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Blas ar Eryri Flavours of Snowdonia

Hydref 2013 Autumn

Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society magazine

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Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society Magazine

Sefydlwyd Cymdeithas Eryri yn 1967 a’i nod yw sicrhau fod harddwch ac amrywiaeth tirwedd, bywyd gwyllt ac etifeddiaeth ddiwylliannol y Parc Cenedlaethol yn parhau er mwynhad cenedlaethau’r presennol a’r dyfodol. ~~~ The Snowdonia Society, established in 1967, works to ensure the beauty and diversity of the National Park’s landscape, wildlife and cultural heritage remain for present and future generations to enjoy. Rhybudd am

I’w ddarllen â theclyn darllen côd bar For use with a smartphone bar code scanner

Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society,

Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR 01286 685498

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk www.snowdonia-society.org.uk Elusen gof. rhif / Reg. charity no: 253231

Swyddogion ac Ymddiriedolwyr / Officers and Trustees Llywydd / President: Dr John Disley CBE Is-Lywyddion / Vice-Presidents: Sir John Houghton CBE FRS, Sir Simon Jenkins FSA, John Lloyd Jones OBE, David Firth, Morag McGrath. Cadeirydd / Chair: David Archer Is-gadeirydd / Vice-Chair: Katherine Himsworth Ysgrifennydd Anrh. / Hon. Secretary: Hazel Barclay Aelodau’r pwyllgor / Committee members: Netti Collister, Bob Lowe, Bernard Owen, Gareth Roberts, Margaret Thomas, Elwyn Thomas, Peter Weston, Jacob Buis. Os hoffech gysylltu ag unrhyw aelod o’r pwyllgor, ffoniwch y swyddfa. If you would like to contact any of the committee members, please phone the office. Staff Cyfarwyddwr/Director: Huw Jenkins Gweinyddwraig Swyddfa/Office Administrator: Frances Smith Rheolwr Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri/ Snowdonia Ecosystem Project Manager: Mary-Kate Jones Swyddog Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri/ Snowdonia Ecosystem Project Officer: Jenny Whitmore Cyfrifydd/Accountant: Judith Bellis

Notice of the

Snowdonia Society

Gyfarfod Cyffredinol Blynyddol Cymdeithas Eryri

Annual General Meeting

Dydd Sadwrn, 19 Hydref 2013, 2pm Y Pengwern, Llan Ffestiniog LL41 4PB

Saturday, 19 October 2013, 2pm The Pengwern, Llan Ffestiniog LL41 4PB Please find your agenda and booking form on the reverse of the address sheet of your magazine.

Fe gewch eich agenda a ffurflen gofrestru ar gefn taflen gyfeiriad eich cylchgrawn. Cysylltwch â’r swyddfa os oes gennych unrhyw ymholiadau: 01286 685498

Contact the office in case of queries:

info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

Ddim yn aelod? Cefnogwch ein gwaith trwy ymaelodi rwan! Cysylltwch â ni neu gweler ein gwefan i ddarganfod rhagor.

Not a member? Support our work by joining now! Contact us or visit our website for details.

Cynnwys • Contents Golygyddol Ffermwr Ogwen Marchnad Eryri Gardd Fadarch Troelli Trwy Ardudwy Tyfu Cymunedol yn Eryri Gastronomeg neu Danwydd Rysáit Adfywiad Cwrw Go Iawn Adolygiad Llyfr Gwledd Conwy Feast Digwyddiadau Adolygiad o’r Flwyddyn Uchafbwyntiau’r Flwyddyn Adroddiad Ariannol Crynodeb Ariannol Llythyrau

3 4-7 8-9 10-11 12-15 16-17 18-19 20 22 23 24-25 27 28-31 32 33 34 35

Editorial Ogwen Farmer Snowdonia Market A Mushroom Garden Awheel in Ardudwy Community Growing in Snowdonia Gastronomy or Fuel Recipe Real Ale Revival Book Review Gwledd Conwy Feast Events Review of the Year Highlights of the Year Financial Report Financial Summary Letters

Ymwelwch â'n chwaer-wefannau • Visit our sister websites www.tyhyll.co.uk www.theuglyhouse.co.uk

www.14peaks.com

Cyfieithu/Translation: Gareth Jones Delwedd clawr/Cover image: © Rob Collister

Dyma gylchgrawn swyddogol Cymdeithas Eryri. Caiff ei gyhoeddi bob chwe mis a’i ddosbarthu i aelodau’r Gymdeithas yn rhad ac am ddim. Gofynnwch os hoffech chi gael unrhyw erthyglau mewn fformat print bras. This is the official magazine of the Snowdonia Society, distributed free to its members twice a year. Please ask if you would like the text of any articles in a larger print format. 2


Golygyddol

Editorial

Wrth gerdded ger Beddgelert yn ddiweddar, mwynheais y llus mwyaf blasus a mwyaf helaeth a welais ers tro byd, ac roedd hi'n anffodus nad oedd gennyf unrhyw gynhwysydd i'w cludo gartref. Roeddent yn tyfu ymhlith rhedyn a chriafol a bedw ifanc, a sylweddolais na fu defaid yn y llecyn hwn ers sawl blwyddyn, mae’n debyg. “Tybed sut le fydd yma ymhen deng mlynedd,” meddyliais.

On a walk near Beddgelert recently I enjoyed the tastiest and most abundant bilberries I have found for a long time, and regretted not having a container to take some home with me. They were growing amongst heather, and young rowan and birch trees, and I realised this must be an area that had been kept free of sheep for a few years. “I wonder what this will look like in ten years time,” I thought to myself.

Mae llawer o ffermwyr mynydd Cymru yn ymbaratoi at ddiwygiadau’r Polisi Amaethyddol Cyffredinol a ddaw i rym eleni. Yn sgil lleihau’r gefnogaeth i ffermio defaid a rhagor o bwyslais ar elfennau “gwyrdd”, daw llechweddi llawn llus yn nodwedd fwy cyffredin wrth i lai o ddefaid bori ac wrth i goed a thir prysg gael cyfle i adfywio.

Many Welsh mountain farmers are bracing themselves for the Common Agricultural Policy reforms due to come into effect this year. With support for sheep farming being reduced and a greater emphasis on “greening”, such bilberry-rich mountainsides will become a more common feature as sheep grazing is reduced and trees and scrub are allowed to regenerate.

Mae Gwyn Thomas yn croesawu symudiad tuag at amaethyddiaeth fwy cymysg yn y mynyddoedd (gweler Ffermwr Ogwen), â cheffylau, geifr a gwartheg duon Cymreig yn cyfrannu at reoli'r tir yn gynaliadwy, yn ogystal â chyfrannu at gynhyrchu bwyd. Mae merlod mynydd Cymreig yn addas iawn i amgylchedd mynyddig. Yn dilyn yr helynt diweddar ynghylch cynnwys lasagne cig eidion, pan ddaeth i’r amlwg fod cig ceffylau yn debyg iawn i gig eidion ac yn llawn mor flasus, a welwn y dydd pan fyddent yn cyfrannu at gynhyrchu bwyd yn ogystal â rheoli tir?

Gwyn Thomas welcomes a move towards more mixed mountain agriculture (see Ogwen Farmer), with horses, goats and Welsh black cattle playing a role in sustainable land-management, in addition to any role in food production. Welsh mountain ponies are very well suited to a mountain environment. Following the recent storm over the contents of beef lasagne when it transpired that horse meat was very similar to and as tasty as beef, will we ever see the day when the herds of ponies have a culinary role as well as a landmanagement one?

Felly sut olwg fydd ar y llechwedd honno ymhen pum mlynedd? A fydd yn Ardd Eden Gymreig fel yr wyf yn ei dychmygu’n rhamantus? Pa anifeiliaid gwyllt neu anifeiliaid fferm fydd yn ei phoblogi? Ac ar ôl i mi lenwi fy stumog a fy mhowlen â llus, beth fydd ar fy mwydlen amser te? Edrychaf ymlaen at ddarganfod hynny.

So what will that mountainside look like in ten years time? Will it be the Welsh Garden of Eden I romantically imagine? Which wild or farmed animals will populate it? And after I’ve filled myself and my bilberry pot with bilberries, what will be on the menu for my tea? I look forward to finding out. Frances Smith

Frances Smith Cynhyrchwyd y cylchgrawn hwn gan dîm golygyddol yn cynnwys Rob Collister, Frances Smith a Huw Jenkins. Rydym yn hynod ddiolchgar i’r holl awduron a ffotograffwyr sydd wedi cyfrannu at y rhifyn hwn. Cofiwch mai safbwyntiau personol yr awduron sy’n cael eu mynegi ganddynt, ac nid ydynt o reidrwydd yn adlewyrchu polisi Cymdeithas Eryri.

The magazine is produced by an editorial panel of Rob Collister, Frances Smith and Huw Jenkins. We are extremely grateful to all the authors and photographers who have contributed to this issue. The views expressed by the authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect Snowdonia Society policy.

Caption

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Ffermwr Ogwen

Cyfweliad â’r ffermwr organig ucheldirol, Gwyn Thomas, Blaen-y-Nant Rwyf wedi treulio’r rhan fwyaf o fy mywyd gwaith yma, y 17 blynedd diwethaf fel tenant a helpu’r tenant blaenorol cyn hynny. Mae’n fferm fil erw, o wyneb Tryfan, y wahanfa ddŵr ar y Glyderau i lawr crib Gribin, i lawr i Glogwyn y Tarw ar draws waelod Cwm Idwal, i lawr o gefn Hafod i'r grid gwartheg ac yna ochr yn ochr â’r A5.

Arferai fod yn fferm gymysg â gwartheg godro, gwartheg a defaid, ond daeth yn fferm ddefaid ar ôl y rhyfel. Pan gefais y fferm roedd 1200 ohonynt ac roeddent wedi dinistrio’r grug, y llus a’r glasbrennau, ac roedd y coetiroedd yn marw. Tir Gofal oedd fy achubiaeth; rhoddodd gyfle i mi wella fy anifeiliaid a gwella bywyd gwyllt yr un pryd. Bu lleihad o 75% yn nifer y defaid, ailgyflwynwyd gwartheg duon Cymreig, yn ogystal â geifr a merlod Shetland, sy'n rhagorol i bori'r brwyn.

Beth yw’r prif newidiadau rydych wedi’u gweld? Y nifer o bobl. Pan oeddwn yn saith neu wyth oed, aem i nofio i Lyn Idwal, ac efallai gwelem 20 o bobl mewn esgidiau hoelion mawr â rhaffau trwchus. Dywedai ein rhieni wrthym am gadw draw oddi wrth y 'dringwyr gwallgof'; a rhedem fel y gwynt wrth weld cerddwr. Bellach, mewn ychydig oriau, byddwch yn debygol o weld rhai cannoedd ohonynt. Fy mhrif bryder yw cŵn yn erlid defaid pan ddylent fod ar dennyn.

Pa mor hyfyw yw’r fferm? Heb gymorth, buaswn yn fethdalwr. I wneud elw o werthu cig organig i archfarchnadoedd, buasai angen i mi ennill £100 am bob oen, ond y llynedd, cefais £54 am y goreuon a £30 am y rhai ysgafnach. Mae Tir Gofal (bellach yn ei flwyddyn olaf) yn talu £20 mil y flwyddyn i mi am leihau nifer y stoc a pheidio pori defaid ar y mynydd dros y

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yn cynorthwyo i achub y rhywogaeth hon. Mae’r nentydd mewn cyflwr da ac mae dyfrgwn a llygod y dŵr yma a bydd eogiaid a sewin yn silio ym mhen afon Ogwen.

gaeaf; mae Taliad Fferm Sengl Ewrop yn werth £12 mil. Ond mae anfon defaid i ffwrdd i aeafu yn ddrud. Arferwn eu hanfon i fferm organig 2,000 erw yn Bridgnorth. Roeddent yn tyfu cymysgedd o datws, berllys, gwenith a ffrwythau meddal, ond bellach tyfir ‘India corn’ yn unig, a roddir mewn biodreuliwr i gynhyrchu trydan. Mae’r tariff cyflenwi trydan yn sail i ddoethineb y ffermwr hwnnw am y 25 mlynedd nesaf. Mae’n ymddangos nad oes gwahaniaeth beth fyddwn yn ei fwyta cyn belled â bod y tŷ yn gynnes a'r car yn rhedeg.

Beth yw eich cynlluniau nesaf? Glastir yw’r cynllun amaethamgylchedd newydd sy’n dymuno denu rhagor o wartheg i ddychwelyd i’r uwchdiroedd. Mae cadw gwartheg yma wedi bod yn anodd, ac o gofio fod gennym 100 modfedd o law yn flynyddol, rhaid i mi fod yn wyliadwrus i atal maetholion rhag llifo i mewn i’r dyfroedd. Hoffwn aeafu fy ngwartheg dan do yma, ond rhaid i mi gael caniatâd i newid y buarth ar y gwaelod i gynnwys llecyn gorchuddiedig â storfa slyri, fel y gellir ei gadw i'w ddefnyddio yn y gwanwyn pan fydd y pridd yn cynhesu a bydd yn gallu amsugno'r nitrogen. Os caf ganiatâd, bydd angen i mi siarad â’r rheolwr banc ynghylch benthyciad rwy’n 60 oed erbyn hyn, ond bydd yn werth y drafferth, oherwydd rwy’n gobeithio bod yn ffermio yma pan fyddaf yn fy wythdegau.

I wneud elw, mae’n rhaid i mi fod yn greadigol, ac ers blynyddoedd lawer, rydym yn cynnig llety ffermdy gan ddefnyddio ein cynnyrch ein hunain i baratoi brecwast a phrydau gyda’r hwyr. Fy menter fawr bresennol yw Tryfan Organics, fan arlwyo sydd wedi’i barcio ger Canolfan Ogwen, a byddaf yn gwerthu bwyd poeth o’r fan: lobsgóws, byrgers cig gwartheg duon Cymreig, byrgers cig oen mynydd â blas mint, a selsig a bacwn o’n moch ein hunain. Yn y dyfodol, efallai byrgers byfflos dŵr hefyd – mae darn o dir corsiog y gallent ei droi yn gig blasus yn rhwydd.

Sut le fydd yma ymhen 50 mlynedd? Hoffwn weld fferm deuluol Gymreig a fydd yn fwy arbenigol, mae’n debyg, ond yn dal yn seiliedig ar gymysgedd o ŵyn mynydd a gwartheg duon Cymreig.

Pan fydd pobl yn darganfod y blas, bydd arnynt eisiau rhagor, felly byddwn yn nodi enwau a rhifau ffôn ac yn yr hydref, byddwn yn eu ffonio i gael archebion am focsys cig oen a chig eidion. Byddaf yn gwneud y gwaith bwtsiera yma fy hun wedi i’r cig oen hongian am wythnos a’r cig eidion am fis. Byddaf yn tywys fy ngwartheg i mewn i’r lladd-dy, gan siarad â hwy i leihau’r straen - nid wyf yn hoffi'r syniad o weithiwr cyflogedig yn defnyddio ffon i reoli anifail anobeithiol tuag at ei farwolaeth. Mae angen iddo fod mor drugarog ag y bo modd er lles pawb.

Bydd arallgyfeirio’n parhau – nid yw’n newydd. Ers talwm, deuai ymwelwyr yma ar y trên ac yna ar eu beiciau o orsaf Bangor. Symudid y plant i mewn i’r ysgubor, tebyg i ystafell gysgu â gwelyau metel a blwch orennau i storio pethau. Yn y cyfamser, defnyddid y llestri gorau ar gyfer yr ymwelwyr a ddeuai i fyw bywyd fferm Gymreig am wythnos. Erbyn iddynt ddychwelyd i Benbedw neu Oldham, roeddent yn gwybod llawer iawn am ein diwylliant a’n ffyrdd o fyw! Byddaf yn dal i anfon cardiau Nadolig at bobl y gwnaethom eu cwrdd felly.

A yw’r cymhorthdal yn cynhyrchu canlyniad da? Nid oes anialwch gwyrdd yma. Mae coed yn adfywio. Nid oes rhaid codi ffensys o’u hamgylch os oes digon o borfa; dim ond defaid llwglyd a wnaiff gnoi rhisgl a dail coed. Mae llai o ddefaid a gaeafu mewn mannau eraill yn golygu fod llai o bwysau ar goed. Gwartheg yw fy chwalwyr tail symudol. Bydd pob pentwr o faw gwartheg a adewir yn denu pryf genwair, chwilod a phryfed sy’n denu adar yn eu tro. Mae 64 rhywogaeth yma yn cynnwys pedwar neu bump ar restr goch RSPB. Dyma yw cadarnle Llinos y mynydd, sy’n hynod o brin. Mae’n wych meddwl fod bugail, trwy ddilyn cyngor,

Mae llywodraethau yn annog arallgyfeirio ond mae’n angenrheidiol i ni. Mae angen arweiniad clir arnom; a ydym yn gynhyrchwyr bwyd neu'n geidwaid cefn gwlad? Mae llawer iawn o brosiectau bychan, ond ychydig iawn o gyfeiriad clir. *Llyfr Poced Ystadegau Bwyd 2012, Defra

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Ogwen Farmer

An interview with organic upland farmer Gwyn Thomas, Blaen-y-Nant I’ve been here most of my working life, for the past 17 years as a tenant and before that helping the previous tenant. The farm is a thousand acres, from the face of Tryfan, the watershed on Glyderau down the Gribin ridge, down to Clogwyn y Tarw across the bottom of Cwm Idwal, down behind Hafod to the cattle grid then up alongside the A5. It’s a varied landscape with good shelter.

‘mad climbers’ and we would run like hell if we saw a hiker. Now, in a couple of hours, you are likely to see a few hundred. My main concern is dogs chasing sheep when they should be on a lead. This used to be a mixed farm with milking cows, cattle and sheep but after the war it became just sheep. When I took the farm on there were 1200 and they had devastated the heather, bilberry and saplings with woodlands dying. Tir Gofal was my saviour; it gave me the breathing space to improve the animals and at the same time the wildlife. Sheep numbers were cut by 75%, Welsh blacks reintroduced, plus goats and Shetland ponies which do a great job grazing the rushes.

