosodd i mi heriau’r pwll a sut oedd hi wedi’u datrys.... ‘Mae damcaniaethau yn iawn, ond dim ond trwy wneud pethau y gallwch chi ddysgu mewn gwirionedd. Dyna beth mae’r plant yn ei hoffi am ein prosiectau garddio, dwi’n meddwl. Byddaf yn mynd â nhw allan i wneud pethau. Byddwn yn baeddu ein dwylo. Mae’n brofiad go iawn iddynt.’

Mae Huw Jenkins yn gweithio i Natur Cymru, y cylchgrawn sy’n chwifio baner bywyd gwyllt a natur Cymru. Mae tanysgrifiad blynyddol yn costio £16 ond mae cynnig arbennig o £10 yn unig am y flwyddyn gyntaf ar gael i aelodau Cymdeithas Eryri. E-bostiwch huw.naturcymru@btinternet.com neu ffoniwch 01248 387367 am ragor o fanylion, neu ewch i wefan www.naturcymru.org.uk

O ble daw ei hysbrydoliaeth? Gogledd Cymru yw cartref Anna bellach,

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Profile of Anna Williams by Huw Jenkins

Anna Williams – the Jamie Oliver of school gardens

On the way to Anna’s home we stopped off at Waunfawr school as the children were finishing their after-lunch play time. Raised beds of vegetables looked ready for picking. Autumn fruiting raspberries were maturing, ready to welcome the children back in September. A green compost bin looked as though someone had tried and failed to hurdle it. Nearby was a bug house and, centre stage, a living willow tunnel and dome. At times it’s a Tardis or spaceship, or maybe just a den, but it’s in constant use.

latest pond in which a newt had taken up residence. She pointed out the challenges of the pond and how she’d worked things out... ‘Theory is one thing but it’s only when you do things yourself that you really learn. I think that’s what the children like about our garden projects. I take them outside and we do things. We get our hands really dirty. It’s a real experience with which to connect.’ Where does the inspiration come from? Whilst north Wales is Anna’s adopted home, her roots are in Lund, southern Sweden. Many children in Sweden get swept up by the Friluftsfrämjandet (Swedish Association for Promotion of Outdoor Life). Toddlers go out on weekly walks, looking at nature, seeing what is out and about, having a picnic or learning to skate. By the age of 10 they move into more advanced activities such as bushcraft, canoeing and walks with overnight camps and the all-important camp fire. Close friendships are formed in these clubs. By the age of 14 the activities become even more adventurous and with less supervision, and at 17 Anna became a leader.

Picnic tables at the garden end of the playing field have been added so the children can enjoy their garden over lunch. A row of trees is growing high, down the south side of the field, to provide an area of shade. A narrow strip of wasteland between the buildings and the wall has been transformed into a herb garden with rockery and small wildlife pond. Trellises erected by the youth club support honeysuckles. Bird boxes and feeders are positioned so they can be watched from indoors and the children take part in surveys. A swift was nesting beneath a soffit board. As we walked around, Anna made note of the maintenance tasks she and her young helpers would need to tackle on her next visit.

Friluftsfrämjandet is a voluntary, non-political, non-profit, non-religious and independent organisation, founded in 1892, still with the same goal, “...Through an outdoor lifestyle, [to] positively affect public health and quality of life.” There are 10,000 leaders and 400 local divisions covering the whole of Sweden – for a country of less than 10 million people that shows quite a commitment.

With 3 children going through the care of this school, and being a governor, Anna is closely involved in these projects. It’s a set of projects very similar to the work she does championing gardening in schools across much of north Wales. ‘If Jamie Oliver is on a mission to improve school food, I’m on a mission to promote school gardening. It’s such a good way of connecting young people with the essentials of life and the nature that’s all around us.’

‘Here in Wales there’s a big push with opportunities for grant support to get schools to introduce garden or eco clubs, but the trouble is there are many teachers who have grown up without firsthand experience. It seems we have skipped a generation or two as we have embraced more sophisticated and vicarious lifestyles. People like myself can help plug the gap and recently we held a training course for teachers – brilliant at their subject, but novices at sowing seeds.’

In 2004, after a 5-year career break to look after her children, Anna got the job with the Wildlife Gardening Partnership, then based with the Snowdonia National Park, to promote wildlife gardening to both schools and communities. In recent years a regular event has been the wildlife gardening competition.

Seeing the work she does, the enthusiasm and inspiration she brings to the job, it seems a shame that so much of her effort has to go into fundraising. Outside of her work she is mother to 3 children and, together with her eldest, recently completed the 14 peaks in 15 hours raising £500 for the North Wales Wildlife Trust.

In 2007 Anna moved office to the North Wales Wildlife Trust, still working for the partnership which includes CCW, Conwy and Gwynedd county councils, the Snowdonia Society, University of Bangor –Treborth Botanic Gardens, RSPB, Portmeirion, Antur Waunfawr, and the National Park including a representative from Plas Tan y Bwlch.

Huw Jenkins works for Natur Cymru, the magazine that flies the flag for the wildlife and nature of Wales. An annual subscription costs £16 but members of the Snowdonia Society can buy a special first year £12 introductory offer. Please email huw.naturcymru@btinternet.com or call 01248 387367 to try it out. Find out more about the magazine at www.naturcymru.org.uk

Fundraising is a key element of Anna’s job description. Each year she has to raise the money to fund her work and to date she has been very successful at this. In 2009 Environment Wales provided a management grant which funds a coordinator for the community side of the project for 5 years, allowing Anna to focus on the schools. She also won £49,000 of funding from the Big Lottery’s People’s Millions, which involved TV appearances and public voting. This has enabled the project to fund another post and expand the work into northeast Wales.

Anna Williams © Huw Jenkins

At Anna’s house, in the foothills above Waunfawr, the garden speaks volumes about her passion. Flowers and shrubs galore and a lush vegetable patch. I was given a guided tour of the hay meadow and around the

Garden feature at Ysgol Bontnewydd

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Dychweliad coed cynhenid i Eryri gan Rory Francis, Swyddog Cyfathrebu, Coed Cadw Mae gan Lea Hughes her. Fel rheolwr safle newydd Coed Cadw yng ngogledd-orllewin a de-orllewin Cymru, mae hi’n gyfrifol am reoli 36 coetir yr Ymddiriedolaeth mewn ardal sy’n ymestyn o Ynys Môn yn y gogledd i Geredigion yn y de. Mae’n cynnwys Cwm Mynach, safle mwyaf yr Ymddiriedolaeth i’r de o ororau’r Alban, a brynwyd y llynedd wedi apêl gyhoeddus amlwg. Efallai y bydd aelodau’r Gymdeithas yn cofio Lea yn gweithio fel ceidwad prosiect llwyddiannus Rheoli Cynefinoedd Coetir Derw Meirionnydd ychydig flynyddoedd yn ôl.

“Y nod yw llunio cynllun rheoli manwl ar gyfer y coetir, yn pwysleisio’n glir y nodweddion hynny yr ydym yn bwriadu eu diogelu a’u gwella, a’r gwaith rheoli yr ydym yn ei ragweld a phryd y bydd yn mynd rhagddo. ”Bydd gwrando ac arsylwi’n rhan bwysig o’r broses”, meddai Lea, “oherwydd ni allwch ysgrifennu Cynllun Rheoli heb wybod yn union beth y byddwch yn ei reoli. Mae’n her enfawr. Mae’n safle 1000 erw, bron iawn. Mae miloedd o dunelli o binwydd polion yno, a bydd rhaid i ni gael gwared arnynt ymhen hir a hwyr. Ond ni fydd pethau’n digwydd yn gyflym. Fe wnawn osgoi llwyrgwympo rhannau cyfan o’r goedwig. Yr eithriad fydd mannau ble mae rhywogaethau megis Cegid y Gorllewin, a all

Lea a Jet, Cwm Mynach © Coed Cadw

wig law Geltaidd”. Yn ystod yr ymgyrch i godi arian i brynu’r safle, dywedodd: “Mae mwsoglau, llysiau’r afu a chennau ym mhobman yn y coetir hwn. Maent yn gorchuddio popeth. Maent yma oherwydd mae’n damp. Gall fwrw glaw 200 diwrnod y flwyddyn yma. Fe glywsoch am goedwigoedd glaw. Mae hon yn goedwig law Geltaidd, ac mae’n fwy prin na choedwigoedd glaw trofannol, ac o dan fwy o fygythiad, mae’n debyg. Yr oedd y dyffryn hwn wedi’i orchuddio â choetiroedd ar un adeg. Dim ond ychydig o goed sy’n weddill bellach. Mae rhai o’r cennau arbennig iawn i’w cael ar un goeden olaf yn unig. Os collwn un o’r coed hyn, dyna fydd diwedd y cennau. Pan fyddant wedi mynd, bydd yn anodd iawn eu hadfer.” Mae’r ardal hon eisoes yn denu llawer iawn o fywyd gwyllt. Mae’r coetir yn gartref i wybedogion brith a fydd yn ehedeg trwy’r dyffryn, a boncathod a chigfrain a fydd yn esgyn dros y tirweddau mynyddig. Gellir clywed cân felodaidd telor yr helyg a churiadau’r gnocell fraith fwyaf yn y gwanwyn. Yn ystod y nos, bydd udo’r dylluan frech yn atsain ar draws y dyffryn, a bydd dyfrgwn yn hela yn y nentydd creigiog. Nod Coed Cadw yw adfywio’r gweundir grug a llus, gan greu brithwaith ehangach o gynefinoedd ble bydd rhywogaethau’n ffynnu. Mae’r dyffryn yn anghyffredin yng Ngwynedd, oherwydd cofnodwyd gwiwerod coch yno mor ddiweddar â’r 1980au. Gwneir arolwg ohonynt yn y safle ar hyn o bryd, ac os cânt eu canfod yno, bydd yr Ymddiriedolaeth yn rhoi sylw iddynt yn ei chynlluniau. Mae’r dyffryn hefyd yn ddiddorol yn sgil y sylw a gafodd yn un o glasuron bychan llenyddiaeth Saesneg Eryri. Yn ystod yr Ail Ryfel Byd, dihangai Anne Hill, athrawes o Loegr, i Gwm Mynach

Ancient oak woodland, Coed Padarn © John Farrar

“Mae Cwm Mynach yn gyfle gwych i Goed Cadw”, meddai Lea. “Mae’r safle yn rhan helaethaf o ddyffryn cyfan, ac mae ganddo olygfeydd hardd tuag at Gadair Idris a chlogwyni creigiog serth ar y ddwy ochr. Bellach, mae gennym gyfle i greu coedwig gynhenid mewn cannoedd o erwau o’r hyn sy’n blanhigfa coniffer ar hyn o bryd. Ni ddaw cyfle fel hyn yn aml iawn!” Ond mae angen i Lea wneud llawer iawn o waith cynllunio ac ymgynghori cyn y gall y gwaith o sefydlu coetir gychwyn o ddifrif. “Bydd cyfarfod cyhoeddus mawr, ym Montddu, mae’n debyg. Bydd croeso i unrhyw un sydd â diddordeb yn y safle yn lleol fynychu. Yr wyf wedi siarad â sawl un y mae Cwm Mynach yn le arbennig iawn ganddynt.

ledaenu’n gyflym iawn, a dyma’r unig ddull effeithiol o’u rheoli. Mae hynny’n golygu y gwnaiff y gwaith bara am amser maith. Mae’n mynd i bara am ddegawdau.” Mae Cwm Mynach, sydd ar arfordir gorllewin Prydain ac wedi’i amgylchynu â mynyddoedd ac awyr lân, dilygredd, yn gartref i tua 80 o rywogaethau cen a mwsogl, yn cynnwys rhai arbennig iawn a wnaiff gynorthwyo cynlluniau adfer yr Ymddiriedolaeth trwy greu’r amgylchiadau cywir ar gyfer coetir derw rhagorol. Mae Ray Woods, arbenigwr ar gennau mawr ei barch sy’n gweithio i Plantlife, wedi disgrifio Cwm Mynach fel “Coed-

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Dychweliad coed cynhenid i Eryri ∞ The return of the native to Snowdonia yn ystod gwyliau’r ysgol. Ysgrifennodd lyfr am ei phrofiadau, a’i bywyd arwrol a dewr wrth iddi oroesi yno, a’r gwaith o adfer tŷ adfeiliedig yn y dyffryn yn ystod y blynyddoedd ffrwydrol hynny. Mae’r llyfr - Four fields, five gates - yn cynnig cipolwg o rai o olygfeydd y dirwedd hardd a diamser hon, ac mae llawer ohonynt yma hyd heddiw. Nid yw Coed Cadw’n bwriadu troi’r dyffryn yn unrhyw fath o atyniad i ymwelwyr, fodd bynnag. Beth bynnag, byddai’r mynediad i’r safle ar hyd ffordd gul a throellog yn atal hynny. Bwriedir cadw’r dyffryn yn dawel a pheidio’i ddifetha, ac fe anogir pobl i gerdded yno, os bydd modd, o Bontddu i’r de-orllewin neu Ganllwyd i’r dwyrain. Mae’r Ymddiriedolaeth wedi awgrymu llwybr cerdded ar wefan arbennig sydd ganddi ar gyfer Cwm Mynach www. woodlandtrust.org.uk/cwmmynach Mae Coed Ysgubor Wen, sydd gyferbyn â Chraig yr Aderyn yn Nyffryn hardd Dysynni, yn un arall o safleoedd Lea. Daeth i feddiant Coed Cadw’n ddiweddar, â chefnogaeth Cymdeithas Eryri. Ers prynu’r tir, a oedd yn gaeau amaethyddol yn bennaf yn 2005, mae’r Ymddiriedolaeth wedi plannu dros 38,000 o goed cynhenid, a chafwyd cymorth gan blant lleol i’w plannu. “Gallwch bron iawn weld y coed yn tyfu o flaen eich llygaid”, meddai Lea. Ymhen 10-12 mlynedd, bydd cyfnod meithrin y coed hyn wedi dod i ben, a bydd coetir newydd yn ei

llawn dwf. “Ond ni fu pethau’n hollol rwydd. I ddiogelu’r glasbrennau ifanc rhag cystadleuaeth gan laswellt a chwyn, ac i osgoi chwistrellu cemegau, fe wnaethom osod matiau gorchuddio o amgylch y coed a blannwyd gennym. “Yn anffodus, sylweddolodd y moch daear lleol fod pryfed yn defnyddio’r matiau i gysgodi yn ystod tywydd rhewllyd y Nadolig a’r Flwyddyn Newydd. Erbyn diwedd y cyfnod oer, yr oeddent wedi difrodi cannoedd o’r matiau, gan achosi gwerth cannoedd o ddifrod. Y peth pwysig, fodd bynnag, yw cyfranogiad y gymuned leol yn y cynllun”.

Mae gan goetiroedd cynhenid iach fioamrywiaeth wych, yn enwedig rhai â choed llydanddail, a cheir amrywiaeth helaeth o rywogaethau bywyd gwyllt yn byw ynddynt neu’n eu defnyddio am gyfran o’u hamser, o leiaf. Mae’r coed a’r planhigion aneirif ynghyd â’r lefelau uchder amrywiol sydd i’w cael mewn coedwig, o lawr y goedwig i’r canopi coed, yn cynnig nifer o gilfachau cynefin. Mae’r niferoedd helaeth o rywogaethau adar mewn coetiroedd llydanddail yn adlewyrchiad o’r cyfoeth o bryfed ac infertebratau eraill sy’n ffafrio’r cynefin hwn. Y dderwen yn enwedig yw’r goeden gynhenid sy’n cynnal y nifer fwyaf o rywogaethau dros 200 o rywogaethau gwahanol!