What are the main changes you’ve seen? The volume of people. When I was seven or eight we would go to Llyn Idwal to swim and maybe see 20 people in their hobnailed boots with thick ropes. Our parents told us to stay clear of the

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How viable is the farm? Without support I would be bankrupt. To make money from selling organic meat to supermarkets I would need £100 per lamb, but last year I got £54 for my best and just £30 for the lighter ones. Tir Gofal (now in its final year) pays me £20K a year for destocking and removing the sheep over the winter; and the European Single Farm Payment is worth £12k.

trout spawning up the end of Ogwen.

beetles and other insects which in turn bring in the birds. 64 different species here including four or five on the RSPB’s red list. This is the stronghold for the extremely rare twite. It’s great to think that a shepherd, with advice, is helping save this species. The streams are in good condition with otters and water vole and with salmon and sea

What are your next plans?

But sending sheep away for winter is expensive. I used to send them to a 2,000 acre organic farm in Bridgnorth. They grew a mix of potatoes, barley, wheat and soft fruits but today it’s all maize which goes into a biodigester to make electricity. The feed-in tariff underpins the wisdom of that farmer for the next 25 years. It’s as if it doesn’t matter what we’re going to eat so long as the house is warm and the car is running.

Glastir is the new agri-environment scheme which would like to encourage more cattle back on to the uplands. Keeping cattle here has been difficult, with 100 inches rainfall I am constantly on my guard to prevent nutrient run-off into the waters. I would like to overwinter my cattle here indoors but I need to get permission to change the yard at the bottom to include a covered area with a slurry store so that it can be kept for use in the spring when the soil warms and can absorb the nitrogen. If I get permission I then need to speak to the bank manager about a loan – I’m 60 now but it’s worth it because I hope to be farming here well into my 80s.

To balance the books I need to be inventive and for many years we have provided farmhouse accommodation with our own produce served for breakfast and evening meal. My big venture at the moment is Tryfan Organics, a catering van parked near the Ogwen Centre, from which I sell hot food: lobscaws, Welsh black burgers, minted mountain lamb burgers, sausages and bacon from our own pigs. In the future maybe Water Buffalo burgers too – there’s a boggy patch of ground they could sensibly convert into tasty meat.

What will it be like here in 50 years time? I’d like to see a Welsh family-run farm which will probably be more specialised but still based on a mix of mountain lamb and Welsh blacks.

When people discover the taste they want more so we keep note of names and phone numbers and come the autumn we will phone them to take orders for boxed lamb and beef. I do the butchery here myself after the lamb has hung for a week and the beef for a month. I lead my cattle into the abattoir, talking to them, to minimise the stress – I don’t like the idea of a hired hand using a stick to control a despairing animal towards its death. It needs to be as humane as possible for everyone’s sake.

Diversification will continue - it’s nothing new. Years ago, visitors used to come by train and ride their bikes up from Bangor station. Children would be moved into the barn, a bit like a dormitory, with metal beds and an orange box for storage. Meanwhile best crockery would be brought out for the visiting family that would live the life of a Welsh farm for the week. By the time they returned to Birkenhead or Oldham they would know so much about our culture and way of life! I’m still sending Christmas cards to people we met like that.

Does the subsidy produce a good result?

Governments urge diversification but we do it by necessity. What we need is a clear steer; are we food producers or guardians of the countryside? There are so many little projects but no clear direction.

No green desert here. Trees are regenerating. They don’t have to be fenced off if there’s plenty of grass; only hungry sheep will resort to chewing off the bark and the leaves. Fewer sheep plus wintering away means there is less pressure on trees. Cattle are my mobile muck spreaders. Each deposit of manure brings in worms,

*Food Statistics Pocketbook 2012, Defra 7


Marchnad Eryri Wrth grwydro o amgylch y stondinau yng nghanol Bangor, fe wnaeth arddangosfa cyffug ddal fy sylw. Yna sylweddolais mai fy nghyfrifydd oedd y stondinwr! Roedd ei fab wedi sefydlu busnes cyffug Eboni ac Eifori tra’r oedd yn ymdrechu i chwilio am waith. Pan gafodd swydd dda, gadawodd ei dad yn gyfrifol am y cyffug. Marchnad Eryri yw un o’r mannau ble bydd y busnes yn gwerthu ei gynnyrch. Yng ngwanwyn 2012, daeth dwsin o gynhyrchwyr lleol ynghyd i greu marchnad symudol yn teithio o amgylch cymunedau gwledig gogledd Cymru. Fe wnaeth grant o £26,000 alluogi iddynt fuddsoddi mewn pebyll 'pop-up' sy’n dal dŵr, byrddau, oergelloedd ar gyfer cynhyrchwyr cig a threlar i gludo a storio. Maent bellach yn rhan sefydledig o’r sin lleol. Aelod arall o’r farchnad yw Kurmang, o’r Becws Model ym Mlaenau â’i fara arbenigol a'i Bastai Cwrdaidd enwog, a welwyd ar raglen Britain’s Best Bakery ITV. Yn lle crwst, mae’r cynhwysion sbeislyd, naill ai cig neu lysieuol, wedi'u cynnwys mewn toes bara. "Nwyddau a marchnadoedd arbenigol sy’n cyfrif am y rhan fwyaf o fy musnes. Yn sgil costau cynyddol cynhwysion ac ynni - ac mae becysiau yn defnyddio llawer iawn o ynni - yr unig ffordd ymlaen yw symud o nwyddau cyffredinol i nwyddau arbenigol", meddai Kurmang. Mae cynhyrchwyr eraill y farchnad yn darparu teisennau wedi’u gwneud yn arbennig, caws llaeth gafr, cig oen a phorc cartref, a gwirod a wnaed ag aeron aronia a dyfir ar fferm ger Chwilog. Maent yn aeron brodorol o Ogledd America, ac fe'u gelwir weithiau yn aeron tag du, ac enw'r gwirod yw Aerona, sy'n seiliedig ar y gair 'aeron'. Mae cynhyrchwyr newydd y farchnad

yn cynnwys Café 528, cynhyrchwyr 'uwchfwydydd' fegan, a Petros Olives, sy’n dod â blas o Fôr y Canoldir i Eryri trwy gynnig bwydydd wedi’u gwneud o olifau o’u fferm deuluol yn ne Cyprus. Ai twyllo yw hynny neu fod yn gosmopolitaidd? Ers penodi ysgrifenyddes reolaidd ar ddechrau 2013, maent bellach yn cynnal marchnadoedd rheolaidd yng Nghaernarfon (dydd Gwener cyntaf bob mis) a Bangor (ail ddydd Mercher bob mis) ac maent yn treialu marchnad reolaidd yn Indigo Jones ym Mhenygroes. Bydd gweld Marchnad Eryri â sbloet a chellwair ei gwerthwyr yn fy atgoffa o ba mor fywiog a gwydn y gallwn fod pan fydd pethau’n anodd. Huw Jenkins a Marie Jones, Ysgrifenyddes Marchnad Eryri -----

*Cafwyd 80% o’r arian grant gan brosiect Nwyddau Lleol Llwyddo yng Ngwynedd, h.y. Cynllun Datblygu Gwledig Cymru 20072012 (ariennir gan Lywodraeth Cymru a Chronfa Amaethyddol Ewrop). Cafwyd yr 20% arall gan Fenter Môn trwy Gynllun Adfywio Môn a Menai.

Dyddiadau Marchnad Eryri Hydref 6 Triathlon Llanc Yr Eira, Plas y Brenin, Capel Curig Rhagfyr 7 - 8 Gŵyl Bwyd Portmeirion Rhagfyr 15 Y Maes, Caernarfon I gael diweddariadau rheolaidd ynghylch ble i ddod o hyd i Farchnad Eryri, gweler: www.facebook.com/MarchnadEryriSnowdoniaMarket snowdoniamarket@btinternet.com

01766 830 329 8

Cynnyrch Llaeth Gafr Richlin Dairy Goat Products


Snowdonia Market Whilst admiring the Snowdonia Market stalls in downtown Bangor, a display of fudge caught my eye. Then I focussed on the stall holder – this was my accountant! His son had set up the Ebony and Ivory fudge business while struggling to find employment, and having gained a good job, he left his Dad in charge of the fudge. One of the outlets for the business is the Snowdonia Market. In spring 2012 a dozen local producers got together to create a mobile market touring rural communities in north Wales. With the help of £26,000 of grant funding* they were able to invest in waterproof pop-up tents, tables, chillers for the meat producers and a trailer for transport and storage. Now they are an established part of the local scene. Becws Model Bakery

Llysiau'r Llan • Village Veg

Another member of the market is Kurmang, from the Model Bakery in Blaenau with his speciality breads and the infamous Kurdish Pasty, as seen on ITV’s Britain’s Best Bakery. Instead of pastry, the spicy ingredients, either meat or vegetarian, are encased in a bread dough. "Speciality products and markets make up the bulk of my business. With rising costs of both

ingredients and energy - and bakeries use a lot of energy - the only way forward is away from commodity and into niche", says Kurmang. Other producers in the market provide customised cakes, goats’ cheese, homereared lamb and pork, and a liqueur made with aronia berries grown on a farm near Chwilog. The berries, native to eastern North America, are sometimes called black chokeberry and the brand name of the liqueur is Aerona, from the Welsh word meaning berry. New recruits to the market include Café 528, producers of home-made vegan ‘super-foods’, and Petros Olives, who bring a taste of the Mediterranean to Snowdonia by offering delicious olivebased foods from trees on their family farm in southern Cyprus. Is that cheating or just cosmopolitan? Since the appointment of a permanent secretary, at the beginning of 2013, they now hold regular markets in both Caernarfon (first Friday of each month) and Bangor (second Wednesday of each month) and are trialling a regular market with Inigo Jones at Penygroes. Seeing the Snowdonia Market in action, with the razzamatazz and banter of its vendors, it reminds me how vibrant and resilient we can be when times are tough. Huw Jenkins and Marie Jones, Secretary of the Snowdonia Market -----

*80% of the grant funding came from Llwyddo yng Ngwynedd Local Products project, i.e. Rural Development Plan for Wales 2007-2012 (funded by the Welsh Assembly Government and the European Agricultural Fund). The remaining 20% was from Menter Môn through the Môn a Menai Regeneration Scheme.

Snowdonia Market Dates October 6th Snowman Triathlon, Plas y Brenin, Capel Curig December 7th - 8th Portmeirion Food Festival December 15th Castle Square, Caernarfon. For regular updates on where to find them next, visit: www.facebook.com/MarchnadEryriSnowdoniaMarket snowdoniamarket@btinternet.com 01766 830 329

Delweddau • Images © Marchnad Eryri Snowdonia Market

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Gardd Fadarch Cynan Jones

perffaith mewn glaswellt a welir oherwydd afliwiad y borfa. Cofnododd y diweddar John Owen Huws lawer o’r straeon hyn yn ei draethawd MA Straeon Gwerin Ardal Eryri a gyhoeddwyd yn ddiweddar gan Wasg Carreg Gwalch.

Mae’r Ymddiriedolaeth Coedlannau ac eraill wedi disgrifio llawer o Eryri fel coedwig law Geltaidd, disgrifiad addas o ystyried tywydd ein hafau diweddar, ac amgylchedd delfrydol i'r twf sylweddol o ffyngau a welwn bob hydref. Mae Plas Tan y Bwlch, sydd wedi'i amgylchynu gan goedwig law, yn rhedeg cwrs Madarch a Ffyngau bob mis Hydref, ac roeddwn yn un o'r myfyrwyr ddeng mlynedd yn ôl.

Caiff cylchoedd afliwiedig o’r fath eu ffurfio gan fyseliwm madarch sy'n cymryd maetholion a lleithder o’r pridd wrth i’r hyffae microsgopig ledaenu o bwynt canolog. Efallai fod hynny’n ffaith wyddonol, ond nid yw’n rhwystro’r tylwyth teg rhag defnyddio’r cylch i ddawnsio, onid yw e?

Wedi fy ysbrydoli gan y tiwtoriaid, Patrick Harding a Twm Elias, ymgollais yn llwyr ym myd anhygoel ffyngau a arweiniodd at sefydlu'r Ardd Farchnad ger Beddgelert fel menter fasnachol yn Mae rhai o ffyngau Eryri yn haeddu sylw arbennig oherwydd tyfu madarch Shiitake ac Wystrys eu rhinweddau unigryw, er enghraifft, y Coed a threfnu teithiau cerdded i y Ffwng Mêl (Armirallia mellea), parasit edrych am ffyngau. Ysgwydd felen ● Chicken of the woods dinistriol y rhan fwyaf o goed caled a llwyni y gall eu myseliwm greu gwawr Mae nifer helaeth o ffyngau a fflwroleuol yn y tywyllwch! A beth am y madarch yn Eryri, megis y Cap Brau Gingroen (Phallus impudicus) sy’n denu lliwgar sy'n amrywio o wyrdd tywyll i pryfed i ledaenu eu sborau trwy allyrru goch a melyn llachar, a rhai o'r mathau arogl cig sy’n pydru? Bydd ei enw Lladin mwyaf blasus megis Siantrelau a hefyd yn ddadlennol os ydych erioed wedi Bwyd Llyffaint (porcini). Mae astudio gweld un; credid ei fod yn peri cymaint ffyngau yn brofiad dysgu diddiwedd i o ofid i ferched oes Fictoria, argreffid amaturiaid brwdfrydig, ond yn achos lluniau o'r madarch hyn â'u pen i waered. mycolegwyr proffesiynol, mae gwir natur ffyngau a'u manteision i fodau Rwyf wedi cael gwahoddiad i ymuno â dynol wrthi'n cael eu darganfod, Patrick a Twm fel tiwtor gwadd ar y cwrs er enghraifft, nodweddion Madarch a Ffyngau yr hydref hwn, ac gwrthocsidydd madarch Wystrys rwy'n edrych ymlaen at fynd gyda fy nau y Coed a rhinweddau hybu system gyfaill ffwngaidd a chyfranogwyr y cwrs imiwnedd madarch Shiitake. ar helfeydd i goedwigoedd glaw Celtaidd mawreddog Eryri! Mae mynyddoedd a dyffrynnoedd niwlog Eryri wedi bod yn ffynhonnell ffrwythlon o lên gwerin, yn bennaf oherwydd Beddgelert: Its Facts, Fairies and Folklore gan Mr Jenkins a gyhoeddwyd yn 1899 ac a seiliwyd ar draethawd Cymraeg a gyflwynwyd yn Eisteddfod Tremadog gan ŵr o’r enw William Jones ychydig o flynyddoedd cyn hynny. Yn rhyfedd iawn, nid yw madarch yn ymddangos yn uniongyrchol yn y chwedlau gwerin hyn, sy’n adlewyrchu ein diffyg Cynan yw sylfaenydd a pherchennog Yr Ardd gwybodaeth o ffyngau o'n Fadarch, Nantmor, ac mae’n frwdfrydig cymharu â’n cefndryd ar y ynghylch bwyd da sydd mor lleol â phosibl ac cyfandir. Fodd bynnag, mae â tharddiad. Mae’n credu y dylai cynhyrchwyr sawl cyfeiriad at gylchoedd Ambarél bwgan ● Parasol mushroom bwyd primaidd wneud rhagor i ychwanegu tylwyth teg madarch a’u © Pierino Algieri gwerth at eu cynnyrch trwy greu bwyd arloesol rhinweddau hud; bydd sawl a wnaiff alluogi busnesau bychan i dyfu a rhywogaeth yn ffurfio’r chreu hunaniaeth a diwylliant bwyd unigryw siapiau hyn mewn tir pori. yng Nghymru. Y mwyaf dadlennol yn hanesion Eryri yw’r disgrifiadau o gylchoedd www.yrarddfadarch.co.uk 10


A Mushroom Garden Cynan Jones

The Woodland Trust and others have described much of Snowdonia as a Celtic rainforest, an apt description given the weather of recent summers, and a perfect environment for the prolific fungal growth which we see every autumn. Plas Tan y Bwlch, surrounded by rainforest, runs a Mushroom and Fungi course each October and ten years ago I was one of the students. Inspired by the tutors, Patrick Harding and Twm Elias, I became engrossed by the amazing world of fungi which led to the establishment of The Mushroom Garden near Beddgelert as a commercial enterprise growing Shiitake and Oyster mushrooms and organising fungal walks. There is a wide range of fungi and mushrooms in Snowdonia such as the beautifully coloured Russulas, from dark green to brilliant reds and yellows, plus some of the most delicious such as the Chanterelle and the Cep (porcini). Studying fungi is a never-ending learning experience for the enthusiastic amateur, but for professional mycologists the true nature of the fungal kingdom and its benefits to mankind are just being discovered, for example the Oyster mushroom’s antioxidant properties and the Shiitake’s immune system boosting qualities. The misty mountains and valleys of Snowdonia have also been an abundant source of folklore, mainly due to Mr Jenkins’ Beddgelert: Its Facts, Fairies and

Cynan yn ei ystafell hydref • Cynan in his autumn container

Folklore, published in 1899 and based on a Welsh essay submitted to an Eisteddfod in Tremadog by one William Jones some years previously. Surprisingly mushrooms do not feature directly in these folk tales, reflecting our relative lack of knowledge of fungi compared to our continental cousins. There are however several references to fairy rings of mushrooms and their magical properties; several species form these structures in pasture. Most revealing in Snowdonia tales are descriptions of perfect circles in the grass which can be seen due to the discolouration of the pasture. The late John Owen Huws records many of these stories in his MA thesis Straeon Gwerin Ardal Eryri (Folk Tales of the Snowdonia Area) recently published by Gwasg Carreg Gwalch. Such discoloured rings are formed by mushroom mycelium actually taking nutrients and moisture from the soil as the microscopic hyphae spread out from a central point. That may be a scientific fact but it does not stop the fairies from using the circle to dance, does it? Some of the fungi of Snowdonia command special attention due 11

to their unique properties. Take the Honey Fungus (Armirallia mellea) for example, a devastating parasite of most hardwoods and shrubs whose mycelium can deliver a greenish fluorescent glow in the dark! And what about the aptly named Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus) that attracts flies to spread its spores by emanating a smell of rotting meat. Its Latin name is also revealing if you have ever seen one; it was thought to be so upsetting to Victorian ladies that illustrations of the mushroom were printed upside down! I have been invited to join Patrick and Twm as a guest tutor on the Mushroom and Fungi course this autumn and I’m looking forward to accompanying my two fungal friends and the course participants on those forays into the great Celtic rainforests of Snowdonia!