Mae pethau’n newid yng nghefn gwlad Cymru. Ym mis Mawrth y llynedd, fe wnaeth Elin Jones, y Gweinidog Materion Gwledig ar y pryd, gyhoeddi targed uchelgeisiol o greu 100,000 ha o goetiroedd newydd dros yr 20 mlynedd nesaf, i gynorthwyo i liniaru’r newid yn yr hinsawdd a chynorthwyo cefn gwlad i addasu iddo. Cefnogwyd hyn yn briodol â chynllun grant hael, Creu ar n Farr Coetiroedd Glastir, sy’n cynnig hyd at £9,000 yr © Joh n r e f hectar i ffermwyr, i sefydlu coetiroedd cynheland Wood nid newydd. Dengys ffigyrau a gyhoeddwyd ym mis Mehefin eleni fod coetiroedd cynhenid a sefydlir ar draws Cymru wedi codi’n briodol, o 100 ha yn unig yn 2009-10 i 700 ha yn 2010-11. Felly, efallai nad yw’r hyn sy’n digwydd yng Nghoed Ysgubor yn rhywbeth hollol eithriadol, ond yn rhagflas o symudiad ehangach at greu tirwedd fwy coediog a mwy cynaliadwy ar draws Cymru, a ddaw yn ei thro â chynefi-

The return of the native to Snowdonia

by Rory Francis, Communications Officer for the Woodland Trust and former Director of the Snowdonia Society

noedd mwy amrywiol a fydd yn cefnogi llawer iawn mwy o rywogaethau.

Lea Hughes is a woman with a challenge. As the Woodland Trust’s new site manager for north-west and south-west Wales, it’s her responsibility to manage the Trust’s 36 woods across an area stretching from Anglesey in the north to Ceredigion in the south. This includes Cwm Mynach, the Trust’s largest site south of the Scottish border, acquired last year following a high profile public appeal. Members of the Society may remember Lea as the project ranger with the successful Meirionnydd Oakwoods Habitat Management Project a few years ago. “Cwm Mynach is an amazing opportunity for the Woodland Trust”, says Lea. “Our site makes up the greater part of a whole valley, with commanding views across to Cadair Idris and steep sided rocky cliffs on two sides. We now have the opportunity to create native woodland over hundreds of acres of what is currently conifer plantation. Opportunities to do that don’t come along very often!” But Lea has an awful lot of planning and consultation to do before any serious woodland operations take place. “There’ll be a big public meeting, probably in Bontddu.

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Everyone who has a stake in the site locally will be welcome to come along. I’ve spoken to so many people for whom Cwm Mynach is a really special place. “The aim will be to write a detailed management plan for the wood, making clear what features we intend to protect and enhance and what management work we anticipate and when it will take place.” ”The process will be all about listening and observing”, says Lea, “because you can’t write a Management Plan before you know exactly what you’ve got to manage. It’s a huge challenge. The site is nearly 1000 acres. There are thousands of tonnes of lodgepole pine altogether, most of which we will eventually remove. But nothing is going to happen quickly. We’ll avoid clear-felling whole areas of woodland. The exception will be where there are species like Western Hemlock, which can propagate themselves very quickly, where this is the only method of effective control. This means that the work is going to take a very long time. It’s going to take decades.” Located as it is on the western seaboard of the UK, surrounded by mountains and clean, unpolluted air, Cwm Mynach is home to 80 species of lichens and mosses, including some very special ones, which promise to help the Trust in its restoration plans to recreate exactly the right conditions for a superb oak woodland. Continued overleaf


The return of the native to Snowdonia to walk in if possible, from Bontddu to the south west or Ganllwyd to the east. The Trust has suggested a walking route on its special Cwm Mynach website at www.woodlandtrust. org.uk/cwmmynach

“You can almost see the trees growing before your eyes”, says Lea. Within another 10-12 Ray Woods, a respected lichenologist who years this wood will be well and truly out of works for Plantlife, has described Cwm Myits nursery stage, having emerged as a fully nach as a “Celtic rainforest”. As he said during fledged new woodland. “But I can’t say it’s all the campaign to raise funds to buy the site: been completely straightforward. To protect “Everywhere you look in this woodland there Another of Lea’s sites which the Woodland the young saplings from competition from grass are mosses, liverworts and lichens. They cover Trust has recently acquired, with the support and weeds and also to avoid the need to spray with chemicals, we put every surface. They’re here down mulch mats around because it’s damp. It can Oxalis acetosella (Suran y coed / Wood sorrel) © John Farrar the trees we planted.” rain 200 days a year. You’ve heard of the rainforests. “Unfortunately the loThis is the Celtic rainforcal badgers realised that est and it’s even more rare insects were using these than the tropical rainforest mats to shelter under in and probably more threatthe freezing weather over ened. This valley was once Christmas and the New covered in woodland. Now Year. By the end of the cold we’ve just got a few trees spell they’d scratched up left. Many of the really spehundreds of the mats, causcial lichens now occur on ing hundreds of pounds of one last tree. If just one of damage. The important these trees goes we’ll lose thing, however, is that the the lichens. Once gone it local community is involved will be incredibly difficult to in the scheme”. get them back.”

by Rory Francis, continued

Things are changing in the Welsh countryside. In March last year the then Rural Affairs Minister Elin Jones announced an ambitious target of creating 100,000 ha of new woodland over the next 20 years, as a way of both helping to mitigate climate change and helping the countryside to adapt to it. This was duly backed up with a generous grant scheme, Glastir Woodland Creation, offering up to £9,000 per hectare for farmers creating areas of new native woodland. Figures announced in June this year reveal that native woodland creation across Wales duly rose from just 100 ha in 2009-10 to 700 ha in 2010-11.

The area already attracts a range of wildlife. The woodland is home to pied flycatchers which glide through the valley as buzzards and ravens soar over the mountainous terrains. The melodic calls of the willow warbler and the drumming of the greater spotted woodpecker can be heard throughout the spring. At night, howling calls from the tawny owl echo across the valley and otters hunt across the rocky streams. The Woodland Trust aims to allow the heather and bilberry moorland to regenerate creating a wider mosaic of habitats for species to flourish. The valley is unusual in Gwynedd in that red squirrels were recorded there as recently as the 1980s. The site is being surveyed for the species at the moment, and if any are found the Trust will take them into account in its plans. The valley is also interesting in that it has a starring role in one of the minor classics of the English literature of Snowdonia. During World War ll, Anne Hill, a teacher from England, escaped to the valley of Cwm Mynach during the school holidays. She wrote a book about her experiences, talking about her epic life of courage and survival and restoring the run down house in the valley during these exploThuidium Tamariscinum & sive years. The book – Four fields, five Peltigera canina (Dog lichen) © John Farrar gates - captures scenes of this beautiful and timeless landscape, much of which is still of the Snowdonia Society, is Coed Ysgubor present today. Wen, opposite Craig yr Aderyn (Bird Rock) in the beautiful Dysynni Valley. The Woodland Trust has no plans to turn the valley into any sort of tourist honey pot, how- Since buying the land, then mostly agriculever. The access along a narrow, winding road tural fields in 2005, the Trust has planted over precludes that in any case. The aim is keep the 38,000 native trees and involved local children valley quiet and unspoilt, encouraging people in planting them.

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So perhaps what is happening in Coed Ysgubor is not something entirely exceptional, but a harbinger of a wider move towards creating a more well wooded and sustainable landscape across Wales, which in turn will bring more diverse habitats and support a wider range of species. A healthy native woodland, particularly a broadleaved one, has excellent biodiversity, with a huge range of different wildlife species that live within it or use it at least part of their time. The myriad of trees and other plants together with many different height levels found in a wood, from the woodland floor to the tree canopy, provide a wide range of different habitat niches. The abundance of birdlife in broadleaved woods is a reflection of the wealth of insects and other invertebrates that favour this habitat. Oak, in particular, supports the greatest number of insect species of all our native trees - over 200 different species!


gan Gordon Lindsay-Jones

Trigain mlynedd o Eryri ∞ Sixty years of Snowdonia

Cefais fy nghyflwyno i ddringo yn 1947 gan riant neu athro ysgol, fel oedd yr arfer y dyddiau hynny. Symudai dringwyr o amgylch Eryri mewn grwpiau bychain, ac yr oedd dringo yn anturiaeth. Yn ddiweddarach mewn bywyd, ymunais â Chymdeithas Achub Ein Eryri Esmé Firbank fel un o’r sylfaenwyr i wrthwynebu codi pwerdy hydro-electrig ar yr Wyddfa.

gwaith ychwanegol. Pan gaewyd y brif reilffordd, adeiladwyd ffordd osgoi yn lle’r traciau, ac fe wnaeth hyn gynorthwyo Llanberis i ddod yn bentref Cymreig nodweddiadol unwaith eto, â’r Gymraeg yn fyw ar y strydoedd ac yn siopa. Er bod dringo’n brofiad hollol wahanol heddiw â thwristiaeth yn ddiwydiant llawer mwy, ni ellir gwadu manteision dringo i gymunedau’r parc. Mae Beddgelert a’i chwedl yn parhau i ddenu torfeydd, ac fe ymddengys mai’r pentref bychan hwn yw canolfan cerdded cŵn fwyaf Cymru erbyn hyn! Mae’r hinsawdd wedi newid yn ystod y cyfnod yr wyf wedi bod yn ymweld ag Eryri, ac er na chlywn gymaint am gynhesu byd-eang bellach, mae’r gaeafau’n sychach a chynhesach, â llai o eira; mae’r hafau’n wlypach ac oerach, ond mae cyfanswm y glawiad tua’r un fath. Yn ystod yr haf, caem tua phedwar diwrnod braf yr wythnos, a glaw trwm am gyfnodau maith ar y dyddiau eraill. Bellach, byddwn yn ffodus o gael un diwrnod braf yr wythnos, a bydd y dyddiau eraill yn gymylog a gwyntog, ac â chawodydd trwm, byr. Er bod amaethu’r uwchdiroedd bellach yn amhroffidiol i raddau helaeth oherwydd prisiau gwael ŵyn a gwlân, mae cynnig llety yn cynorthwyo llawer un. Mae llawer o dir amaethyddol y rhanbarth wedi’i goedwigo.

Fodd bynnag, yn sgil dyfodiad y bysiau mini, deuai athrawon â grwpiau cynyddol fwy i Eryri, ac arweiniodd hyn at sawl damwain angheuol. Bu cynnydd sylweddol mewn erydiad hefyd, yn enwedig ar yr Wyddfa. Yr oedd llawer o blant ysgol yn cael eu gorfodi dringo, a chefais fraw wrth ddarganfod nad oedd llawer ohonynt hyd yn oed yn gwybod enw’r mynydd yr oeddent arno. Yn ystod un cyfarfod, gofynnodd Esmé a allai unrhyw un awgrymu dulliau o leihau erydiad. Atebais “Gallaf, gwnewch ddringo’n weithgaredd gwirfoddol!” Yn hytrach na hynny, yr ateb oedd adeiladu llwybrau llydan o glogfeini a cherrig llanw, i reoli’r torfeydd, a chollwyd yr ysbryd anturus. Yr oedd yn rhaid dilyn y torfeydd, er y gellid mwynhau teithiau cerdded tawel ar fynyddoedd ac eithrio’r Wyddfa. Ar ôl agor Plas y Brenin, cwympodd nifer y damweiniau gan grwpiau amhrofiadol yn sylweddol; darperid arweinyddion cymwys oedd yn enghreifftiau gwych. Parhaodd hostelau ieuenctid yn boblogaidd, ond cynyddodd eu maint a daethant yn fwy moeDaw ymwelwyr o bedwar ban byd i Eryri, ac mae ganddynt ddiddordeb yn thus. Yr oedd Pen-y-gwryd yn dal yn fecca i ddringwyr, yn cynnwys y grŵp iaith a diwylliant Cymru, sy’n dal yn gryf. Yn bersonol, gobeithiaf y daw llaa ddringodd Everest yn 1953 a ddaeth yno i hyfwer o ymwelwyr o Loegr yma i ddarganfod fod mwy Llwybr Cwm Idwal path © John Farrar forddi. i fywyd na phêl-droed a hysbysebion yswiriant ceir diddiwedd ar y teledu! Pan ymwelais â Llanberis am y tro cyntaf yn 1947, yr oedd yn dref chwarel. Cyflogid 2,000 o Bydd Gordon Lindsay-Jones yn dal i ymweld ag ddynion yn chwarel Dinorwig, a chludid y llechi Eryri sawl gwaith y flwyddyn, ac mae’n dal i gefnogi ar y lein fach gul i’r Felinheli. Yr oedd Llanberis a gwaith Cymdeithas Eryri yn diogelu a dathlu tirwedChaernarfon ar y prif rwydwaith rheilffordd. Pan dau Eryri, sydd, er eu bod yn newid, yn haeddu cael eu cadw’n arbennig ar gyfer y cenhedloedd sydd i ddod. gaeodd y chwareli yn yr 1960au, cafodd llawer Yn 1951, dynodwyd y Parc Cenedlaethol yn dirwedd o’r gweithwyr a’u disgynyddion waith ar reilfwedi’i hamddiffyn am y tro cyntaf, ac mae’n dathlu ei fordd Eryri yn ogystal â chynllun storfa bwmp Diben-blwydd yn chwe deg yn 2011. Bellach, fwy nag erioed norwig. Daeth Llanberis yn ganolfan boblogaidd o’r blaen, mae cymunedau’r Parc a channoedd o filoedd i ymwelwyr yn sgil dyfodiad yr amgueddfeydd, o ymwelwyr yn flynyddol yn dibynnu ar yr ardal am adnewyddu’r lein fach gul gan wirfoddolwyr, a waith, adnoddau naturiol, ymlacio, hamdden a boddhad. diwydiant ysgafn, a daeth lletyau ymwelwyr â

by Gordon Lindsay-Jones

I was introduced to climbing in 1947 by a schoolteacher. Climbers on the mountains of Snowdonia moved in small groups and climbing was an adventure. Later in life I joined as a founder member of Esmé Firbank’s Save our Snowdonia Society to oppose the construction of a hydroelectric power station on Snowdon. However, with the advent of the minibus, schoolteachers competed to bring increasingly large parties to Eryri, which led to many fatal accidents. It also caused a huge increase in erosion, especially on Snowdon. Many schoolchildren were only climbing because they were made to and I was shocked to find that some I met did not even know the name of the mountain they were on. At one of our meetings Esmé asked if anyone had any suggestions to decrease erosion. My reply was “Yes, make climbing voluntary!” Instead the perceived solution was to build wide paths of boulders and infill to contain the huge numbers and the spirit of wild adventure was lost. You just followed the crowds, although you could still enjoy quiet walks on mountains other than Snowdon. The opening of Plas y Brenin greatly reduced the number of accidents in large inexperienced parties; they provided competent leaders and set a splendid example. Youth hostels remained popular but grew in size and comfort. Pen-y-Gwryd continued to be a mecca for climbers, including the 1953 Everest party who trained there.

return to being a typical Welsh village, with Welsh spoken in the streets. While climbing is an entirely different experience today and industry has been overtaken by tourism, the advantages of the latter to the Park’s communities cannot be denied. Beddgelert and its legend continue to attract huge droves and this small village has now become, it seems, the biggest dog walking centre in Wales! The climate has changed in the time I have been visiting Snowdonia and although we don’t hear as much talk now of global warming, winters are much drier and warmer with less snow; summers are wetter and colder, but total rainfall appears to be much the same. In summer one used to experience about four sunny days a week and on other days heavy and prolonged rainfall. Now one is lucky to have one sunny day a week, with the other days cloudy, windy and with heavy short showers. Although upland farming has become largely uneconomical with poor prices for lamb and wool, providing accommodation is a help for many. Much farming land in the region has been taken over by forestry.