Cynan is the founder and proprietor of The Mushroom Garden, Nantmor, and is passionate about good local food provenance. He believes that primary food producers should do more to add value to their produce by creating innovative foods which will enable small businesses to grow and create a Welsh food identity and culture. www.snowdoniamushrooms.co.uk


y w d u d r A y w r T i l l Troe

Saif rhanbarth Ardudwy i'r gorllewin o fynyddoedd Rhinog rhwng Harlech ac Abermaw, ac mae'n wastad yn un o fy hoff fannau i grwydro ynddi. Diolch i rwydwaith o ffyrdd a thraciau hynafol, y defnyddid rhai ohonynt gan y porthmyn i fynd â bwyd i’r farchnad, mae'n addas i'w grwydro ar gefn beic.

ister Rob Coll

y w a l i a u cerrig sych hollbresennol. Gan anwybyddu arwyddbost Ffordd Ardudwy, dilynais lwybr llawer hynach, i lawr llechwedd gorsiog ag olion dwfn cerbydau yn llawn dŵr yn ei greithio, profiad annymunol cyntaf y diwrnod.

ter b Collis

Ar ddiwedd un diwrnod l © Ro y Gedo h, Gors c le ym mis Mai, pan oedd y tir m o Cr yn cynhesu o’r diwedd wedi gaeaf oer a hir, gadewais y car yn Nhal y Bont ac i ffwrdd â fi i fyny’r allt. Arweiniai traciau a llwybrau ceffylau trwy goedlan oedd yn frith o dderw a bedw, â’u dail yn galeidescop o wyrdd ysgafn, ffres; roedd bwtsias y gog oddi tanynt yn fwrlwm o liw a fflachiai nentydd bychan yn yr heulwen. Clywid caneuon y deryn du, y fronfraith a'r asgell fraith ym mhobman. Roedd fflic plu cynffon coch yn arwydd o'r dingoch. Wedi wythnosau o dywydd gwael, teimlai’n baradwysaidd iawn.

O’m blaen, gorweddai pont fechan dros y nant sy'n llifo o Fodlyn, Pont Scethin, y gwnaeth Jim Perrin ei disgrifio unwaith fel ‘un o’r tirweddau mwyaf bregus a choeth mewn gwlad o harddwch naturiol coeth a bregus’. Er nad yw ond ychydig filltiroedd o ffordd arfordirol brysur, teimlai’n dawel ac anghysbell iawn. Lle gwell i oedi am bicnic, â’r parapet yn gysgod rhag gwynt dwyreiniol cryf? Goleuid gwaith cerrig y bont gan heboglys melyn, ac wrth i mi blygu i yfed o'r nant, pefriai lliw gwyrdd-aur y chwyn trwy'r dŵr. Nid oedd y trochwr roeddwn wedi disgwyl ei weld yno, ond fe wnaeth pâr o siglennod wedi'u cynhyrfu ddatgan yn glir fy mod i’n ymwelydd digroeso.

Ymunai’r llwybr ceffyl â ffordd darmac gul, a ddeuai o’r coed ger Neuadd Cors y Gedol, maenor Elisabethaidd sydd bellach yn arbenigo mewn derbyniadau priodasau. Gan ddargyfeirio trwy giât, cyrhaeddais weddillion cromlech, yn anamlwg a disylw o dan ddwy ddraenen wen, ac eithin lliwgar yn eu blodau yn gefndir iddi. Mae maen capan enfawr, tua 10' wrth 8’, yn gorwedd ar ddwy garreg fer unionsyth, ac o’i amgylch, mae cerrig o’r garnedd oedd yn ei gorchuddio'n llwyr, mae'n debyg, tua 5000 o flynyddoedd yn ôl neu ragor. Mae olion caeau a chytiau’r gymuned Neolithig a’i hadeiladodd yn dal i’w gweld ar ochr arall y ffordd ymhlith anheddau mwy diweddar o’r cyfnod wedi’r Rhufeiniaid a’r oesoedd canol.

Dywedir fod y bont hon ar ffordd y goets fawr o Harlech i Ddolgellau ar un adeg, ond mae’n anodd gen i gredu hynny. Prin mae pen y bont yn cyrraedd chwe throedfedd o led ac mae'r rhan o'r ffordd trwy dir corsiog ychydig y tu hwnt iddi wedi'i phalmantu â slabiau cerrig tair troedfedd o led, sy'n atgoffa rhywun o'r Grisiau Rhufeinig, fel y'i gelwir, yng Nghwm Bychan. Mae’n llawer tebycach fod y bont a’r slabiau cerrig, fel y Grisiau Rhufeinig, yn rhan o lwybr pynfeirch canoloesol, a byddai teithwyr y goets fawr wedi gorfod cerdded neu fynd ar gefn ceffyl am y rhan hon o'u taith.

Gan ddychwelyd at y giât, daliais ati i fynd i fyny'r allt yn y gêr isel ar lwybr caregog, â thinwennod y garn yn gwibio ym mhobman ar hyd 12


Y tu hwnt i’r slabiau cerrig, mae’r trac yn cychwyn dringo, ac am 200 llath, mae'n gymysgedd blêr o gerrig wedi'u herydu. Mae pethau’n gwella ger tro siarp i’r dde, ac ymhen ychydig, gwelir cofeb i Janet Haigh sy’n anodd ei ddarllen erbyn hyn. Hyd yn oed pan oedd hi'n 84 oed, ac ar waethaf ei golwg gwael a’i chymalau anystwyth, roedd hi wrth ei bodd yn cerdded y ffordd hon o Dal y Bont i Benmaen-pwl. Mae’n debyg ei bod yn wraig gref iawn, ond wrth gyrraedd brig y grib, 1700 troedfedd uwchlaw’r môr, mae’n hawdd gweld pam oedd y lle hwn mor annwyl iddi. I’r gogledd, edrychir yn ôl ar draws Ardudwy a’r Moelwynion i fasiff Eryri; i'r Gogledd, gwelir dyfroedd Bae Ceredigion wedi'u ffinio gan broffil hir a chnapiog Pen Llŷn; o’ch blaen, dros aber Mawddach, gwelir sgarp tonnog Cader Idris, yn eich gwahodd i’w gerdded yn ei gyfanrwydd o Cross Foxes i Lanfihangel y Pennant. Dyma un o olygfannau gorau Cymru gyfan, yn sicr.

beiciau modur sy’n gyfrifol am y difrod. Bron iawn 1000 troedfedd islaw, cyrhaeddaf gyffordd ble mae ffordd darmac fechan yn disgyn i Bont Ddu ar Afon Mawddach ac mae’r llwybrau a'r traciau yn arwain i'r dwyrain i Gwm Mynach. Yn lle hynny, dilynais lwybr creigiog suddedig yn arwain i’r gorllewin i Fwlch Rhiwgyr, sy’n golygu Bwlch y Porthmyn. Byddai’r gyrroedd o wartheg, a yrrid am gannoedd o flynyddoedd o Ardudwy i Ddolgellau ar hyn y daith hir i farchnad Smithfield, yn dilyn rhigol laswelltog droellog sy’n plymio’n syth i lawr yr allt o'r bwlch, nid y trac graddol y brwydrais i'w ddringo. Ni fydd gwartheg afreolus yn parchu llwybrau igam-ogam. Ni fuasent ychwaith wedi cael croeso yn y pentrefi, a dyna pam arferai porthmyn o Lanbedr neu Harlech ddilyn y llwybr mewndirol gwastad ac uchel, ac yna’r hyn a elwir bellach yn Ffordd Ardudwy. Serch hynny, nid yw Bwlch y Rhiwgyr yn daith bleserus ar feic, mae’n rhy serth ac wedi’i erydu’n ormodol ar y ddwy ochr. Fodd bynnag, lle mae'n llai serth, yn ôl yn Ardudwy, mae hen ffordd y porthmyn yn fwdlyd ond yn addas i reidio arni, ac mae’n dilyn wal tir caeedig o'r 19eg ganrif ar draws y llechwedd. Ychydig gannoedd o lathenni ymhellach, mae cylchdaith hanesyddol ddiddorol Abaty Egryn yr Ymddiriedolaeth Genedlaethol, sy’n pasio bryngaer Pen y Ddinas o’r Oes Haearn, yn pasio siambr gladdu Neolithig Carneddau Hengwm, yn ymweld â chylch carnedd o’r Oes Efydd ac yn disgyn yn ôl tuag at yr arfordir gan fynd heibio anheddiad canoloesol helaeth.

Yma, mae’r llwybr yn cyffwrdd ymyl cwm bychan cyn mynd i lawr crib hir Braich. Ugain mlynedd yn ôl, roedd hon yn lôn las heb unrhyw arwyddion, fwy neu lai, a chynigai ddisgyniad bywiocaol a dibryder. Heddiw, dengys arwyddion fod beiciau modur wedi'u gwahardd, ond mae'r llwybr, am bellteroedd sylweddol ar ddwy ochr y bwlch, wedi’i gorddi yn ffosydd sawl modfedd o ddyfnder a lled teiar beic modur treialon. Gallai hyn achosi damwain angheuol i rywun ar gefn beic. Nid yw beiciau mynydd yn hollol ddi-fai, ond mae’r holl dystiolaeth yn awgrymu mai

Mae pentwr amlwg o binwydd Albanaidd yn arwydd o newid sydyn yng nghymeriad y dirwedd, o ffriddoedd moel agored i goedlan gymysg sy’n llenwi dyffryn Afon Ysgethin. Croesir yr afon ar hyd Pont Fadog, pont garreg draddodiadol â’r dyddiad 1762 arni, ac yn wahanol i Bont Scethin, gallai'r goets fawr fod wedi'i chroesi'n rhwydd. Ychydig lathenni ymhellach mae Llety Lloegr, y gwyddys ei fod yn arhosfa dros nos i borthmyn a’u hanifeiliaid. Yma, gadewais y ffordd i ddilyn llwybr ceffyl i lawr trwy’r coed yn agos at yr afon frigwyn ruthr-wyllt, yn ôl i Dal y Bont a'r 21ain ganrif.

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Pont Fadog © Rob Collister


Awheel in Ardudwy Rob Collister Lying west of the Rhinog mountains, between Harlech and Barmouth, the region of Ardudwy has always been a favourite stamping ground of mine. Thanks to a network of ancient roads and tracks, some once used by drovers to get food to market, it lends itself to exploration on a bike. One day at the end of May, when the land was finally warming up after a long cold winter, I left the car in Tal y Bont and set off uphill. Tracks and bridleways led through dappled woodland of oak and beech, their leaves a kaleidoscope of soft, fresh green; bluebells beneath positively throbbed with colour and little streams flashed in the sunlight. The air was loud with the singing of blackbird, thrush and chaffinch. A flick of red tail feathers betrayed a redstart. After weeks of poor weather, it all felt quite idyllic. The bridleway joined a narrow tarmac road, er emerging from the trees near Cors y Gedol Hall, © Rob Collist Pont Scethin an Elizabethan manor house now specializing in wedding receptions. Making a detour through Bychan. a gate, I came to the remains of a cromlech, It seems much more likely inconspicuous beneath a pair of hawthorn trees and backed that bridge and paving, like the by colourful flowering gorse. A huge capstone, some 10’ by 8’ Roman Steps, were part of a rests on two stumpy uprights and is surrounded by stone from medieval packhorse trail and that the cairn that must have completely covered it 5000 years ago or stagecoach passengers would have more. Traces of the fields and huts of the Neolithic community been obliged to walk or ride on that built it can still be found on the other side of the road among horseback for this section of their more recent settlements of post Roman and medieval epochs. journey. Back to the gate, I continued uphill in low gear on a stony track, wheatears flitting everywhere along ubiquitous dry stone walls. Ignoring the signpost onto the Ardudwy Way, I took the line of a much older route, heading down a boggy hillside scarred by deep vehicle ruts filled with water, the first discordant note of the day.

Beyond the slabs the track starts to climb and for 200 yards it is a washed out jumble of eroded stone. Things improve at a hairpin bend to the right and soon after one passes a now barely-legible memorial to Janet Haigh, ‘who even as late as her 84th year, despite dim sight and stiffened joints still loved to walk this way from Tal y Bont to Penmaenpool’. She must have been a redoubtable lady, but on reaching the crest of the ridge, 1700 feet above sea level, it is easy to see why she loved it so. To the north, one looks back across Ardudwy and the Moelwynion to the Snowdon massif; to the west lie the waters of Cardigan Bay bounded by the long, lumpy profile of the Llŷn Peninsula; ahead, over the Mawddach estuary, is the undulating northern

Ahead lay a small bridge over the stream which flows out of Bodlyn, Pont Scethin, the heart of what Jim Perrin once described as ‘one of the most fragile and exquisite landscapes of a country of exquisite and fragile natural beauty’. Although only a few miles from the busy coast road, it felt very quiet and remote. Where better to pause for a picnic, sheltered by the parapet from a strong east wind? The stonework of the bridge was brightened by yellow hawkweed and, as I stooped to drink from the stream, weed glimmered green-gold through the water. The dipper I had expected to find was nowhere to be seen but a pair of agitated wagtails made it clear that I was an unwelcome intruder. Received wisdom has it that this bridge was once on a coach road from Harlech to Dolgellau but I find this hard to believe. At its apex the arched bridge is barely six feet wide and the section of road through boggy ground just beyond it is paved with stone slabs a mere three feet wide, reminiscent of the so called Roman Steps in Cwm 14


not the well graded track that I toiled up but a twisting grassy furrow that plunges straight down the hill from the pass. Unruly cattle are no respecters of zigzags. By the same token, they would not have been welcome in villages, which is why drovers from Llanbedr or Harlech usually took the high level inland route, followed now by the Ardudwy Way.

escarpment of Cader Idris, crying out to be walked in its entirety from Cross Foxes to Llanfihangel y Pennant. There can be few finer viewpoints in the whole of Wales. Here the trail skirts the head of a small cwm before descending the long armlike ridge of Braich. Twenty years ago this was an almost unmarked green road that gave an exhilarating, swooping, carefree descent. Today, notices indicate that motorbikes are forbidden but the track for long distances on both sides of the pass has been gouged into tram rails several inches deep and the width of a trialsbike tyre, potentially lethal on a pushbike. While mountain bikes cannot be entirely blameless, all the evidence points to the damage being done by motorized bikes.

Be that as it may, Bwlch y Rhiwgyr is not an enjoyable ride on a bike, too steep and eroded on both sides for me. However, once the angle eases, back in Ardudwy, the old drove road becomes muddy but rideable, following a 19th century enclosure wall across the hillside. Only a few hundred yards away is the National Trust’s historically fascinating circular walk from Egryn Abbey which takes in the Iron Age hill fort of Pen y Dinas, passes close to the Neolithic burial chambers of Carneddau Hengwm, visits a Bronze Age cairn circle and descends back towards the coast by way of an extensive medieval settlement.

Nearly 1000 feet lower I reached a meeting of ways where a small tarmac road descends to Bont Ddu on the Mawddach and paths and tracks lead east into Cwm Mynach. Instead, I took a sunken rocky trail leading west to Bwlch Rhiwgyr, which translates as Pass of the Drovers. Herds of cattle, driven for hundreds of years from Ardudwy to Dolgellau at the start of the long journey to Smithfield market, took

A prominent clump of Scots pine marks an abrupt change in the character of the landscape, from bare open sheepwalk to mixed woodland filling the valley of the Afon Ysgethin. The river is crossed by way of Pont Fadog, a traditional stone bridge bearing the date 1762 which, unlike Pont Scethin, could easily have been crossed by a stagecoach. A few yards further on is the cottage of Llety Lloegr, known to have been an overnight stopping place for drovers and their animals. Here I left the road to follow a bridleway down through the woods close to the rushing, tumbling, whitewater river, back to Tal y Bont and the 21st century.

Slabiau cerrig yn arwain at Bont Scethin • Stone paving approaching Pont Scethin © Rob Collister

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Tyfu Cymunedol yn Eryri Sarah Collick toiled compostio felly gallant bellach dreulio’r diwrnod cyfan yno! Mae’n rhan o fenter gymdeithasol ehangach sy’n cynnwys tŷ agored yn y dref ac efallai labyrinth mwyaf y byd, i fyny yng Nghoedwig Gwydyr; bydd y labyrinth yn cynnal digwyddiadau rheolaidd megis theatr unigryw Caerdroia, ac yn fwy diweddar, llofruddiaethau canol haf a phlannu piano.

Mae tyfu cymunedol yn boblogaidd, ac mae dros 350 o brosiectau yng Nghymru wedi’u cofrestru â Ffederasiwn y Ffermydd Dinas a Gerddi Cymunedol, o berllannau cymunedol i erddi ysgolion, rhandiroedd a ffermydd. Mae prosiectau yng Ngogledd Cymru yn tueddu i fod wedi’u clystyru ar yr arfordir, yn bennaf yng nghyfeiriad y gogleddddwyrain, lle mae digon o bobl a lle mae’r pridd yn ddwfn! Serch hynny, mae nifer o berlau ym mherfeddwlad fynyddig Eryri.