Visitors come from all over the world to Snowdonia now and are more interested in the Welsh language and culture, which is well preserved. For my When I first visited in 1947 Llanberis was a slate quarrying town, with the part, I hope that many English visitors come here to discover there is more Dinorwig quarry employing 2,000 men and the narrow gauge railway used to life than the football and motor insurance that prevails on their television to transport the slate to Port Dinorwig. Llanberis and Caernarfon were on screens at home! the main railway network. When the quarries closed in the 1960s many Gordon Lindsay-Jones visits Snowdonia several times a year and continues to acof the workers and their descendants found employment on the Snowdon tively support our work in protecting and celebrating the landscapes of Snowdonia, railway as well as on the Dinorwig pump storage scheme. With the mu- which although changing deserve to remain special for generations to come. The seums, restoration of the narrow gauge railways by volunteers, and light National Park was designated as a protected landscape in 1951 and celebrates its sixindustry, Llanberis became a popular tourist centre and increased tourist tieth anniversary in 2011. Now, more than ever, the communities of the Park and the accommodation provided additional employment. When the main railway hundreds of thousands of visitors each year rely on the area for employment, natural resources, relaxation, recreation & fulfilment. line closed the track was replaced by a bypass and this helped Llanberis to

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Bardd bioamrywiaeth Bill Condry © Arthur Chater

gan Jim Perrin

Bardd bioamrywiaeth: ysgrifau ar natur a Chymru gan W.M. Condry

Daw ysgrifennu am feidrolion eraill â’r perygl o gael eu presenoldeb yn pwyso dros eich ysgwydd, yn rhoi sylwebaeth i’ch cydwybod, yn llithro’u safbwyntiau eu hunain i mewn i weithiau’r cof a’r dychymyg. Gallaf ddychmygu fy niweddar ffrind ysmala, Bill Condry (1918-1998), yn troi teitl y darn hwn o amgylch ei dafod, a gallwn awgrymu’r math o ymadroddion cwta a ddilynai, â’i lafariaid Brymi llaes yn ychwanegu at y rhes o sillafau: Bioamrywiaeth… Byddai wedi dadlau ei achos. Yn dawel. Yn gryno. Yn ddoeth. A byddai wedi disgwyl i mi hoelio fy sylw arno, yn yr un modd â phob trafodaeth a gaem dros y blynyddoedd. Yr oedd cyweiriau iaith o ddiddordeb iddo, a’r modd y gallant rwystro cyfathrebu. Byddai wedi cael ei gynhyrfu gan y ffaith fod maes allweddol o bryder dynol, a oedd yn rhan annatod o ecoleg yn ei farn ef, yn cael ei fynegi’n gynyddol drwy dafodiaith gyfrin, y mae ei natur ymsonol – i fenthyca un o dermau’r ysgolor o Rwsia, Mikhail Bakhtin – yn mynnu cydsyniad awtomatig, di-gwestiwn â chysyniadau allweddol, ynghyd â holl faich y rhethreg a’r goblygiadau a ddaw yn eu sgil. I Amheuwr Pyrrhonaidd - ac yr oedd Bill, a oedd yn Glasurwr hyddysg, yn un o’r rheini yn ôl ei gyffes ei hun - nid oedd ymateb sydyn tebyg i hynny fyth yn bosibl. Mae ailddarllen dwy gyfrol a ysgrifennodd Bill ar gyfer prosiect cyhoeddi meistrolgar Collins, cyfres New Naturalist, yn brofiad calonogol. Yn y ddwy gyfrol, byddwch yn cadw cwmni cyffredinolwr deallus sydd â gwybodaeth eithriadol o’r holl feysydd sy’n weddus i’w hastudio gan naturiaethwr maes da (ac yr oedd Bill yn un o’r goreuon o’i gyfnod); hefyd, maent wedi’u hysgrifennu mewn rhyddiaith eglur, atgofus, sy’n cynnig mynegiant perffaith i feddwl gwirioneddol wâr – “arsylwadau manwl o lygad y ffynnon wedi’u mynegi’n ysgrifenedig heb eiriau technegol” yng ngeiriau un o’i olygyddion. Yr oedd gan olygyddion cyfres New Naturalist – y dawnus a digymar James Fisher yn eu plith – feddwl mawr o Bill, a’i afael ar ffeithiau, ei “arddull goeth a’i …synnwyr braf o werthoedd newydd”. Credaf ei fod yn un o ysgrifenwyr natur a thopograffi gorau’r Ugeinfed Ganrif (y gorau am drafod Cymru, efallai) – mae’r “Ysgrifenwyr Natur Newydd” fel eu gelwir yn amaturiaid o’u cymharu â Bill. Yr oedd bod yng nghwmni Bill yn yr awyr agored ar ei hoff fryniau yn addysg ryddfrydig. Gallai’r gŵr amyneddgar, digrif a hynaws hwn roi gwên ar wyneb eithafwr, hyd yn oed. Ni fyddai wedi gwneud dim â’r math o grefyddusrwydd cul sy’n treiddio i lawer o’r eco-feddylfryd gyfoes – byddai wedi adnabod y cymhelliad y tu ôl iddo y gwnaeth H. L. Mencken ei fynegi mor daclus yn ei wireb graff, fod yr “..awydd i achub y ddynoliaeth bob amser yn cuddio’r awydd i’w llywodraethu”. Byddai term fel “gwadwyr y newid yn yr hinsawdd’’, â’r gymhariaeth farbaraidd o sarhaus sydd ynddo, wedi gwneud i Bill herio’r sawl a’i defnyddiai i gynnig eglurhad â geiriau addas a diemosiwn. Mae’n debyg y byddai hefyd wedi gwrthwynebu eu safbwyntiau yn fwriadol. Mae sawl darn yn ei ddwy gyfrol Collins sy’n cwestiynu’r uniongrededd modern yn llwyr – fel yr enghraifft hon, o lyfr 1981, sy’n trafod llinosod y mynydd yn nythu: “Mae’n wladychiad diddorol, sydd fel petai’n ategu’r dyfaliad fod yr hinsawdd wedi oeri’n raddol yn ddiweddar.” Neu, wrth gynnig sylwadau am barau o’r rhydiwr hyfryd a rhyfedd hwnnw, yn rhagor, yr hutan, oedd wedi bridio ar borfeydd uchel y Carneddau: “Ai dim ond rhywbeth od oedd hyn? Ynteu a oedd yn rhagarwyddo newid hirdymor yn yr hinsawdd, a fydd yn perswadio nid yn unig hutanod ond adar yr eira yn ogystal i fridio’n rheolaidd ar ein mynyddoedd ?” Nid cymryd ochrau yw’r bwriad – ac rwy’n ysgrifennu hyn yn ystod wythnos pan ragwelodd gwyddonwyr NASA ddechrau oes iâ fechan, dim ond i ansefydlogi gwrtheiriau Mr Al Gore, a honnodd fod “gwyddoniaeth [newid yn yr hinsawdd] wedi cael ei benderfynu – ond ystyried y dystiolaeth empirig yn ddiragfarn, a rhagdybio ar y sail honno, heb gael ein dylanwadu gan bwysau i gydymffurfio. Hwn oedd un o fannau ffydd Bill - a ddeilliai’n ddiau o astudiaeth ddwys o waith Thoreau, yr “ysgrifennwr natur” mwyaf un, yr ysgrifennodd Bill ei lyfr cyntaf amdano – fod rhaid i fywyd onest fod yn un o dystiolaeth unigol, sy’n cael ei fyw y tu allan i’r stocâd. Y tu allan i unrhyw stocâd - prosiect trwyadl, o gofio am ein tuedd ddynol ddwys at eu codi! Eto, ar waethaf ei holl wrthgrefyddoldeb, yr oedd rhywbeth gwirioneddol grefyddol yn null Bill o drafod natur. Cofiaf fod yn ei gwmni un diwrnod gaeafol yng nghanol clogwyni creigiog uwch ben Llyn y Gafr, yn chwilio am Dormeini Porffor. Nid oeddent eto yn eu blodau, ond fe lwyddodd i ganfod y planhigion ac fe’u harchwiliodd yn fanwl, gan dynnu fy sylw at y sbotiau gwyn ar ochr isaf y dail: “Edrychwch – calch, wedi archwysu, fel y dywedir…” Fel hynny’r wyddoniaeth, (dim) ond ymarweddiad, ysgafnder cyffyrddiad, llewyrch ei ddadansoddi ynghanol creigiau llwyd a chymylau yn fynegiant o astudrwydd oedd yn gyffelyb seciwlar i weddi. Roeddwn wrth fy modd â’r ffordd y preswyliai ym myd natur, ac roeddwn yn ei ystyried yn fentor o ran deall y byd hwnnw, sy’n gosod ei hudoliaeth dragwyddol fel ymgnawdoliad a chanolwraig ein hanghenion dynol coegwych. Dysgodd Bill i mi fod y Rhedynen Wrychog, sy’n ddi-nod ac yn swil yr olwg â’i hollt gwywedig, yn fwy gwerthfawr nag unrhyw angen dynol am “ynni” - sydd yn ei hanfod yn rhywbeth negyddol, o gofio’r dinistr y mae ei gynhyrchwyr yn ei achosi i’n hamgylcheddau gorau. Ef oedd fy rhagflaenydd fel dyddiadurwr gwledig y Guardian yng Nghymru. Pan fyddaf yn darllen ei ysgrifau digyffelyb o ddeugain mlynedd a mwy wrth y gwaith, caf fy syfrdanu gan ehangder ei wybodaeth, ac atseiniau cynnil ei Am ragor o wybodaeth am Ddarlith Goffa Flynyddol William Condry, mynegiant. Os byddwch yn chwilio am ddiffiniad bioamrywiaeth, fe’i cewch a gynhelir bob mis Hydref yn y Tabernacl/MoMA ym Machynlleth, gweler: yma yn ei ddewis helaeth o bynciau, a’i ddealltwriaeth ddofn o’u harwydwww.thecondrylecture.co.uk docâd. Mae yn y Pantheon erbyn hyn gyda Gilbert White, Richard Jefferies, W.H. Hudson, Thoreau ac Aldo Leopold, yn meddwl tybed pryd a wnawn Mae Jim Perrin yn Gymrawd yr Academi Gymreig, Cymrawd Anrhydeddus Prifysgol Bangor a dyddiadurwr gwledig y Guardian yng Nghymru. roi heibio’r tocynistiaeth a dod i amgyffred y realiti sydd ynghlwm â deall a gofalu am blaned sydd wedi’i chamddefnyddio a’i cham-drin.

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Biodiversity’s bard

by Jim Perrin Biodiversity’s bard: W.M. Condry’s writings on nature & Wales

Writing on other human beings always carries the danger of their presence leaning over your shoulder, commentating to your conscience, easing their own perspectives into the workings of memory and imagination. I envisage my late, wry friend Bill Condry (1918-1998) rolling this piece’s title round his tongue, and could suggest what laconic utterances might follow, his drawled Brummagem vowels having extended an already-lengthy string of syllables: Biodiversity… He would have been making a point. Quietly. Elliptically. Wisely. And he would have expected, in this as in every other aspect of the dialogue we shared over many years, my attention. Registers of language were a concern of his, and the way they can erect barriers to communication. He would have been perturbed that an area of vital human concern, for him subsumed within ecology, increasingly finds expression through an arcane dialect in which – to borrow a term from the Russian scholar Mikhail Bakhtin – its monological nature demands automatic, unquestioning assent to key concepts, with all the burden of rhetoric and implication they carry. For a Pyrrhonian Sceptic – and Bill, a profound Classicist, was avowedly thus – that kind of knee-jerk response was never a possibility.

Re-reading the two titles Bill wrote for Collins’ magisterial publishing project, the New Naturalist series, is a heartening experience. In both you keep company with an informed generalist possessed of exceptional breadth of knowledge across all the areas of study proper to a good field-naturalist (and Bill was one of the very best of his day); also, they are written in a lucid, evocative prose that gives perfect expression to a truly civilized mind – “first-hand accurate observations expressed in non-technical prose” in the words of one of his editors. The New Naturalist editors – the great James Fisher pre-eminent among them – thought very highly of Bill, of his factual grasp, his “elegant style and …nice sense of new values”. He was to my mind one of the finest writers on nature and topography of the Twentieth Century (perhaps the finest in dealing with the matter of Wales) – the so-called “New Nature Writers” are dilettantish by comparison. To be with Bill out-of-doors on his favoured hills was a liberal education. This patient, humorous, kindly man could have teased even a zealot out of his ill-humour. With the kind of narrow religiosity that pervades so much contemporary eco-thinking he would have had no truck – would have recognized behind it the motive H.L. Mencken so neatly skewered, in his acute maxim that “The urge to save humanity is always a false front for the urge to rule it”. A term like “climate change denier”, with its barbarically offensive implied comparison, would have drawn from Bill the challenge to its user to explain themselves in appropriate and unemotive language. And he may well have placed himself in deliberate opposition to their beliefs. There are several passages in both his Collins’ volumes which implicitly question the modern orthodoxies – as here, for example, from the 1981 book, talking about twite nesting on Welsh moors: “It is an interesting colonization that seems to support the conjecture that the climate has been getting cooler in recent years.” Or again, commenting on the pairs of that gorgeous and strange little wader, the dotterel, that had bred on the high grasslands of the Carneddau: “Was this just freakish? Or did it foreshadow a long-term climatic change that will persuade not only dotterels but also snow buntings to breed regularly on our mountains?” The point here is not to take sides in an argument – and I write this in a week when the media claimed that NASA scientists have predicted the onset of a miniice-age, just to destabilize Mr Al Gore’s oxymoronic claim that “the science [of climate-change] is settled” – but to look with unbiased eyes at the empirical evidence, and postulate from that basis, without being swayed by pressure to conform. It was one of Bill’s articles of faith – surely derived from an intense study of the greatest of all “nature-writers”, Thoreau, about whom Bill wrote his first book – that an honest life must be one of individual witness, and lived outside the stockade. Outside any stockade – a rigorous project, given our intense human proclivity for their erection! Yet for all his anti-religiosity, there was, I think, something truly religious in Bill’s approach to nature. I remember a bitter winter’s day with him among rocky bluffs above Llyn y Gafr, looking for Purple Saxifrage. It wasn’t yet in flower but he found the plants, examined them minutely, drew my attention to white spots on the underside of the leaves: “Look here – lime, exuded, so they say…” Thus the science, but the demeanour, gentleness of touch, gleam of his scrutiny amid grey rock and cloud were expressive of an attentiveness that was a secular parallel to prayer. I loved the way this man inhabited nature, took him as mentor in understanding the natural world, that sets its eternal enchantment as avatar and arbiter to our tawdrier human needs. Bill taught me that a Killarney Fern, insignificant and retiring in its dripping cleft, is more valuable than any deranged manifestation of the human need for “energy” – necessarily of a negative form, given the destruction its producers enact on our prime environments.

Saxifraga oppositifolia (Tormaen Porffor / Purple saxifrage) © Rob Collister

He was my predecessor as the Guardian’s country diarist for Wales. When I read his peerless dispatches over forty years in that role, I still stand in awe of the extent of his knowledge, the economical resonance of its expression. If you seek the definition of biodiversity, here it is in the range of his subject-matter, and his deep understanding of its significance. He’s in the Pantheon now with Gilbert White, Richard Jefferies, W.H. Hudson, Thoreau and Aldo Leopold, wondering when we might finally put aside the tokenism and come to grasp the realities involved in knowing about and caring for our exploited and abused planet. For information on the Annual William Condry Memorial Lecture, held at Tabernacl/MoMA in Machynlleth each October, see: www.thecondrylecture.co.uk Jim Perrin is a Fellow of the Welsh Academy, Honorary Fellow of Bangor University, and the Guardian’s country diarist for Wales. Jim is widely regarded as the finest living writer on mountains and mountaineering in Britain.

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Asideiddio a’i effeithiau ar fioamrywiaeth forol gan Pierino Algieri Fel rhan o fy ngwaith fel Swyddog Technegol Pysgodfeydd Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd Cymru (AAC), byddaf yn cynorthwyo fy nghydweithwyr i fonitro niferoedd y brithyll brown yn afonydd a llynnoedd ucheldirol Eryri. Un o’r rhain yw Afon Llagi, sy’n llifo o Lyn Llagi ac yn disgyn yn serth i Flaen Nanmor, cyn ymuno ag Afon Glaslyn. Er bod niferoedd y brithyll yn fychan, maent wedi bod yn gyson yn ystod blynyddoedd diweddar. Dywedodd pysgotwr lleol wrthyf yr arferid dal nifer dda ohonynt yma hanner canrif yn ôl; yn anffodus, dyma’r tueddiad ledled Eryri a rhannau eraill o Brydain yn ystod y blynyddoedd diweddar. Bu sawl astudiaeth fanwl o effeithiau glaw asid ar afonydd Cymru. Mae gan ardaloedd fel y Migneint briddoedd naturiol asidig, ond mae asidedd ychwanegol yn sgil glaw trwm a dyddodi asid yn golygu na all gweundiroedd niwtraleiddio’r cynnwys asid uchel, sy’n arwain at gyfnodau brig asid yn ystod cyfnodau o law trwm, pan all y lefel pH ddisgyn yn is na 4. Ar y lefel hwn, ni all bywyd dyfrol oroesi hyd yn oed am gyfnod byr, a bydd y cyfnodau brig asid hefyd yn effeithio ar frithyll ifanc a’u hwyau. Problem gysylltiedig arall sy’n digwydd yn aml yw gollwng lefelau uchel o alwminiwm, a all niweidio pysgod ac infertebratau yn sylweddol. Bydd cyfnodau maith o sychder wedi’u dilyn gan law trwm yn arwain at ruthrau asid a gollwng asid sylffwrig o fawn sych, yn sgil cloddio’r ffosydd draenio. Mae’r Ymddiriedolaeth Genedlaethol, sydd bellach yn berchen ar ac yn rheoli’r Migneint, wedi bod yn cau’r hen ffosydd hyn (agorwyd rhai yn yr 1930au a’u draenio gan giperiaid i gynyddu niferoedd y grugieir) â byrnau grug i atal rhyddhau’r carbon; bydd hyn yn cynorthwyo i raddau i atal rhuthrau glaw asid trwy gadw’r dŵr am gyfnodau hwy cyn ei ollwng i’r prif afonydd. Yn wreiddiol, byddai’r gweundir megis sbwng enfawr yn rhyddhau’r dŵr dros gyfnod o ddyddiau, nid y llifeiriaint rheolaidd yr ydym bellach yn gyfarwydd â hwy. Conwy a Serw yw dwy brif afon Conwy uchaf, a dônt ynghyd ychydig islaw’r Migneint. Bydd dŵr du mawnaidd yn digwydd yn naturiol wedi glaw trwm, a bydd yn gyfle da i bysgota - mae brithyll brown gwyllt sy’n pwyso dros ddau bwys wedi’u dal. Mae’n debyg fod pysgod o’r maint hwn yn tynnu ’mlaen mewn oedran, ac yn aml, byddant yn troi at ganibaliaeth, gan fwyta brithyll bychan neu unrhyw beth y gallant ei ddal. Un waith, fe ddaliais frithyll cigysol â dwy fadfall gyffredin yn ei stumog. Mae sawl ffermdy gwag yn hyfrydwch Nghwm Serw, ac mae hen lwybr yn arwain at y pellaf ohonynt, Cefn Garw. Yn ystod yr 1950au cynnar, cafodd y tir ei wella ar gyfer pori da byw, a defnyddid calch yn rheolaidd at y diben hwn; y canlyniad oedd pysgodfa brithyll brown cynhyrchiol. Mae’r pysgotwyr hyn wedi son am ddyddiau gwych yn pysgota Afon Serw o’i gwaelod i’w brig a dal digonnedd o frithyll, ond pan adawodd y teuluoedd ffermio, peidiodd y calchu a chwalwyd poblogaeth y pysgod. Cyd-ddigwyddodd hyn â dechrau’r glaw asid a draenio’r Migneint i wella porfeydd, oherwydd yr oedd y llywodraeth yn cynnig grantiau sylweddol. Yn yr arolwg electro-bysgota diwethaf a wnes ar Afon Serw,

yr oedd yr ychydig frithyll brown a ddaliwyd yn fychan; yr oedd yr infertebratau yn brin iawn hefyd, arwydd sicr o ruthrau asid. Mae ffactorau eraill hefyd wedi cyfrannu at y broblem asid: mae coedwigo trwm wedi effeithio’n sylweddol ar lawer o nentydd ucheldirol ac afonydd, oherwydd gall planhigfeydd coniffer ddwysáu dyddodiad asid, ac mae llawer o nentydd mewn ardaloedd coediog yn hollol wag o bysgod. Yn aml iawn, caiff fforestydd eu plannu ar lechweddi a dyffrynoedd serth, sy’n gallu achosi problemau dŵr ffo, ac mae ffrydlifiau asid o gonifferau yn fater adnabyddus. Ar ôl llwyrgwympo, bydd llygredd gwasgaredig yn ffactor arall sy’n cyfrannu, gan arwain at silt yn tagu gwely’r afon. Bellach, mae gan y Comisiwn Coedwigaeth gynllun pum mlynedd ar gyfer torri fforestydd. Caiff coed cynhenid adfywio a chaiff lleiniau byffer eu cynnwys yn fynych ar hyd y cyrsiau dŵr. Mae AAC wedi bod yn cydweithio’n agos â’r Comisiwn Coedwigaeth i ledaenu arfer gorau, ac mae partneriaethau â chyrff amgylcheddol eraill wedi arwain at niferoedd pysgod yn dychwelyd i rai nentydd gweigion. Nid yw bygythiad glaw asid o’r awyr bellach yn broblem fawr, er bod llawer o’r tir yn cadw asid yn y pridd. Gall calchu fod yn ddull cyflym o gynorthwyo adferiad pysgod, ond mae’n anghynaliadwy yn y tymor hir a gall achosi problemau amgylcheddol eraill. Arferai Llyn Gamallt ar waun y Migneint fod yn bysgodfa brithyll brown dda, ond chwalodd y niferoedd yn ystod y cyfnod glaw asid. Fodd bynnag, yr oedd calchu’r tir amgylchynol yn ystod y nawdegau yn llwyddiannus, a chynyddodd niferoedd y brithyll brown yn sylweddol. Mae’r calch wedi hen fynd ond mae’r bysgodfa’n dal yn gynhyrchiol; a all y brithyllod brown hyn fod wedi cynefino ag asid? Amheuaf hynny, ond mae gwers i’w dysgu yma yn y defnydd o rywogaeth gynhenid o frithyll yn hytrach na physgod ffermydd masnachol. Mae amaethyddiaeth wedi’i beio ers tro am ddirywiad y brithyll brown, ac er bod dip defaid wedi achosi problemau yn y gorffennol, mae’r pryfleiddiad cypermethrin bellach wedi’i wahardd o’r farchnad, a phrin iawn yw’r defnydd ohono. Bydd bywyd dyfrol hefyd yn adfer yn gyflym wedi llygredd dip defaid. Fodd bynnag, mae niferoedd pysgod yn dal yn isel mewn rhai ardaloedd ble nad oes pwysau gan ffermio na choedwigaeth. Mae AAC, ynghyd â’r ymddiriedolaethau afon newydd, wedi bod wrthi’n monitro llawer o nentydd ucheldirol trwy wneud arolygon o fywyd pryfed afonydd ac electro-bysgota. Mae Cyfarwyddeb Fframwaith Dŵr Ewrop wedi cyfrannu’n sylweddol at yr arolygon hyn y mae’n rhaid i AAC eu gwneud ar bob cwrs dŵr, dŵr croyw a llanw. Caiff unrhyw ddyfroedd â niferoedd isel o bysgod ac infertebratau eu dynodi’n ‘afonydd sy’n methu’, a pharatoir cynllun gweithredu i gynorthwyo’u hadferiad. Bellach, caiff achosion gwybyddus o asideiddio eu taclo a’u goresgyn, felly mae gobaith y gwnaiff pysgod a bywyd dyfrol ddychwelyd i’n hafonydd, a bydd bioamrywiaeth forol yn cael ei hannog i ffynnu. Mae Pierino Algieri yn Swyddog Technegol Pysgodfeydd Asiantaeth yr AAC, a ffotograffydd rhagorol hefyd, www.algieri-images.co.uk

Brown trout © Pierino Algieri

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Llyn Gamallt © Pierino Algieri


by Pierino Algieri

Acidification and its effects on marine biodiversity fish populations crashed. This coincided with the onset of acid rain pollution and drainage of the Migneint to improve pasture land as large government grants were available. In the last electro-fishing survey I carried out on the Afon Serw the very few brown trout that we caught were small in size; the invertebrates were also few and far between, a sure indicator of acidic flushes.

As part of my work as a Fisheries Technical Officer working for the Environment Agency Wales (EAW) I assist colleagues in monitoring brown trout numbers in upland lakes and rivers in Snowdonia. One of these is Afon Llagi which flows out of Llyn Llagi, descends steeply to Blaen Nanmor and eventually joins the Afon Glaslyn. Trout numbers, although small, have been consistent in recent years. A local angler told me they used to catch good numbers here fifty years ago; unfortunately this seems to be the trend all over Snowdonia and other parts of Britain in recent years.

Other factors have also contributed to the acid problem: heavy forestation has had a big impact on many upland streams and rivers as conifer plantations can intensify acid deposition and many streams within forested areas are completely devoid of fish. Forests are often planted on steep hillsides and valleys which can cause run-off problems and acid flushes from conifers are a well-known issue. After clear felling, another contributing factor is diffused pollution, resulting in silt choking the river bed. The Forestry Commission now have a five-year plan when felling forests. Native trees are allowed to regenerate and buffer strips are often included along watercourses, the EAW have been working closely with the Forestry Commission to diffuse best practice and partnerships with other environmental bodies have resulted in fish numbers returning to some depleted streams.

There have been a number of in-depth studies written on the effects of acid rain on Welsh rivers. Areas such as the Migneint have naturally acidic soils, but the added acidity from high rainfall and acid deposition means the buffering capacity of the moorland is unable to neutralise the high acid content resulting in acid spikes during high rainfall spates where the PH level can drop to below 4. At this level aquatic life will cease to survive even over a short period of time and the acid spikes also affect juvenile trout and their eggs. Another related problem which often occurs is the release of high levels of aluminium, which can have devastating effects on fish and invertebrates. Periods of long dry spells followed by high rainfall will result in acid flushes and sulphuric acid being released from the dried-out peat due to the excavation of drainage ditches. The National Trust who now own and manage the Migneint have been filling these old ditches (some of which date back to 1930s and were drained by game keepers to encourage grouse numbers) by using heather bales to block them to prevent carbon release; this will also help to some extent in preventing the acid flushes by retaining the water for a longer period before it is released into the main rivers. Originally the moor would have acted as a giant sponge releasing the water over a period of days and not the regular spates we are used to seeing these days.

The airborne threat of acid rain is no longer a major problem, although much of the land retains acid in the soil. Liming can be a quick fix to aid fish recovery but is unsustainable in the longer term and can cause other environmental problems. Llyn Gamallt on the Migneint moor used to be a good brown trout fishery but numbers crashed during the acid rain period. However, liming of the surrounding land in the early nineties was very successful with brown trout recovering to good numbers. The lime has long gone but the fishery is still very productive; could these brown trout have become acid tolerant? I doubt it, but there is a lesson here in using an indigenous strain of trout as opposed to stocking fish from commercial fish farms.

The two main rivers of the upper Conwy are the Serw and Conwy, which converge just below the Migneint. Black, peaty water is a natural occurrence after high rainfall and this is a good time to fish - wild brown trout have been caught weighing in excess of two pounds. A fish of this size would probably be several years old and often turn to cannibalism, eating small trout or anything they can catch. I once caught a carniveroius trout with two common newts in its stomach. There are several small abandoned farm dwellings in the charming Cwm Serw valley and an old track leads up to the furthest dwelling of Cefn Garw. During the early 1950s the land was improved for livestock grazing and lime was regularly used for this purpose; the result was a prolific brown trout fishery. Older anglers have told of great days fishing the Afon Serw from top to bottom and catching plenty of trout, but when the farming community left the liming also stopped and the Pierino Algieri is a Fisheries Technical Officer with EAW, however he is no doubt better known for his spectacular photography of North Wales, see www.algieriimages.co.uk

Agriculture has long been blamed for the decline of brown trout, and although sheep dip has caused problems in the past the insecticide cypermethrin has now been banned from sale and is rarely used. Aquatic life also recovers quickly following sheep dip pollution. However, there are areas where there are no pressures from farming or forestry and yet fish numbers are still low. The EAW, along with newly formed river trusts, has been actively involved in monitoring many upland streams by carrying out river fly life and electro-fishing surveys. The European Water Framework Directive has contributed enormously to these surveys, which the EAW is obliged to carry out on all watercourses, fresh water and tidal. Any waters showing low numbers of fish and invertebrates are identified as ‘failing rivers’ and an action plan is produced to aid their recovery. With the known causes of acidification now being tackled and overcome, there is hope that fish and aquatic life will return to our rivers and the marine biodiversity of Snowdonia will be encouraged to flourish.

Lake olives hatching in May/June, a favourite of brown trout ŠPierino Algieri

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Trysor botanegol gan Rob Collister Yr haf diwethaf, yr oeddwn yn digwydd bod yn cerdded yng Nghoedwig Gwydyr uwchben Betws y Coed. Ar waethaf y pyrwydd Sitca ym mhobman, mae’n lle hudolus o gymhleth, yn llawn trysorau cudd, a bydd rhywbeth diddorol yn digwydd yno’n aml. Yr oeddwn yn cymryd rhan mewn arolwg mamaliaid, ac yn edrych am faw yn hytrach na phlanhigion. Fodd bynnag, wrth droedio oddi ar lwybr y goedwig i archwilio gwastraff hen waith plwm, denwyd fy sylw gan gen tywyll a dyfai ymysg y sorod oren frown oedd wrth fy nhraed. Wrth blygu i lawr i gael golwg fanylach, sylwais fod y planhigyn yn un pentwr o ddail cul, neu ffrondau, â blaen y rhan fwyaf ohonynt wedi hollti fel tafod neidr. Yr oedd ochr isaf y ffrondau wedi’u gorchuddio â sori tywyll, neu gapsiwlau o sborau, a gadarnhâi mai rhedynen oedd y planhigyn. Cofiais am draethawd am hen fwynfeydd gan Bill Condry, a ddywedodd: “Er bod y rhan fwyaf o blanhigion yn cadw draw o dir gwenwynig ger hen weithfeydd plwm, mae’n debyg fod yn well gan rai ohonynt y math hwn o dir. Er enghraifft, y rhedynen fach brin honno, y ddeugredynen fforchog …..” Mae’n brin, yn wir, ond yma, roedd digonedd ohoni, clystyrau trwchus wedi’u gwasgaru dros tua 20 medr sgwâr. Credir fod ei hatyniad i wlithod a malwod o bosibl yn gysylltiedig â’i thueddiad i drigo mewn cynefinoedd mor wenwynig.

weld yn unig. Y naill ffordd neu’r llall, mae’n amlwg fod y rhedynen hon yn hoff iawn o greigiau llwm a sych y Moelwyn, sy’n edrych dros Ddyffryn Ffestiniog at Drawsfynydd, oherwydd ar un ohonynt, Clogwyn Holland (a gaiff ychydig iawn o ymwelwyr), mae dringfa wedi’i henwi ar ei hôl, hyd yn oed - Septentrionale, V Diff, a ddringwyd am y tro cyntaf yn 1932 gan J. Elfyn Hughes, yn ôl fy arweinlyfr. Rhaid i mi gyfaddef ei bod yn dal ar fy rhestr o bethau i’w gwneud. Mae’r ddeugredynen fforchog yn agos i’w therfyn daearyddol gogleddol ym Mhrydain, ac fe awgrymwyd y gall hyn egluro’i hoffter o greigiau serth, tywyll, sy’n amsugno gwres yn gyflym pan dywynna’r haul. Fe ymddengys fod hyn yn bwysicach nag asidedd y graig; mae creigiau Moelwyn a Llanberis yn rhyolitig a silicaidd iawn, ond yn yr Alban, fe’i gwelir ar Asplenium septentrionale (Duegredynen fforchog / Forked spleenwort)