Yng Nghanolfan Hamdden Glaslyn, Porthmadog, credai’r cydgysylltydd Ymarfer trwy Wahoddiad, Emma Quaeck, y dylai pobl gael y dewis o gadw'n heini yn yr awyr agored, â’r fantais ychwanegol o wneud ffrindiau a mynd â ffrwythau a llysiau iach gartref. Fe wnaethant adeiladu gwelyau uwch y tu allan i’r ganolfan hamdden ble bydd y grŵp yn cwrdd yn wythnosol. Mae pobl sy'n ymweld â'r ganolfan hamdden yn gallu cymryd ffrwythau a llysiau a gadael arian mewn blwch i dalu am hadau'r flwyddyn nesaf. Eleni, cawsant Wobr Gymunedol y Faner Werdd am lecynnau gwyrdd o ansawdd uchel.

Cliriwyd hen domen lechi ar ymyl Blaenau Ffestiniog, oedd yn llawn helyg a mieri wedi gordyfu, a chafodd ei gwastatáu a chodwyd ffens i greu 23 rhandir. Rhoddwyd tomen o gompost gwastraff dinesig gwyrdd ac uwchbridd i bob rhandir, ac mae'r rhan fwyaf o ddeiliaid y rhandiroedd wedi codi gwelyau uwch. Nid oes prif gyflenwad dŵr felly bydd deiliaid y rhandiroedd yn casglu dŵr o doeau siediau ac o danc storio dŵr cymunedol enfawr. Ar y rhan gwlypaf, sy’n anaddas i dyfu llysiau, maent wedi plannu gardd natur a phryfed peillio. Mae datblygiadau sydd ar y gweill yn cynnwys toiled compostio a pherllan gymunedol, ac mewn rhannau eraill o'r dref, mae gardd gymunedol ac mae gwelyau llysiau uwch yn y parc ble gall pobl ddysgu tyfu llysiau.

Ar draws yr aber ym Mhortmeirion, roedd y feithrinfa, ble mae pum tŷ gwydr a thwneli plastig o faint masnachol, yn segur. Mae'r fenter gymdeithasol Deudraeth Cyf wedi sefydlu Gardd Deudraeth, prosiect sy’n cynnig hyfforddiant garddwriaeth i bobl ac sy’n cynhyrchu planhigion gardd a ffrwythau a llysiau ffres, ac mae’n cyflenwi’r caffis a’r bwytai Mhortmeirion a marchnadoedd lleol. Dyma'u tymor tyfu cyntaf, ac maent yn gwneud cynnydd rhagorol â chefnogaeth amhrisiadwy gwirfoddolwyr.

Mae gardd gymunedol Golygfa Gwydyr yng nghanolfan Rhyd y Creuau yn Nyffryn Conwy, ac yno, bydd pobl yn cwrdd yn wythnosol i dyfu ffrwythau a llysiau ac i gymdeithasu. Yn ddiweddar, fe wnaethom redeg digwyddiad hyfforddiant adeiladu I gael cyngor ynghylch sefydlu prosiect tyfu cymunedol yn eich ardal, cysyltwch â: sarah@farmgarden.org.uk 01286 685475 www.farmgarden.org.uk

Mae Sara yn gweithio i Ffederasiwn y Ffermydd Dinas a Gerddi Cymunedol ers 2011. Cyn hynny roedd yn Swyddog Addysg y Comisiwn Coedwigaeth ac mae wedi rhedeg prosiect tyfu i bobl â phroblemau iechyd meddwl.

Rhandiroedd • Allotments, Blaenau Ffestiniog

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Community Growing in Snowdonia Sarah Collick Community growing is popular with over 350 projects in Wales registered with the Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens, from community orchards to school gardens, allotments and farms. Projects in north Wales tend to be clustered along the coast, mainly towards the north east, where the people are and where the soil is deep! The mountainous interior of Snowdonia does however hold a few gems. An old slate tip on the edge of Blaenau Ffestiniog, overgrown with willow and brambles, was cleared, levelled and fenced to create 23 allotment plots. Each plot was provided with a pile of municipal green waste compost and top soil and most allotment holders have built raised beds. There is no mains water so plot holders collect from shed roofs and from a massive communal rainwater storage tank. On the wettest part, which is not suitable for growing veg, they’ve planted a nature and pollinators garden. Developments in the pipeline include a compost loo and a community orchard, while elsewhere in the town there’s a community garden and raised veg beds in the park where people can learn to grow.

In the Conwy Valley at the Rhyd y Creuau centre you’ll find the Golygfa Gwydyr community garden, where local people meet weekly to grow fruit and veg and socialise. We recently ran a compost toilet building training event so now they can stay all day! It’s all part of a wider social enterprise that includes an open house in the town and possibly the largest labyrinth in the world, up in the Gwydyr Forest; the labyrinth hosts regular events such as the unique Caerdroia theatre and more recently midsummer murders and a piano planting! At Glaslyn Leisure Centre, Porthmadog, the Exercise Referral co-ordinator, Emma Quaeck, thought people should have the option of getting fit outside, with the added benefit of making friends and taking home some healthy fruit and veg. They built raised beds outside the leisure centre where the group meets weekly. People visiting the leisure centre help themselves to fruit, veg and herbs and leave money in an honesty box that pays for next year’s seeds. This year they scooped a Green Flag Community Award for quality green spaces. Across the estuary the nursery at

Portmeirion, with its five commercial sized polytunnels and greenhouses, was lying empty. Social enterprise Deudraeth Cyf has established Gardd Deudraeth, a project that trains people in horticulture and produces garden plants, fresh fruit and veg, supplying the cafes and restaurants at Portmeirion and local markets. This is their first growing season and supported by invaluable volunteers they’re making great progress.

Sarah Collick has worked for the Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens since 2011. She was previously Education Officer for the Forestry Commission and has run a growing project for people with mental health issues.

For advice about setting up a community growing project in your area contact: sarah@farmgarden.org.uk 01286 685475 www.farmgarden.org.uk

Connor Griffith, Garddwr Cynorthwyol, a John Davies, Prif Arddwr, yng Ngardd Deudraeth • Connor Griffith, Assistant Gardener, and John Davies, Head Gardener at Gardd Deudraeth © Gardd Deudaeth

© Gardd Deudaeth

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Gastronomeg neu Danwydd Sylwadau ar fwyd Cymru Twm Elias Tan ryw hanner canrif yn ôl, go brin y gellid ystyried cefn gwlad Cymru yn baradwys gastronomaidd. Ni fyddai’r fwydlen yn cynnwys llawer mwy na chig-moch hallt, tatws a llysiau a bwydydd yn seiliedig ar geirch a llefrith. Ond o leia mi fyddai’r hyn a geid yn eitha iach, yn organig ac wedi ei gynhyrchu gartref neu yn yr ardal. Bron mai’r unig bethau a ddeuai o bell fyddai siwgr, te a syltanas. Deuai popeth yn ei dymor a phrin iawn y gwelid neb yn dioddef o’r clwyf modern – gordewdra. Byddai blawd ceirch yn sail i sawl pryd ac yn gyfran, fel arfer, o’r cnwd a dyfid yn borthiant i’r ceffylau a’r gwartheg. Roedd bara ceirch yn bwysig ac mae’n rhyfeddol faint o amrywiaethau geid ar wahanol gyfuniadau o flawd ceirch â dŵr, llefrith neu laeth enwyn, er engraifft brŵes (bara ceirch â hylif cawl), bwdran (blawd ceirch mewn dŵr poeth dros fara), siot (blawd ceirch â llaeth enwyn) ac uwd. O’r haidd a gwenith a dyfid ar y fferm ceid blawd i bobi bara gartref – neu yn y popdy cyhoeddus ym mhen draw’r stryd mewn pentref neu dref. Tyfid tatws a llysiau at ddefnydd y teulu yn un pen o’r cae rwdins fel arfer ac yn aml câi cymdogion oedd heb dir dyfu rhesiad ychwanegol, a thalu am hynny drwy roi help llaw â'r cynhaeaf neu waith arall yn ddiweddarach. Roedd coed falau ac eirin a ffrwythau i wneud jam yn bwysig iawn ynghyd â magu ieir am eu cig a'u hwyau, a’r hen fochyn i gael cig dros y gaeaf. Y mochyn fyddai’r peiriant ailgylchu i gymeryd sbarion bwyd, crwyn llysiau a bribliwns (tatws mân).

Byddai patrwm o’r fath yn wir am werin bron pob gwlad, er y datblygodd rhai gwledydd, e.e. Ffrainc, draddodiad bwyd llawer mwy amrywiol na ni, fyddai’n cymeryd mwy o amser i'w baratoi a'i fwynhau. Roedd rheswm da am hynny. Ni ddiwydianwyd Ffrainc i’r un graddau ac ni welwyd yno chwaith y pwysau mawr ar gefn gwlad i gynhyrchu bwyd i boblogaeth ddinesig enfawr. Parhaodd y gyfran o ffermydd bychain oedd yn ddibynol ar y teulu yn hytrach na gweision yn llawer iawn uwch yng ngwledydd y cyfandir, ac roedd gan brydau bwyd rôl gymdeithasol bwysig. Yma, datblygodd patrwm gwahanol wrth i’r pwysau ar weithwyr diwydiannol a gweision ffermydd i weithio am oriau hirion olygu bod prydau bwyd yn mynd yn ddim mwy na hoe fer am ddiod a ‘thanwydd’. Datblygodd traddodiad o fwyd syml i lenwi boliau ac oedd yn rhad iawn i’w gynhyrchu a’i baratoi. Dan y fath drefn aeth safon, blasusrwydd, amrywiaeth ac amser i fwynhau bwyd yn gyfyngedig i’r rhai a allai ei fforddio neu i achlysuron arbennig megis cinio dydd Sul (câi gweision jam ar eu brechdan ar ddydd Sul), neu ginio dyrnu neu gneifio.

Roedd gan lefrith y fuwch le pwysig ar y fwydlen ac i’w droi’n fenyn, llaeth enwyn a chaws. Anaml iawn iawn y bwyteid y cig, ac ychydig iawn o gig dafad chwaith – anifeiliaid i’w gwerthu oedd y rhain. Ond ceid cigoedd eraill o bryd i’w gilydd, er yn anghyfreithlon weithiau(!), megis cwningod, pysgod ac adar gwylltion. Gallai byd natur fod yn garedig drwy’r tymhorau – yn cyflenwi madarch gwylltion, cnau, falau surion, a llus a mwyar duon i wneud jam. Mae Twm Elias yn ddarlithydd a threfnydd cyrsiau ym Mhlas Tan y Bwlch, Canolfan Astudio Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri. 18

‘Ein bwyd yw ein bod’ meddai rhywun rhywdro. Gwir y gair, oherwydd pan fyddai ein bwyd yn gynnyrch pridd ein broydd byddai ein cyfansoddiad mineralegol ninnau yn dangos hynny – techneg sy’n gyfarwydd erbyn hyn i archeolegwyr a gwyddonwyr fforensig. Ar y llaw arall, golyga ein patrwm bwyta ‘modern’, lle cyflenwa’r archfarchnadoedd â bwydydd gafodd eu cludo yma o bellteroedd maith, nad ydym bellach yn gynnyrch pridd ein broydd ond yn hytrach y farchnad fwyd fyd-eang. Rhyfedd o fyd pan aeth tyfu eich bwyd eich hun nid yn unig yn weithred ‘werdd’, ond yn weithred chwyldroadol yn erbyn cyfalafiaeth ryngwladol!


Gastronomy or Fuel Thoughts on Wales' food Twm Elias Until about fifty years ago, rural Wales could hardly be considered a gastronomic paradise. The menu wouldn’t have included much more than salted pork, potatoes, vegetables and food based on oats and milk. But at least what was eaten was fairly healthy, organic and produced at home or in the locality. Almost the only things that came from afar were sugar, tea and sultanas. Everything had its season and you rarely saw anyone suffering from the modern disease - obesity. Oatmeal formed the basis of many dishes and usually made up a proportion of the crops grown as feed for the horses and cattle. Oatbread was important and the variety of products obtained from different combinations of oatmeal with water, milk or buttermilk was astonishing, for example brŵes (oatbread with thin

soup), bwdran (oatmeal in hot water over bread), ‘siot’ (oatmeal with buttermilk) and porridge. Barley and wheat grown on the farm were ground into flour to bake bread, at home or in the public bakery at the end of the street in the village or town. Potatoes and vegetables were usually grown for family use in one end of the swede field, while neighbours with no land of their own were often allowed to grow an additional row, paying for it by helping with the harvest or with other work. Apple and plum trees and other fruit for making jam were very important, along with chickens for meat and eggs and, of course, the pig for meat during the winter. The pig was the recycling machine, making use of food scraps, vegetable peelings and tiny potatoes. The cow’s milk had an important place on the menu and also for turning into butter, buttermilk and cheese. The meat was rarely eaten, and very little lamb either – these animals were raised to sell. But there were other meats occasionally, some of them illegal(!), such as rabbits, fish and wild birds. Nature could be kind

from season to season - supplying wild mushrooms, nuts and crab apples, and blueberries and blackberries to make jam. Such a pattern would be true for the people of almost every country, although some countries, like France, developed a food tradition that was far more diverse than ours, and that took more time to prepare and enjoy. There was a good reason for that. France did not industrialise to the same degree and neither was there the severe pressure on rural food production to feed a massive urban population. Small farms dependent on the family rather than servants continued as a much higher proportion in the countries on the continent, and meals had an important social function. A different pattern developed here, where the pressure on industrial workers and farm labourers to work for long hours meant that the meal became no more than a short break for a drink and 'fuel'. A tradition of simple food to fill bellies developed – food that was very cheap to produce and prepare. Under such circumstances taste, variety and time to enjoy became limited to those that could afford it or for special occasions such as Sunday lunch - servants had jam on their sandwich on Sundays - or the threshers or shearers lunches. 'You are what you eat' someone once said. True enough, because when our food is the product of our local soil our mineral make-up reflects that - a science that is now familiar to archaeologists and forensic scientists. On the other hand our 'modern' eating patterns, where supermarkets are supplied with food brought here from far away, mean we are no longer the product of our local soil but rather of the global food market. A strange world indeed, when growing your own food is not just a 'green' activity, but a revolutionary act against international capitalism!

Twm Elias is a lecturer and course organiser at Plas Tan y Bwlch, the Snowdonia National Park Study Centre. Gwartheg ar Draeth Mawr • Cattle on Traeth Mawr

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Rysáit • Recipe Cawl cig oen gyda thwmplenni perlysiau Ychwanegwch y piwrî tomatos a choginiwch am 10 munud. Ychwanegwch weddill y cynhwysion a choginiwch yn ysgafn am 40 munud. Cymysgwch y twmplenni (gweler isod). Rhowch y twmplenni ar ben y Cawl a daliwch ati i goginio mewn ffwrn boeth, 200oC (400oF, nwy 6) am 20-25 munud.

Darnau brau o gig oen Cymru wedi’u coginio â moron a chennin mewn saws tomato bras, gyda thwmplenni perlysiau. Gweinir 4.

Cawl cig oen Cynhwysion 1½ llond llwy fwrdd olew blodau haul 1 nionyn, wedi’i sleisio’n denau 1 ewin garlleg, wedi’i falu’n fân 200g cig oen, wedi’i ddeisio 70g bacwn mwg, wedi’i ddeisio 1 llond llwy fwrdd piwrî tomatos 1 foronen, wedi’i deisio 1 genhinen, wedi’i sleisio 150ml dŵr Halen a phupur du i ychwanegu blas 1 tun bychan o domatos wedi’u malu’n fân

Gweiniwch gyda bara crystiog.

Twmplenni perlysiau Cynhwysion 250g blawd codi 125g siwed 1 llwy fwrdd yr un o bersli, rhosmari a theim, wedi’u malu’n fân Mymryn o halen 200ml dŵr oer Cymysgwch y blawd, y siwed a’r perlysiau mewn powlen. Gwnewch dwll yn y canol ac ychwanegwch y dŵr yn raddol, a chymysgwch y cyfan yn does llyfn. Rhannwch y toes yn 8 darn a siapiwch hwy yn dwmplenni.

Cynheswch yr olew. Ychwanegwch y nionyn a’r garlleg a choginiwch hwy yn ysgafn am 10 munud. Ychwanegwch y cig oen a’r bacwn a choginiwch hwy nes byddant wedi brownio.

Cafwyd y rysáit gan Fwyd Cymru Bodnant ble gellir prynu’r holl gynhwysion pan fyddant yn eu tymor. www.bodnant-welshfood.co.uk

Lamb cawl with herb dumplings Add the diced lamb and bacon and cook until browned. Add the tomato puree and cook for 10 minutes. Add the rest of the ingredients and cook gently for 40 minutes. Mix the dumplings (see below). Place the dumplings on top of the Cawl and continue cooking in a hot oven, 200oC (400oF, gas 6) for 20-25 minutes.

Tender pieces of Welsh lamb cooked with carrots and leeks in a rich tomato sauce and served with herb dumplings. Serves 4.

Lamb cawl

Serve with crusty bread.

Ingredients 1½ tbspn sunflower oil 1 onion, thinly sliced 1 clove garlic, chopped 200g lamb, diced 70g smoked bacon, diced 1 tbspn tomato puree 1 carrot, diced 1 leek, sliced 150ml water Salt and cracked black pepper to taste 1 small tin of chopped tomatoes

Herb dumplings Ingredients 250g self-raising flour 125g suet 1 tbsp each of fresh chopped parlsey, rosemary and thyme Pinch of salt 200ml cold water Mix the flour, suet and herbs in a bowl. Form a well in the centre and add the water gradually, mixing to form a smooth dough. Divide into 8 and form into dumplings.

Heat the oil. Add the onions and garlic and cook gently for 10 minutes.