Er nad oeddwn wedi’i gweld mewn gwaith plwm o’r blaen, roeddwn wedi gweld y planhigyn hudolus ac anymwthiol hwn rai blynyddoedd ynghynt. Tyfai ar wal mewn cae ger Castell Gwydir; cefais wybod am y safle hwnnw, ond bu’n ymdrech dod o hyd iddo. Mae’n amlwg iawn ar ôl ei ganfod, ond mae hynny’n anodd. Deuthum ar ei thraws yn llawer diweddarach mewn traethawd arall gan Condry, am daith gerdded ger Llandrillo yn y Berwyn, ac ynddo, fe ddywed: “Gadewais fy nghar a chychwynais i fyny ffordd a ddringai tuag at y de. Ond yna, wrth ymyl y ffordd, gwelais drysor botanegol, rhedynen od o’r math oedd mor annwyl gan y casglwyr rhedyn Fictoraidd, â’i ffrondau fel ffyrch yn hytrach na rhai pigfain.” Fe wnaeth safleoedd tebyg beri i awduron cyfrol Mountain Flowers cyfres New Naturalist dybio mai planhigyn yr iseldir, nid y mynydd, yw’r ddeugredynen fforchog, yn Eryri beth bynnag. Er hynny, dywed Dewi Jones ei bod wedi’i chofnodi yma am y tro cyntaf gan Edward Lhuyd, sy’n enwog yn sgil Lili’r Wyddfa, ger copa Carnedd Llywelyn, ac yn ddiweddarach, yn y 19 ganrif, gan William Wilson ger y Twll Du. Mae yntau wedi’i gweld ar Foel Hebog. Fe’i gwelais eilwaith yn y mynyddoedd, yn ddigon annisgwyl. Yr oeddwn yn sefyll wrth droed Clogwyn y Grochan, un o Dri Chlogwyn enwog ochr ogleddol bwlch Llanberis, ac yn gofalu am hoelion angori ffrind i mi, a ymgodymai â dringen gyntaf dringfa glasurol HVS. Yr oeddwn wedi bod yno am o leiaf 20 munud, â’m holl sylw ar y dringwr, pan sylwais, wrth fwrw golwg dros wal fertigol oedd gerllaw, ar lecyn gwyrdd tywyll a dorrai allan o agen ychydig droedfeddi i ffwrdd. Ag un llygad yn dal ar fy mhartner uwch ben, symudais ar draws, ac er mawr syndod a boddhad i mi, gwelais y ddeugredynen fforchog. Mae darganfod rhywbeth prin trosoch eich hun, ar hap a damwain, yn llawer mwy cyffrous na dilyn cyfarwyddiadau neu rywun arall yn ei ddangos i chi. Mae’n rhaid i mi gyfaddef, fodd bynnag, nad oedd fy ffrind mor frwdfrydig pan ddangosais y planhigyn iddo wedi hynny. Yn anffodus, ni ellir ei disgrifio fel planhigyn carismataidd. Mae’n ddiddorol yn ecolegol, yn wir, ond nid yw’n hardd. Er bod y ddeugredynen fforchog yn gysylltiedig â mwyngloddio gan amlaf yn Eryri, fe’i gwelais wedi hynny wrth fynydda. Un tro, yr oeddwn ar Graig y Clipiau uwchben Tanygrisiau. Dro arall, yr oeddwn ar Glogwyn yr Oen yn yr un ardal, hanner ffordd i fyny dringen gyntaf mewn man lle bûm yn dringo sawl gwaith heb sylwi arni. Nid yw hynny’n gymaint o syndod o ystyried y caiff dringo ei gymharu â myfyrio ar brydiau, yn sgil yr angen i ganolbwyntio’n llwyr. Bydd dringwyr yn ymwybodol o fanylder bob rhych a chrych a welant o flaen eu llygaid ac ychydig droedfeddi uwchben, ond fawr ddim arall. Ar y llaw arall, efallai ei fod yn achos o gynefindra yn magu rhyw fath o fyopia yn hytrach na dirmyg, cyflwr cyffredin sy’n golygu y bydd rhywun yn gweld yr hyn y bydd yn disgwyl ei

fasalt a gabro, sy’n greigiau maethus. Fe wna fy mhrofiad i mi amau fod y rhedynen hon yn fwy cymhleth na’r argraff a geir yn gyffredinol. Mae’n digwydd tyfu nid yn unig o amgylch gweithfeydd plwm ond hefyd mewn mannau y byddai botanegwyr, neu chwilotwyr planhigion fel minnau, yn annhebygol o’u troedio, oni fyddant yn ddringwyr hefyd, felly mae’n hawdd iawn ei hesgeuluso. Yn ddi-os, hon yw aelod hyllaf y rhywogaeth Asplenium, ond “gwyn y gwêl y frân ei chyw”, ac weithiau gall ychydig o ddirgelwch ac anhawster canfod planhigyn wneud iawn am ddiffyg atyniadau mwy gweledol. Bydd yn fy nenu yn ddi-feth. Mae Rob Collister yn Arweinydd Mynydd Rhyngwladol ac yn un o Ymddiriedolwyr Cymdeithas Eryri. Bydd Rob yn arwain taith gerdded gaeaf ar gyfer Cymdeithas Eryri, ‘Troedio llwybrau diarffordd y Carneddau’, ddydd Sul Rhagfyr 11 2011.

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A botanical treasure by Rob Collister Last summer I found myself walking in the Gwydyr Forest above Betws y Coed. Despite the ubiquitous Sitka spruce, this is a beguilingly complex area, full of hidden gems, where something of interest usually occurs. I was taking part in a mammal survey so I was looking out for scats rather than plants. Stepping off a forestry track, however, to investigate spoil from an old lead mine, my eye was caught by a dark fur growing among the orange brown tailings at my feet. Bending down for a closer look, I realised that the plant was a mass of narrow leaves, or fronds, mostly divided at the end like a snake’s tongue. On the underside, the fronds were covered with dark sori, or spore capsules, confirmation that it was a fern. I recalled an essay about old mines by Bill Condry in which he remarked: “As for plants, though most of them shudder at the poisonous ground near lead mines, there are a few that seem to © Rob Collister

Sites like these prompted the authors of the Mountain Flowers volume in the New Naturalist series to opine that forked spleenwort is a lowland rather than a mountain plant, in Snowdonia at any rate. Yet Dewi Jones writes that it was first recorded here by Edward Lhuyd, of Snowdon Lily fame, near the top of Carnedd Llywelyn, and later, in the 19th century, by William Wilson near Twll Du, the Devil’s Kitchen, while he himself has seen it on Moel Hebog. My next encounter was certainly in the mountains and quite unexpected. I was standing at the bottom of Clogwyn y Grochan, one of the famous Three Cliffs on the north side of the Llanberis pass. I was belaying a friend who was grappling with the first pitch of a classic HVS rockclimb. I had been in the same spot at least 20 minutes, my attention focused on the climber, when my eye, wandering along the vertical wall beside me, alighted on a patch of dark green sprouting from a crevice a few feet away. Still with one eye on my partner up above, I moved across and to my surprise and delight recognised the forked spleenwort. It is infinitely more exciting and satisfying to discover something unusual for oneself, by chance, than to be shown it or follow directions. I have to admit, though, that my friend did not share my enthusiasm when I showed him afterwards. Sadly, it cannot be described as a charismatic plant. Ecologically intriguing, yes, but visually appealing it is not. Although, in Snowdonia, forked spleenwort is usually associated with mineralisation, my subsequent sightings were all in rock climbing situations. One was on Craig y Clipiau above Tanygrisiau. Another was on Clogwyn yr Oen in the same locality, halfway up the first pitch of a climb I must have done dozens of times over the years without noticing it. This is less surprising when one remembers that in its demand for total concentration and sustained attention climbing is sometimes likened to meditation. Climbers are minutely aware of every wrinkle and rugosity in front of their noses and a few feet above but of very little else. On the other hand it may simply be a case of familiarity breeding not so much contempt as a form of myopia, a common condition in which one sees only what one expects to see. Either way, these dry bare crags of the Moelwynion, looking south over the Vale of Ffestiniog towards Trawsfynydd, are clearly to the liking of the fern, for on one of them, the little visited Clogwyn Holland, there is even a climb named after it – Septentrionale, V Diff, first climbed in 1932 by J.Elfyn Hughes, the guide book tells me, though I confess that it is still on my “to do” list. The forked spleenwort is near the northern limit of its geographical range in Britain and it has been suggested that this may explain its preference for steep, dark-coloured rock which quickly absorbs warmth from any available sun. This seems to be more important than the acidity of the rock, for while the Moelwyn and Llanberis cliffs are rhyolitic and highly siliceous, in Scotland it is found on basalt and gabbro, both base-rich rocks.

prefer it. There is that rare little fern, the forked spleenwort , for instance…..” Rare it may be, but here it was growing in profusion, thick clumps of it scattered over an area of flat open ground some 20 metres square. It is thought that its susceptibility to slugs and snails may have something to do with its propensity for such toxic habitats. Although I had not found it on a lead mine before, I first made the acquaintance of this fascinating if unobtrusive plant many years ago. It was growing on a wall in a field near Gwydir Castle, a site I had been told about, but it still took some hunting to locate. Once spotted, which is not easy, it is very distinctive. Much later I came across another essay by Condry about a walk near Llandrillo, in the Berwyns, in which he describes how : “I left my car and started up a lane climbing to the south. But then at the roadside I found a botanical treasure, one of those freak ferns beloved by Victorian fern collectors, its fronds ending in a fork instead of tapering to a point.”

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My experience leads me to suspect that there must be much more of this fern about than is generally appreciated. It just happens to grow not only around lead mines but also in places unlikely to be visited by botanists, or even mere plant-hunters like myself, unless they happen to be climbers, and is easily overlooked. The forked spleenwort is undoubtedly the ugly duckling of the Asplenium genus but, “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, and sometimes a little mystery and elusiveness can compensate for a lack of more showy charms. It certainly never fails to captivate me. Rob Collister is an International Mountain Guide and a Trustee of the Snowdonia Society. Rob will be leading a winter walk for the Snowdonia Society on Sunday 11 December 2011, ‘Off the beaten track in the Carneddau’.


Adolygiad ∞ Review Cafwyd tri llyfr i’w hadolygu’n ddiweddar gan Llygad Gwalch, cwmni cyhoeddi bychan ym Mhwllheli sy’n arbenigo mewn arweinlyfrau cerdded a hanes lleol. Nid yw’r ddau lyfr cyntaf yn llawer iawn mwy na thaflenni, ond maent wedi’u hysgrifennu gan awduron lleol gwybodus a mawr eu parch, ac fe gewch werth eich arian. Hanes cryno mynydd uchaf Cymru yw Yr Wyddfa (£5.50), sy’n llawn pytiau diddorol, hyd yn oed i ddarllenwr sy’n gyfarwydd â’r hanes. Ar ôl trafod y chwedlau Arthuraidd yn y bennod gyntaf, aiff Michael Senior yn ei flaen i gynnig disgrifiad cryno tectoneg platiau, daeareg a rhewlifiant y mynydd. Mae’r penawdau dilynol yn ymdrin ag ymwelwyr cynnar (botanegwyr yn bennaf), datblygiad twristiaeth yn y 19eg ganrif, disgrifiadau gan awduron megis Wordsworth a Borrow, ac adeiladu’r rheilffordd a’i agoriad trychinebus yn 1896. Mae’r llyfr yn cloi ar garlam trwy drafod cymanfaoedd dringwyr Geoffrey Winthrop Young ym Mhen y Pass, yr adeilad hynod ddifflach ar y copa a gynlluniwyd gan Clough Williams-Ellis yn yr 1930au ac agor Hafod Eryri yn 2009. Mae The Rails and Sails of Welsh Slate (£7.50) gan Alun John Richards yn astudiaeth fanwl o ddulliau cludo llechi rhwng 1760 a 1960. Yr oedd anhawster a chost cludo deunydd mor drwm yn wastad yn gur pen i ddiwydiant llechi Cymru. Dyma hanes hudolus rheilffyrdd arfaethedig na chafodd eu hadeiladu, a rhai a adeiladwyd, a’r glanfeydd a’r iardiau adeiladau llongau a godwyd filltiroedd o’r môr ar lannau afonydd megis Conwy a Mawddach, i gysylltu â’r rheilffyrdd, ynghyd ag ehangiad porthladdoedd megis Porthmadog, Pwllheli ac Aberdyfi. Mae 80 Hills in north-western Snowdonia (£14) yn gyhoeddiad 480 tudalen llawer iawn mwy uchelgeisiol, ac mae’n cynnwys CD â 1400 o ddelweddau arno, a hynny am bris rhesymol iawn. Heb os nac oni bai, llafur cariad yw hwn, ac ni allwn ond edmygu Phil Jones am ei ddisgrifiadau trylwyr o 26 taith gerdded. Fodd bynnag, mae’r llyfr yn rhy drwm i’w gario mewn sach deithio, heb son am boced, sy’n gwneud i rywun ystyried ar bwy yn union y mae angen y fath fanylder ar gyfer teithiau cerdded sydd, ar y cyfan, yn rai gweddol syml ar lwybrau troed amlwg. Efallai y bydd yn fwyaf gwerthfawr fel “profiad rhithwir” i’r sawl (megis yr awdur) sydd bellach yn byw ymhell o Eryri, dull o ailymweld â hen gyrchfannau ac ail-fyw dyddiau difyr yr oes a fu.

Three new books have been received for review from Llygad Gwalch, a small publishing house in Pwllheli that specializes in walking guides and local history. The first two titles are little more than booklets but they are written by knowledgable and well respected local authors and represent good value for money. Yr Wyddfa (£5.50) is a concise history of Snowdon, full of interesting snippets even for a reader familiar with the story. Having disposed of the Arthurian legends in the first chapter, Michael Senior moves on to a succinct account of plate tectonics and the geology and glaciation of the mountain. Subsequent chapters deal with early visitors, mostly botanists, the development of tourism in the 19th century, accounts by writers like Wordsworth and Borrow, and the building of the railway and its catastrophic opening in 1896. The book concludes at a gallop with the Pen y Pass climbers’ gatherings of Geoffrey Winthrop Young, the distinctly uninspiring summit building designed by Clough Williams-Ellis in the 1930s and the opening of Hafod Eryri in 2009. The Rails and Sails of Welsh Slate (£7.50) by Alun John Richards is a detailed examination of how slate was transported during the 200 years from 1760 to 1960. The difficulty and expense of transporting such a heavy material always bedevilled the Welsh slate industry. This is a fascinating account of railway lines that were proposed but never built, as well as of those that were, and of the jetties and ship-building yards that sprung up miles inland on rivers like the Conwy and the Mawddach to connect with the railways , along with the expansion of harbours including Porthmadog, Pwllheli and Aberdyfi. 80 Hills in north-western Snowdonia (£14) is a much more ambitious publication of 480 pages which includes a CD with no less than 1400 images, at a remarkably low price. It is undoubtedly a labour of love and one can only respect Phil Jones for the painstaking detail with which he describes 26 different walks. However the book is too heavy to want to carry in a rucksack, let alone a pocket, and one has to wonder exactly who would need or want quite such a level of detail for what are mostly straightforward walks on obvious paths. Perhaps it will be of most value as a “virtual experience” for those (like the author) now living far from Snowdonia, a way of revisiting old haunts and reliving happy days from times gone by.

Ydych chi’n caru Eryri? Dewch i gyfranogi... Mae gwirfoddolwyr yn rhan hanfodol o’n gwaith – gallwch chithau gyfrannu at y gwaith pwysig o ddiogelu a harddu eich Parc Cenedlaethol. Yr ydym yn chwilio am bobl a all roi o’u hamser i wneud y canlynol i’r Gymdeithas: - Cyfieithu o’r Saesneg i’r Gymraeg - Dosbarthu taflenni - Gwaith cadwraeth ymarferol (nid oes angen profiad blaenorol) - Golygu a dylunio cylchgrawn (gan ddefnyddio Adobe inDesign) - Rhoi sgyrsiau am y Gymdeithas a’r Parc Cenedlaethol i grwpiau lleol - Staffio stondin Cymdeithas Eryri - Garddio bywyd gwyllt yn Tŷ Hyll Os hoffech chi gynorthwyo mewn unrhyw ffordd, cysylltwch â Sarah ar 01286 685498 neu sarah@snowdonia-society.org.uk

Love Snowdonia? Get involved...