Recipe supplied by Bodnant Welsh Food, from where all the ingredients can be bought when in season. www.bodnant-welshfood.co.uk 20


Gadael dim ond olion traed? Ewch gam ymhellach a gadewch olion Leave nothing but parhaus... Gadewch gymynrodd! footprints? Mae rhoddion o ewyllysiau yn rhan hanfodol o’n hincwm, ac mae llawer o gymynroddion bychan yn gwneud gwahaniaeth go iawn i’r hyn gallwn ei gyflawni. Os byddwch yn ysgrifennu eich ewyllys, wedi i chi gofio eich teulu a’ch ffrindiau, ystyriwch adael cymynrodd i Gymdeithas Eryri os gwelwch yn dda.

Take one more step and leave a lasting imprint... Leave a legacy!

Ni wnaiff neb ohonom fyw am byth – mae hynny’n bendant! Ond mae’n rhagorol gwybod eich bod wedi cymryd camau i helpu i ddiogelu tirwedd werthfawr Eryri fel y gall cenedlaethau’r dyfodol ei mwynhau fel rydych chi wedi’i mwynhau.

Gifts in wills form a crucial part of our income, with many small legacies making a real difference to what we can achieve. If you are writing your will, once you have remembered family and friends, please consider leaving a bequest to the Snowdonia Society.

Cysylltwch â ni i ofyn am Ganllaw Cymynroddion.

None of us will live forever; that is certain! But how good to know that you have taken steps to help safeguard Snowdonia for future generations to enjoy as you have enjoyed it.

© Steve Lewis

Contact us to request a Legacy Guide.

Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR 01286 685498 info@snowdonia-society.org.uk www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk • www.snowdonia-society.org.uk 21


Adfywiad Cwrw Go Iawn • Real Ale Revival Clare Britton Yn dilyn cyflwyno'r cynllun rhyddhad trethi i Fragdai Bychan yn 2002, sy’n caniatáu i fragdai bychan dalu hyd at 50% yn llai o drethi na bragwyr mwy, mae nifer y microfragdai wedi mwy na dyblu. Yn ôl yr Ymgyrch dros Gwrw Go Iawn (CAMRA), mae mwy o fragdai erbyn hyn nag yn unrhyw gyfnod ers diwedd yr Ail Ryfel Byd. Mae Gogledd Cymru wedi profi llawer o dwf yn y maes, ac mae cysylltiad diddorol â threnau ager Eryri.

Since the introduction of the Small Breweries Relief scheme in 2002, whereby small brewers pay up to 50% less duty than larger brewers, the number of microbreweries has more than doubled and there are more breweries in the UK now than at any time since the end of WWII. North Wales has enjoyed its fair share of growth, with an intriguing link to Snowdonia’s steam trains.

Mae cwrw go iawn a gweithwyr y rheilffyrdd yn wastad wedi mynd law yn llaw, felly nid yw’n syndod fod gwirfoddolwyr lleol sy’n gweithio ar reilffordd Ucheldir Cymru ers blynyddoedd wedi meddwl am greu gŵyl Cwrw ar y Cledrau.

Real ale and railwaymen have always gone together, so it is no surprise that the idea of the Welsh Highland beer festival, Cwrw ar y Cledrau (Rail Ale) came from the local volunteers who have worked on the track for many years.

Gŵyl mis Mai nesaf fydd y ddegfed, ac mae wedi tyfu'n sylweddol - nid yn unig yr ŵyl, ond hefyd nifer y bragdai lleol yn Eryri a'r cyffiniau sy'n ei chefnogi. Mae tafarn a microfragdy Snowdonia Parc yn Waunfawr, enillydd gwobrau CAMRA, yn lleoliad brwdfrydig i'r ŵyl o'r dechrau, a bellach mae'n cynnwys dewis helaeth o gwrw; bregir pob un ar y safle mewn bragdy bychan o dan y bar. Dim llawer o filltiroedd cwrw felly! Rhennir y cyfleusterau bragu â Bragdy Big Bog, a sefydlwyd 18 mis yn ôl; mae bellach yn cyflenwi nifer o dafarndai yn Eryri.

Next May will be the 10th festival and, my! has it grown - not just the festival but the number of local breweries in and around Snowdonia which support it. CAMRA awardwinning microbrewery and pub, the Snowdonia Parc at Waunfawr, has been an enthusiastic venue for the festival from the start and now has a large range of beers; all brewed on the premises in a tiny brewery right under the bar. Not many ‘beer miles’ there! The brewing facilities are shared with the Big Bog Brewery, set up around 18 months ago, and now delivering to many hostelries in Snowdonia.

Yfwyr cwrw go iawn yng Ngŵyl Cwrw ar y Cledrau ● Real ale drinkers at the Rail Ale Festival © Roger Dimmick

Cychwynnodd Cwrw Eryri, cwrw arbennig bragdy Mŵs Purple Moose’s famous Piws a fregir ym Mhorthmadog, Snowdonia Ale, brewed in fel cwrw arbennig ar gyfer gŵyl Porthmadog, started out as a Tafarn Tŷ Gwyn Pub, Rowen Cwrw ar y Cledrau. Roedd mor Rail Ale special brew. It was so boblogaidd, fe’i hychwanegwyd popular they added it to their at eu rhestr reolaidd o gwrw, ac regular repertoire, going on to enillodd lawer o wobrau iddynt. Cynrychiolwyd Gogledd Cymru win many awards for them. Purple Moose represented north gan Mŵs Piws yng Ngŵyl Gwrw Prydain Fawr yn Llundain y Wales at the Great British Beer Festival in London last year. On llynedd. Ar eu stondin yn Olympia, gyda’r poteli a’r casgenni, their stand at Olympia, alongside the bottles and casks, was roedd Prince, locomotif ager 150 mlwydd oed Ffestiniog, a Prince, the 150 year old Ffestiniog steam locomotive, and a replica o wagen gwrw Fictoraidd. replica Victorian beer wagon. Mae bragdai Cwrw Cader, Hafod a Chwrw Llŷn wedi ymuno â’r ŵyl yn ddiweddar gan ychwanegu at ffefrynnau rheolaidd bragdai’r Gogarth o Gonwy, Nant o Lanrwst a Monty o Bowys.

Cwrw Cader, Hafod and Cwrw Llyn breweries have recently joined the festival adding to regular local favourites Great Orme from Conwy, Nant from Llanrwst and Monty’s from Powys.

Mae dewis ac ansawdd y cwrw lleol yn yr ŵyl yn drawiadol a denir selogion cwrw go iawn o bob cwr o'r wlad, ac mae'n boblogaidd iawn â phobl leol hefyd. Felly pan ymwelwch ag un o dafarndai Eryri, yfwch beint o gwrw lleol. Iechyd da!

The list and quality of locally brewed beer at the festival is impressive and attracts beer fans from around the country as well as being a hugely popular event with locals. So when you visit a Snowdonia hostelry, make sure your pint’s a local one. Cheers!

Clare Britton yw Rheolwr Masnachol Rheilffyrdd Ffestiniog ac Ucheldir Cymru ac mae’n frwdfrydig ynghylch cwrw go iawn.

Clare Britton is a real ale drinker and Commercial Manager of the Ffestiniog and Welsh Highland Railways. 22


Adolygiad Llyfr

Book Review

Bydd darllenwyr rheolaidd y cylchgrawn hwn yn gwybod fod Rob Gritten yn disgrifio Eryri ers tro fel anialwch ecolegol oherwydd gorbori gan ddefaid, felly ni fydd dadl ganolog Feral yn peri synod i'r rhan fwyaf ohonoch. Yr hyn sy’n chwa o awyr iach yw atgyfodiad grymus a manwl o’r syniad o ddad-ddofi, gair oedd fwy neu lai wedi diflannu diolch i ymdrechion taer y lobi perchnogion tir i ddilorni unrhyw beth sy’n effeithio ar y sefyllfa sydd ohoni. Mae Feral yn dditment dysgedig a llengar o'r sefyllfa honno, ac ar brydiau, mae'n hynod bersonol.

Regular readers of this magazine will know that Rod Gritten has long been describing Snowdonia as an ecological desert due to overgrazing by sheep, so the central tenet of Feral will come as no surprise to most of you. What is a breath of fresh air is Monbiot’s vigorous and detailed resurrection of the idea of rewilding, a word which had all but disappeared thanks to determined efforts by the land-owning lobby to rubbish anything affecting the status quo. Feral is an erudite, passionate, sometimes deeply personal indictment of that status quo.

Mae Monbiot yn adnabyddus am ei lyfrau a’i erthyglau miniog yn y Guardian, sy’n amlygu rhagrith y llywodraeth, anghyfiawnder cymdeithasol ac yn trafod materion megis y newid yn yr hinsawdd. Mae ei radd mewn sŵoleg yn rhoi coel i’w safbwyntiau. Pan ddaeth i fyw i Ddyffryn Dyfi, fe’i arswydwyd gan dirwedd Anialwch Cambrian oedd wedi’i “dinistrio gan ddefaid” lle’r oedd “absenoldeb lled-llwyr bywyd dynol … yn cyfateb i absenoldeb lled-llwyr bywyd gwyllt.”

Monbiot is well known for his books and his hard-hitting articles in the Guardian, exposing government hypocrisy, social injustice and discussing issues such as climate change. His degree in zoology lends credence to his views. Coming to live in the Dyfi Valley he was horrified by the “sheep-wrecked” landscape of the Cambrian Desert where “the near-absence of human life … was matched by a nearabsence of wildlife.”

Mae'r llyfr yn agor a chau â disgrifiadau arswydus o deithiau unigol mewn caiac môr wrth iddo ddad-ddofi ei hun, ac mae’n datgelu fod dyfroedd Bae Ceredigion yn dioddef yr un dynged â’r bryniau mewndirol.

The book opens and closes with hair-raising accounts of solo exploits in a sea-kayak as he rewilds himself, and reveals that the waters of Cardigan Bay are suffering exactly the same fate as the hills inland.

Cysyniad allweddol yn yr egwyddor o ddad-ddofi yw “rhaeadrau troffig ... prosesau a achosir gan anifeiliaid sydd ar dop y gadwyn fwyd, sy'n disgyn i lawr i'r gwaelod. Gall ysglyfaethwyr a llysysyddion mawr weddnewid y mannau ble maent yn byw.”

A key concept in the rewilding thesis is “trophic cascades ... processes caused by animals at the top of the food chain, which tumble all the way to the bottom. Predators and large herbivores can transform the places in which they live.”

Mae atal dad-ddofi yn fwy na dim ond diddordeb personol, mae hefyd yn Syndrom Gwaelodlin Symudol, cyflwr lle bydd unigolion o bob cenhedlaeth yn ystyried mai sefyllfa eu plentyndod yw’r norm a byddant yn ceisio ei hamddiffyn neu ei hadfer, ar waethaf y ffaith fod y sefyllfa yn cynrychioli disbyddu anghysbell ynddo’i hun, boed hynny yn y môr neu ar y bryniau.

Standing in the way of rewilding is not just vested interest but Shifting Base-line Syndrome, a condition in which individuals in each generation take the situation in their childhood to be the norm and seek to defend or restore it, regardless of the fact that that situation represented extreme depletion in itself, be it in the sea or on the hills.

Mae Monbiot yn cynnig nifer o ystadegau syfrdanol. Cymhorthdal cyfartalog ffermydd mynyddig yw £53k y flwyddyn, ac incwm net cyfartalog ffermydd yw £33k. Mae 16,000 ffermwyr llawn amser a 28,000 ffermwr rhan amser yng Nghymru, a thrwy eu presenoldeb ar Gynghorau Sir a chyrff cyhoeddus eraill, mae ganddynt ddylanwad sydd tu hwnt i'w niferoedd.

Monbiot has some astonishing statistics to share. The average hill farm subsidy is £53,000 a year while average net farm income is £33,000. There are 16,000 full-time and 28,000 part-time farmers in Wales, who through their presence on County Councils and other public bodies exert an influence way beyond their numbers.

Mae Monbiot yn synhwyrol a rhesymol ei ddadansoddiad. Mae’n credu'n bendant na ddylai dad-ddofi ddigwydd ar dir amaethyddol cynhyrchiol, ac ni ddylai ddigwydd heb gydsyniad a chefnogaeth y boblogaeth leol. Mae’n ddeifiol ei feirniadaeth o’r Polisi Amaethyddol Cyffredinol, presennol a gorffennol, ac mae’n ystyried fod y system o gymorthdaliadau sydd ohoni yn anghynaladwy yn y tymor hir. Pan ddiddymir hynny, bydd cyfleoedd cynyddol i ddad-ddofi trwy gymryd cam yn ôl, gan “wrthsefyll yr awydd i reoli natur a gadael iddo ganfod ei ffordd ei hun.”

Monbiot is rational and reasonable in his analysis. He is adamant that rewilding should not take place on agriculturally productive land, nor should it take place without the consent and support of the local populace. He is scathing of the Common Agricultural Policy, past and present, and regards the current subsidy system as untenable in the long term. Once that is removed, there will be increasing opportunities for rewilding by simply stepping back, “resisting the urge to control nature and allowing it to find its own way.”

Gellir canfod beiau mewn mannau: ni chrybwyllir nifer y swyddi atodol sy'n ddibynnol ar amaethyddiaeth; wrth iddo ddilyn ambell sgwarnog, mae'n ymddangos yn fwy hunanfaldodus na pherthnasol.

One can find fault in places: there is no mention of the number of auxilliary jobs dependant on agriculture, and some lengthy digressions seem more self-indulgent than relevant.

(Parhad drosodd)

(Continued overleaf)

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Gwledd Conwy Jill Tunstall

Cychwynnodd yn 2004 ar safle seindorf â 30 o stondinwyr, a denwyd 6,000 ymwelydd llwglyd. Â degfed Gwledd Conwy Feast bellach ar ein gwarthau, mae’r niferoedd wedi cynyddu’n arw ac rydym bellach yn un o ddwy ŵyl fwyd fwyaf Cymru! Yn Hydref 2013, bydd 150 o gynhyrchwyr bwyd yn codi stondin ar y cei yng Nghonwy, a daw tua 25,000 o ymwelwyr i’r dref a gwarir tua £1.4 miliwn yn lleol o ganlyniad i hynny. Gyda’r hwyr, bydd prif ŵyl celf ddigidol Cymru yn defnyddio waliau canoloesol Conwy fel cefnlen, bydd Gardd Fotaneg Genedlaethol Cymru yn lansio eu hymgyrch tyfu gartref, bydd prif gogydd enwog Cymru, Bryn Williams, yn serennu yn ein cegin arddangos, a bydd ein pabell gwrw yn croesawu bandiau adnabyddus ynghyd â bar coctels Gwledd a fydd yn gwerthu diodydd â chyffyrddiadau Cymreig. Hoffech chi Conwypolitan neu Collins Cymreig? Whiw! Mae meddwl am y cyfan yn codi awydd gwydraid bach arna i. Erys ethos cyffredinol ‘bwyd Cymreig yn gyntaf’ yr un fath, yn enwedig cynnyrch gogledd Cymru. Mae'n rhaid i bawb gynnig rhywbeth arbennig. Mae gennym fyrgyrs, er enghraifft, ond dim ond rhai a gynhyrchir gan ffermwyr sydd wedi magu’r cig. Wrth gwrs, rydym wedi gorfod wynebu ambell gur pen. Mae clwy’r traed a'r genau, tafod las a'r ffliw adar bron iawn wedi cau'r sioe; fe wnaeth gwyntoedd cryfion fygwth chwalu'r pebyll; torrodd llifogydd gyflenwad trydan ein ceginau arddangos, ac ni ddaeth y bysus parcio a theithio. Ond bydd y sioe yn mynd rhagddi

bob amser. “Un o’r pethau sydd heb newid yw’r awyrgylch,” meddai Jane Hughes, cyfarwyddwr sylfaenydd y Wledd gyntaf. “Teimlir yr un cyffro â’r digwyddiad cyntaf yn ystod y Wledd. Mae’n anodd gwerthfawrogi’r awyrgylch hwnnw heb fod yno ar y dydd Sadwrn. Beth sydd wedi newid yw ehangder y rhaglen; bellach, mae gennym anifeiliaid byw a llawer iawn rhagor o gerddoriaeth a chelf.” Fy atgofion pennaf o’r Wledd yw bwyta cregyn gleision Conwy ar wal yr harbwr pan ddaeth cwch bychan at ei hymyl, ac aeth Billy ein gwerthwr pysgod ato a phrynodd lond bocs o hyrddiaid oedd yn dal i siglo’u cynffonau. Hanner awr wedyn, gwelais ymwelwyr yn cerdded o amgylch y dref wedi prynu’r pysgod hollol ffres hynny. Dyna yw gwir ystyr gwledd Conwy. Mae Jill Tunstall yn un o gyfarwyddwyr Gwledd Conwy. Delweddau/Images © Richard Williams/Gwledd Conwy Feast

(Parhad Adolygiad Llyfr)

(Book Review continued)

Ond manion yw’r rhain. Yn ei hanfod, mae’n llyfr hynod ysbrydoledig, hyd yn oed os yw’n sicr o fod yn ddadleuol. Mae’n trafod beth allai ein cefn gwlad fod, a sut ddylai fod pe bai digon ohonom yn malio digon.

But these are niggles. Basically this is a profoundly inspiring book, even if it is bound to be controversial. It is about what our countryside could and should be like if enough of us cared enough.

Rob Collister

Rob Collister 24


Conwy Feast Jill Tunstall

It started in 2004 on a bandstand with 30 stallholders, and attracted 6,000 hungry visitors. As we approach our tenth Gwledd Conwy Feast, how the numbers have changed now that we’re one of the two biggest food festivals in Wales! October 2013 will see 150 food producers set up stall on Conwy’s quay, an estimated 25,000 visitors to the town and around £1.4m flowing into local coffers as a result.

In the evening, Wales’ premier digital arts festival will use Conwy’s medieval walls as a backdrop, the National Botanic Garden of Wales are set to launch their grow your own campaign, Wales’ leading celebrity chef Bryn Williams heads up the demonstration kitchen, and our beer marquee hosts renowned bands alongside the Feast cocktail bar serving drinks with a Welsh twist. Conwypolitan or a Collins Cymreig, anyone? Phew! I feel we need one, just thinking about all of that. The general ethos of ‘Welsh food first’, especially north Wales produce, has also always been the same. Everybody has to have something special. We have burgers, for instance, but only those produced by farmers who have reared the meat. Inevitably, there have been some dramas en-route. Foot and mouth, bluetongue and bird flu have almost closed us down; high winds threatened to flatten the marquees; floods knocked out all our

Castell o’r drydedd ganrif ar ddeg , cei hanesyddol ac afon... lleoliad bendigedig ar gyfer dau ddiwrnod a thair noson o’r bwyd, y gelfyddyd a’r gerddoriaeth orau.

Cynigion arbennig ar docynnau penwythnos

Special offers on weekend tickets Ewch i’n gwefan am fwy o fanylion See website for details

A 13th century castle, historic quayside and river... the finest setting for two days and three nights of the very best music, art and food..

electrics in the demo kitchens, and park and ride buses failed to show up. But, hey, the show always goes on. “One of the things that hasn’t changed is the atmosphere,” says Jane Hughes, the founding director of the first Feast. “There is still the same excitement in the town as there was at the first event. That atmosphere is hard to appreciate unless you are actually there on Saturday. What has changed is the extent of the programme; now we have live animals and much more music and art.” My abiding memory of the Feast is eating Conwy mussels on the harbour wall as a small boat came up alongside and our fish trader Billy ran over and bought a box of still flapping mullet from it. Half an hour later, I saw visitors walking round with those fresher than fresh fish. That is what Conwy Feast is all about. Jill Tunstall is one of the Conwy Feast directors.

G WL E DD CONWY F E A ST Hydref October 26 & 27 2013

Y manylion diweddaraf am raglen yr ŵyl Programme updates

gwleddconwyfeast.co.uk 01492 338083 25


Aelodaeth Fusnes

Business Membership

Mae'n bleser gennym groesawu ein Aelodau Busnes diwedderaf. Am ragor o wybodaeth am ddod yn Aelod Busnes cysylltwch â ni neu gweler ein gwefan.

We are pleased to announce our new Business Members. For more information about becoming a Business Member contact us or visit our website.

Yn arddangos y gorau o’r bwyd crefftus sydd gan Gymru i’w gynnig. Gwnawthpwyd 70% o’n nwyddau yng Nghymru: cigydd, becws, bwyty, ystafell dê, llety ffermdy, ysgol coginio a chanolfan gadw gwenyn. Gweithgynhyrchwyr cwrlidau traddodiadol Cymreig, rygiau teithio, brethyn cartref, dillad, ategolion a mwy. Gall ymwelwyr â'r Felin weld y gwehyddu a'r tyrbinau hydroelectrig sy'n cynhyrchu ein trydan.

Manufacturers of traditional Welsh bedspreads, travel rugs, tweeds, garments, accessories and soft furnishings. Visitors can see the weaving and hydro-electric turbines which generate our electricity.

Showcasing Welsh food at its very best: an artisan farm shop with 70% of all products made in Wales: butchers, bakery, restaurant, tea room, farmhouse accommodation, cookery school and beekeeping centre.

Gwesty cyfforddus teuluol. Tafarn goets fawr o’r 18ed canrif ac yn rhan o stad Cymreig Earl of Ancaster yn wreiddiol. Lle unigryw i ymlacio yng nghalon Eryri.

A comfortable, family-run hotel, full of historic character, once an C18th coaching inn and part of the Earl of Ancaster's Welsh Estate. A unique place to relax in the heart of the Snowdonia.

Y Ganolfan Genedlaethol Chwaraeon Mynydd: cynigir cyrsiau a gwyliau gweithgareddau awyr agored; cyflwynir newydd-ddyfodiaid i'r awyr agored, cynorthwyir y sawl sy’n frwdfrydig am yr awyr agored i wella eu sgiliau a hyfforddir hyfforddwyr gweithgareddau awyr agored.

The National Mountain Sports Centre, running courses and holidays in outdoor activities; introducing newcomers to the outdoors, helping outdoor enthusiasts improve their outdoor skills and training outdoor instructors. Plas Tan y Bwlch - The Snowdonia National Park Environmental Studies Centre, offering a wide variety of courses for individuals and organisations. Courses cover all aspects of the countryside, history, environment, archaeology and culture.

Plas Tan y Bwlch - Canolfan Astudiaethau Amgylcheddol Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri, yn darparu ystod eang o gyrsiau i unigolion ac i asiantaethau â phynciau'n cynnwys cefn gwlad, hanes, yr amgylchedd, arceoleg a diwylliant. Mae Gone Swimming yn cynnig gwyliau nofio gwyllt, nofio tywysedig a hyfforddiant dŵr agored ledled gogledd Cymru.

Gone Swimming offers wild swimming holidays, swim guiding and open water coaching all over north Wales.

Trefnwyr digwyddiadau chwaraeon awyr agored, yn darparu profiadau chwaraeon antur eithaf i gynnig y digwyddiadau mwyaf cofiadwy mewn lleoliadau naturiol godidog. Outdoor sports event organiser, providing ultimate adventure sport experiences to give you the most memorable events in stunning natural locations.

Bryn Elltyd Eco Guest House Gwesty ecogyfeillgar arobryn â thrydan a system gwresogi carbon niwtral. Chwe ystafell wely en-suite. An award-winning, eco guesthouse with carbon-neutral electricity and heating. Six en-suite bedrooms. Rheilffyrdd Ffestiniog ac Eryri Dwy reilffordd unigryw. Gallwch deithio o Gaernarfon i Flaenau Ffestiniog a gweld harddwch Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri yn y cerbydau cul mwyaf cyfforddus yn y byd.

Cwmni First Hydro Un o gynhyrchwyr trydan mwyaf dynamig y DU sy'n gyfrifol am reoli a gweithredu’r gweithfeydd pwmpio a storio yn Ninorwig a Ffestiniog a’r Mynydd Trydan yn Llanberis.

Ffestiniog & Welsh Highland Railways Two unique narrow gauge railways. Travel by steam from Caernarfon to Blaenau Ffestiniog and experience the beauty of the Snowdonia National Park in the most comfortable narrow gauge carriages in the world. First Hydro is one of the UK's most dynamic electricity generators, responsible for the management and operation of the pumped storage plants at Dinorwig and Ffestiniog, and for the Electric Mountain in Llanberis.

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Digwyddiadau • Events Croesewir aelodau a rhai sydd ddim yn aelodau i'n digwyddiadau. Am fanylion llawn neu i gael copi o'r rhaglen cysylltwch â ni neu gweler ein gwefan.

Snowdonia Society events are open to members and nonmembers alike. For full event details or a copy of the programme please contact us or visit our website.

Gwener 4 Hydref Casglu Sbwriel ar yr Wyddfa

Friday 4th October Snowdon Litter Pick

Gwener 11 a Sadwrn 12 Hydref Bioblitz yn y Coetir a gweithgareddau eraill. Ty Hŷll.

Friday 11th and Saturday 12th October Woodland Bioblitz and other activities. Ty Hŷll.

Sadwrn 19 Hydref CCB Cymdeithas Eryri, Llan Ffestiniog.

Saturday 19th October Snowdonia Society AGM, Llan Ffestiniog.

Sadwrn 30 Hydref Ar Drên ac ar Droed, Beddgelert i Ryd Ddu. Taeth ar drên a thaith gerdded dywysedig â sgwrs gan David Firth am hanes y rheilffordd a'r bro.

Wednesday 30th October Rail ’n’ Trail, Beddgelert to Rhyd Ddu, train ride and guided walk, with David Firth providing information about the history of the railway and local area.

Sadwrn 9 Tachwedd Taith Twrbin, Plas Tan y Bwlch. Taith gerdded dywysedig trwy'r coed ar hyd ffordd y cynllun hydro-electrig newydd.

Saturday 9th November Turbine Walk, Plas Tan y Bwlch. Guided woodland walk along the route of the newly installed hydro-electric scheme.

Sadwrn 30 tachwedd Digwyddiad Cymdeithasol i Aelodau, Trigonos, Nantlle. Taith gerdded dywysedig, darlith a chinio Trigonos.

Saturday 30th November Members’ Social, Trigonos, Nantlle. Guided walk, talk and a Trigonos lunch.

Sadwrn 7 Rhagfyr Rhowch gynnig ar ddringo creigiau, Plas y Brenin. (Wal dan do)

Saturday 7th December Have a Go at Rock Climbing, Plas y Brenin. (Indoor wall)

Sadwrn 25 Ionawr Llwybr Cynwch - ystyrir y datblygiadau sydd wedi dylanwadu ar gymeriad y dirwedd. Gyda Gareth Roberts.

Saturday 25th January Precipice Walk - considering the developments that have influenced the character of the landscape. With Gareth Roberts.

Sadwrn 22 Chwefror Taith Gerdded Gelf, Arenig. Ystyrir y tirweddau sydd wedi ysbrydoli artistiaid megus Augustus John. Yng nghmwni Gareth Roberts.

Saturday 22nd February Arenig Art Walk - considering the landscapes that inspired artists such as Augustus John. With Gareth Roberts.

Iau 6 Mawrth Ymweliad â'r Ysgwrn, cartref y bardd Hedd Wyn.

Thursday 6th March Yr Ysgwrn - guided visit to the home of poet Hedd Wyn.

Sul 30 Mawrth Taith Gerdded Ddaearegol, i ddarganfod daeareg folcanig Canol Eryri a'i ffosilau, gyda Clive Hudson. Nant Gwynant.

Sunday 30th March Geology Walk, exploring the volcanic geology and fossils of central Snowdonia with Clive Hudson. Nant Gwynant.

Gwahoddwn gyfraniad awgrymedig o £3 o leiaf gan aelodau a £5 o leiaf gan y sawl nad ydynt yn aelodau am fynychu'r rhan fwyaf o'n digwyddiadau.

We invite a suggested minimum donation of £3 for members and £5 for non-members for attendance on most events.

Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 3NR 01286 685498 info@snowdonia-society.org.uk www.cymdeithas-eryri.org.uk • www.snowdonia-society.org.uk

Cyfeillion Tŷ Hyll

Friends of Tŷ Hyll

Bydd y Cyfeillion yn trefnu digwyddiadau ychwanegol trwy gydol y flwyddyn, yn cynnwys diwrnodau garddio bywyd gwyllt bob dydd Llun, a diwrnodau gwaith coetir. Cysylltwch â’r Gymdeithas am ragor o wybodaeth neu gweler gwefan Tŷ Hyll.

will be organising additional events and activities throughout the year, including wildlife gardening days on Mondays and regular woodland work days. Contact the Society for more information or check the Tŷ Hyll website. www.theuglyhouse.co.uk

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Adolygiad o'r Flwyddyn Dangosodd arolwg diweddar mai Eryri yw Parc Cenedlaethol mwyaf adnabyddus y Deyrnas Unedig. Diogelu, harddu a dathlu rhinweddau hynod arbennig y Parc Cenedlaethol bendigedig hwn yw cenhadaeth Cymdeithas Eryri. Y llynedd, gwelwyd Tŷ Hyll yn blodeuo, sicrhawyd arian i barhau â’n rhaglen wirfoddoli cadwraeth helaeth a lansiwyd ymgyrch newydd i ddenu Aelodau Busnes i'r Gymdeithas. Yn Ionawr, cychwynnodd ein Cyfarwyddwr Sarah Medcalf ei habsenoldeb mamolaeth ac mae Huw Jenkins wedi llanw’r bwlch yn fedrus iawn fel Cyfarwyddwr dros dro. Harddu a Dathlu Bob blwyddyn, bydd gwirfoddolwyr y Gymdeithas yn cyfrannu’n uniongyrchol at harddu Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri trwy fynd allan i wneud gwaith cadwraeth ymarferol. Y llynedd, fe wnaeth gwirfoddolwyr lanhau traethau, cludo sbwriel oddi ar yr Wyddfa, brwydro rhywogaethau ymwthiol, glanhau a chynnal a chadw llwybrau, plannu coed ac adfer cynefinoedd. Fe gydweithiom â dros 16 cymuned a sefydliad partner ar safleoedd ym mhob cwr o’r Parc. Ar waethaf tywydd oedd yn aml yn wael a garw, ni phylodd brwdfrydedd ein gwirfoddolwyr a’n staff trefnu, Mary-Kate Jones, Rheolwraig y Prosiect, a Jenny Whitmore, Swyddog y Prosiect. Rydym yn ddiolchgar iddynt oll. Gorffennodd nawdd y rhaglen wirfoddoli, Prosiect Cadwraeth Eryri, ym Mai 2013, ond sicrhawyd nawdd i raglen newydd, Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri, gan Gronfa Arbrofol Eryri (a weinyddir gan Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri) a Chyfoeth Naturiol Cymru. Bydd y rhaglen newydd yn rhoi rhagor o bwyslais ar reoli cynefinoedd a chynnig profiadau addysgol i wirfoddolwyr. Mae rhaglen ddigwyddiadau boblogaidd y Gymdeithas hefyd yn cynnig cyfle i bobl fwynhau a dysgu am Eryri. Mae ganddi ddau ddiben: denu aelodau newydd i’r Gymdeithas a rhoi cyfle i aelodau presennol weld a dysgu am y Parc Cenedlaethol yng nghwmni tywyswyr gwybodus. Nid yw’r rhaglen mor effeithiol ag y dymunwn iddi fod o ran denu'r sawl nad ydynt yn aelodau, ac mae'r Isbwyllgor Gwella yn ystyried amrywio'r digwyddiadau a'r cyhoeddusrwydd er mwyn denu pobl newydd. Yn ôl yr arfer, y teithiau cerdded a ddenodd y nifer uchaf o fynychwyr, er bu’n rhaid canslo rhai ohonynt oherwydd y tywydd garw.

Mae cyflwr llwybrau troed yn fater a godwyd gan aelodau’r Gymdeithas. Efallai mai pryder am ‘drefoli’ llwybrau yw hynny, neu ar y llaw arall, yr angen am welliannau - buasai rhai yn croesawu llwybr newydd sy’n addas i deuluoedd ond buasai eraill yn ei ystyried yn ymyrraeth niweidiol. Mae diffyg adnoddau wedi arwain at ohirio nifer o welliannau hir disgwyliedig gan awdurdodau’r llwybrau troed. Mae’r Gymdeithas yn parhau i ddatgan y pryderon hyn. Byddwn hefyd, lle bydd hynny'n ddichonadwy, yn cynnig cynorthwyo â gwaith ar lwybrau troed trwy ein rhaglen wirfoddoli. Yn benodol, rydym wedi cytuno ag Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri ar raglen o waith cynnal a chadw ar yr Wyddfa ac ar y llwybr newydd o Feddgelert i Ryd Ddu. Mae sbwriel yn broblem barhaus ac ar ei gwaethaf ar yr Wyddfa, fel y profodd ymgyrchoedd clirio sbwriel y Gymdeithas yn y gorffennol. Dan arweiniad y Gymdeithas, sefydlir grŵp gweithredu Wyddfa Lân mewn partneriaeth ag Awdurdod Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri, Rheilffordd yr Wyddfa, Cadwch Gymru’n Daclus, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru a Phrifysgol Bangor. Bydd y Grŵp yn datblygu cynllun gweithredu a gaiff ei lansio flwyddyn nesaf. Mae nifer sylweddol o bobl sy'n byw yn Eryri a'r cyffiniau yn dibynnu ar gludiant cyhoeddus a buasent yn gwneud rhagor o ddefnydd ohono pe câi'r gwasanaethau eu hintegreiddio a phe bai amserlenni ar gael yn fwy hwylus. Yn anffodus, nid oes amserlen bws wedi’i hargraffu ar gael ar gyfer Gwynedd; yn lle hynny, mae’n rhaid i bobl leol ac ymwelwyr ddibynnu ar y rhyngrwyd neu'r ffôn neu fynd i ganolfan wybodaeth neu lyfrgell i gael gwybodaeth. Mae’r Gymdeithas, ac eraill, wedi cwyno i Gyngor Gwynedd, ond yn ofer. Rydym yn ofni fod ymdrechion i berswadio rhagor o bobl i ddefnyddio cludiant cyhoeddus yn lle eu car, a lleihau eu hôl troed carbon, wedi cymryd cam yn ôl. Bydd y Gymdeithas yn parhau i ymgyrchu am system cludiant cyhoeddus integredig a chynaliadwy ledled Eryri. Diogelu Mae cynigion datblygu ar gyfer cynhyrchu a thrawsyrru ynni o fewn ac yn agos at y Parc ar gynnydd, ac mae eu heffaith cronnus ar rinweddau arbennig Eryri yn bryder cynyddol. Mae’r Grid Cenedlaethol wedi ymgynghori ynghylch cynigion i ailosod y llinellau trawsyrru foltedd uchel o’r Wylfa, Ynys Môn, i Drawsfynydd. Fe 28

wnaeth y Gymdeithas groesawu’r cynnig i adnewyddu’r cysylltiad tanddaearol o dan aber Glaslyn, ond dadleuodd y dylai hyn gael ei ymestyn i gynnwys aber Dwyryd hefyd. Mae’r Gymdeithas ac Awdurdod y Parc Cenedlaethol wedi gwrthwynebu nifer fawr o gynigion am ffermydd gwynt yn agos at y Parc ble bydd yr effaith yn achosi niwed sylweddol i olygfeydd o’r Parc Cenedlaethol neu oddi yno. Mae Cyngor Gwynedd bellach wedi cyhoeddi Canllawiau Cynllunio Atodol ynghylch tyrbinau gwynt, ac mae Awdurdod y Parc Cenedlaethol wedi cynhyrchu Canllawiau Cynllunio Atodol drafft ynghylch Ynni Adnewyddadwy a Charbon Isel. Fodd bynnag, mae effaith weledol tyrbinau mwy a mwy eu maint yn ymestyn ymhell tu hwnt i derfynau awdurdod cynllunio ac mae diffyg polisi cydgysylltiedig ynghylch tyrbinau gwynt yn agos at derfyn y Parc Cenedlaethol yn amlwg. Mae'r Gymdeithas yn cefnogi cynlluniau ynni adnewyddadwy, gwynt a dŵr, a gynllunnir mewn maint a lleoliad nad yw’n niweidiol i’r Parc. Fe wnaeth cynllun hydro Plas Tan y Bwlch ger Maentwrog, a gwblhawyd eleni gan Awdurdod y Parc, ddangos sut gellir gweithredu prosiect o’r fath yn llwyddiannus mewn tiriogaeth heriol a dan gyfyngiadau caeth. Fodd bynnag, mae cais am gynllun pwmp storio ychydig y tu allan i’r Parc Cenedlaethol yng Nglyn Rhonwy, ger Llanberis, wedi codi pryderon yn bennaf oherwydd nid yw'r llinellau trawsyrru sy'n cysylltu'r cynllun â'r Grid Cenedlaethol yn rhan o'r cais, ac mae'n debyg mai'r rhain fydd yr elfen fwyaf dadleuol. Rydym yn dal i gydweithio’n agos ag Ymgyrch Diogelu Cymru Wledig ac Awdurdod y Parc i ddewis llinellau trydan uwchben i gael eu claddu gan Scottish Power Systems. Dros y ddwy flynedd nesaf, caiff y llinell o Gwm Dyli i Nant Peris ei chladdu, a rhwng 2015 a 2019, bydd £2.5m ychwanegol ar gael gan Ofgem i gladdu rhagor o linellau yn Eryri. Y llynedd, adroddasom am y cais cynllunio cymhleth sy’n mynd rhagddo ers amser maith i ailddatblygu’r hen sefydliad ymchwil milwrol yn Llanbedr. Ymgyrchodd y Gymdeithas am asesiad effaith amgylcheddol o’r cynnig, oedd yn cynnwys datgymalu a gwaredu awyrennau mawr fel y Boeing 747. Fe wnaeth Awdurdod y Parc gymeradwyo’r cais yn Awst 2012 heb wneud asesiad amgylcheddol llawn, ond