Volunteers are an essential part of our work - you too can play an important role in protecting and enhancing your National Park. We’re looking for people who can give some time to the Society by taking on: - English-Welsh translation - Leaflet distribution - Practical conservation work (no prior experience needed) - Magazine editing & design (using Adobe inDesign) - Talking about the Society & National Park to local groups - Staffing Snowdonia Society stalls at fairs & events - Wildlife gardening at Tŷ Hyll If you would like to help in any way please contact Sarah on 01286 685498 or sarah@snowdonia-society.org.uk

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Byd gwaith Eryri ∞ People at work in Eryri In spring/summer 2011 we ran a photography competition with the theme ‘People at Work in Eryri’, celebrating the fact that the spectacular landscapes of Snowdonia have been shaped by people over the generations and that this remains a living, working National Park.

Competition winner Bob Rodgers wins a £100 voucher for Cambrian Photography in Colwyn Bay for his image Stoking the Engine (left). Runner-up Emyr Roberts wins a copy of Steve Lewis’ book Private Views of Snowdonia for his image of the Carneddau ponies entitled ‘Rounding up’ (below). Judges David Firth, John Farrar and Steve Lewis commended all entrants on their work, which covered farming, steam trains and the Mountain Rescue service amongst the wide variety of entries received. Thank you for taking part!

Stoking the engine © Bob Rodgers

Rounding up © Emyr Roberts

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Adolygiad o’r flwyddyn 2010/11

From top-right anti-clockwise: Coleg Llandrillo students working on the Miner’s Track; Getting creative at Botanic Beats; Coleg Menai students rhodie-bashing at Bryn Gwynant YHA; Tŷ Hyll BioBlitz; Dilwyn Williams dry stone walling; Llyn Llydaw; Tŷ Hyll Bu’r flwyddyn ddiwethaf yn nodweddiadol yn sgìl y gwaith llwyddiannus o symud pencadlys y Gymdeithas i’r Caban ym Mrynrefail a chynlluniau uchelgeisiol am ddefnydd newydd ar gyfer ein pencadlys blaenorol, y Tŷ Hyll yng Nghapel Curig. Ond nid ydym wedi caniatáu i’r datblygiadau hyn dynnu sylw’r Ymddiriedolwyr a’r staff oddi wrth genhadaeth y Gymdeithas, sef diogelu, harddu a dathlu rhinweddau arbennig Eryri. Yn ystod Cyfarfod Blynyddol Tachwedd 2010, lleisiodd yr aelodau eu pryderon am ddau fater: dyfodol Tŷ Hyll a diffyg ariannol parhaus gweithgareddau blynyddol y Gymdeithas. Prosiect Gwenyn Cymreig Tŷ Hyll Mae ein cynlluniau i ddiogelu dyfodol Tŷ Hyll yn symud ymlaen yn dda. Maent yn cynnwys ei droi’n ganolfan ddehongli hanes naturiol a chadwraeth y wenynen Gymreig a phryfed peillio eraill, mewn partneriaeth â Chanolfan Cadw Gwenyn Genedlaethol Cymru ym Modnant; bydd hanes y tŷ a gwaith y Gymdeithas yn cael sylw hefyd. Bwriedir atgyweirio’r tŷ a darparu toiledau newydd a mynediad i bob gallu, a chreu ystafell de i’w rhedeg ar gytundeb. Yr ydym wedi cyflwyno’r ceisiadau cynllunio angenrheidiol ac wedi ymgeisio am grantiau prosiect Cymunedau a Natur Cyngor Gefn Gwlad Cymru a Chronfa Dreftadaeth y Loteri. Hefyd, yr ydym wedi cael cynnig grant o Gronfa Datblygu Cynaliadwy Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri. Yr ydym hefyd yn ddiolchgar iawn i’r aelodau a gyfrannodd yn hael at apêl a lansiwyd ym mis Mawrth, ac i Ymddiriedolaeth Eryri Esmé Kirby am gyfraniad o £5000. Byddai’r Tŷ Hyll ar ei newydd wedd yn agor yn ystod haf 2012. Byddai gwenynfa paru mamwenyn yn cael ei sefydlu, a châi’r tir ei reoli yn y dyfodol i fanteisio i’r eithaf ar ei werth i bryfed peillio, gan adeiladu ar welliannau a wnaed eisoes gan grŵp bychan o wirfoddolwyr ymroddedig. Byddai cyfleoedd gwirfoddoli ar gael i hyd at 50 i drigolion lleol, yn cynnwys cyfleoedd penodol i rai sydd o dan anfantais economaidd. Byddwn yn diweddaru ein haelodau ar gynnydd y prosiect yn ystod y cyfarfod blynyddol ar 22 Hydref 2011. Cyllid a staff craidd Pasiwyd cynnig yn unfrydol yn ystod CCB y llynedd yn gofyn i’r Ymddiriedolwyr ‘ymroddi’n llwyr i’r gwaith o ddiogelu a gwella cyllidau’r

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Gymdeithas’. Yr ydym wedi ymateb i hynny. Yr oedd diffyg gweithredol 2009/10 yn sylweddol llai na blynyddoedd diweddar, ond roedd hynny yn sgil ffactorau arbennig yn bennaf, ac nid oes lle i laesu dwylo. Adolygodd y Pwyllgor Gwaith nifer o fesurau i wella sefyllfa ariannol y Gymdeithas, i ganfod y rhai mwyaf addawol. Llwyddodd y staff i gael gostyngiadau sylweddol mewn costau cynllunio ac argraffu a chostau swyddfa eraill. Mae strategaeth i gynyddu ein haelodaeth wedi’i llunio, a chaiff ei gweithredu’n raddol. Mae ymgyrch yn cael ei lansio i gynyddu incwm y Gymdeithas o gymynroddion. Mae amgylchiadau annisgwyl wedi’n gorfodi i adolygu staff craidd y Gymdeithas. Ers dechrau 2010, yr oedd gennym Gyfarwyddwr a Chynorthwyydd y Cyfarwyddwr (ailenwyd yr olaf yn Gyfarwyddwr Cynorthwyol ym mis Rhagfyr 2010). Ym Mai 2011, penodwyd ein Cyfarwyddwr, Gareth Clubb, yn Gyfarwyddwr newydd Cyfeillion y Ddaear Cymru, a chychwynnodd yn y swydd honno ym mis Gorffennaf. Gwnaeth gyfraniad mawr yn ystod ei flwyddyn gyda ni, ac er ein bod yn siomedig o’i weld yn gadael, dymunwn bob llwyddiant iddo yn ei swydd newydd ar lefel genedlaethol. Wedi ystyriaeth gofalus, penderfynodd yr Ymddiriedolwyr beidio â phenodi cyfarwyddwr newydd, ac yn lle hynny, dyrchafwyd ein Cyfarwyddwr Cynorthwyol medrus iawn, Sarah Medcalf, yn Gyfarwyddwr Gweithredol dros dro, a phenodwyd Frances Smith yn Weinyddwr Swyddfa rhan amser. Bydd y strwythur llai newydd hwn yn arbed cryn dipyn o arian yn ystod y flwyddyn bresennol ac yn ein cynorthwyo’n sylweddol i leihau ein diffyg gweithredol. Ond mae’n golygu y bydd rhaid i’n tîm cryf (yn ffodus) o Ymddiriedolwyr neu wirfoddolwyr eraill wneud rhai tasgau; efallai y bydd rhaid i’r Gymdeithas gydnabod na all wneud rhai gweithgareddau am y tro. Ar ddiwedd y 12 mis, bydd y Pwyllgor Gwaith yn adolygu’r profiad o’r strwythur newydd ac yn gwneud penderfyniadau am ein staff craidd parhaol. Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri Fe wnaeth cynnydd mewn grantiau gan Gyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru a Chronfa Datblygu Cynaliadwy Awdurdod y Parc Cenedlaethol am y flwyddyn hyd at fis Mawrth 2011 ein galluogi i ehangu Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri a mabwysiadu dull mwy strategol o drefnu gwaith ymarferol ein gwirfoddolwyr. Mae Bea Kelsall yn parhau i arwain y prosiect, â chymorth Jenny Whitmore. Yr ydym yn ffodus o gael dau aelod staff mor ymrod-


Adolygiad o’r flwyddyn 2010/11 dedig, a daeth Jo Lewis, myfyrwyr ar leoliad profiad gwaith, i ymuno â hwy at ddiwedd y flwyddyn. Eleni, yr oedd gan y prosiect dri maes. Yr oedd Gwirfoddoli Cadwraeth yn cynnwys 50 diwrnod gwaith (34 ar y cyd â phartneriaid) a dros 2000 awr o waith gwirfoddol. Casglwyd 276 bag sbwriel ar yr Wyddfa ac ar draethau Criccieth a Harlech. Cafwyd hwb i’r gwaith o glirio Rhododendron yng ngerddi helaeth Hostel Ieuenctid Bryn Gwynant yn sgil y deg diwrnod gwaith a gafwyd, un ohonynt yn cynnwys 70 o fyfyrwyr. Yr ydym hefyd yn targedu rhywogaeth ymledol arall, y Ffromlys Chwarennog, ar lannau Llyn Tegid ac yn y tarddle yn y ffrydiau cyflenwi. Yr oedd gweithgareddau eraill yn cynnwys plannu coed a chynyddu gwerth bywyd gwyllt coetir Tŷ Hyll. Gwnaethom barhau i weithio gyda’r gymuned i wella’r amgylchedd yn Nolwyddelan. Rhwng popeth, fe wnaeth y gwirfoddolwyr wella 21 cynefin ar draws y Parc Cenedlaethol yn ystod y flwyddyn. Yr oedd Cyfranogiad Cymunedol yn cynnwys cyfres o weithdai ar fyw’n gynaliadwy o’r enw ‘Trowch e lawr!’ a ‘Dydd Sadwrn Gwneud Newidiadau’. Hefyd, ceisiodd staff y prosiect godi ymwybyddiaeth rhai cannoedd o fyfyrwyr Coleg Menai ac ysgolion cynradd Capel Garmon ac Ysbyty Ifan, a sawl clwb ieuenctid, am y camau bychain y gellir eu cymryd at fyw’n gynaliadwy, trwy ddangos iddynt sut i wneud bagiau wedi’i hailgylchu ac adnewyddu (neu gyflwyno) sgiliau llaw traddodiadol; treuliodd y rhan fwyaf ohonynt ddau ddiwrnod ychwanegol yn gwneud gwaith gwirfoddol i wella cynefinoedd. Fe wnaeth Ymchwil a Dichonoldeb archwilio sut y gallai’r prosiect ariannu ei hun, i ddod yn llai dibynnol ar grantiau. Buom yn gweithio â myfyrwyr y Baccalaureate Cymreig, a heb os, fe wnaethant fwynhau a dysgu o weithgareddau’r Gymdeithas, a daethant yn llawer mwy ymwybodol o fioamrywiaeth a chynaliadwyedd. Yn anffodus, bu’n rhaid i ni gasglu nad oes arian ar gael o ffynonellau eraill i ariannu rhaglen o’r fath dan yr amgylchiadau presennol. Sefydlwyd grŵp llywio Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri ym Mehefin 2011, â chynrychiolaeth o’n prif noddwyr. Mae ei swyddogaethau yn cynnwys ystyried beth yw’r dulliau gorau o gyflwyno, datblygu ac ehangu’r prosiect. Hyderwn y gwnaiff aelodau’r Gymdeithas ein hysbysu ynglŷn â’u barn am flaenoriaethau’r prosiect a ffocws gwaith staff y prosiect, i sicrhau’r manteision pennaf un. Gwaith polisi Mae’r Gymdeithas wedi bod yn weithgar trwy gydol y flwyddyn yn sicrhau fod polisïau cyhoeddus yn ffafriol i’r Parc Cenedlaethol ac na fydd cynlluniau datblygwyr yn ei niweidio. Yn ystod ymgyrch etholiad y Cynulliad, ysgrifennodd y Cyfarwyddwr at holl ymgeiswyr Eryri a’r cyffiniau i ofyn iddynt am eu safbwyntiau ar y Parciau Cenedlaethol, a thynnu eu sylw at y cyd-faniffesto sydd wedi’i lunio gan dair Cymdeithas Parc Cenedlaethol Cymru ac Ymgyrch y Parciau Cenedlaethol (gweler Adolygiad Blynyddol y llynedd). Mae llywodraeth Cymru yn adolygu ei pholisi ar Barciau Cenedlaethol, ac yn bwriadu defnyddio’r pwerau newydd sydd ar gael i’r Cynulliad Cenedlaethol i gyflwyno’i ddeddfwriaeth cynllunio ei hun. Bydd angen i ni gadw llygad barcud ar y datblygiadau ym Mae Caerdydd.

newidiadau i ddogfennau polisi perthnasol, ac fe wnaethom gofrestru ein cefnogaeth i’r dewis o gysylltiad tanfor. Yr ydym wedi gwrthwynebu cynllun ynni gwynt mawr yn Llys Dymper yn Hiraethog, a fyddai’n weladwy iawn yn y Parc Cenedlaethol ac oddi allan iddo; byddwn yn asesu effaith datblygiadau mwy mewn Ardaloedd Chwilio Strategol sy’n agos at ffin y Parc Cenedlaethol. Fe wnaeth yr Is-bwyllgor Polisi drafod cynlluniau ar gyfer yr A470 yng Ngelligemlyn a Maes yr Helmau gyda pheirianwyr Llywodraeth y Cynulliad, ac fe wnaethom gyflwyno ein sylwadau iddynt. Yn achos yr ail ddatblygiad, ar y cyd â grwpiau amgylcheddol eraill, fe wnaethom ddadlau o blaid dewis arall a fyddai’n golygu colli llai o goetir hynafol. Yr oeddem yn croesawu’r dewis o dollbont newydd ym Mhont Briwet a’r penderfyniad i fwrw ymlaen â’r gwaith. Fe wnaethom sylwadau ar gynllun cychwynnol ar gyfer canolfan wybodaeth ac ymwelwyr newydd Cwm Idwal ym Mwthyn Ogwen, datblygiad yr ydym yn ei groesawu. Noswyl Nadolig 2010, cyflwynodd llywodraeth y Cynulliad ail gais am dystysgrif defnydd cyfreithiol ar gyfer yr hen sefydliad ymchwil milwrol yn Llanbedr; ymatebodd y Gymdeithas yn ysgrifenedig i hynny. Ddiwedd Gorffennaf, cymeradwyodd Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri dystysgrif ‘Defnydd o’r Safle ar gyfer Ymchwil a Datblygu i brofi, gwerthuso a datblygu cerbydau awyr di-griw (UAVs)’. Mae hyn yn llawer iawn mwy cyfyng na defnyddio’r safle fel maes awyr, sef bwriad cais gwreiddiol aflwyddiannus Kemble, ac mae’n llawer mwy cyfyng na bwriadau’r ail gais. Ar adeg ysgrifennu hwn, y mae’r Gymdeithas yn ystyried goblygiadau’r penderfyniad. Cyfleoedd i’r dyfodol Mae’r adran isod yn amlygu rhai o blith y cyfoeth o weithgareddau a mentrau y mae’r Gymdeithas wedi’u hyrwyddo. Mae symud ein pencadlys i’r Caban, a’n gwell presenoldeb ar y We a chyfryngau cymdeithasol megis Twitter, wedi dod â gwaith y Gymdeithas yn nes at gynulleidfa fwy ac ieuengach. Bwriadwn fanteisio ar y cyfle hwn. Mae aelodaeth y Gymdeithas yn cynyddu rhyw ychydig. Fodd bynnag, yr ydym yn cydnabod nad yw pob un sy’n rhannu ein gwerthoedd a’n amcanion am fynegi hynny trwy’r dull traddodiadol o dalu tâl aelodaeth blynyddol i gymdeithas. Mae angen i ni gynnig dulliau eraill y gallant ein cefnogi. Mae gwirfoddoli yn un dull. Mae cyfraniadau amrywiol gwirfoddolwyr at waith y Gymdeithas – yn Ymddiriedolwyr ac aelodau pwyllgor, trwy Brosiect Cadwraeth Eryri a dulliau eraill – yn parhau’n hanfodol bwysig. Ni chaiff gwerth y gwaith hwn ei adlewyrchu yn ein cyfrifon. Yr ydym yn ystyried beth yw’r dull gorau o’i fesur a’i gofnodi yn adroddiadau blynyddol y dyfodol. Hyderwn y daw llawer iawn mwy o bobl i wirfoddoli, fel y gellir cynnal a gwella’r adnodd hanfodol hwn.