Rheoli Newid Mae hwn yn gyfnod o newid, cyfnod o heriau newydd i Barciau Cenedlaethol Cymru mewn hinsawdd economaidd gynyddol anodd. Mae corff newydd, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru, cyfuniad o Gyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru, y Comisiwn Coedwigaeth ac Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd, wedi cychwyn ar ei waith. Disgwylir i Lywodraeth Cymru lansio nifer o bolisïau sy’n uniongyrchol berthnasol i Barciau Cenedlaethol dros yr ychydig fisoedd nesaf; maent yn cynnwys Mesur Datblygiad Cynaliadwy, Mesur Cynllunio, Datganiad Polisi ar Dirweddau Gwarchodedig a Phapur Gwyn ar yr Amgylchedd. Mae gan y Gymdeithas nifer fechan iawn o staff craidd ac aelodaeth weithredol fach, felly gall ddylanwadu’n fwyaf effeithiol ar ddigwyddiadau trwy gydweithio â sefydliadau partner. I’r perwyl hwn, mae cangen newydd o Ymgyrch y Parciau Cenedlaethol (CNP) wedi’i sefydlu fel llais annibynnol i fuddiannau’r sector wirfoddol ym Mharciau Cenedlaethol Cymru. Bydd CNP Cymru, dan gadeiryddiaeth Paul Loveluck, yn arwain ar ymyrraethau effeithiol i Barciau Cenedlaethol Cymru, gan ddylanwadu ar bolisi ar y lefel wleidyddol uchaf a gweithio’n agos â budd-ddeiliaid yng Nghymru. Yn ychwanegol, mae tair Cymdeithas Parc Cenedlaethol Cymru yn cydweithio'n llawer agosach i gefnogi CNP Cymru. Wrth gwrs, rhaid i'r Gymdeithas ei hun fod yn barod i newid: mae logo a gwefan y Gymdeithas wedi’u diweddaru; mae’r cylchgrawn wedi’i weddnewid; ac rydym wedi lansio ymgyrch i recriwtio aelodau busnes - mae 15 wedi ymaelodi hyd yn hyn. Rydym wedi sefydlu rhaglen o sgyrsiau i'w cynnig i grwpiau cymunedol lleol i ddenu aelodau ac annog rhagor o bobl i ymddiddori yn y Gymdeithas. Mae Frances Smith, ein Gweinyddydd Swyddfa, yn cefnogi llawer iawn o'r newidiadau hyn gan weithio'n ddiflino yn y cefndir.

© Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru Natural Resources Wales

Yn un o Gyfarfodydd Cyffredinol Blynyddol y Gymdeithas, awdurdodwyd y Pwyllgor Gwaith i fynd ati i sefydlu strwythur cyfreithiol newydd i’r Gymdeithas. Bellach, gall wneud hyn wedi deddfwriaeth ddiweddar sy'n galluogi’r Gymdeithas i gofrestru fel Sefydliad Ymgorfforedig Newydd (CIO), math newydd o elusen sy’n atal ymddiriedolwyr elusen rhag bod yn gyfrifol am ei dyledion. Cyn cofrestru fel CIO, cyflwynir Cyfansoddiad ddiweddaredig y Gymdeithas i’r aelodau yng Nghyfarfod Cyffredinol Blynyddol 2013. Ers ymddeoliad ein Trysorydd, Helen Dale, yn 2012, nid yw penodi trysorydd newydd wedi bod yn rhwydd. Yn y diwedd, fe wnaethom benodi cyfrifydd cyflogedig, Judith Bellis, sy'n gweithio dau ddiwrnod y mis ar gytundeb tymor cyfyngedig. Yn olaf, rhaid i mi grybwyll Tŷ Hyll sydd bellach wedi bod ar agor fel ystafell de a chanolfan gwenyn am 12 mis. Mae’r Cyfarwyddwr a’r Cyfarwyddwr dros dro wedi gweithio’n fedrus iawn i gwblhau'r prosiect hwn. Mae’r tŷ, y gerddi a’r coetir mawr eu clod wedi denu dros 35,000 o ymwelwyr yn y flwyddyn gyntaf. Mae'r ardd yn edrych yn fendigedig wedi cymaint o waith caled gan wirfoddolwyr, ac mae'r Gymdeithas yn gwneud ei rhan i hyrwyddo dealltwriaeth o gyfraniad hanfodol gwenyn at yr ecosystem. Mae rhaglen o reoli coetir wedi ennill Gwobrau Cenedlaethol. A wneir gan wirfoddolwyr a thimau ad-dalu cymunedol, ac yn cynnwys coedlannu a chael gwared o goed conwydd, mae'n cynyddu amrywiaeth y fflora ar y ddaear, ac felly yn cyfoethogi cynefin ar gyfer adar a mamaliaid bach. Bydd sefydliad newydd, Cyfeillion Tŷ Hyll, yn sicrhau fod Tŷ Hyll yn cael gofal da, a chofiwch, aelodau'r Gymdeithas, fe gewch ddisgownt da wrth brynu te prynhawn rhagorol.

pennodd amodau llym. Yna, ceisiodd yr ymgeisydd gael llacio rhai o’r amodau, a chytunodd Awdurdod y Parc â'r Gymdeithas fod asesiad o effaith amgylcheddol yn angenrheidiol cyn ailystyried unrhyw amodau. Apeliodd yr ymgeisydd i Lywodraeth Cymru yn erbyn y gofyniad i wneud asesiad o effaith amgylcheddol. Cefnogwyd yr apêl gan Lywodraeth Cymru a chafodd y cais newydd ei gymeradwyo ym mis Mai. Cyn hynny, roedd Llywodraeth Cymru wedi ymestyn Ardal Menter Eryri, a ganolir o amgylch Trawsfynydd, i gynnwys maes awyr Llanbedr. Mae maes awyr Llanbedr yn safle mawr ac amlwg a all gynnig cyfleoedd gwaith a hyfforddiant y mae galw mawr amdanynt yng ngogledd-orllewin Cymru. Ond rhaid rheoli unrhyw ddatblygiad yn briodol i sicrhau nad yw’n amharu ar rinweddau arbennig y Parc na thwristiaeth, prif weithgarwch economaidd yr ardal. Ofnwn fod Awdurdod y Parc wedi colli’r rheolaeth hon. 29


Review of the Year A recent survey showed that Snowdonia is the most well known National Park in the United Kingdom. Protecting, enhancing and celebrating the very special qualities of this wonderful National Park is the Snowdonia Society’s mission. This last year has seen Tŷ Hyll come into flower, the securing of funding to continue our extensive volunteer conservation programme and the launch of a drive to recruit Business Members to the Society. In January, our Director Sarah Medcalf took maternity leave and Huw Jenkins has very ably stepped into the breach as interim Director. Enhancing and Celebrating Every year Society volunteers contribute directly to the enhancement of the National Park by getting out to do practical conservation work. In the last year volunteers cleaned beaches, carted litter off Snowdon, bashed invasive species, cleared and maintained footpaths, planted trees and restored habitats. We worked with 16 different partner organisations and communities on sites throughout the Park. Despite the poor and often harsh weather, the enthusiasm of the volunteers and our organising staff Mary-Kate Jones, Project Manager, and Jenny Whitmore, Project Officer, was unabated. We are grateful to them all. Funding for the volunteer programme, the Conservation Snowdonia Project, came to an end in May 2013 but funding for a new programme, Snowdonia Ecosystem Project, has been secured from the Snowdonia National Park Sustainable Development Fund (CAE) and Natural Resources Wales. The new programme will put more emphasis on habitat management and providing an educational/learning experience for volunteers. The Society’s popular events programme also provides an opportunity for people to enjoy and learn about Snowdonia. It has two purposes: to attract new members to the Society and to give existing members the chance to see and learn about the National Park with knowledgeable guides. The programme is not as effective as we would wish in attracting non-members and the Enhancement Sub-Committee is looking at varying the events and publicity to catch new people. As always, the walks

this year have been the best attended, although some have had to be cancelled because of the harsh weather. The condition of paths is an issue raised by Society members. It may be concern about ‘urbanisation’ of paths or, on the other hand, the need for improvements - a new ‘family friendly’ path will be welcome to some but a damaging intrusion to others. Lack of resources within the relevant authorities has led to the postponement of some long awaited path improvements. The Society continues to press these concerns. We also, where feasible, offer to assist with footpath work through our volunteer programme. In particular, we have agreed with the National Park Authority a maintenance programme of work on Snowdon and on the new Beddgelert to Rhyd Ddu path. Litter is a perennial problem, none more so than on Snowdon as evidenced by the Society’s past litter sweeps. Initiated by the Society, an action group “Snowdon Tidy” is being set up in partnership with the National Park Authority, Snowdon Mountain Railway, Keep Wales Tidy, Natural Resources Wales and Bangor University. The Group will develop an action plan to be launched next year. A significant number of people living in and around Snowdonia rely on and would make more use of public transport if the services were integrated and timetables were readily available. Sadly, they are not. There is no printed bus timetable available for Gwynedd; instead locals, and visitors, have to rely on the internet or the phone or go to an information centre or library for information. The Society, and others, has made representation to Gwynedd Council but to no avail. We fear that efforts to get more people out of their cars and onto public transport, reducing their carbon footprint, have taken a backward step. The Society will continue to press for an integrated and sustainable transport system throughout Snowdonia. Protecting Development proposals for the production and transmission of energy both within and close to the National Park are on the increase, and their cumulative impact on the special qualities of Snowdonia is a growing concern. The National Grid 30

has consulted on proposals to replace the high voltage transmission lines from Wylfa, Anglesey, to Trawsfynydd. The Society welcomed the proposal to renew the underground connection under the Glaslyn estuary but argued strongly that the undergrounding should be extended to include the Dwyryd estuary. The Society and the National Park Authority have objected to a number of large wind farm proposals close to the Park where the impact will cause significant damage to views into or out of the National Park. Gwynedd Council has now published Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) on wind turbines, and the National Park Authority has produced draft SPG on Renewable and Low Carbon Energy. However, the visual impact of increasingly large turbines extends well beyond planning authority boundaries and the lack of a co-ordinated policy on wind turbines close to the edge of the National Park is apparent. Renewable energy schemes, both wind and hydro, designed on a scale and in a setting that is not damaging to the Park are supported by the Society. The Plas Tan y Bwlch hydro scheme near Maentwrog, completed this year by the Park Authority, showed how such a project can be successfully implemented in challenging terrain and under tight constraints. However, a planning application for a pumped storage scheme just outside the National Park, at Glyn Rhonwy near Llanberis, has raised concerns largely because the transmission lines connecting the scheme to the National Grid are not part of the application and are likely to be the most controversial aspect. We continue to work closely with the Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales (CPRW) and the Park Authority to select overhead electricity lines to be undergrounded by Scottish Power Systems. Over the next two years the Cwm Dyli to Nant Peris line will be undergrounded, and between 2015 and 2019 a further £2.5m of Ofgem funding will become available to underground further lines in Snowdonia. Last year we reported on the complex and long-standing planning application for the redevelopment of the former military research establishment at Llanbedr. The


employment and training opportunities which are much needed in north-west Wales. But any development must be adequately controlled to ensure that it does not damage the special qualities of the Park nor harm tourism, the major economic industry of the area. We fear that the Park Authority has lost this control. Managing Change This is a time of change, a time of new challenges for the Welsh National Parks in an increasingly tough economic climate. The new body, Natural Resources Wales, an amalgamation of the Countryside Council for Wales, the Forestry Commission and the Environment Agency has started operations. The Welsh Government is expected to launch a number of policies directly relevant to National Parks over the next few months; these include a Sustainable Development Bill, a Planning Bill, a Protected Landscapes Policy Statement, and an Environment White Paper.

© Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru Natural Resources Wales

With a tiny core staff and small active membership, the Society can most effectively influence events by working in conjunction with partner organisations. To this end a new arm of the Campaign for National Parks (CNP) has been set up as an independent voice for voluntary sector National Park interests in Wales. CNP Cymru, under the chairmanship of Paul Loveluck, will lead in effective interventions for Welsh National Parks, influencing policy at the highest political level and working closely with stakeholders in Wales. Additionally, the three Welsh Park Societies are working in much closer collaboration to support CNP Cymru. Of course, the Society itself must be prepared to change: the Society’s logo and website have been updated; the magazine has a fresh look; and we have launched a drive to recruit business members - 15 have signed up so far. We have initiated a programme of talks to offer to local community groups to attract members and to encourage more people to become involved with the Society. Frances Smith, our Office Administrator, is servicing much of this change working tirelessly behind the scenes. At an earlier Society AGM, the Executive was authorised to proceed with setting up a new legal structure for the Society. It can now do this following recent legislation which enables the Society to register as a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO), a new legal form for charities that stops a charity’s trustees being responsible for its debts. Prior to registering as a CIO, an updated Society Constitution will be put before the members at the 2013 AGM. Since the retirement of our Treasurer, Helen Dale, in 2012 recruiting a new treasurer has not been straightforward. In the end we have appointed a paid accountant, Judith Bellis, who works two days a month on a limited term contract.

Society pressed for an environmental impact assessment of the proposal, which included the dismantling and disposal of large aircraft including Boeing 747s. The Park Authority approved the application without a full environmental assessment in August 2012, but imposed strict conditions. The applicant then sought a relaxation of some of the conditions, and the Park Authority agreed with the Society that an environmental impact assessment was necessary before reconsidering any conditions. The applicant appealed to the Welsh Government against the requirement to submit an environmental statement. This appeal was upheld by the Welsh Government and the new application approved in May. Prior to this, the Welsh Government had extended the Snowdonia Enterprise Zone, centred around Trawsfynydd, to include Llanbedr airfield.

Finally, I must mention Tŷ Hyll which has now been open as a tea room and honeybee centre for 12 months. The Director and the interim Director have worked with great skill to see this project through to its completion. Much lauded, the house, gardens and woodland have attracted over 35,000 visitors in the first year. The garden is glorious after so much hard work by volunteers, and the Society is doing its bit to promote understanding of the vital role played by bees in the ecosystem. A programme of woodland management has won National Awards. Carried out by volunteers and community payback teams, and involving coppicing and removal of conifers, it is increasing the diversity of ground flora, so enriching the habitat for birds and small mammals. The newly formed Friends of Tŷ Hyll will ensure Tŷ Hyll is well cared for, and, Society members, do remember that you will get a good discount on the very excellent teas.

Llanbedr airfield is a large and prominent site which can offer both 31


Uchafbwyntiau'r Flwyddyn • Highlights of the Year An invitation to Maidstone Prison? Following a visit to Tŷ Hyll by two (biodiversity) judges from the Ministry of Justice, a joint Wales Probation and Snowdonia Society project, for offenders sentenced to unpaid work, won the Community and Outreach category of the NOMS Wildlife Awards for its work on the honeybee initiative. Representatives from the project travelled to Kent to receive their award.

Gwahoddiad i Garchar Maidstone? Yn dilyn ymweliad â Tŷ Hyll gan ddau feirniad (bioamrywiaeth) o’r Weinyddiaeth Cyfiawnder, fe wnaeth prosiect ar y cyd gan Brawf Cymru a Chymdeithas Eryri i droseddwyr a ddedfrydir â gwaith didâl ennill categori Cymunedol ac Estyn Allan Gwobrau Bywyd Gwyllt NOMS am ei waith yn ymwneud â’r fenter gwenyn. Aeth cynrychiolwyr y prosiect i Gaint i gael eu gwobr.

A good number of people enjoyed a rich mix of Society events which included: a Llanberis geology walk led by Paul Gannon, exploring the depths of Cwmorthin slate mine, a fungus foray with Nigel Brown, an archaeology walk around Llanealhaearn led by Frances Lynch, an intrepid scramble up Crib Lem with Rob Collister, a workshop on navigation in the mountains led by Matthew Miller, an illuminating bee boles talk, a wildlife film night with Geoff Gartside, a guided walk around Blaenau Ffestiniog with a visit to meet Falcon Hildred, and a weekend of dry stone walling training. Alas several events fell victim to bad weather including a walk to see the wild daffodils which were under several feet of snow!