Fe wnaethom barhau i gyfrannu at Gynllun Datblygu Lleol Eryri, trwy sylwadau ysgrifenedig a chymryd rhan yn yr Archwiliad Annibynnol. Yr ydym yn fodlon ar y cyfan â ffurf orffenedig y cynllun, ond yn bryderus y gall agor y drws yn rhy lydan i adeiladau newydd a fydd yn cynnig gwaith yng nghefn gwlad agored. Yr ydym yn siomedig nad yw Awdurdod y Parc Cenedlaethol wedi rhoi gwell proffil i Gynllun Rheoli’r Parc, ond deallwn fod trafodaethau’n mynd rhagddynt â sefydliadau partner ar hyn o bryd, i geisio cael eu cydweithrediad i gyflawni amcanion y Cynllun Rheoli. Yr ydym yn bryderus am arafwch y gwaith o ddrafftio’r Strategaeth Hamdden a rhai rhannau allweddol o’r Cyfarwyddyd Cynllunio Atodol at ddibenion ymgynghori. Gan ystyried fod y Parc Cenedlaethol eisoes wedi’i greithio’n sylweddol gan beilonau, mae’r Gymdeithas ac Awdurdod y Parc Cenedlaethol fel ei gilydd yn bryderus am effeithiau posibl atomfa newydd yn yr Wylfa, ac o bosibl, cynllun ynni gwynt mawr ym Môr Iwerddon. Nid yw’r Grid Cenedlaethol wedi cyhoeddi ei gynigion ar gyfer y cysylltiadau hyn, ond cawsom lawer iawn o sylw yn y cyfryngau i’r bygythiad, cawsom rai

Aelodau’r staff (chwith i dde): Jenny Whitmore, Sarah Medcalf & Bea Kelsall

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Review of the Year 2010/11

From top-left clockwise: Coleg Menai students rhodie-bashing at Bryn Gwynant YHA; Brocken spectres on our winter walk in December 2011; Gareth Clubb, CESS Director to June 2011; Ogwen Cottage; Hero Douglas playing harp at our volunteer social; Making Christmas cards at Tŷ Hyll Yule fair; A crisp winter day on Moel Siabod The past year has been notable for the successful move of the Society’s headquarters to Caban at Brynrefail and the ambitious plans for a new role for our former headquarters, Tŷ Hyll at Capel Curig. But we have not allowed those developments to distract Trustees and staff from the Society’s mission of protecting, enhancing and celebrating the very special qualities of Snowdonia. At the Annual General Meeting in November 2010 members voiced concerns on two matters: the future of Tŷ Hyll and the deficits which the Society has continued to incur on its annual operations. The Tŷ Hyll Welsh honey bee project Our plans to give Tŷ Hyll an assured future are making good progress. They involve making it into an interpretation centre on the natural history and conservation of the Welsh honey bee and other natural pollinators, in partnership with the National Beekeeping Centre for Wales at Bodnant; the history of the house and the work of the Society will also be covered. The house would be repaired, all-ability access and new toilets would be provided, and a tea room created and franchised. We have submitted the necessary planning applications and applied for grants from the Countryside Council for Wales’s Communities and Nature project and the Heritage Lottery Fund. We have the offer of a grant from the National Park Authority’s Sustainable Development Fund. We are also very grateful to our members who contributed generously to an appeal launched in March, and to the Esmé Kirby Snowdonia Trust for a contribution of £5000. The refurbished Tŷ Hyll would open in summer 2012. A queen mating apiary would be established and, building on the improvements already made to the grounds by a small group of committed volunteers, they would be managed in future to maximise their value to pollinators. Volunteering opportunities would be provided for up to 50 local people, including specific opportunities for those who are economically disadvantaged. We shall update members on the project at this year’s AGM on October 22. Finance and core staffing A resolution passed unanimously at last year’s AGM asked Trustees to ‘[put] their energies into protecting and enhancing the Society’s fi-

nances’. We have responded to that. The operating deficit in 2009/10 was substantially smaller than in recent years, but that was largely the result of special factors, and no reason for complacency. The Executive reviewed a wide range of possible measures for improving the Society’s financial position in order to identify which were most promising. Staff have been able to achieve significant reductions in the cost of design and printing and other office costs. A strategy to increase our membership has been drawn up and will be implemented in stages. A campaign is being launched to increase the Society’s income from legacies. An unforeseen situation prompted us to review the Society’s core staffing. Since the start of 2010 this had taken the form of the Director and an Assistant to the Director (the latter post renamed Assistant Director in December 2010). In May 2011 our Director, Gareth Clubb, was selected as the new Director of Friends of the Earth Cymru, and he took up that post in July. He had made a big impact during his year with us and, although very sorry to lose him, we wish him every success in his new role at national level. After careful consideration Trustees decided not to look for a replacement, but to give our very able Assistant Director, Sarah Medcalf, temporary promotion to Acting Director and recruit a part-time Office Administrator, Frances Smith. This leaner structure will save a significant amount of money in the current year and have a large impact in reducing our operating deficit. But it will mean that some tasks have to be taken over by our fortunately strong team of Trustees or by other volunteers; and there may be activities the Society has to recognise it does not have the capacity to undertake for the time being. At the end of 12 months the Executive will review experience with this new structure and take decisions about our permanent core staffing. Conservation Snowdonia Project Increased grants for the year to March 2011 from the Countryside Council for Wales and the National Park Authority’s Sustainable Development Fund enabled us to expand the Conservation Snowdonia Project and adopt a more strategic approach to the practical work undertaken by volunteers. Bea Kelsall continues to lead the project, assisted by Jenny Whitmore. We are fortunate in having two such committed staff, and they were joined towards the end of the year by Jo Lewis, a student on a

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Review of the year 2010/11 work experience placement. This year the project had three strands. Conservation Volunteering involved 50 workdays (34 held with partners) and more than 2000 volunteer hours. Litter picks on Snowdon and on Criccieth and Harlech beaches collected 276 bags of rubbish. Clearance of Rhododendron ponticum in the extensive grounds of Bryn Gwynant Youth Hostel gained new impetus with ten workdays, one involving 70 students. The other invasive species we are targeting is Himalayan Balsam on the shores of Bala Lake and at source in feeder streams. Other activities included tree planting and increasing the wildlife value of the woodland at Tŷ Hyll. We continued to work with the community on improving the environment in Dolwyddelan. In all volunteers improved 21 habitats across the National Park during the year. The Community Engagement strand included arranging series of workshops on sustainable living under the titles ‘Turn it down!’ and ‘Make a change Saturday’. Project staff also sought to make several hundred students from Coleg Menai, Capel Garmon and Ysbyty Ifan primary schools, and various youth clubs aware of the kind of small steps they can take towards sustainable living by showing them how to make recycled bags and refreshing (or introducing) traditional hand skills; most of them then spent two further days working as volunteers to enhance habitats. Research and Feasibility investigated how the project might be made self-financing in order to reduce reliance on grants. The students we worked with who were taking the Welsh Baccalaureate clearly enjoyed and learned from the activities the Society provided, and gained a much stronger awareness of biodiversity and sustainability. But unfortunately we had to conclude that in present circumstances there is not money elsewhere to fund such a programme. A steering group for the Conservation Snowdonia Project was set up in June 2011, with representation from the main funders. Its functions include considering how the project can best be delivered, developed and extended, and deciding on strategies for the future. We hope members of the Society will let us know what they think the priorities should be and where the project staff should be focusing their efforts for the maximum effect. Policy work The Society has been active throughout the year in trying to ensure that public policies are favourable to the National Park and developers’ schemes do not damage it. During the election campaign for the Welsh Assembly the Director wrote to all candidates in and around Snowdonia asking them their views about National Parks and drawing attention to the joint manifesto produced by the three Welsh National Park Societies and the Campaign for National Parks (see last year’s Annual Review). The Welsh government is reviewing its policy on National Parks, and intends to use the new powers available to the Welsh Assembly to pass its own legislation on planning. We shall need to keep a close watch on what is happening in Cardiff Bay.

option of a subsea link. We have opposed a large windpower scheme at Llys Dymper in Hiraethog, which would be very visible in views into and out of the National Park; and we shall be assessing the impact of even larger proposals within Strategic Search Areas close to the National Park boundary. The Policy Sub-Committee discussed schemes for the A470 at Gelligemlyn and Maes yr Helmau with Assembly government engineers and made representations about them. In the latter case we championed, in collaboration with other environmental groups, a variant that would involve less loss of ancient woodland. We welcomed the option chosen for replacement of the Pont Briwet toll bridge and the decision to proceed. We commented on the initial design for a new information and visitor centre for Cwm Idwal at Ogwen Cottage, which we welcome. On Christmas Eve 2010 the Assembly government submitted a second application for a certificate of lawful use for the former Llanbedr military research establishment; the Society made written representations in response. At the end of July the Snowdonia National Park Authority granted a certificate for ‘Use of the site for Research and Development for the testing, evaluation and development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)’. This is very much narrower than use as an airfield, which had been sought unsuccessfully in the original application by Kemble; and significantly narrower than was sought in the second application. At the time of writing the Society is considering the implications of the decision. Future opportunities The section on page twenty-six on highlights of the year picks out some of the rich variety of activities and initiatives the Society has promoted. Moving our headquarters to Caban, and our improved presence on the internet and in social media such as Twitter, have put the Society in closer touch with a larger and younger audience for our work. We intend to exploit that opportunity. Membership of the Society is showing modest increases. But we recognise that not everyone who shares our values and objectives is interested in the traditional way of expressing that by paying an annual subscription to an association. We need to offer alternative ways in which they can support us. Volunteering is one such way. The manifold contributions of volunteers to the work of the Society – as Trustees and committee members, through the Conservation Snowdonia Project and in other ways – continue to be of crucial importance. The value of this input is not reflected in our accounts. We are exploring how we can best record it in a quantified way in future annual reports. We hope that many more people will be coming forward, so that this essential resource can be maintained and increased.

We continued to be active on the new Eryri Local Development Plan, through written submissions and participation in the Independent Examination. We are broadly content with the final form of the Plan, although we are fearful it may open the door too wide to new buildings to provide employment in the open countryside. We regret that the National Park Authority has not given a higher profile to the Park Management Plan, but we understand approaches are now being made to partner organisations to obtain their co-operation in achieving the Management Plan’s objectives. We are concerned about the slow pace at which drafts of a Recreation Strategy and some key pieces of Supplementary Planning Guidance are being produced for consultation. Given the extent to which the National Park is already scarred by electricity pylons the Society and the National Park Authority are both concerned about the possible effects of the links to a new nuclear power station at Wylfa and a possible large offshore windpower scheme in the Irish Sea. National Grid has not yet put forward proposals for these links, but we gained much media publicity for the threat, obtained some changes in relevant policy documents and registered our support for the

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Staff members (left to right): Jenny Whitmore, Sarah Medcalf & Bea Kelsall


Uchafbwyntiau’r flwyddyn ∞ Highlights of the year Enwebwyd Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri am Wobr Amddiffynnydd y Parc, gwobr newydd gan Ymgyrch y Parciau Cenedlaethol. Er na enillodd, daeth i’r rhestr fer a chafodd lawer o sylw. Ym mis Hydref, bu aelodau’n blasu cwrw arobryn wrth ymweld â bragdy enwog Mŵs Piws ym Mhorthmadog. Fe wnaeth ymgyrchoedd torfol i gasglu sbwriel ar yr Wyddfa ym mis Tachwedd a mis Medi, ar y cyd â Chyngor Mynydda Prydain, wneud gwahaniaeth amlwg, a daeth y broblem sbwriel i lygaid y cyhoedd yn sgil sylw helaeth yn y cyfryngau. Cynhaliwyd y Cyfarfod Cyffredinol Blynyddol yn y Bermo ym mis Tachwedd. Yn dilyn y busnes ffurfiol, cafwyd cyflwyniad gan Is-gadeirydd y Gymdeithas, Simon Jenkins, ar eglwysi, tai a chestyll enwog Cymru. Cafwyd lluniaeth tymhorol a chyngor ar ddathlu’r Nadolig yn fwy cynaliadwy yn y Ffair Nadolig yn y Tŷ Hyll. Ym mis Ionawr, mwyhaodd yr aelodau ginio Blwyddyn Newydd yng The Conservation Snowdonia Project was nominated for the inaugural Park Protector Award of the Campaign for National Parks. Although it didn’t win it was shortlisted, and attracted much interest. In October members sampled award-winning ales on a visit to Porthmadog’s famed Purple Moose brewery. Mass litter picks on Snowdon in September and November, jointly with the British Mountaineering Council, made a noticeable difference, and the wide media coverage drew public attention to the litter problem. The Annual General Meeting took place in November at Barmouth. Following the business session Society Vice President Simon Jenkins gave a presentation on the notable churches, houses and castles of Wales. A Yule Fair at Tŷ Hyll offered seasonal refreshments alongside advice on making Christmas more sustainable. In Janu-

Ngwesty George III, Penmaenpŵl, wedi ymweliad â deorfa misglod perlog Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd y tu allan i Ddolgellau. Ym mis Chwefror, mwynhawyd ffilmiau â themâu amgylcheddol yn ystod y cyntaf o blith llawer (gyda gobaith) o nosweithiau ar gyfer aelodau yn y Caban. Yr ydym yn ddiolchgar iawn i Sally a Tom Collister, a gododd £523 i’r Gymdeithas trwy ei henwebu yn un o’r elusennau a wnaeth elwa o gig Vibrations a drefnwyd ganddynt yn Neuadd Hendre ar 29 Ebrill. Hefyd ym mis Ebrill, cynhaliwyd gweithdy yn Llynnau Cregennen ger Arthog gan y ffotograffydd tirluniau, Steve Lewis, a chynigwyd cyngor, anogaeth a chymorth ymarferol i ffotograffwyr amatur. Cynhaliwyd y Bioblitz yn y Tŷ Hyll ar 20-21 Mai, gweithgaredd a ddisgrifir mewn rhan arall o’r cylchgrawn hwn. Hefyd ym mis Mai, cynhaliwyd diwrnod agored yn y Natural Building Centre, oedd newydd ei hagor ym Mhlas Tirion ger ary members enjoyed a New Year lunch at the George III at Penmaenpool, following a visit to the Environment Agency’s pearl mussel hatchery outside Dolgellau. In February what will hopefully be the first of many members’ evenings at Caban was enlivened by films on environmental themes. We are very grateful to Sally and Tom Collister, who raised £523 by making the Society one of the charities to benefit from the Vibrations gig they organised at Hendre Hall on April 29. Also in April landscape photographer Steve Lewis held a workshop at Llynnau Cregennan near Arthog, offering amateur photographers advice, encouragement and practical help. On May 20-21 Tŷ Hyll was the location for a 24 hour Bioblitz, as described on page five. May also saw an Open Day at the Natural Building Centre,

Llanrwst gan un o Ymddiriedolwyr y Gymdeithas, Ned Schärer. Cynhaliwyd y Gystadleuaeth Codi Wal Sych flynyddol ar 25 Mehefin, mewn cydweithrediad â’r Ymddiriedolaeth Genedlaethol, fel rhan o Ddiwrnod Agored yn Fferm Hafod y Llan. Ymddiriedolaeth Eryri Esmé Kirby oedd y noddwr eleni. Dilynwyd y gystadleuaeth gan ddiwrnod blasu ar gyfer pobl oedd yn dymuno troi eu llaw at godi wal sych. Yr oedd y rhaglen weithgareddau hefyd yn cynnwys dringo Moel Siabod (ym mis Rhagfyr) a’r Aran (ym mis Mehefin). Cynhaliwyd teithiau tywysedig a gyflwynodd yr aelodau i’r gwaith arfaethedig o adfer coetir cynhenid yng Nghwm Mynach, hanes y Bermo, archeoleg Cors y Gedol (dan arweiniad Frances Lynch), ceunant Cwm Cynfal (dan arweiniad Twm Elias) a bywyd gwyllt aber Artro. Top to bottom: Vibrations, fundraising for CESS; The old barns at Plas Tirion Natural Building Centre; Judges and winners in CESS walling competitin, June 2011 newly launched at Plas Tirion near Llanrwst by Society Trustee Ned Schärer. The annual Dry Stone Walling Competition took place on June 25 in conjunction with National Trust, at Hafod y Llan as part of Open Farm Day. The sponsor this year was the Esmé Kirby Snowdonia Trust. We followed up the competition with a taster day for people who wanted to try their hand at dry stone walling. The programme of events also included ascents of Moel Siabod (in December) and Yr Aran (in June). Guided walks introduced members to the planned restoration of native woodland at Cwm Mynach, the history of Barmouth, the archaeology of Cors y Gedol (led by Frances Lynch), Cwm Cynfal gorge (led by Twm Elias) and the wildlife of the Artro estuary. Top to bottom: Caban, the new home of CESS; Tŷ Hyll decorated for the Yule Fair; Carrying litter down from Snowdon in November 2010

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Adroddiad ariannol ∞ Financial report Mae gan y Gymdeithas gronfeydd anghyfyngedig sy’n deillio’n bennaf o danysgrifiadau’r aelodau, rhoddion a chymynroddion a rhai cronfeydd cyfyngedig sy’n deillio o grantiau a nawdd a gafwyd ar gyfer pwrpasau penodol. Cynyddodd incwm tanysgrifiadau a Chymorth Rhodd unwaith eto yn 2010/2011, ond ni dderbynodd y Gymdeithas unrhyw gymynroddion. Daw incwm ychwanegol o ddifidendau buddsoddiadau’r Gymdeithas. Bu cynydd cymredol yn incwm gwerth marchnad y buddsoddiadau yn ystod y flywddyn. Er hynny, i sicrhau y bydd cronfeydd ariannol digonol wrth gefn i ddiwallu ei ymrwymiadau yn 2011/2012 yr oedd rhaid gwerthu rhai buddsoddiadau tua diwedd y flwyddyn.

gweithgareddau blynyddol. Ym marn yr ymddiriedolwyr, fodd bynnag, nid yw lefel presennol y cronfeydd wrth gefn yn ddigonol, o ystyried lefel gweithgarwch presennol y Gymdeithas. Polisi Buddsoddi Rheolir buddsoddiadau’r Gymdeithas gan Barclays Wealth ac maent yn cynnwys ecwitïau a bondiau. Ym mis Gorfennaf 2009 cyfarwyddwyd Barclays Wealth gan yr ymddiriedolwyr i roi mwy o bwyslais nag o’r blaen ar gynhyrchu incwm fel difidendau yn hytrach na thwf cyfalaf.

Yn absenoldeb y factorau arbennig oedd wedi cyfrannu at ostyngiad sylweddol yn niffyg gweithredol y Gymdeithas yn 2009/10 cododd y diffyg gweithredol yn ôl i bron â £30,000 yn 2010/11.

Polisi rheoli risg Nid oes modd i’r Ymddiriedolwyr ddiogelu’r Gymdeithas a’i hasedau rhag tueddiadau economaidd byd-eang. Maent wedi cyflwyno gweithdrefnau i reoli pob math o risgiau i staff y Gymdeithas, eiddo, aelodau, gweithwyr gwirfoddol a’r cyhoedd, a chaiff y gweithdrefnau eu hadolygu’n rheolaidd.

Polisi cronfeydd wrth gefn Mae’r cronfeydd wrth gefn a sefydlwyd yn ystod y blynyddoedd cynharach yn parhau i gynnig sefydlogrwydd a hyblygrwydd, ac maent yn cynhyrchu cyfran sylweddol o’r incwm sydd ei angen i gefnogi gweithgareddau presennol y Gymdeithas. Maent wedi dirywio’n sylweddol yn sgil tueddiadau’r farchnad yn ddiweddar ac yn sgil yr angen i ddefnyddio cyfalaf i ariannu diffyg ein

Cyfrifoldebau’r Ymddiriedolwyr Mae’r gyfraith yn mynnu bod yr Ymddiriedolwyr yn paratoi datganiadau ariannol yn flynyddol sy’n cyfleu darlun gwir a theg o weithgareddau’r Gymdeithas yn ystod y flwyddyn a’i sefyllfa ariannol ar ei diwedd. Wrth baratoi’r cyfrifon hyn, mae angen i’r Ymddiriedolwyr ddewis polisïau cyfrifo addas a’u gweithredu â chysondeb, a dilyn safonau cyfrifo perthnasol ac egluro unrhyw

The Society has unrestricted funds derived primarily from members’ subscriptions, donations and legacies; and certain restricted funds derived from grants and sponsorship given for specific purposes. Income from subscriptions and Gift Aid showed a further increase in 2010/11, but the Society did not receive any legacies. Further income comes from dividends on the Society’s investments. The market value of investments showed a modest increase during the year. However, to ensure the Society will have sufficient cash resources to meet its commitments in 2011/12 some investments had to be sold towards the end of the year.

In the view of Trustees, however, the current level of reserves is adequate in relation to the Society’s current level of activity. Investment policy The Society’s investments are managed by Barclays Wealth and comprise equities and bonds. In July 2009 Trustees instructed Barclays Wealth to place more emphasis than hitherto on generating income in the form of dividends, rather than capital growth.

In the absence of special factors which contributed to a substantial reduction in the Society’s operating deficit in 2009/10 the operating deficit rose again to almost £30,000 in 2010/11.

Risk management policy Trustees are not in a position to protect the Society and its assets from global economic trends. They have introduced and regularly review procedures to control all other forms of risk to Society staff, property, members, volunteer workers and the general public.

Reserves policy The reserves established in earlier years continue to provide financial stability and flexibility, and generate a significant proportion of the income required to support the Society’s current operations. They have been seriously eroded by market trends in the last couple of years and by the need to use capital to fund deficits on our annual operations.

Responsibilities of Trustees The Trustees are required by law to prepare financial statements each year which give a true and fair account of the Society’s activities during the year and its financial position at the end of it. In preparing these accounts, Trustees are required to select suitable accounting policies and apply them consistently, and to follow applicable accounting

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wyriadau. Mae angen iddynt wneud penderfyniadau rhesymol a doeth yn ymwneud â’r materion hyn, cadw cofnodion ariannol sy’n datgelu’n weddol fanwl beth yw sefyllfa ariannol y Gymdeithas ar unrhyw adeg, a chydymffurfio â chyfraith elusennol a gofynion cyfreithiol eraill. Maent yn gyfrifol am ddiogelu asedau’r Gymdeithas a chymryd camau rhesymol i atal ac adnabod twyll. Paratowyd y datganiad hwn yn unol â gofynion SORP (y datganiad o’r arfer a argymhellir ar gyfer cyfrifo ac adroddiadau ariannol elusennau), cyfansoddiad y Gymdeithas a chyfraith elusennol. Cymeradwywyd y datganiad ariannol gan y Pwyllgor Gwaith ar 28 Gorffenaf 2011. Llofnodwyd ar ran yr Ymddiriedolwyr: David Lewis (Cadeirydd)

Helen Dale (Trysorydd)

standards, explaining any departures. They are required to make reasonable and prudent judgements in these matters, to keep accounting records which disclose with some accuracy at any time the financial position of the Society, and to comply with charity law and other legal requirements. They are responsible for safeguarding the assets of the Society and taking reasonable steps for the prevention and detection of fraud. This report has been prepared in accordance with SORP (the statement of recommended practice for accounting and reporting by charities), the Society’s constitution and charity law. The financial statements were approved by the Executive Committee on 28 July 2011. On behalf of the Trustees: David Lewis (Chair) Helen Dale (Treasurer)


Crynodeb ariannol ∞ Financial summary

Mae’r datganiad hwn o weithgareddau ariannol yn cynnwys ennillion a cholledion y flwyddyn i gyd. Mae’r adnoddau a wariwyd a sy’n dod i mewn yn dod o’n gweithgareddau parhaol. The statement of financial activities includes all gains and losses in the year. All incoming resources and resources expended derive from continuing activities.

Dyma cyfrifon cryno’r Gymdeithas, wedi’u cymeradwyo gan yr Ymddiriedolwyr ar 28 Gorffennaf 2011. Am ragor o wybodaeth am sefyllfa ariannol Cymdeithas Eryri, dylid edrych ar ddatganiad ariannol llawn ynghyd ag adroddiad yr Archwilydd Annibynnol ac Adroddiad Blynyddol yr Ymddiriedolwyr. Cedwir y datganiad ariannol llawn gan y Comisiwn Elusennau. Cewch copiau o’r Gymdeithas. These are the summarised accounts approved by the Trustees on 28 July 2011 For a more detailed understanding of the financial affairs of the Snowdonia Society, the full financial statements together with the Independent Examiner’s report on these accounts and the Trustees’ Annual Report should be consulted. The full accounts are filed with the Charity Commission. Copies can be obtained from the Society.

Represented by:

Datganiad gan yr Archwilydd Annibynnol Yn fy marn i, mae’r datganiad ariannol cryno uwchben yn cydymffurfio a’r datganiad ariannol llawn. P J B Tiernay FCA Statement of the Independent Examiner In my opinion the summary financial- information above is consistent with the full financial statements. P J B Tiernay FCA

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Diolch yn fawr!

Hoffai Cymdeithas Eryri ddiolch o galon i’w holl aelodau a’i chefnogwyr am eu cefnogaeth eleni. Mae eich cyfraniadau yn hanfodol i gefnogi ein hymdrechion i warchod, gwella a dathlu Eryri, yn awr ac i’r dyfodol.

The Snowdonia Society would like to thank all its members and donors for their continued support this year. Your contributions are vital to our work in protecting, enhancing and celebrating Eryri, now and in the future.

Mae Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri yn cynnwys 823 milltir sgwar o dirweddau mwyaf godidog ac amrywiol Ewrop. Mae eu 87 milltir o arfordir, naw cadwyn mynydd a’r aberoedd Dyfi, Mawddach a Dwyryd yn cynnig antur, hwyl a boddhad ymhell o’r torfeydd. Mae hefyd yn gartref i 25,000 o bobl.

The National Park covers 823 square miles of extraordinarily diverse landscape which includes some of the finest scenery in the UK. Containing nine distinct mountain groups, 87 miles of coastline and the beautiful Dyfi, Mawddach and Dwyryd estuaries, Snowdonia is a venue for fun and adventure, but also a source of renewal and inspiration, and for 25,000 people it is home.

Ein haelodau: ein dyfodol. Mi ydych chi yn rhan bwysig o barhad y Parc a’r Gymdeithas.

Our members, be they residents or visitors, represent the future both of the Society and of this much-loved landscape and its unique culture.

Byddai rhodd yn eich ewyllys yn ein cynorthwyo i sicrhau dyfodol cynaliadwy ar gyfer Eryri.

Leaving a donation in your will - however big or small - will help us to secure a sustainable future for Eryri.

Pe dymunech gefnogi ein gwaith yn fytholbarhaus trwy adael cymynrodd i’r Gymdeithas, a thrafod y dewisiadau sydd ar gael neu ofyn am gopi o’n pecyn gwybodaeth, cysylltwch â ni os gwelwch yn dda.

If you would like to support our work in perpetuity by leaving a legacy for the Society, please contact us to discuss the various options or request our information pack, A Legacy for the Park.

Machlud haul Tryfan sunset © John Farrar

www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk - www.snowdonia-society.org.uk 01286 685498 Snowdonia Society, Caban, Brynrefail, LL55 3NR

Bryn Bella Guest House Bed and Breakfast Accommodation

Bryn Bella overlooks the village of Betws y Coed and offers Quality with Sustainability. Totally non-smoking, all rooms are en suite with off road parking and wireless Internet (Wi-Fi) throughout. Betws-y-Coed is an ideal holiday location for exploring Snowdonia and the rest of North Wales, with or without a car. Find out more by going to www.bryn-bella.co.uk and book your break today. Most Sustainable B&B Award Green Snowdonia Tourism Awards 2009-2010

Mark & Joan Edwards 01690 710 627 welcome@bryn-bella.co.uk www.bryn-bella.co.uk

Discounts for members

The Snowdonia Society would like to say a big thank you to the businesses listed which offer a discount to our members, please do what you can to support them – remember that you will need to show a valid membership card in order to claim your discount. Snowbikers, Bont Ddu - 15% on a full or half day’s private MTB skills workshop for up to 4 people - 01341 430 628 Peak Outdoor Training, North Wales - 10% discount on navigation and mountain walking guiding and training courses - 01663 743278 Cotswold Outdoor, nationwide - 20% discount - 01690 710710, Cotswold discount now also available online - contact Frances to obtain our members’ affiliation code. Joe Brown, Capel Curig & Llanberis - 10% discount - 01690 720205 Anna Davies, Betws y Coed - 10% discount - 01690 710292 Ultimate Outdoors - 10% discount (not on publications) The Conwy Outdoor Shop - 10% discount - 01492 593 390 Plas y Brenin, Capel Curig - 10% off standby B&B - 01690 720214 Royal Oak Hotel, Betws y Coed - 10% discount on accommodation 01690 710 219 The Tin House, Llwyngwril - 10% discount on accommodation bookings - 01341 250884 Bridge View Bed & Breakfast, Betws y Coed - 10% discount, not on bank holidays - 01690 710127 Cadair View Lodge log cabins, near Trawsfynydd - 10% discount, not on bank holidays - 01978 759603


O blaid Eryri?

Passionate about the Park?

Ymunwch â ni! Join us!

Image © John Farrar

Am gyn lleied â £12 y flwyddyn i’r rhai lwcus o dan 25 mlwydd oed, neu £20 i’r gweddill ohonom, mae aelodaeth yn cynnig: - Digwyddiadau amrywiol, cyffrous - Disgowntiau oddiwrth fusnesau lleol - Dau gylchgrawn lliwgar bob blwyddyn - Cyfleoedd i ymuno yng ngwaith cadwraeth gwobrwyol y Gymdeithas Yn bwysicach fyth, byddwch yn ein helpu i warchod, gwella a dathlu Eryri yn awr ac yn y dyfodol. Am becyn gwybodaeth yn rhad ac am ddim anfonnwch y ffurflen hon at: Cymdeithas Eryri, Caban, Brynrefail, LL55 3NR

Enw / Name Cyfeiriad / Address

Ebost / Email Ffôn / Tel

From just £12 a year for under-25s and £20 for standard membership, we offer: - An exciting and informative programme of events - Discounts in local businesses - Two colour magazines each year - Lots of opportunities to take part in our award-winning conservation work Most importantly, you’ll be helping us to protect, enhance and celebrate this spectacular landscape, now and in the future. For a free information pack, return this coupon to: Snowdonia Society, Caban, Brynrefail, LL55 3NR

Designed by Sarah Medcalf and produced by Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society. Wedi ei argraffu trwy ddulliau caredig at yr amgylchedd ar bapur o ffynonellau cynaladwy. Printed by environmentally friendly methods on paper from sustainable sources.


Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society magazine aut 2011