Mwynhaodd nifer dda o bobl amrywiaeth helaeth o weithgareddau'r Gymdeithas, yn cynnwys: taith gerdded ddaearegol yn Llanberis dan arweiniad Paul Gannon, archwilio dyfnderoedd chwarel lechi Cwmorthin, helfa ffwng gyda Nigel Brown, taith gerdded archeolegol o amgylch Llanaelhaearn yng nghwmni Frances Lynch, sgramblo’n ddewr i fyny Crib Lem gyda Rob Collister, gweithdy ar lywio yn y mynyddoedd dan arweiniad Matthew Miller, sgwrs ddiddorol ar dyllau gwenyn, noson ffilmiau bywyd gwyllt gyda Geoff Gartside, taith gerdded dywysedig o amgylch Blaenau Ffestiniog a chwrdd â Falcon Hildred, a phenwythnos o hyfforddiant codi waliau sych. Yn anffodus, canslwyd sawl digwyddiad oherwydd tywydd garw, yn cynnwys taith gerdded i weld Cennin Pedr gwyllt oedd dan sawl troedfedd o eira!

Work on the Tŷ Hyll honeybee initiative was completed to the satisfaction of all concerned and in particular the funders, who have now paid the final amounts of grant money. Recent events held at Tŷ Hyll included a coppicing day, a green bench event, a sustainability day and a wildlife gardening ‘Bee Friendly’ day. The important work of rearing queen bees is now underway. The Friends of Tŷ Hyll deserve a big thank you for their hard work keeping the gardens and woodland in top condition.

Cwblhawyd y gwaith ar fenter gwenyn Tŷ Hyll, er mawr foddhad i bawb oedd yn rhan o’r gwaith ac yn enwedig i’r noddwyr, sydd wedi talu symiau terfynol y grant. Roedd digwyddiadau diweddar yn Tŷ Hyll yn cynnwys diwrnod prysgoedio, digwyddiad mainc werdd, diwrnod cynaliadwyedd a diwrnod garddio bywyd gwyllt ‘Cyfeillgar i Wenyn’. Mae’r gwaith pwysig o fagu mamwenyn bellach yn mynd rhagddo. Mae Cyfeillion Tŷ Hyll yn haeddu diolch am eu gwaith caled yn cadw’r gerddi a’r coetir mewn cyflwr penigamp.

419 people volunteered on workdays organised by the Conservation Snowdonia Project and 10% of these were new volunteers. There were 56 workdays and one of the most pleasant was the Harlech beach clean; after we had collected the litter, wildlife expert Brian Macdonald provided species identification advice and treated us to a feast of smoked mussels and crab bisque. On 1st June we started the successor Snowdonia Ecosystem Project funded by Natural Resources Wales (the only applicant in north Wales to receive 100% of its funding request) and by CAE which has provided funding until May 2016. CAE has also provided seedcorn funding to help us start an initiative to significantly reduce the litter on Snowdon.

Fe wnaeth 419 o bobl wirfoddoli ar ddiwrnodau gwaith a drefnwyd gan Brosiect Cadwraeth Eryri ac roedd 10% ohonynt yn wirfoddolwyr newydd. Cafwyd 56 diwrnod gwaith a diwrnod glanhau traeth Harlech oedd un o'r difyrraf; ar ôl casglu'r sbwriel, cawsom gyngor ar adnabod rhywogaethau gan yr arbenigwr ar fywyd gwyllt, Brian Macdonald, ac yna cawsom wledd o gregyn gleision mwg a chawl crancod ganddo. Ar 1 Mehefin, cychwynasom olynydd y prosiect, Prosiect Ecosystem Eryri, a ariennir gan Gyfoeth Naturiol Cymru (yr unig ymgeisydd yng Ngogledd Cymru a gafodd 100% o’r arian a geisiwyd) a gan CAE sydd wedi darparu arian tan fis Mai 2016. Mae CAE hefyd wedi darparu arian ‘hadau ŷd’ i’n cynorthwyo i gychwyn menter i leihau’r sbwriel ar yr Wyddfa yn sylweddol. 32


Adroddiad Ariannol • Financial Report The Society has unrestricted funds derived primarily from members’ subscriptions, donations and legacies, dividends on the Society’s investments, and certain restricted funds derived from grants and sponsorship given for specific purposes. Whilst income from subscriptions and reclaimed Gift Aid is broadly similar, income from donations has increased. The Society did not receive any legacies. The Society has been successful in securing grants from several sources and operating costs have been well controlled.

Mae gan y Gymdeithas gronfeydd anghyfyngedig a ddaw yn bennaf o danysgrifiadau’r aelodau, rhoddion a chymynroddion a rhai cronfeydd cyfyngedig sy’n deillio o grantiau a nawdd a gafwyd at ddibenion penodol. Er bod incwm o danysgrifiadau a chymorth rhodd a hawlir yn debyg yn gyffredinol, mae incwm rhoddion wedi cynyddu. Ni chafodd y Gymdeithas unrhyw gymynroddion. Mae’r Gymdeithas wedi llwyddo i gael grantiau o sawl ffynhonnell ac mae costau gweithredu wedi’u rheoli’n dda. Fe wnaeth marchnadwerth y buddsoddiadau godi 8% yn ystod y flwyddyn.

The market value of investments rose 8% during the year.

Polisi cronfeydd wrth gefn

Reserves policy

Mae’r cronfeydd wrth gefn a sefydlwyd yn ystod y blynyddoedd cynharach yn parhau i gynnig sefydlogrwydd a hyblygrwydd, ac maent yn cynhyrchu cyfran sylweddol o’r incwm sydd ei angen i gefnogi gweithgareddau presennol y Gymdeithas. Roedd gwerth y buddsoddiadau wedi'u herydu’n sylweddol gan dueddiadau’r farchnad yn ystod blynyddoedd diweddar ac yn sgil yr angen i ddefnyddio cyfalaf i ariannu diffygion ar ein gweithgareddau blynyddol, ond mae’r gwelliant presennol yn y farchnad stoc yn golygu fod adferiad bychan yng ngwerth buddsoddiadau wedi digwydd yn ystod y flwyddyn ddiwethaf ac ni fu angen pellach i ddefnyddio arian cyfalaf i ariannu gwariant. Ym marn yr Ymddiriedolwyr, mae lefel presennol y cronfeydd wrth gefn yn ddigonol, o ystyried lefel gweithgarwch presennol y Gymdeithas.

The reserves established in earlier years continue to provide financial stability and flexibility, and generate a significant proportion of the income required to support the Society’s current operations. The value of investments had been seriously eroded by market trends in recent years and by the need to use capital to fund deficits on our annual operations, but the current improvement in the stock market means that there has been a modest recovery in the value of investments in the past year and there has been no further need to use capital to fund expenditure. In the view of Trustees, the current level of reserves is adequate in relation to the Society’s current level of activity.

Polisi buddsoddi

The Society’s investments are managed by Barclays Wealth and comprise equities and bonds. Barclays Wealth is instructed to place emphasis on generating income in the form of dividends rather than on capital growth. The Society is actively considering its investment policy and the implications of adopting a stronger ethical stance.

Investment policy

Rheolir buddsoddiadau’r Gymdeithas gan Barclays Wealth ac maent yn cynnwys ecwitïau a bondiau. Cyfarwyddir Barclays Wealth i roi pwyslais ar gynhyrchu incwm ar ffurf difidendau, yn hytrach na thwf cyfalaf. Mae'r Gymdeithas wrthi'n ystyried ei pholisi buddsoddi ac oblygiadau mabwysiadu ymagwedd foesegol gryfach.

Risk management policy

Polisi rheoli risg

Trustees are not in a position to protect the Society and its assets from global economic trends. They have introduced and regularly review procedures to control all other forms of risk to Society staff, property, members, volunteer workers and the general public.

Nid oes modd i’r Ymddiriedolwyr ddiogelu’r Gymdeithas a’i hasedau rhag tueddiadau economaidd byd-eang. Maent wedi cyflwyno gweithdrefnau i reoli pob math o risg i staff, eiddo, aelodau, gweithwyr gwirfoddol y Gymdeithas, a’r cyhoedd, a byddant yn eu hadolygu’n rheolaidd.

Responsibilities of Trustees

Cyfrifoldebau’r Ymddiriedolwyr

The Trustees are required by law to prepare financial statements each year which give a true and fair account of the Society’s activities during the year, and its financial position at the end of it. In preparing these accounts, Trustees are required to select suitable accounting policies and apply them consistently, and to follow applicable accounting standards, explaining any departures. They are required to make reasonable and prudent judgements in these matters, to keep accounting records which disclose with some accuracy at any time the financial position of the Society, and to comply with charity law and other legal requirements. They are responsible for safeguarding the assets of the Society and taking reasonable steps for the prevention and detection of fraud.

Mae’r gyfraith yn mynnu bod yr Ymddiriedolwyr yn paratoi datganiadau ariannol blynyddol sy’n cyfleu darlun gwir a theg o weithgareddau’r Gymdeithas yn ystod y flwyddyn a’i sefyllfa ariannol ar ei diwedd. Wrth baratoi’r cyfrifon hyn, mae angen i’r Ymddiriedolwyr ddewis polisïau cyfrifo addas a’u gweithredu â chysondeb, a dilyn safonau cyfrifo perthnasol ac egluro unrhyw wyriadau. Mae angen iddynt wneud penderfyniadau rhesymol a doeth am y materion hyn, cadw cofnodion ariannol sy’n datgelu’n weddol fanwl beth yw sefyllfa ariannol y Gymdeithas ar unrhyw adeg, a chydymffurfio â chyfraith elusennol a gofynion cyfreithiol eraill. Maent yn gyfrifol am ddiogelu asedau’r Gymdeithas a chymryd camau rhesymol i atal a chanfod twyll. Paratowyd yr adroddiad hwn yn unol â gofynion SORPs (y datganiadau o’r arfer a argymhellir ar gyfer cyfrifon ac adroddiadau ariannol elusennau), cyfansoddiad y Gymdeithas a chyfraith elusennol. Cymeradwywyd y datganiadau ariannol gan y Pwyllgor Gwaith ar 5 Awst 2013.

This report has been prepared in accordance with SORPs (the Statements of Recommended Practice for accounting and reporting by charities), the Society’s constitution and charity law. The financial statements were approved by the Executive Committee on 5 August 2013.

David Archer (Cadeirydd) Judith Bellis (Trysorydd)

David Archer (Chair) Judith Bellis (Accountant) 33


Crynodeb ariannol • Financial summary Mae’r datganiad hwn o weithgareddau ariannol yn cynnwys enillion a cholledion y flwyddyn i gyd. Daw'r adnoddau a dderbyniwyd ac a wariwyd o'n gweithgareddau parhaol. Dyma gyfrifon cryno’r Gymdeithas, wedi’u cymeradwyo gan yr Ymddiriedolwyr ar 5 Awst 2013. Am ragor o wybodaeth am sefyllfa ariannol Cymdeithas Eryri, dylid edrych ar y datganiad ariannol llawn ynghyd ag adroddiad yr Archwilydd Annibynnol ac Adroddiad Blynyddol yr Ymddiriedolwyr. Cedwir y datganiad ariannol llawn gan y Comisiwn Elusennau. Fe gewch copiau gan y Gymdeithas. Datganiad gan yr Archwilydd Annibynnol Yn fy marn i, mae’r datganiad ariannol cryno uchod yn cydymffurfio a’r datganiad ariannol llawn. P J B Tiernay FCA

The statement of financial activities includes all gains and losses in the year. All incoming resources and resources expended derive from continuing activities. These are the summarised accounts approved by the Trustees on 5 August 2013. For a more detailed understanding of the financial affairs of the Snowdonia Society, the full financial statements together with the Independent Examiner’s report on these accounts and the Trustees’ Annual Report should be consulted. The full accounts are filed with the Charity Commission. Copies can be obtained from the Society. Statement of the Independent Examiner In my opinion the summary financial information above is consistent with the full financial statements. P J B Tiernay FCA

Unrestricted funds £

Restricted funds £

Total funds 2013 £

Total funds 2012 £

Incoming resources from generated funds: Voluntary Income Activities for generating funds Investment income Charitable Activities

40,198 2,098 8,571 29,655

3,332 32,527

40,198 5,430 8,571 62,182

37,094 5,528 9,405 146,783

Total incoming resources

80,522

35,859

116,381

198,810

Resources expended Generating voluntary income Fundraising trading Charitable activities Governance

11,582 7,402 45,321 31,399

454 47,862 -

11,582 7,856 93,183 31,399

9,472 9,299 150,277 28,792

Total resources expended

95,704

48,316

144,020

197,840

(15,182)

(12,457)

(27,639)

(7,224)

7,224

-

Net (outgoing)/incoming resources Transfer between funds Realised (losses)/gains Investments

485

Net movement in funds after realised (losses)/gains

-

485

970 -

7,269

(21,921)

(5,233)

(27,154)

8,239

Unrealised gain/(losses) Investments

15,482

-

15,482

(11,207)

Net movement in funds

(6,439)

(5,233)

(11,672)

(2,968)

Total funds at 1 July 2012

260,442

302,356

562,798

565,766

Total funds at 30 June 2013

254,003

297,123

551,126

562,798

1,588 219,419

285,000 -

1,588 285,000 219,419

2,392 285,000 202,909

221,007

285,000

506,007

490,301

1,488 11,964 24,512

12,123

1,488 11,964 36,635

1,144 47,076 99,104

37,964

12,123

50,087

147,324

Creditors and accruals

(4,968)

-

(4,968)

(74,827)

Net current assets/liabilities

32,996

12,123

45,119

72,497

254,003

297,123

551,126

562,798

Unrestricted funds

254,003

260,442

Restricted funds

297,123

302,356

Total funds

551,126

562,798

Represented by: Tangible fixed assets Equipment Heritage Asset Investments

Current assets Stocks Debtors Cash at bank and in hand

Creditors: amounts falling due within one year

Net assets Funds

34


Llythyrau • Letters Argraffir llythyrau yn yr iaith y cawn hwy. • Letters are printed in the language that we receive them. Urbanisation of Snowdonia Dear Editors, I went to Crafnant and was appalled to see what can only be described as a ‘motorway’ along what was once a forest track by the edge of the lake. Half of the track has been surfaced and is now entirely out of character with the natural surrounds. A ramp has also been constructed to enable ‘wheeled’ access over the bridge at Hendre, and two metal kissing gates to control access into (presumably?) a field. As a frequent walker in the area I think it is a disaster; the Park is supposed to be preserving a natural landscape, not creating an urban park. This sets a precedent for other defacements of Snowdonia. Where was the debate and notification of intent? Don’t users of the Park have any say? And where was the Snowdonia Society in this? What part did it play or not? I can’t help but feel such tremendous sadness. I moved to Snowdonia because it was the only place to find peace, away

from the nanny state. What I am seeing is the beginning of insidious urbanisation, just like tracks on Snowdon, presumably to attract more ‘tourists’? In reality, this won’t happen because the very people who love this place will be driven away in equal numbers. What you can expect, is that once you provide facilities to ease access, a responsibility for the safety of users transfers to the providers of such access, and expectations spiral. Next we will have street lights on the tracks and barriers erected in exposed places e.g. Crib Goch… The ultimate question is when do you call a halt and preserve what we have? Can we indeed ever call a halt? Or do we have to accept that the National Parks will become nothing more than urbanised theme parks with all that will bring? Yours, Chris Simpson, Society Member

cytuno y gall llwybrau llydan, arwynebog, ymddangos allan o’u lle mewn mannau anghysbell. Yn yr achos hwn, roeddem o’r farn eu bod wedi defnyddio llinell dda ar gyfer yr adran newydd, heb unrhyw ddarnau syth ac nid oedd yn rhy lydan. Ymhen amser, wrth gwrs, fe wnaiff llystyfiant feddalu’r ymylon. Editors' note: An application for a ‘family friendly’ path is not something the Society would object to but we empathise with your feelings and agree that wide, surfaced paths can appear out of character in remote areas. In this case we felt that they had used a good line for the new section, with no straight lengths and not overly wide. In time, of course, vegetation will soften the edges.

Gyrrwch eich llythyrau atom i'r cyfeiriad isod. Please send your letters to:

Nodyn gan y Golygyddion: Nid yw cais am lwybr ‘cyfeillgar i deuluoedd’ yn rhywbeth y buasai’r Gymdeithas yn ei wrthwynebu, ond rydym yn cydymdeimlo â'ch teimladau ac yn

Cymdeithas Eryri Snowdonia Society, Caban, Yr Hen Ysgol, Brynrefail, Caernarfon LL55 3NR info@snowdonia-society.org.uk

The icing on the cake!

Yr eisin ar y deisen!

We are extremely grateful to a supporter who has donated £5,000 to the Society "to continue the good work it does for the region". He went on to sign the Gift Aid declaration which added a further £1,250 to the value of his donation.

Rydym yn hynod ddiolchgar i gefnogwr a roddodd £5,000 i’r Gymdeithas i’w galluogi "i barhau â’r gwaith da a wnaiff i'r rhanbarth". Fe wnaeth hefyd lofnodi’r datganiad Rhodd Cymorth, a ychwanegodd £1,250 at werth ei gyfraniad. Helpwch ni i wneud y gorau o’ch tanysgrifiadau a’ch cyfraniadau, mawr neu fach, trwy adael i ni wybod a yw Rhodd Cymorth yn gymwys.

Please help us make the most of your subscriptions and donations, large or small, by letting us know if Gift Aid applies.

Dyma’r eisin ar y deisen.

It’s the icing on the cake.

35


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www.plastanybwlch.com 36

Snowdonia Society magazine autumn 2013 - food  

Cylchgrawn Cymdeithas Eryri hydref 2103 - bwyd.

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